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paper writing rules GENERAL PRINCIPLES RULES OF THUMB. Professor David Post. There is nothing more important in the practice of law than your ability to put together quality written work. I am committed to helping you produce the highest quality paper you are capable of producing. But be forewarned: Writing is difficult, for everyone – at least, for everyone I have ever met who does it well. School! If you think you can produce top-quality written work without pain and hard work you are either (a) incredibly gifted, or (b) mistaken. Read these guidelines through carefully, and re-read them periodically during the course of your writing project, especially before you turn in any written work to me.
This will save me a great deal of time, and it will save you a great deal of aggravation. I have very strong views about the process of teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), writing, and I demand a serious commitment on your part. Please ask yourself, after you have read the following, whether you are prepared to medical follow the path I describe. Writing Windermere! If not, please feel free to Kingswood reconsider working with me; I will not be offended, and you will be spared considerable future unhappiness. These guidelines are divided into “general principles” and “rules of about University Irvine, thumb.” The general principles are for you to think about; the rules of thumb are for you to obey blindly. PART ONE: general principles. 1. “Good writing is like a windowpane.” [George Orwell] The point of medical review Kingswood School, legal writing is not to make the simple complicated – for example, by using lots of impenetrable phrases, long sentences, and big words. The point of legal writing is to International Community School make the complicated simple . Think about it. Do not be afraid of simplicity. Though you may have been taught that simplicity is medical articles School a sign of stupidity, the opposite is more often true.
2. University Writing Service Windermere School! “ Your language becomes clear and strong not when you can no longer add, but when you can no longer take away .” [Isaac Babel] Less usually is more. Write as though you will get a nickel for each word you take out of articles School, your drafts over your lifetime. Say what you need to say. Eliminate unnecessary words. Get to the point.
Example 1 (from an actual student paper) : In Blumenthal v. Drudge , 992 F. Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998), the district court ruled that the defendant was subject to the personal jurisdiction of the this is critical School court. In so ruling, the court found that both prongs of the Kingswood School personal jurisdiction test had been met . First, the university essay writing Windermere School court found that the defendant fell under the District of Kingswood, Columbia 's long arm statute, D.C. Code § 13-423, and was therefore subject to the jurisdiction of the court. Write Proposal Business School! Second, the court found that the defendant possessed the minimum contacts with the medical review articles Kingswood School District of Columbia necessary for the exercise of School, personal jurisdiction to be Constitutional. Example 1 revised. In Blumenthal v. Drudge , 992 F. Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998), the district court ruled that the defendant was subject to the court’s personal jurisdiction. The defendant satisfied both prongs of the District of Kingswood, Columbia's long arm statute, D.C.
Code § 13-423, and essay about teachers (UCI) possessed the minimum contacts with the District of Columbia necessary for the exercise of medical review School, personal jurisdiction to be constitutional. [ cite ] Example 1 has 99 words; Example 2 has 62 – almost 40% fewer. Not coincidentally, Example 2 is also better – more direct, clearer, easier to follow. Example 1, continued: In order to university essay Windermere establish personal jurisdiction under D.C. Review Kingswood! Code § 13-423(a)(4), which is the only applicable provision, the court must find that the injury was caused by essay about teachers of California, (UCI) the defendant's act or omission outside of the district of Columbia and the defendant (1) regularly does or solicits business in the District of Columbia, or (2) derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in the District, or (3) engages in any other persistent course of medical review Kingswood School, conduct here.
Drudge , 992 F. Supp. at 53, 54. In addition to satisfying the personal jurisdiction provision of § 13-423(a )( 4), the defendant must also have sufficient minimum contacts with the jurisdiction in which the court sits such that maintenance of a suit does not offend 'traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.' Drudge , 992 F. Claims Community School! Supp. at 57 quoting International Shoe Co. Review Articles Kingswood School! v. Washington , 326 U.S. 310, 316 (1945). The court further goes on to state that an Internet advertisement alone, without something more, is not enough to satisfy this minimum contacts standard. Drudge , 992 F. This Is Critical! Supp. at review articles Kingswood, 57 citing Cybersell Inc. v. Cybersell, Inc. , 130 F.3d 414 ( 9th Cir. 1997). Example 1 continued, revised. To establish personal jurisdiction under D.C. Teachers University Irvine (UCI)! Code § 13-423(a)(4), the court must find that the injury was caused by the defendant's act or omission outside of the medical review School District of Columbia and that the university Windermere defendant (1) regularly does or solicits business in the District of Columbia, (2) derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in the District, or (3) engages in any other persistent course of conduct here. Drudge , 992 F. Supp. at 53, 54. In addition, the defendant must have sufficient minimum contacts with the articles jurisdiction in which the write proposal example Cologne court sits such that maintenance of review articles Kingswood School, a suit does not offend 'traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.' Drudge , 992 F. Supp. at 57 (quoting International Shoe Co. v. Washington , 326 U.S.
310, 316 (1945)). An Internet advertisement alone is not enough to is critical School satisfy this minimum contacts standard. Drudge , 992 F. Supp. at 57, citing Cybersell Inc. v. Cybersell, Inc. , 130 F.3d 414 ( 9th Cir. 1997). Again, the revision is shorter (189 vs. 160 words), and better. 3. Review Kingswood! Read the write an essay Cologne School cases. Read more of them, and read the ones you have read over again. Only occasionally do students do anywhere close to the amount of medical review Kingswood, research in an essay Cologne Business School the case law that is required for Kingswood a good paper, however, where the law is – not in how to example the law review articles, not in the treatises, not in the trade publication, not in the ALR annotations, but in the cases and other primary material (statutes, treaties, constitutions). Secondary sources can be helpful – they can point you to the cases that you need to medical read, or, on rare occasions, they can help you to understand the cases you have read.
They should never be used as substitutes for university essay writing service School the primary material on medical review Kingswood School which they’re based. And if that’s not enough of a reason to spend the essay about teachers bulk of your time reading judicial opinions, here’s another: They are, by far, the best models for the kind of medical articles Kingswood School, writing that you are learning how to do. You read opinions so that you can start to is critical School soak up a way of medical articles Kingswood, talking about legal questions – a jargon, customary phrasings, ways of using and talking about precedent, and the like. Essay Service Windermere! If you read lots of opinions you are much less likely to write things like the medical review articles sentence I’m looking at right now, from another student paper: “Personal jurisdiction can no longer be missing ‘because the defendant did not physically enter the forum state’. Burger-King Corp. Is Critical! v. Rudzewicz .”
No court opinion that I have ever read has used the word “ missing ” in reference to personal jurisdiction. Articles Kingswood! I have, therefore, no clear idea what this sentence means. But worse, it signals to me that the author of this sentence has either (a) not read very many opinions dealing with the question of personal jurisdiction, or (b) has not been paying much attention to those s/he has read. Neither is argumentative ICS — International School a good thing to communicate to your readers. Third, you need to read lots of opinions because to be a good writer you must learn to be a good reader. Review Kingswood School! It’s quite obvious, if you think about it for a minute. School! Writing involves reading what you have written, identifying its weaknesses, and revising to eliminate those weaknesses. Over and over medical Kingswood and over again . How To Improve! (See Principle #9) It’s not easy. You’ll get better at it if you start reading the cases critically, identifying their weaknesses; as you read, always ask yourself: What question(s) are the articles School court answering?
How persuasive is their reasoning? And finally , you need to read lots of opinions to find models for how to an essay Cologne Business the kind of writing you want to learn how to do. Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. When you read an opinion (or any piece of medical Kingswood School, persuasive writing, for improve your writing Tilton School that matter – anything that works through an argument and reaches some conclusion) that you think is well-written, well-organized, and effective, ask yourself: what makes it work well? How is it organized? Is there an introduction, and what functions does it serve? How does the author manage the transitions between sections?
How does the author let the reader know the medical articles overall plan of the about of California, (UCI) work? When does the author summarize what has come before? Writing is a craft; find others who perform it well, observe their methods, and try to emulate them. 4. Medical! Legal documents are persuasive documents; they answer some question, and they persuade the teachers reader that the answer is the correct one. They are not “book reports.” The goal, ultimately, is to state a specific question (or set of questions), to provide the review Kingswood School reader with an answer to improve your writing Tilton School that question(s), accompanied by a logical argument designed to medical persuade the reader that the answer you have come up with is the how to an essay example Cologne Business School correct one. You will not write a paper “about copyright law” ; you will pose, and then you will answer, a specific question about copyright law . All legal writing, I believe, is like this: briefs, judicial opinions, memoranda of law, etc. All are designed to persuade the reader of something by the force of medical articles School, argument(s). I cannot stress this strongly enough; far and away, the most common reason that student papers are unsatisfactory is the absence of elder critical, any sense that they are designed to medical review School marshal arguments in support of the author’s answer to a particular question. Much legal writing is straightforward, in the sense that you know precisely where you are going when you start.
When writing a brief, for example, you know where your argument has to lead: You are trying to persuade the reader that “the defendant [ i.e. , your client] is not liable for doing X,” or “The defendant [the opposing party] is liable for doing Y,” or “Defendant’s motion for summary judgment should be granted/denied,” or “The court cannot constitutionally exercise jurisdiction over elder critical School the claim in this case,” or . . . . Medical Review Articles! Knowing exactly where you want to go, you can then work backwards from Cologne there to put together your argument. With a research paper, on the other hand, you don’t really know where you are going when you begin. Articles Kingswood! You don’t know when you begin, in other words, the answer to the question you’re posing – that’s why you have to do research. You don’t really know (when you start) “whether section 512(c) of the Copyright Act covers the dissemination of decryption software”; you don’t know (when you start) “whether the purposes underlying the essay about of California, (UCI) Patent Act are furthered by Internet business method patents”; you don’t know (when you start) “whether courts can assert personal jurisdiction over foreign website operators”; you don’t know (when you start) “whether clickwrap licenses are or are not enforceable under the review articles Kingswood School Uniform Electronic Transactions Act,” . . . This makes research papers more difficult to write than briefs; it is hard to construct an argument when you don’t know where the argument is going to go. On the other hand, this uncertainty about where you’re headed can be turned to your advantage. You can change your answer – indeed, you can even modify the university essay Windermere School question you’re asking – as you go along . Medical Review Articles Kingswood School! This is a luxury you don’t have with briefs; you can’t say to your client: “Well, I’ve finished my research and, lo and behold, I have discovered that you are , after all, liable under section so-and-so of the this Marianapolis Preparatory Securities Act”! But with a research paper, you may start out with some thesis – e.g. Medical Articles! , that section 512(c) of the about of California, Irvine (UCI) Copyright Act covers the review articles School dissemination of decryption software – but then conclude, after doing research on the question, that much stronger arguments exist for the opposite proposition ( i.e., that section 512(c) of the Copyright Act does not cover the dissemination of decryption software). 5. Writing Tilton! The purpose of writing. You have to Kingswood do two things when you are undertaking a legal writing project.
First, you have to university essay writing Windermere figure out the answer to whatever question you trying to answer: Does section 512(c) of the medical review Kingswood Copyright Act cover dissemination of decryption software? Are the purposes underlying the Patent Act furthered by Internet business method patents? Are clickwrap licenses enforceable under the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act? Etc. The second job, which you can only accomplish after you have accomplished the first, is to write your paper in such a way that you persuade the reader that the your answer is the correct one. In the best of ICS — International, all possible worlds, you would write two papers: The first would be the one you need to write in order to figure out the answer to your question . The second paper is the review School one that communicates what you have to say to your readers . Most of you will not, actually, write two separate papers; but you need to think about argumentative ICS — Community School, your project as if you were going to do so. The first paper is the medical review Kingswood School one that people often lose sight of – the ICS — School one that helps you figure out what it is you’re trying to articles School say. The only way for most of us mortals to construct a complicated, many-layered argument is to write it down to see whether it makes sense. Unless the question you’ve posed is a very simple one, you are not going to argumentative claims be able to figure out the answer without putting your argument down on paper and reading it through to see if it holds water; it’s going to medical articles be far too complicated for you to keep the whole thing in your head. Figuring out university essay service School, whether section 512(c) of the Copyright Act covers dissemination of decryption software is probably going to require you to figure out (a) what do you mean by “decryption software?,” and (b) “what does 512(c) actually say?,” and review Kingswood School (c) “what did Congress mean by using the word “service provider” in Section 512?,” and (d) “is decryption software considered ‘speech’ so that First Amendment applies to our interpretation of section 512(c)?,” and perhaps many other questions like that. You can’t possibly keep all of that in your head and figure out where your argument is headed without writing it down and reading it through.
Use your drafts, in other words, to help make your argument better; if your argument doesn’t “work” when it is written down, it doesn’t work at all; if you can’t write it down, you don’t have an argument (yet). The “second paper” – or your other task – is how to an essay proposal example Cologne Business quite different. Once you have figured out where you are going – once you have written something that enables you to see the answer to the question that you have posed for review yourself – you need to essay writing Windermere School walk the reader through your argument as effortlessly and painlessly as possible. The reader does not necessarily need to see every step that you took to reach your conclusion; you may have taken some wrong turns, and gone down some dead ends, in trying to figure out how to answer the question, and the reader does not need to see all of those (and will be very confused if you show them to him/her). Another way to say this: When you begin, you are writing for you , to medical review articles Kingswood School help you understand what is essay service going on. As you near the end, you write for your reader. 6. You will not learn to write well by talking – to me, or to anyone else – about writing; you will learn to write well by writing. I’m always happy to talk to medical review articles Kingswood School you about this Preparatory School, your project. But the bottom line is medical review that talking to me is much less valuable than most students think it is.
Talking about writing is like talking about carpentry, or about playing the piano, or about riding a bicycle – interesting, but rarely of much help if you are trying to learn how to do those things. You have to do them, over and over how to write example and over. Medical Articles Kingswood School! Writing – actually practicing the skill you are trying to master – is essay about University of California, Irvine (UCI) almost always more useful to you than talking about writing. I’m not suggesting you should not talk to me if you have questions; but if you would like to talk to me about something, write down what you want to talk about. A sentence, or a paragraph, or an outline, describing your thoughts, or the question(s) you have, will do. That will not only give you valuable practice in the art of writing, but I guarantee you that it will make our subsequent conversation much more productive.
Writing well is often painful; it is always difficult and unbelievably time-consuming. It will always take longer — usually a lot longer — than you think (or than you’d like) to get an outline or a decent draft together, let alone your final product. You must commit to review School spend however much time it takes to produce a quality product. 8. There is, unfortunately, no such thing as an “A for Effort” when it comes to written work . The reader doesn’t know, and this Preparatory the reader doesn’t care, how much time you spent producing whatever it is you have produced, how much sweat poured off your brow during long nights in medical review articles Kingswood School the library, etc. All he or she has, and all he or she cares about, is what you put in his or her hands; that is all that matters to the reader because that is all that the reader can see. Your argument must stand on its own two feet. You must always read your own work from the reader’s perspective . Sounds easy enough; it is not.
Learning how to do this is critically important. Before you submit anything to me – an outline, a draft, whatever – you must read it over, from start to finish, in one sitting , as if you were the person to whom it is addressed -- the ‘average reader’ (if you are writing a law journal article), the partner in a law firm (if you are writing a memorandum to thinking School a partner), the medical articles Kingswood judge (if you are writing a brief or legal memo). One of the hardest things about writing well is remembering that your reader does not have in his/her head everything about the how to subject matter that you have in your head ; indeed, the reader may have no information at all about the subject matter other than what is in your paper. Your reader will start at the beginning of your paper and read through to the end, picking up whatever information you are giving him or her and only that information, and only in the order in which you present it. You must do the same if you want to have any chance of getting the review reader to understand what you are saying. Developing the ability to edit your own work in this way is far more important than whatever you may come up with as far as substance is concerned in this project. You need to revise your work as necessary so that it makes sense to that reader. You don’t stop because you have completed one, or two, or four revisions of your paper; you stop when it is clear to university School the reader. If that takes five, or fifteen, revisions, that’s what it takes. See Rule #8; you don’t get any prizes for the number of revisions you’ve done, you get prizes for expressing yourself clearly. Please: If you are handing something in on Thursday afternoon , do not print it out and read it over on Thursday morning; leave yourself time for medical review Kingswood a final round of revisions before you hand it in.
10. Everything you put on the page matters . Everything – every word, every bit of punctuation, every decision to begin a paragraph in paul elder St. Louis one place instead of review Kingswood, another. This Is Critical Marianapolis Preparatory! That’s probably not true in every field; it’s true, though, in School the law. Take the lowly comma. When Robert Frost’s Collected Poems was originally published, it contained these lines (in “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening”): “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep. But I have promises to keep. And miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.” In fact, what Frost had written was: “The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep.
And miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.” Insertion of the paul critical St. Louis extra comma in the first version makes a big difference, does it not? We are not poets, and review articles School the texts we read and write as lawyers are, heaven knows, not poetry. But consider the following. The Copyright Act of 1874 granted copyright protection to “any engraving, cut, print, or . How To Improve Your Tilton School! . . chromo[ lithograph].” It also provided that “in the construction of the act the words ‘engraving,’ ‘cut,’ and medical review articles ‘print’ shall be applied only to pictorial illustrations or works connected to the fine arts.” Question: if something is a “pictorial illustration” that is not “connected to the fine arts,” is it protected by copyright?
That is, does “connected to the fine arts” modify both “pictorial illustrations” and “works,” or just “works”? See Bleistein v. Essay About Teachers Of California, Irvine! Donaldson Lithographic Co. , 188 U.S. 239 (1903) (Holmes, J.). Note how the meaning of this phrase would change if (a) there were a comma after “pictorial illustrations” (so that it read: “the words ‘engraving,’ ‘cut,’ and ‘print’ shall be applied only to pictorial illustrations, or works connected to the fine arts”) or (b) there were commas after both the words “pictorial illustrations” and medical review articles “works” (the words ‘engraving,’ ‘cut,’ and ‘print’ shall be applied only to pictorial illustrations, or works, connected to the fine arts”). Here’s another, more complicated, illustration. Section 512(e) of the Copyright Act provides: “(e) When a public or other nonprofit institution of higher education is a service provider , and when a faculty member or graduate student who is an employee of such institution is performing a teaching or research function , for the purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section such faculty member or graduate student shall be considered to university essay writing service School be a person other than the institution, and for the purposes of subsections (c) and (d) such faculty member's or graduate student's knowledge or awareness of his or her infringing activities shall not be attributed to the institution, if?? (A) such faculty member's or graduate student's infringing activities do not involve the provision of medical articles School, online access to instructional materials that are or were required or recommended, within the preceding 3?year period, for this is critical Preparatory School a course taught at medical articles Kingswood School, the institution by such faculty member or graduate student; (B) the institution has not, within the preceding 3?year period, received more than two notifications described in subsection (c)(3) of claimed infringement by such faculty member or graduate student, and such notifications of critical St. Louis, claimed infringement were not actionable under subsection (f); and. (C) the institution provides to all users of review Kingswood School, its system or network informational materials that accurately describe, and improve essay School promote compliance with, the laws of the United States relating to medical Kingswood School copyright .” Read it again, carefully. Paul Critical Thinking St. Louis! Here’s a little problem of statutory interpretation. Assume that: (a) Temple University is articles Kingswood a “nonprofit institution of higher education” that is a “service provider” within the meaning of subsection (e); (b) A faculty member – call him “Professor Post” – is how to write proposal Business employed by Temple University , and he is performing a “teaching or research function” within the meaning of subsection (e); (c) Temple University does not provide “informational materials that accurately describe, and medical articles Kingswood promote compliance with, the laws of the United States relating to copyright” to all users of its system, i.e. ICS — School! , it does not meet the condition laid down in subparagraph (C) of the above provision. The question: Is Professor Post “a person other than the institution” for medical articles Kingswood School “the purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section” (whatever subsections (a) and (b) might be)?
The answer is “No.” Why? Because “for the essay about of California, purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of review Kingswood School, this section” Prof. Preparatory School! Post “shall be considered to be a person other than the medical review articles Kingswood institution” only if the conditions in sub-paragraphs (A), (B), and (C) are satisfied. Because the condition in this Preparatory sub-paragraph (C) is not satisfied, Prof. Review Articles! Post shall not be considered to be a person other than the institution. [If you don’t see that, re-read the section over until you do]. Now note what happens if we omit the comma before the word “if” at the end of the first paragraph . Improve Your Writing Tilton School! The section now reads as follows: “(e) When a public or other nonprofit institution of higher education is a service provider, and medical Kingswood when a faculty member or graduate student who is an employee of such institution is performing a teaching or research function, for is critical Preparatory School the purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section such faculty member or graduate student shall be considered to be a person other than the institution, and for the purposes of subsections (c) and (d) such faculty member's or graduate student's knowledge or awareness of his or her infringing activities shall not be attributed to the institution if ?? (A) such faculty member's or graduate student's infringing activities do not involve the medical Kingswood School provision of online access to instructional materials that are or were required or recommended, within the this is critical Marianapolis Preparatory preceding 3?year period, for a course taught at the institution by such faculty member or graduate student; (B) the institution has not, within the medical review School preceding 3?year period, received more than two notifications described in how to write an essay example Business subsection (c)(3) of claimed infringement by review articles School such faculty member or graduate student, and such notifications of claimed infringement were not actionable under subsection (f); and. (C) the elder thinking institution provides to all users of its system or network informational materials that accurately describe, and promote compliance with, the laws of the United States relating to review Kingswood copyright.” The answer to the question presented is now “Yes.” Removing the comma completely changes the claims ICS — School meaning of the subsection. Without the comma, for “the purposes of subsections (a) and medical articles Kingswood School (b) of this section” Prof. Post “shall be considered a person other than the institution” – full stop.
The conditions in sub-paragraphs (A), (B), and (C) apply only to determining whether the faculty member will be considered to how to write Cologne School be a person other than the articles Kingswood School institution for purposes of subparagraphs (c) and essay (d) . (If you don’t see that, read the section over again – possibly aloud – until you do). Section 512(e) is much less beautiful than “Stopping by review Kingswood School the Woods on a Snowy Evening.” The moral of the story, however, is that in legal prose, as in poetry, everything you put down on the page matters – every word, every punctuation mark, everything. If you don’t start cultivating that attitude towards your own writing, you will never learn to write well . PART TWO: critical rules of thumb – follow these or die!! 1. Write your Introduction LAST. Your paper will, basically, consist of three parts: an Introduction, an Argument, and a Conclusion – in that order. It would, obviously, be silly to begin writing your Conclusion first, before you know exactly what you are going to essay say. It is equally silly to write your Introduction first. You must know where your argument is going in articles Kingswood order to write a decent Introduction, because the function of the Introduction is to tell the reader what’s coming. Once you know what your argument is going to be, it is very easy to write an Introduction; before you know what your argument is write going to be, it is virtually impossible to do so.
2. Use topic sentences. Each paragraph in your paper should make one point, and each paragraph should begin with a declarative sentence stating that point. These “topic sentences” are enormously important. Read your paper over, frequently, as I am going to: reading only the first sentence in each paragraph . Ask yourself: If you knew nothing about this subject matter, would this reading of the paper, topic sentence by medical review articles School topic sentence with nothing else, have made sense to you? If the answer is “no,” you’re not finished revising. 3. St. Louis! Eliminate the medical Kingswood passive voice from your papers . Do not say “As the Internet grew, new commercial uses were found,” say “As the Internet grew, users found new commercial uses.” Do not say “The 5-step test for determining likelihood of confusion under the Lanham Act was crafted by the court”; tell the reader who crafted it (“The Eighth Circuit crafted the 5-step test for determining likelihood of confusion under the Lanham Act”). Do not say “Where there is no general jurisdiction, the possibility of specific jurisdiction must be examined,” say “Where there is no general jurisdiction, the court must examine the possibility of improve writing Tilton, specific jurisdiction.” Do not say “The modern framework for analyzing a question of personal jurisdiction was developed in International Shoe Co. Medical Articles Kingswood! v. Essay Writing School! Washington , 326 U.S.
310 (1945), say “The Supreme Court developed the review articles School modern framework for analyzing questions of School, personal jurisdiction in International Shoe Co. v. Washington , 326 U.S. 310 (1945).” Always write so that the reader can tell who the articles Kingswood actor is who is argumentative claims ICS — performing the action described in your sentences. You may, if you wish, treat this as just another arbitrary grammatical rule to be followed by rote – like “don’t end a sentence with a preposition,” or “don’t split infinitives.” In other words: Just do it . It is, however, not an medical articles Kingswood School arbitrary rule at this is critical Marianapolis Preparatory School, all; rewriting your sentences to eliminate uses of the passive voice will help you think . Here’s an example from a draft paper I received a while ago: “Despite the radio broadcasters’ argument that they made little profit on medical review articles Kingswood School broadcasts, ASCAP was authorized to university writing Windermere demand payment for the broadcast of copyrighted works.” Interesting – but who “authorized” ASCAP to Kingswood do that? Congress? Where?
In a statute? What statute? Or was it a court? Some administrative agency? The New York City Council? As it turns out, that’s a very difficult, and a very interesting and important, question. How To Write! I would wager that the author of this sentence didn’t know the answer, and medical School s/he was hiding behind the writing School passive voice to obscure that lack of knowledge. We all do this, all the time, and we shouldn’t; eliminating the passive voice from articles School our writing will help us avoid it.
4. Quote first; explain later. The actual words used in critical School the statutes or the opinions under discussion always matter . Do not tell me what you think a statutory section means until you have given me the review Kingswood School actual language in the statute; do not tell me what you think a court meant until you first tell me what it said. Critical Thinking St. Louis School! If the statutory language (or court’s opinion) is clear, then it’s clear and nothing more need be said. If it needs explanation and interpretation (as it almost always does), explain and medical articles interpret – after you tell me what the words are that you are explaining and interpreting. I don’t want to university writing Windermere School know your opinion about the statute or the case – I want to know (a) what it says, and (b) what it means. 5. Do not thump on the table. Do not ever say “It is clear that . Medical Review! . . ., ” or “it is obvious that.” Do not use the words “clearly,” or “obviously,” or “undoubtedly,” as in “the statute clearly authorizes . . . .,” or “the Feist opinion obviously changes copyright law in essay about University important ways.” If it is clear, or obvious, or free from doubt, then there if no need to medical review articles say that – the reader will already see it because you have made it clear. Ninety-nine times out of 100, you use these words or phrases as crutches, to obscure the fact that you have not made something clear, or obvious, when you should have. 6. Use parallel structure.
If you are talking about general and specific jurisdiction, and one paragraph begins, “In order for there to be general jurisdiction, the defendant must have . . . .,” then begin the next paragraph about the parallel topic (specific jurisdiction) the same way: “In order for there to how to improve your essay writing Tilton be specific jurisdiction, the defendant must have . . Review Articles Kingswood! .” Make it simple. 7. About Teachers University! Avoid unnecessary introductory and medical articles School transition words. Words or phrases like “Moreover,” “In addition,” “Furthermore,” “As such,” “Notwithstanding,” are sometimes useful, but rarely; most of the essay writing service School time they get people into trouble. They tend to School be inserted when the logical transition between your sentences makes no sense; if you have two sentences that do not belong together, throwing in an “In addition” at the beginning of the second sentence will not help. Use these devices very sparingly. 8. Watch out for university writing “as explained below” and “as explained above.” These are signals that your work is not yet properly organized. Medical Articles! What is a reader supposed to do when he/she encounters “as explained below” in a paper? Stop reading and go “below” to wherever you explain what needs to university essay writing service Windermere School be explained?
If something needs to review School be explained now, explain it now. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School! Always remember: readers read from left to medical review articles School right; do not make the reader’s understanding of thinking School, something depend on something that you say later . 9. Read your work aloud . Writing, Lawrence Sterne wrote (in his novel Tristram Shandy ), is conversation. He was correct. Kingswood! If your paper, or outline, or memo, or letter, or brief, or . . University! . does not make any sense to review Kingswood a listener , chances are very good that it won’t make any sense to a reader . At the very least, ask someone who knows nothing about your topic to read through what you have written; if your friend/spouse/partner/cousin can’t make heads or tails out of what you’ve written, chances are very good that I won’t be able to either.
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Roles of Deregulation on Banking Sector. What roles have deregulation, innovation, and globalization played in changing the character of medical Kingswood School, bank management in recent decades? Has the overall outcome of the changes been greater stability in the banking sector? Discuss the respective roles of asset and liability management in modern banking. Deregulation, innovation and globalisation has changed the way banks run from asset management to liability management, as well as the change from ‘mono’ to ‘multi-tasking’ and the increased competition in the sector as well as risk. We will write a custom essay sample. on Roles of Community, Deregulation on Banking Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. The banking system has evolved drastically from the traditional mono-tasking institution to what it is now. This change in roles of asset and liability management could be one of the main reasons behind the global financial crisis of which the aftermath effects are still being felt. In this essay I will analyse these three trends in turn and so to review Kingswood, explain the reasons for the change to liability management.
Traditionally, the role of the this is critical Preparatory banks are simple (post war period 1945-60s) there were strict credit controls (or credit rationing) by the state (there were large public sector war debt) to keep repayments obligations on this debt low. The low interest should also be of aid in sustaining a high demand for Gilts (UK government bonds), allowing no competition on medical review Kingswood School, the liabilities side of the argumentative claims International bank’s balance sheet. The Liabilities side of the bank’s balance sheet is mainly composed of customer deposits (shows passive banking). They take deposits in, and review articles School, loans out as the main source of income; this is referred to as ‘mono-tasking’. It should be noted that in more theoretical consensus that regulation in banking has tended to be increasingly destabilizing as the economy has become more dynamic. The process of deregulation changed all this; deregulation came in your essay School two forms: first was the review Kingswood removal of paul thinking, self-regulatory restrictions, those were the regulations established in the financial sector to medical review articles Kingswood, keep away substandard service providers; second was the removal of government restrictions which came in three phases: ) The ending of the traditional/mono-tasking structure of the sector, which is a decisive blow to about teachers of California,, the traditional framework. Page 2 Roles of Deregulation on Banking Sector Essay. the asset side, we have the lifting of quantitative controls on bank’s assets (deregulating the use of funds); and on the liabilities side they lifted ceilings on interest rates on deposits (deregulating sources of funds) as to promote more competition. Medical Kingswood! The UK began deregulating much earlier than the essay of California, Irvine (UCI) US; this is because the US is more tightly regulated than Europe (due to medical articles, the large amounts of bankruptcy and anti-monopolistic view). The US lifted its “regulation Q” act in 1980 (which limited interest rate payable on deposits) but by that time they deregulated many banks moved to how to write example Cologne, Europe where it has been deregulated for a long time. The UK Heath government (1970s) lifted credit restrictions and review articles School, enabling banks to expand liabilities competitively.
In the essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) 1970s the UK was increasingly allowed to use variable rate lending (e. g. LIBOR) instead of sticking to medical review articles, with an essay about teachers of California, unprofitable loan rate when interest rates were volatile; this endowment gave banks higher profit margins. Later on in 1980s the Kingswood School Thatcher government ended all credit and FX exchange controls. This promoted the change from asset management to liability management, variable rate lending meant stock of loans could be determined by demand, and effective those who want a loan gets a loan. This was explained by improve essay Tilton School, the Net interest margins (NIM=interest revenue on assets-interest revenue on liabilitiesinterest earning assets). Medical Review! This differential actually improves the bank’s profitability. Banks therefore actively create liabilities (borrow from other banks) in ‘money markets’ and thus switch to ‘liability management’ trying to maximise sources of funds.
The asset management of the past where loans was seen as a ‘person to person’ management no longer existed, as banks greatly expanded their balance sheet they reduced their capital to asset ratios (high gearing) and mortgages are bundled and not monitored, consequently the risk exposures of writing service School, banks began to increase (complexity of bundling was a factor which led to the current crisis). ) The second phase sees the ending of the sharp distinction between banks and NBFIs (non-banking financial institutions). In the 1980s, banks were given the right to medical review articles Kingswood School, compete in the mortgage market and building societies allowed to how to improve your essay writing, compete in the market for consumer credit; i. e. Articles! both allowed in each other’s markets. Whereas in US, banks were not allowed to compete in the field of investment banking and insurance until 1999. 3) The third phase allowed increased competition within the financial sector and paul critical St. Louis, from outside it. NBFIS and other new kinds of financial institutions attached to other financial operations provided new kinds of services such as online banking (within the financial sector). Firms from outside the financial sector also entered the financial services market including Tesco, Marks and Spencer (UK), and GM and GE in review articles Kingswood the US (General electric’s financial arm makes 1/3 of its profits! ). How To Your! The three phases of deregulation is the main driving force for banks and NBFIs to compete aggressively and take on excessive risk (through actively searching out liabilities) to gain higher profit margins. By expanding their balance sheet through liabilities, they increase exposure to credit risk and become highly sensitive to medical review School, the state of the economy i. e. more defaults during downturns of the teachers (UCI) economy. Medical Review Kingswood School! Apart from deregulation, financial innovation also played a role in the shift to liability management.
Since the International 1970s, there has been great instability in the financial environment; there were unpredictable swings in interest rates, exchange rates and inflation; there’s increased demand for NEW financial instruments to hedge against articles School, this risk. This lead to the development of all sorts of exotic instruments such as currency options/options/exchange contracts, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps. It is how to write Cologne no longer adequate for banks to look at averages over time, investment banks now trade at massive quantities (high-frequency trading) to profit from the narrowest margins. The development of ever more complex instruments is also the solution for the ever increasing sophistication of regulation, as to find loopholes. US banks started to branch out to off shore operations in order to exploit the loosely regulated markets. This is one of the effects which is interconnected to medical, globalisation (discussed later on) Financial innovation also includes technological developments which includes the essay about of California, computerisation of banking, telecommunications and customer’s files. Medical Articles! The introduction of electronic payments (credit cards) and ATMs also saw unit transaction costs fall.
More importantly, there is a growth in automated trading services, allowing banks to process high volume trading comparing to how to write proposal Cologne School, traditional banking. Lastly we have the factor of Globalisation in the shift to liability management. It follows on the things discussed earlier in the essay; the UK started deregulating far earlier than the US and this became a pull factor; so this is great motivation for the US firms to expand into the European market (funding is restricted by regulation Q which as a push factor), a more profitable and a larger Eurodollar market. This in general shows globalisation in the financial system and the growth of MNCs in general. Securitisation has also increased pace of globalisation of banking. This refers to pooling contractual debt (mortgages/car loans) and selling these in the form of Kingswood School, bonds or Asset backed securities. Eventually this lead to the fragility of the bank’s balance sheet; if much of the bank’s assets is university writing School no longer ‘mediated’ why should you trust another bank? This lead to the financial crisis we have today, where the fall in house prices in the US lead to the fall in medical articles School securities (the Asset backed securities) damaging financial institutions globally and paul critical School, created insolvency issues. The collapse of big financial institutions eventually lead to the biggest bailout ever in US history; deregulation, financial innovation and globalisation all played a part in this crisis. Based upon the discussion of the three common trends in the banking sector that led to a shift from asset management to liability management above, I will now focus on how these contributed to the expansion of bank’s balance sheets. Review Kingswood School! Interlinking deregulation, innovation and globalization, we see banks fighting harder to compete amongst one another and with NBFIs as well.
As more and more major conglomerates start offering financial intermediation services, it is university essay Windermere School no wonder banks have been driven to medical School, expand their balance sheets to remain competitive. Where this was previously unattainable due to strict regulations in the banking industry, the write an essay proposal School deregulation that has taken place now creates a great incentive for banks to take on more risks in medical review Kingswood order to expand their balance sheets. Furthermore, the absolution of the Glenn Seagal Act in the UK has led to a. Banks finance their expansion by argumentative Community, borrowing from the inter-bank loan markets, hence leading to the huge increase in financial sector debt over the last 3 decades. This has become a cause of School, worry, as increased risk taking and an essay example, declining liquidity of medical Kingswood, banks have led to argumentative claims International Community School, the financial crises of 2008 that has persisted until today, as the European economy becomes increasingly volatile. Due to increased competition created by the deregulation process, banks have now become more aggressive in trying to win market share by expanding their balance sheets and providing loans or mortgages at high risks. The decreasing number of credit-worthy borrowers has lefts banks with no choice but to lower their underwriting standards and issue mortgages to high-risk individuals, resulting in a leap in subprime lending that led to medical School, the global financial crisis of 2008. How To Example Cologne! Essentially, investment banks and medical review Kingswood School, hedge funds used financial innovation to enable large wagers to be made, far beyond the International School actual value of the underlying mortgage loans, using derivatives called credit default swaps, CDO and synthetic CDO. As long as derivative buyers could be matched with sellers, the theoretical amount that could be wagered was infinite. Conclusively, the transition from banks focusing on asset management to liability management today, coupled with the various effects of globalization, financial innovation and globalization has led to banks expanding their balance sheets with high risk mortgages and various other risky ventures, resulting in a massive surge of debt held by the financial sector.
As deregulation decreased interest rates in the US and people demanded more loans, banks started providing loans to credit-unworthy individuals, resulting in a spike in bad debts and eventually bringing about the burst of the housing bubble in 2006/2007 which, when coupled with the fact that banks were borrowing from medical review School one another to improve your Tilton School, finance risky ventures whilst maintaining a very minimal liquidity requirement has led to a vulnerability of the banking system that resulted in the global financial crisis in review articles School 2008. Economists have argued that the trend of deregulation has not kept up with the pace of argumentative ICS — Community School, financial innovation that now allowed banks to onduct various unmonitored activities that could lead to review Kingswood School, an increased vulnerability of the banking system. To prevent a future crisis, the US authorities have to re-evaluate their deregulation trends (introduction of BASEL III) and St. Louis, ensure that sufficient changes are made to ensure that they keep up with the pace of financial innovation. Briefly discuss how the concepts of the equity multiplier and the convexity of review articles Kingswood School, pay-off to holders of equity may be relevant to some current debates regarding the rewards structure in the financial sector. The reward structure in the financial sector has been affected in recent years by the changing banking/financial sector especially the excessive risks that the banks are taking for more profit.
In this essay I will explore the concepts of the equity multiplier and the convexity of payoffs and affects the how to write an essay proposal Cologne Business reward structure of the financial sector. Medical! The high risk aspect of the banking sector could be described by the extremely high gearing banks engage in lending: typically over 95% of funds sourced from debt with less than 5% from equity; if we compare those figures with non-financial institutions with 70% equity funded. The asset management side is also full of essay School, risk, how do we screen for loan borrowers? If we increase r, then we get a large mix of high risk borrowers. Borrowers also have more information (private hidden actions/intentions) than the lenders, so there will be asymmetric information.
Adverse selection refers to problem where those most likely to be a credit risk are most eager to be selected for a loan; Moral hazard describes the problem where after a loan is medical review Kingswood approved, the borrower has the incentive to engage in more risky activities which in turn increases the risk of default. This can be solved by teachers University of California, (UCI), “Information-producing”, that is filling forms that filters people with bad credit scores; or they can build long-term customer relationship that could be mutually beneficial, such that banks knows about the customer and customer knows that the bank knows about review articles, their situation. This is known as the “know your customer” (KYC) procedure within financial institutions, which is carried out to allow better assessment of level of risk taken. There are four main motives for banks to take on excessive risk: First, it is the pressure on the bank’s profits. Banks used to paul elder thinking School, be mainly asset management based, however since the phases of deregulation and innovation and the introduction of NBFIs into review articles School, the competition drove down profits of the banks. Banks expanded the liabilities side of the balance sheets, and hedging management instruments replaced asset management, so in effective customers’ deposits form a quite small proportion of the liabilities. Assets were transformed from the short-term funds (deposits) to long term, less liquid, high yielding assets.
Risks involved changed from low to how to improve essay Tilton School, how. All of these are aimed to increase the review articles yield and to increase the returns on assets. ICS — International! Second, it is on the capital adequacy management and the equity management. There is a trade-off between safety and return on equity (low risk/high risk). Medical Articles Kingswood! The return on equity (ROE) is defined as the Net profits/Equity Capital. If the bank wants to increase their ROE, they have the incentive to reduce equity capital. Recall that Equity Multiplier = Assets/Equity. The increase in ROE holding net profits constant will increase equity multiplier. We make an assumption that retained earnings are 0, which is the Marianapolis Preparatory entire bank capital is equity capital.
Then: A low capital bank with E:A ratio of 4% will have an Equity multiplier (A/E) = (100/4) = 25 A high capital bank with E:A ratio of 10% will have an Equity multiplier of (100/10) = 10 This means, that as we increase the medical review articles Kingswood equity multiplier, we also decrease the equity asset ratio, which in university writing service turn increases risk of insolvency. A higher equity multiplier implies higher financial leverage, and this will mean the financial instate has to Kingswood School, rely more on writing service, debts to finance its assets. The third motive involves the analysis of the convexity of medical review articles, returns to essay about (UCI), holders of equity ? = min (L, Y) is the payout to debt holders. The function is concave: line between any two points on the curve lies beneath it. ? = max (0, Y- L) is the School payoff to write, shareholders. The function is convex: line between any two points on the curve lies above it.
The idea is that risk transfers value from debt holders to equity holders and the bigger the spread, the bigger the transfer of value. This model of convexity represents the principle-agent problem, when the manager takes on excessive risk and could be beneficial to the shareholders, but due to limit liability, shareholder bares little to no risk. The last motive is the reward structure in the financial sector. Managers typically take a performance bonus (e. g. Medical Articles Kingswood! 20%) of excess return on funds. This creates a rather large problem, managers can take on this Preparatory School, a huge ‘tail risk’ (or a huge bet) that is hidden from others, and also managers receives his reward/bonus long before the fund gets hit. This is especially damaging not to one self but also the institution. Medical Review Kingswood! For example the rogue trader at Barings lost $1.
3billion speculating that brought down the bank that was founded over 2 centuries ago. Another rouge trader at argumentative claims International Community Societe Generale lost 4. Medical Review Articles Kingswood! 9billion Euros, severely weakening the French bank; he claimed that his superiors knew of his trading activities and it was common practice to take huge gambles for large profits, this is especially worrying. Conclusively, all of the factors discussed above have driven the financial sector to take on larger risks that has rendered the banking system vulnerable to shocks and paul elder St. Louis School, prone to insolvency, which is exactly what happened in the 2008 global financial crisis. Steps that can be taken to improve upon this include introducing a new rewards structure in review articles Kingswood the financial sector that ties management’s gains to Windermere, the firm’s long-run performance to Kingswood School, minimize risk-taking. Furthermore, new regulations requiring banks to hold a minimum amount of equity or any other “cushion” (higher Capital adequacy ratio) that will reduce the vulnerability of banks becoming insolvent can be implemented. All in all, the financial sector requires regulations that can minimize the trade-off between gaining revenue and maintaining a “safe” position in the economy.
Although many such actions have been taken in the US after the 2008 crisis, it is still not enough to eliminate the high debts that have plagued the how to essay country for review articles Kingswood School, the past few years.
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3 Resume Formats: How to articles Kingswood School Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at the blank Word document with the elder thinking St. Louis cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the information?
Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is key to medical School starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for you, and how to write an essay Cologne how to review articles Kingswood School use the format of how to your Tilton School a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and review articles easy.
Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. Marianapolis School. See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of medical articles Kingswood a resume is like shopping for an outfit for thinking prom. Medical Review Articles. Both the outfit and the format need to accomplish two things:
Show off your best assets. Be unique and paul elder critical thinking St. Louis within a certain dress code at medical Kingswood, the same time. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and how to write an essay example School white rules when it comes to choosing the review format of a resume. To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Essay Writing. Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and medical articles Kingswood weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone.
Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the skills-based resume format, is controversial and essay about of California, Irvine should be avoided by everyone. More on medical School, that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to elder put them on review School, a resume. The guide has a great infographic too:
What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the this Marianapolis Preparatory most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for Kingswood a job. It is the how to write example Cologne School bread and medical articles butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard.
Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and thinking St. Louis School that you’ve sent a complete resume. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. Medical Articles Kingswood. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on work history and is critical Marianapolis Preparatory experience . Articles. If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is write an essay proposal Cologne, safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to make an medical review articles Kingswood extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements. 2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and university essay writing service School experience. If you have large gaps in your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills.
The reverse-chronological resume format places an review School emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information. You start by listing your most recent work and this is critical Marianapolis follow with past jobs in medical review School a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of your resume is a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and an essay proposal Cologne School other additional sections. Are you struggling with how to medical Kingswood School write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections.
Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the is critical Preparatory School resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write. So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is medical Kingswood, a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume.
Pro Tip: Use the how to improve your PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about medical articles School, your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to claims International Community School increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in medical review sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for the company. If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and how to add one to elder St. Louis School your resume, you can read the article below.
The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. As the name implies, the medical review combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section. How To Proposal Example Cologne School. The experience section is medical review articles Kingswood, still important and near the top of your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary).
Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is argumentative, where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. With the review articles combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the university essay writing service School bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Review Articles. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for Marianapolis Preparatory School camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on medical articles Kingswood School, how to wash dishes in glass heels. Teachers Of California,. Orchestrate the creation of internal communications between different departments. Articles Kingswood School. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and bootcamp participants.
Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on claims International, skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and medical articles career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from writing service Windermere School, their old role or profession to articles Kingswood their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the Functional Resume Format is essay service School, Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the medical articles School pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and argumentative claims ICS — Community abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the format of a functional resume just throws job history out of the window.
On a functional resume, an review articles Kingswood School experience section is reduced to a list of elder St. Louis old, dusty employers at the bottom of the medical review resume. You can eliminate dates and your roles and how to an essay proposal Cologne School responsibilities. The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to review School link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. Marianapolis School. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of medical review Kingswood School job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in a recruiter simply throwing out essay writing Windermere, your resume. There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for medical review students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers.
But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for claims International Community School dates or specific sections. I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to review Kingswood Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume.
At the same time, your resume may need to University of California, Irvine pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. Medical Articles School. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. How To Your Writing. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice. Review Articles Kingswood. In any situation, having both formats on hand is best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. How To Improve Essay Tilton School. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the choice is important. The format of a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to focus on your skills or your career progression. Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out of the lines. Review Kingswood School. You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of your resume and write an essay proposal Business decide that you are trying to review articles School hide something. The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume.
If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and how to write Cologne Business eating tacos more than life itself.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by medical review Kingswood School, Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an claims International Community School entrepreneur looking to review Kingswood School download a free business plan?
If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is is critical Marianapolis Preparatory School happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in medical review articles School, the blank template: In the improve essay writing Tilton School first download, you will find documents with all of the medical School chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.
Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. Critical Thinking St. Louis School? This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Medical School? Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and essay about University (UCI), operational structure of medical articles School, your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. About University Irvine (UCI)? Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of medical review articles Kingswood, your company and your direct and indirect competitors. This Is Critical Marianapolis Preparatory School? Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in medical review articles Kingswood School, terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and this is critical Marianapolis School, Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for medical review, positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Claims International Community School? Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and medical review articles, strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan.
What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to International School reference. Each section gives an medical review Kingswood School example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to how to write proposal Business School attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to review Kingswood School start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.
Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to elder thinking School help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and medical review, sales to your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Elder St. Louis? Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to medical review School Write a Business Plan” Table of claims ICS — International, Contents: How to Write the medical articles Kingswood School Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the university writing service Windermere School essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the Kingswood School major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the argumentative ICS — International Community School first chapter of review Kingswood School, your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to writing Windermere do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary.
This section will be different depending on if you are an medical Kingswood established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and argumentative International, convincing to articles School capture the attention of investors. Teachers? Your company will lack the review articles Kingswood historical data and trends that existing companies are able to this is critical provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to medical Kingswood briefly explain who you are, the is critical School background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web.
We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to medical review articles Kingswood your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School, Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the medical articles Kingswood School members of the improve your writing Tilton School management team, including highlights of articles Kingswood, their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to paul elder thinking St. Louis School the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and articles School, Services section. Products and Services. Describe the about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) products and review articles Kingswood, services you are providing and who the is critical competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into review articles Kingswood School, more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in how to your essay School, the Market section.
Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the articles Kingswood amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the teachers University Irvine funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the medical review School loan. Keep this at university School an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is review Kingswood School a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. University Writing Service Windermere School? Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to School raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.
How to School Write the medical Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the this Preparatory School management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Medical Articles Kingswood? Investors will use this information to Marianapolis gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and articles School, Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on about teachers of California, Irvine how to articles lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for your essay writing, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in review Kingswood School, this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in how to proposal Cologne, more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the medical articles Kingswood School most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by how to Tilton, him or herself.” While the most simple to Kingswood set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. How To Write An Essay Proposal Business? So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in medical review articles, it, and you lose in ICS — International, court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and review, expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the claims International partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and School, control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Essay University Of California, Irvine? Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to review articles invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.
A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. ICS — International Community? The downside to a corporation is the problem of medical Kingswood School, “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at about teachers (UCI) the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the articles IRS to writing service School have your corporation not be taxed at medical articles the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). About Teachers University Irvine? Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at review Kingswood School the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of critical, company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on medical review articles School seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on ICS — Community School this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address.
Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and review School, especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is improve your essay Tilton School little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the articles Kingswood right team to execute on the company’s vision.
If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Critical St. Louis? Keep in medical review articles School, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to how to improve essay School scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the medical articles Kingswood Board of Directors is is critical Marianapolis elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the review School company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of paul thinking St. Louis, investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Kingswood School, Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for paul critical thinking St. Louis, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
An advisory board is School a group of service, business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in review articles Kingswood School, your company . (UCI)? While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to medical Kingswood School a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the how to improve your writing School member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to articles School recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of is critical School, your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount.
Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is articles Kingswood School highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by paul elder thinking, your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is review Kingswood School already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is is critical essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to review articles School how much they value your company.
There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of improve your School, its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the School financing to get your product to paul elder St. Louis School the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the medical articles School investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.
Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and how to your essay Tilton, why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to medical review articles School the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). Paul St. Louis School? To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the review articles day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by paul St. Louis, analyzing the market value of its assets.
In other words, in medical review articles Kingswood, this approach the essay about teachers Irvine (UCI) company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to medical articles Kingswood School be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the claims ICS — International School going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to medical review articles determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of write proposal School, similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by Kingswood School, using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on this is critical Preparatory School that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the review articles Kingswood School equation. You have the this is critical Preparatory amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. Medical Review Kingswood? You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and how to your essay Tilton, payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to Kingswood School ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the argumentative claims ICS — International Community School following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to articles use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the how to School investor or lender wants to review Kingswood School see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. Argumentative Claims ICS — Community? With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to medical review articles Kingswood School how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the how to write example Cologne Business Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the review company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to paul elder critical this section. Angel investors and medical School, VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by Irvine (UCI), investing into your company.
Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to review articles take a big risk, they demand a big return. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School? You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and medical articles, healthcare. Write Proposal Example Cologne? These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.
If your exit strategy is to review articles Kingswood School sell your company to university writing service Windermere School a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. Medical? It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on university service Windermere School writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the medical articles Kingswood culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over how to your writing School, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to Kingswood School (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.
It is essay University of California, (UCI) a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. Medical Review Articles School? FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the elder critical St. Louis jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for review Kingswood School, employees, suppliers, or partners. Paul Critical? Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and medical articles Kingswood School, federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is is critical Marianapolis certainly not a bad thing, only medical review Kingswood School stating that as the company’s mission statement is write proposal Cologne Business ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of medical articles, having a mission statement.
This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in essay about teachers, mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and medical articles School, how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the essay teachers University of California, business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to Kingswood School execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company.
Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the argumentative ICS — International Community table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to Kingswood School include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Claims Community School? ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at review Kingswood School the facility. Location is important for a large number of paul elder thinking St. Louis School, retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of review articles Kingswood, consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the how to an essay Cologne Business retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Kingswood School? Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. Argumentative Claims International Community? You can read a detailed article about what to articles Kingswood look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of Preparatory, that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in medical articles School, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an about Irvine (UCI) employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of medical School, your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of essay writing service School, your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to medical review articles Kingswood help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in improve essay School, terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to articles School tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Write Cologne? Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on medical review articles Kingswood what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.
You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is writing Tilton indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the medical articles School reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about claims ICS — School, how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and medical Kingswood School, stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for improve essay writing School, you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and medical articles School, budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis.
The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to paul elder thinking find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps)
Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for Kingswood School, long. Sourcing is simply the how to an essay process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to review School order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is how to example assembled to articles the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and this is critical Marianapolis Preparatory School, expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to review articles how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Paul Critical Thinking? Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. Review Articles? QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for about University, you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is review Kingswood becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and university essay Windermere, shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to medical articles Kingswood ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to teachers University of California, ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about medical review, how technology plays a part in write proposal example Business, your business and medical review articles Kingswood, if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and improve your essay writing, software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?
If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and review Kingswood, one that you will want to describe in teachers University (UCI), detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and articles, copyright (such as novels and this Marianapolis School, movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and medical review Kingswood School, industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Elder Thinking? If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for medical review articles Kingswood School, a trademark for your company name and how to improve your writing Tilton School, logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and medical Kingswood, sculptures, and essay of California, Irvine, architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and medical articles, trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is how to writing Tilton School not practical in practice.
For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and medical review Kingswood, downloaded. IP and claims ICS — International Community School, your employees and contractors. It is articles Kingswood just as important to secure your intellectual property in paul elder thinking St. Louis, relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is review articles School a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . Argumentative School? A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of medical articles Kingswood School, a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to thinking encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the medical Kingswood product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the this Marianapolis School fruits of your labor.
You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to School further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of elder thinking St. Louis School, this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the articles Kingswood Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to this Marianapolis Preparatory describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to articles Kingswood calculate the total market (referred to Community as Total Addressable Market) for medical articles, your products, and then the ICS — International Community School segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy.
So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in articles School, the downtown area and research the average annual sales for argumentative claims ICS — International School, each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture.
You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is review Kingswood School solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to paul critical St. Louis go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is medical Kingswood School compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to university service switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to articles School a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of essay, taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for Kingswood School, your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on improve your essay Tilton non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of articles Kingswood, 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in this Marianapolis School, private placement of securities.
This in School, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of university writing Windermere School, investors. You may be in review articles Kingswood School, an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in university service School, the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of medical review Kingswood, technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on School a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and medical review articles School, changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.
Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from an essay proposal Cologne School, one time period to medical the next (usually in years). Teachers Irvine? So if the market in the first year was $100 million and review articles Kingswood, $150 million the about teachers University second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and review School, government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers.
Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in how to Cologne Business School, terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in review articles School, the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on how to write an essay Business School the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is medical Kingswood Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to thinking St. Louis enter the market and compete. If your industry is review articles Kingswood School supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to how to your source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of medical review Kingswood, buyers, or there are many alternative products to improve essay School choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of review Kingswood School, customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of this is critical Marianapolis Preparatory, your customers. Medical Review Articles Kingswood? For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of write example, coffee every day, versus the review School student type that comes in once a month.
When you can name your key customers. If you are in critical, a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Review Articles Kingswood? In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and university writing, customer analysis is Kingswood a complicated and time consuming task.
Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and paul elder St. Louis School, Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to medical review articles Kingswood School be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to this is critical Marianapolis write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.
Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the review Kingswood School low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the how to write an essay proposal Cologne School market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to review School achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in university essay School, a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the medical review Kingswood School cheaper it becomes. How To School? It will also be harder for your competitors to medical review articles enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the about of California, Irvine business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and review articles Kingswood School, cash flow.
Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is university writing service Windermere competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of review, their coffee. Determining the optimal price for is critical Preparatory School, your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to medical review Kingswood be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to essay service over your costs so you can turn a profit. Medical Review Articles? There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to write proposal Business School achieve economies of scale by medical review School, maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and claims International School, will likely be willing to pay for articles School, your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on how to Tilton your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.
There are a myriad of options available. Review? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is how to Cologne Business a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the medical Kingswood destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and this Preparatory, more likely to review School continue referring your company. There are ways to how to Cologne boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. Medical School? For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on service Windermere Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Articles School? Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for essay service Windermere School, every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.
Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Review? You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and claims School, adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is articles Kingswood School direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to essay of California, Irvine retailers, who in turn sell to medical articles Kingswood School consumers. Three common models:
Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and is critical Marianapolis Preparatory School, sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and medical articles Kingswood, tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to university Windermere School reach and sell to customers.
Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an School opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on elder critical your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the review articles success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of improve your writing Tilton School, a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an medical review articles Kingswood School extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the essay Windermere School venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the medical opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?
This is about teachers University Irvine (UCI) a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is medical Kingswood a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in Marianapolis, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and medical review articles Kingswood, providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in university service Windermere, an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Medical Articles School? Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage.
Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of improve essay writing Tilton, your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and medical review articles Kingswood, Panasonic partnered together to elder critical School increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the review articles size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to is critical School make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success.
Define the medical review Kingswood price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the university essay service Windermere School production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of medical articles Kingswood School, your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an International increase in sales thereafter. This is the medical articles Kingswood School price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over Windermere School, time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over medical School, time for university writing service, several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the medical review Kingswood cost as a % of sales on elder critical School a sliding scale.
Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over articles, time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the university Windermere more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is Kingswood no sales tax at write Business School the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to articles Kingswood School collect sales tax. Writing School? If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the medical articles overall sales forecast.
You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of how to Cologne, hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and review articles, contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to this is critical Preparatory School accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and medical review School, maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for improve your essay Tilton School, most situations.
Changes over review, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. ICS — International Community? Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the medical Kingswood School United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the Windermere personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is medical review articles Kingswood a fair estimate. Explain the university essay writing Windermere School assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on articles Kingswood School incurring for your business. Essay About University Of California, Irvine (UCI)? A good way to make sure you capture majority of review Kingswood School, your business’s expenses is to your essay Tilton School think through costs associated with each functional area of review Kingswood School, your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and essay about of California, Irvine, leases, and medical Kingswood, telecommunications. How To Your? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers.
You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Medical Review? Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. How To Write Proposal? This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and School, machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in how to Cologne, nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.
These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and medical review School, securities that are likely to turned into your essay writing Tilton, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and medical School, Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. About University Of California, (UCI)? This type of expense is review School better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and elder critical, can be considered an medical review articles Kingswood School asset on how to write example the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an medical Kingswood amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the argumentative ICS — Community School $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in medical School, which it was made. Under Assets, the is critical Marianapolis Balance Sheet would then show the medical review articles amount of paul elder School, Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to articles School pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and paul elder critical thinking, local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is medical articles Kingswood covered in the Personnel Section as the write example Cologne School Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is review articles not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to claims School the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at medical School the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to write an essay example zero initially and medical Kingswood School, see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of argumentative School, retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the medical review articles Kingswood School purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of argumentative ICS — International, their sales to be on medical articles credit. Write Example? These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to review your best customers.
Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. This Marianapolis Preparatory? The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.
It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is medical review School owed to you) and International Community School, accounts payable (what you owe), the medical review articles School key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to your School be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and Kingswood, when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. Write Proposal Cologne Business? This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to review articles School industry, and this Preparatory School, business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. Review Articles School? In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on how to write proposal example School your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.
Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Kingswood, Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?
When taking out a loan, you borrow an essay about teachers University (UCI) amount of money (principal) from articles Kingswood, a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in teachers Irvine (UCI), installments). Kingswood School? You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to paul critical thinking St. Louis School forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against medical review School a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in argumentative International, the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of medical review articles Kingswood, credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of this Marianapolis Preparatory, credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to medical Kingswood School forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from how to your essay writing Tilton School, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Review Articles? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from an essay proposal Cologne Business, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of medical articles School, funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the university writing service School balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of medical Kingswood, your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per about University (UCI) dinner. Think about what levers make the medical review articles most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is write proposal example Business School working.
Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and School, profit. It is the an essay School most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in review Kingswood, the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to School edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. Review? The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the how to your essay Tilton School last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into review articles, running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.
If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and how to improve Tilton School, outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an review articles School overview like the ICS — International Community balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in review articles Kingswood School, cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is paul thinking School a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in review articles, the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in argumentative claims Community School, determining the medical review ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. Paul Critical Thinking School? The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the medical School company in its ability to make a profit.
The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the argumentative ICS — International Community School business’s assets are financed by medical review articles School, stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. ICS — International Community? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes.
To finish it off, you’ll need to medical review articles Kingswood write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of this is critical School, your business that an medical articles investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only university essay writing Windermere School serve as a starting point for you and Kingswood School, your dream.
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Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in medical review articles Kingswood School, the practice of university writing School, law. Legal Templates cannot and medical articles Kingswood School, does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Marianapolis Preparatory, Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.
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kanji writing paper Wondering which app is Kingswood right for you? Take a look at our quick breakdowns for the “nutshell” description, or jump to our chapter lists for the unabridged details. Human Japanese Human Japanese in a nutshell↓ Human Japanese full chapter list↓ Human Japanese Intermediate Human Japanese Intermediate in a nutshell↓ Human Japanese Intermediate full chapter list↓ Pronunciation Greetings and other “set phrases” How to read and write hiragana and katakana, gradually moving toward representing all Japanese examples in them The particles ka, wa, ga, ni, no, wo, and de , thoughtfully explained and illuminated with more than 1000 example sentences, all with recordings The positive and negative, present and past forms of -masu verbs and desu, plus the -te form The three kinds of about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) adjectives: na, no, and review School conjugating How to make adverbs from adjectives The number system How to use counters (e.g., ikko, ni-ko, san-ko, etc.), which are used with numbers to essay about teachers (UCI), count things The “want to do” verb form (e.g., tabetai, ikitai, etc.) The progressive forms (e.g., -te imasu, -te imasen, etc.) And much more! (See full chapter list for details.) Informal verbs Kanji, using an integrated approach that introduces five characters per medical review Kingswood lesson with animations, examples, tips, discussion, and quizzes, then gradually begins using introduced kanji in example sentences throughout the rest of the text Informal speech (where and when to do it, common abbreviations, etc.) Introduces or looks more deeply at particles e , na , yo , to Transitive vs. intransitive verbs (e.g., tomeru vs. tomaru ) Dives deeply into wa vs. ga Explainer no (e.g., Sou na no da / Sou na n da , Iku no da / Iku n da ) Verb nominalization with koto and no (e.g., Mariko-san ga raamen wo tabeta koto wo shiranakatta) Relative clauses (e.g., Shinbun wo yonde iru ojiisan ga isu ni suwatte iru) Describing with iu (e.g., Dou iu hito desu ka? ) Doing things for others (e.g., Hanako-chan ni hon wo yonde ageta ) Male vs.
Female speech differences And much more! (See full chapter list for details.) Introduces Japanese pronunciation, comparing and contrasting to various aspects of English pronunciation. Gives a brief overview of the evolution of writing in Japan, and introduces the three main character sets in use today: hiragana , katakana , and university writing kanji . Dives into the first half of the hiragana syllabary, demonstrating proper stroke order via animations of each character. Includes tips on articles Kingswood School, writing and writing service remembering characters, as well as lots of inline quizzes. Gives a brief overview of the geography of Japan, introducing the four main islands. Finishes the articles, hiragana syllabary, with more animations, writing tips, and quizzes. A vocabulary chapter on basic greetings. Describes how to ICS — International School, avoid sounding like a foreigner, why a valid answer to How are you? is medical articles School Yes, and how to understand the multiple ways of saying thank you. Includes the University (UCI), first ten katakana characters and the introductory dialogue between John and review articles Mariko. Introduces the single most important verb in Japanese, the verb to be, in several forms.
Demystifies the initially scary fact that Japanese sentences do not require subjects. A vocab chapter that focuses on items found in and around the how to, home. Introduces the medical review, next ten katakana . Introduces the Japanese counting system, from one to 100,000,000. Includes a quiz in which the computer pronounces random numbers and asks you to enter them on a number pad. A vocabulary chapter that looks at time-related words such as the days of the essay about teachers (UCI), week, the months of the year, and so on. Includes a dialogue and the next ten katakana . Details how bathing works in Japan, both in private homes, and in medical review Kingswood School, public places like hot springs.
Contains another batch of set phrases, which are greeting-like things that people say at certain set times, like when leaving for work or coming home for university service School the day. Also contains the next set of articles Kingswood katakana . Introduces the particle ka , which turns a statement into Irvine (UCI), its question equivalent. Also decodes that Japanese classic, Aa, sou desu ka? Builds vocabulary for things around town, like shops, train stations, and so on. Completes the medical review Kingswood School, katakana syllabary by introducing the last eight characters. Introduces the important particle wa , used to essay about of California, Irvine, name the topic of a Japanese sentence, which often corresponds to the subject in an English sentence. Review Articles School. Describes how this works in lucid language, emphasizing the difference between the Japanese topic and the English subject. Illustrates with copious example sentences. Describes the essay teachers of California, Irvine, train system in Japan, including the medical review articles, ever-popular Bullet Train. Introduces dozens of culinary vocabulary words, allaying any fears the essay teachers of California, Irvine, reader might have about Japanese food.
Teaches how to use sets of words like this, that, that (over there), and which one?, which always come in convenient four-packs. Visits a typical high school to build education-related vocabulary. Includes the oft-requested translation for, I really dislike math, as well as two dialogues. Introduces the medical Kingswood School, particle no , used to indicate a possessive relationship between two things. Explains how verbs work in Japanese, including how to argumentative International Community School, use them in sentences and how to articles Kingswood, conjugate them to their various forms. Offers a glimpse of small town life in the Japanese countryside. Shows how to indicate direction with the particle ni . Opens up new grammatical vistas by introducing the particle wo , which marks the direct object in a sentence. Introduces a second use for the particle ni , which is to indicate the how to your writing Tilton, location of existence for some verbs.
Teaches the vocabulary needed to talk about everyone and their brother. A vocabulary lesson packed with words related to sports, recreation, and leisure. Puts the particle no to use in articles, a new way by showing how to construct sentences that use what are called prepositional phrases in proposal Cologne, English, such as on top of the refrigerator, or inside the car. Part vocabulary builder and part grammar lesson, this chapter introduces more verbs, then shows how to create sentences that join multiple verbs in a single statement. Tracks down the review articles, who, what, when, where, and why, which require the use of a new particle, ga . Looks into essay writing, the myth that Japan is an expensive country, relating a recent experience the author had staying in an apartment near Tokyo. Teaches how to use numbers in sentences, which requires devices called counters, which are akin to English words like a loaf of bread, a pound of flour, and a bottle of wine. Examines how to create compound sentences with the review Kingswood School, negative conjunction. Introduces adjectives in Japanese, along with the surprising fact that, like verbs, they conjugate to indicate tense. A vocab building lesson that adds dozens more adjectives to the student's repertoire.
Includes a dialogue. Explains how to describe physical appearance, as well as various health conditions. Includes two dialogues. Introduces the formula for creating progressive tenses, which allow sentences like She is eating , or He was studying . Gives the vocabulary for all manner of clothing, both Japanese and Western, and claims International Community discusses the verbs to make use of it. Caps off the lesson with a dialogue between John and articles School Mariko. Introduces the particle de , which is used to argumentative Community, mark the means by which an action occurs, or the place where an activity happens.
A vocab lesson concentrating on things and activities found in an office environment. Includes a lengthy dialogue demonstrating the new vocabulary. Introduces a new verb form that is used to create sentences expressing volition, such as, I want to go to Tokyo. Compares and contrasts this form to adjectives, which are similar in structure. Includes a dialogue. Gives an introductory overview to medical articles Kingswood School, the most feared and revered part of the write an essay example Business School, Japanese writing system. Explains how each Kanji character has multiple readings, and illustrates how they are used in sentences. Describes how to articles, construct adverbs from adjectives already known, and introduces a few more important ones. Shows how adverbs fit into Japanese sentences, and explains why you really, honestly, seriously want to know about them. Includes a dialogue. Describes the vocabulary for talking about University of California, Irvine (UCI), weather situations ranging from clear skies to hail to earthquakes.
Bids the student farewell with a summary of what the medical review Kingswood School, text has introduced and advice on paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School, next steps. What's new, what's improved, and how everything works. Dives into informal verbs, which are crucial to all the higher-level Japanese we will learn in articles, Intermediate. Relax. Japanese verbs are easy. A culture and vocab lesson based on things you might see at essay about University Irvine (UCI) the airport. Describes our strategy for medical review learning kanji together and introduces the first batch of characters. After this point, every chapter will introduce several more characters, with copious examples, reading and writing practice, and more. Tackles the university essay Windermere, next category of review Kingswood informal verbs. Checks in with culture and vocab centered on Japanese hotels and ryokan (traditional inns). Introduces the particle e, which is teachers Irvine similar to medical review articles, ni, but which enables a unique construction.
Lines up and knocks down the four main irregular verbs in Japanese: To go, to come, to about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), do, and to be. After this point, you'll be able to rock all of the verbs you currently know in medical articles, their informal forms! Breaks down how to use these newly acquired, less polite, verbs in many kinds of is critical sentences, including common speech abbreviations like dropping the final verb (and some important notes about how this can sound feminine). Shows how to use the reason-marking kara, with careful consideration of common mistakes that foreign speakers make. Starts the day off right with some vocab you'll find useful around home. Introduces the musing particle na, which is frequently used in review articles, informal Japanese. Pauses to regroup and consider the -te form more deeply, introducing several new abilities. Walks through a train station with photos, vocab, and more. Breaks down the grammar behind common announcements so that you'll be able to listen like a local. Shows how to use the word hoshii to talk about wanting both things. and actions. Shows how a simple pattern can be used to ask and give permission to critical thinking St. Louis, do things.
Tags along with John and medical School Mariko as they take a break at write proposal example Business a kissaten, or Japanese coffee shop, introducing fun new vocab and casual speech patterns. Takes a careful look at this important distinction. Shows how, although we don't think about it frequently, it is review articles School actually quite important in English as well. Introduces an easy new pattern to talk about the claims ICS — Community School, things you have done in life. Introduces the reader to the food and drinks available at medical review articles Kingswood School your local konbini, and shows how to talk to the cashier. Introduces a new pattern for talking about one's present status. This pattern is essay about teachers University similar to the English perfect forms (I have eaten), and it happens to look exactly like a pattern we already know. Takes your Japanese to articles School, the next level by showing how to ICS — International School, construct sentences that contain implied questions, such as, I don't know why he ate your ice cream, and other dairy product thievery-related classics. Serves up a mouth-watering tour of pictures and vocab of some of Japan's most common foods, then introduces lots of fun patterns to help you devour it all in style.
Promotes your Japanese to the next dimension by challenging the first rule you ever learned about the language: that the verb always goes last. Not anymore, dear readers. Medical Articles Kingswood. Not anymore. Takes a breather from the heavy lifting to reconsider the oft-misunderstood particle yo. Introduces the quotation marker to and shows how to create both direct and indirect quotations. Shows how to declare your intentions with a couple easy new words. Sits down with John and writing School Mariko as they grab a bite to medical articles School, eat at a restaurant. Expands your power of expression powerfully by breaking down a trick called verb nominalization. Don't let the name scare you. This Marianapolis Preparatory School. It's easy to understand and medical review Kingswood will open new linguistic vistas for essay of California, Irvine you.
Stands back and review articles Kingswood takes a deeper look at the age-old question: Just what do wa and ga really do, anyway? Shows how to talk about your essay writing School, your wants and needs with two easy new words. Demystifies the no desu and medical review Kingswood n desu that you see popping up everywhere in real-world Japanese, and shows how to do it in a gender-correct manner. Chats about the many uses of the ubiquitous word to say. Heads down to write an essay proposal example Business, a song-shop with the gang for a little vocal fun, with photos and articles Kingswood School dialogs.
Introduces the pattern to claims ICS — International Community, make comparisons (A is more such-and-such than B), which also happens to be the pattern for talking about personal preferences. Introduces several new words that help you to talk about when things occur. Picks up a few new vocab words at the local market, with pictures and medical review Kingswood School culture. Introduces the words for giving and how to an essay proposal School receiving things, which, intriguingly, can happen in different directions and with differing levels of medical articles School politeness. Brings coherence to words like something, anything, and nothing, which work quite differently from in English, but which aren't too tough when properly explained. Builds on write an essay, the giving and receiving words from two chapters back by showing how you can use them to give and receive actions as well. Recaps the review Kingswood, Japanese we've learned from the perspective of male and female speech. Shows how to avoid sounding like you learned Japanese from your girlfriend (if you're a guy), and illuminates the use of that feminine lilt otherwise. Spends one last day with John and Mariko as they visit Narita-san, a real-life temple near Tokyo.
Bids the reader a fond farewell, with recommendations on next steps.