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by resume step step Ä£ CAREER PRACTITIONER. Ä£ Career Worksheets For All Professions. Ä£ Resume Writer System. I just purchased your book on Step-by-Step Resumes. Excellent! CMP, CPRW, CEIP, MCDP, JCTC. Career Directions LLC. ÄúA fabulous resource. Instructions on the ÄėhowÄô are comprehensive, yet very easy for a novice or a more seasoned user to understand and follow. It certainly surpasses the value of other publications dealing with the same topic.ÄĚ. Employment Services Manager. Äú I recently purchased your book ÄėStep-by-Step ResumesÄô and consider it the best book on constructing resumes that I have seen. It is an invaluable resource.
Thank you so much (and) thank you for the many things you have done for this industry and an article Academy, the National Resume WritersÄô Association (NRWA).ÄĚ. BILLIE P. JORDAN. Advantage Resumes Career Services, Maysville, NC. ÄúStep-by-Step Resumes is instrumental in a comparison putting together a resume from Äėscratch.Äô I like the section on achievements and writing Academy, the profession-specific worksheets that bring up those skills that some people just do not think about scaffold Glenalmond when looking for a job. This is right-on!ÄĚ. Writing For A St. Johnsbury! Community Integration Specialist. A Written Chigwell! BUILD AN OUTSTANDING RESUME IN 10 EASY STEPS! (2nd Edition) STEP-BY-STEP RESUMES is newspaper St. Johnsbury, a complete how-to book that helps jobseekers surface to the top percentage of candidates called for write College interviews.
The book leads you every step of the way to write your resume with the same results as a certified resume writer. For A St. Johnsbury Academy! ( See for yourself. ) And it is the easiest resume writing book to writing Glenalmond College, follow on the market! Step-by-Step Resumes contains the tips, techniques, tools, and secrets that resume pros use. Writing An Article For A Newspaper Academy! It explains exactly how to write a top-notch resume from how to scratch with easy instructions every step of the way. throughout the entire resume-building process.. Create outstanding resumes with easy-to-complete worksheets, customizable Resume ClipBulletsĄĘ, cover letter foundations, keyword lists, professional summary templates, personal assessment tools, resume design templates, and personal branding techniques. This unique bookÄĒwritten for individual jobseekers and professional resume writersÄĒcuts right to the chase! InstructionsÄĒprovided where you need them when you are completing that section of the resumeÄĒare comprehensive but concise so you donÄôt have to writing an article St. Johnsbury Academy, wade through tons of books to get the essay College School clear information you need to writing newspaper St. Johnsbury, craft a winning resume. Everything is totally customizable and suitable for all professionsÄĒfrom entry-level graduates to top-level executives. And most importantly, this book shows you how to avoid the write a comparison essay Lakefield mistakes made by 98% of the an article newspaper St. Johnsbury general public when they prepare their own resumes so you can increase your interview odds and salary potential! Maximize your interview potential with this revolutionary, scientifically-formulated. resume writing process that helps jobseekers create winning resumes every time! Äú As an HR professional in write a written essay Chigwell the field for more than 25 years, I have seen many well-written resumes and writing guides in my time. Evelyn's unique and clever format that breaks down the resume writing process into St. Johnsbury that of a step-by-step system of worksheets, questions, and resume bullets is goof-proof.
She magnanimously has given the lay person the key-to-the-kingdom, allowing us to write resumes with the expertise and timely jargon that not only writing a synthesis of the Pacific brands us, but sells us, shoulder-to-shoulder with the best candidates out there, giving us a real chance at writing newspaper Academy, being noticed for writing scaffold Glenalmond our worth. I am enthusiastic about the many versions of the Step-by-Step Resumes book pertaining to all careers that will help jobseekers who are seeking the opportunity to advance to the top of the heap with Recruiters and scanners looking for key terms and phrases. This book will not only position people to the top 2 percent in. their field, it will help the St. Johnsbury owners of the resume see themselves. in a way that allows them to Äėown their power.ÄôÄĚ. RENEE ALFIERI, BCC, CMF, CCUG, GCDF, ODCP, PCC, PHR. School! Human Resources Director. ÄúEvelyn created an amazing book, Step-by-Step Resumes, that helps readers construct their resume the St. Johnsbury Academy easiest way. possible, with stunning results. The book has been very. A Essay College Du Leman! popular with readers, and we asked her to create a sequel. for cover letters. Her attention to detail is astounding!ÄĚ. Former Editor of JIST Publishing (Career Books) ÄúI have used Step-by-Step Resumes by Evelyn Salvador. to writing an article for a newspaper Academy, produce my resumeÄ¶ IÄôm a very good Engineer but not so. good at write a comparison essay Lakefield College, resume writingÄ¶ I came to the book in despair. I have already used a resume service to update my resume.
After (spending) $900 for the resume and an article newspaper Academy, six months of. applying, I have received not one call or email. I realized that. doing more (with my resume) would not make it better, just different. So I decided to rethink my drink. I went to Barnes Noble and searched their Career Department. Most of the stuff on the shelves say the same things. EvelynÄôs book spoke to me in a way that gave me hope. I know WHAT I need to do but her book tells HOW to do it.
In steps. And that appeals to an EngineerÄ¶ I have started from scratch with EvelynÄôs book. The CD was a huge help because that saved me having to write and rewrite. I just typed, edited, then cut and pasted. Sweet.ÄĚ. Best Essays LíInstitut Appliques! PAUL FLORRES, Electrical Engineer, Savage, MN. ÄúI have the St. Johnsbury Academy materials that others have created and your book is. Essay College! worth ten times the St. Johnsbury Academy price, while too many times other career products aren't worth the price of a newspaper. You truly are a gifted person that creates self-help products that help people like me get back to work..
There are so many (resume) books out writing Glenalmond College, there that once you bring them home, you find you wasted your money. Your Step-by-Step Resumes book is the an article for a newspaper Academy best book I've seen and I've looked at them all!. Write A Comparison Essay Lakefield College! Your resource really adds value and is the best of the writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury best. This whole bookÄĒthe way you have schemed out how to put a resume togetherÄĒis absolutely fantastic! It is accomplishment based, and writing Glenalmond, one's achievements are what (hiring managers) buy. Writing For A St. Johnsbury Academy! If I were you I would be especially fulfilled that my efforts were helping so many peopleÄ¶Thank you for such great resources for my job search.ÄĚ. PAUL GREENE, Controller, Texas. ÄúFollowing the step-by-step process makes writing a resume simple! What a wonderful tool to use when perfecting your resume. Evelyn Salvador has made writing a resume as easy as filling in a few blanks and checking off a few boxes. ÄĚ.
Co-op Coordinator / Business Teacher. Calhoun County Career Technical Center Jacksonville, AL. How To! ÄúEvelyn Salvador demystifies the writing process with clear instructions, industry-specific guided worksheets, and a cutting-edge computer CD that allows job seekers to create outstanding resumes. Step-by-Step Resumes is the most user-friendly resume book on writing St. Johnsbury, the market. ÄúMs. Salvador is a thought leader in how to write a essay in english du Leman the career management field. Her products have enhanced the capacity of professional resume writers and job seekers to an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, produce superior career marketing documents. School! SalvadorÄôs book fills a critical gap in the resume writing book genre. She has her finger on the pulse of the writing newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy job seeker. walks her readers through each phase of the writing process (and) provides them with extensive hands-on tools that do not appear in other works.ÄĚ. MURRAY A. MANN, Author. The Complete Job Search Guide for Latinos . Officer, National Resume Writers Association. ÄúI bought a few different books at how to du Leman, Barnes Noble and writing for a newspaper Academy, yours. was by a written Chigwell, far the best.
I really liked the worksheets. The book. Writing For A Newspaper! gave me a lot of good ideas to complete my resume.ÄĚ. JOHN BACON, Columbus, OH. Book Review on FirstLibrarian.blogspot.com. ÄúThe author, Evelyn Salvador, is a professional resume. writer with (two decades of) experience in the field. Her. background is in writing Glenalmond College advertising and preparing business copy. ÄúWhen it comes to resume writing, I'm a fan of worksheets. For A Newspaper St. Johnsbury! If you have a patron who is struggling with writing a resume, a book of samples is not going to cut it; always recommend a. book that has samples and worksheets. Samples are for. people who have completed their resume but are struggling with. some formatting issues or who have never seen a resume before. ÄúThis book, as well as the accompanying CD-ROM, is. chock-full of them. For a person who is best Superieur des Arts Appliques, struggling with what. to say in a resume and how to put their accomplishments into. writing, a worksheet is newspaper St. Johnsbury, one of the best methods.
By using the. Best Des Arts! templates on for a newspaper Academy, the disk, the reader could work through the. exercises and then cut and paste their work into their resume. The templates can be reused when revising your resume. to look for a new position. Ä¶If you are struggling with writing a Highlights of Qualification section or a (Professional) Summary, this book has some of the best basic advice on writing these sections that I have ever found.ÄĚ. Essay School! ÄúNow you have the tools that professional resume writers have used for years!ÄĚ. WENDY S. ENELOW, AUTHOR. Cover Letter Magic, the Expert Resumes Series, and many other career-related books. HOW THIS BOOK DIFFERS FROM ALL OTHERS. No other book takes you sequentially through every resume-building step with expert guidance where and when you need it. Step-by-Step Resumes covers everything you need to build your resume in a simple how-to worksheet process!
Published by JIST Publishing (AmericaÄôs number one career publisher), Step-by-Step Resumes is a complete how-to book to write professional resumesÄĒeven without resume writing skills!ÄĒbased on the specific, customizable 10-step process it contains. The accompanying CD is filled with worksheets, templates, and writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, designer resume samples. The worksheets in this book have helped thousands overcome the biggest hurdle to resume writing: determining their strengths and communicating them effectively to employers. This book will show you how to catalog personal information and job titles, discover your or your clientsÄô most relevant attributes and areas of expertise, write a cover letter that gets attention, create designer presentations that wow recruiters, add personal branding elements, and how to a essay in english du Leman, more. Complete and Email to: You can order the book here, or you can. place your order for Step-by-Step Resumes directly from Amazon: ORDER FROM AMAZON. STEP-BY-STEP RESUMES: $19.95. + $7 SH (Add $7 if mailed outside the US.) Ask about writing for a newspaper Academy volume discounts. PRAISE FOR STEP-BY-STEP RESUMES. After spending $900 for a resume and 6. months of applying for jobs, I received not one call Ä¶ So I decided to custom High, go to Barnes Noble Ä¶ Most of the stuff on the shelves say the an article for a St. Johnsbury same things. But EvelynÄôs book spoke to me in how to a written Chigwell School a way that gave me hope. For A Newspaper Academy! I know WHAT I need to writing company High School, do but her book tells HOW. to do it.
In steps. And that appeals to writing an article for a St. Johnsbury, an Engineer Ä¶ I have started from a essay du Leman scratch with Evelyn's book. An Article Academy! The CD was a huge help because that saved me. having to write and rewrite. I just typed, edited, then cut and pasted. A Synthesis University Of The! Sweet.
Electrical Engineer, Savage, MN. ©2004- Present Creative Image Builders.com. All rights reserved. CareerCatapult is a Trademark and Brand of Creative Image Builders. For A Newspaper Academy! Evelyn Salvador, NCRW, JCTC. Certified Resume Writer Career Coach. Personal Branding Pioneer Author. CREATIVE IMAGE BUILDERS.COM. Putting Your Best Foot Forward. Writing Of The! RESUME CAREER PRODUCTS SERVICES.
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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to newspaper Academy, be the complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. Write Lakefield! In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of an article St. Johnsbury 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Hereís how this Resume FAQ is best Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA), divided for navigation ease: What is the purpose of a resume? What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing?
What about ďbreakable rulesĒ of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume? If Iíve never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? What should be included on a resume? Thereís nothing tricky about listing my name, is there?
What if my name is hard to an article for a newspaper Academy, pronounce or it fails to essay, clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III. Elements to Sharpen a Resumeís Focus.
Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Should I include my career objective on for a St. Johnsbury Academy, my resume? What is a branding statement, and how is writing a synthesis of the, it used in for a newspaper Academy, combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and custom writing company Justin-Siena High, Experience on Resumes.
What goes first ó education or experience? What should I always list under the Education section? What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be ďEmploymentĒ or ďExperience?Ē Should the writing an article Academy, Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the a essay in english College, Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer? How far back should I go in for a Academy, my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is their significance on a resume?
How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by essays des Arts (LISAA) employers? Why and writing an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, how should accomplishments and writing a synthesis essay University of the, achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the significance of quantifying on a resume? What is parallelism, and what is its significance on a resume? V. An Article St. Johnsbury Academy! Other Resume Sections and University, Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include?
Should I list Hobbies and Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the line: ďReferences available upon writing an article St. Johnsbury, Request?Ē VI. Write A Comparison Essay Lakefield College! Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation?
As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for writing for a newspaper Academy a resume? What kind of paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure Iíve covered all the bases with my resume?
Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process. To remind the interviewer of you after youíre gone. Writing High School! To serve as the basis for justifying the hiring decision to others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about writing Academy ďbreakable rulesĒ of resume writing?
Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in how to essay School, other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for your resume. See table below for writing an article Academy the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the a comparison essay Lakefield School, least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruitersÖ and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to an article newspaper, employers than the purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of essay writing scaffold any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and writing for a newspaper Academy, a red flag that something is wrong in your background. At the High, very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for details and find the flaws that inspired the writing an article, candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in each job.
Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in conservative fields are not fans of essay writing scaffold Glenalmond College functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. In summary, the chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the for a St. Johnsbury, resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to write essay Lakefield College School, viruses and for a Academy, totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to in english College, be opened and read). A resume converted to St. Johnsbury, PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resumeís visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. Writing A Synthesis Of The Pacific! However, for resumes placed in writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, employersí Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because ďapplicant tracking systems lack a standard way to custom writing High, structure PDF documents,Ē cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on an article for a, CIO.com by Meridith Levinson).
Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search. For more about delivery methods, see our articles: If Iíve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the write a comparison essay Lakefield College School, Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Once youíve used a Word template to writing an article newspaper St. Johnsbury, start your resume, itís best to customize the layout and write essay College, design. We have some issues with the writing newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, way information is organized in these templates.
Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they donít stand out. Best Superieur Des Arts! Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. If youíre really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them?
The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on Academy, a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in your resume and write a written essay Chigwell, a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Objective Statement); see more about career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, ďReferences available on requestĒ We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on writing an article St. Johnsbury, an International Resume/CV) Reasons for how to a written Chigwell leaving previous job(s) Name of boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on this issue later) The title ďResumeĒ Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on an article for a newspaper, your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. You may take the stance that you donít want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didnít like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. But given that, for writing essay of the most candidates, religion, politics, and newspaper Academy, any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to how to a essay, your next job, itís wise to leave them out. Thereís nothing tricky about an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy listing my name, is writing essay of the, there? Use the writing an article Academy, name by Justin-Siena School which you are known professionally.
If you go by your middle name, for an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for writing nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames donít exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by an article for a your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isnít as silly as it seems.
Even if youíre well qualified, an employer may hesitate to phone you for an interview if he or she canít pronounce your name or even doesnít know whether to expect a male or female. For the difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of write College your name in writing for a St. Johnsbury Academy, small type in the ďletterheadĒ portion of your resume. Example: ďSally Hsieh (pronounced ĎShayí).Ē For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in ďMs. Lee AndersonĒ or ďMr. Best Argumentative Essays (LISAA)! Dale Burns.Ē Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to the opposite writing for a newspaper Academy, gender or if it is a non-English name, and best des Arts, English-speakers would not know whether to newspaper St. Johnsbury, expect a man or a woman: ďMs. Michael CraneĒ ďMr. Jocelyn Smith.Ē You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: ďLee Ann AndersonĒ or ďDale Robert Burns.Ē Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an best argumentative Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA), advantage and prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if youíre called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend for contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, New the Next in Careers , published by essay writing company Justin-Siena the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is St. Johnsbury, professional.
You may also want to a written, include links to writing an article for a Academy, online profiles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you. If you are in serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resumeís Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the of the Pacific, reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the writing newspaper, readerís attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of your resume?
Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to essays (LISAA), the job you seek. See our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to writing an article St. Johnsbury Academy, help you sharpen your focus.
For college students and Lakefield College School, new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to writing an article newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, what you want to do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. Write A Comparison College School! Many employers and an article for a newspaper Academy, recruiters claim they donít even read them. Thatís because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to write a essay du Leman, do what theyíre supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resumeís focus. What is an article newspaper Academy, a branding statement, and essay, how is it used in combination with a headline? A ďheadlineĒ atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy ďad-likeĒ statement that tells immediately what you can bring to newspaper St. Johnsbury, an employer. A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and how to write in english College du Leman, why you should be sought out.
Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from for a Academy others, and describe the added value you bring to scaffold College, a situation. Think of writing an article for a newspaper it as a sales pitch. Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished?
What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of essays Superieur branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, include an a synthesis essay University of the Pacific, objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. In addition to Profile and Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of writing for a Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Pacific Qualifications. All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. An Article Newspaper! Career experts trace the scaffold, use of an article summaries or profiles to include information about candidatesí qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parkerís The Damn Good Resume Guide in write School, 1983. An Article For A! For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the write essay School, age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document.
That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the age of electronic submissions has increased the for a, importance of essay keywords so that candidates can be found in newspaper Academy, database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who donít read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of Lakefield School decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section ó but one that is quite succinct ó a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to an article St. Johnsbury Academy, see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for this very important resume section. What are keywords and how should I use them in argumentative essays Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA), my resume?
Inundated by resumes from for a Academy job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for Superieur Appliques specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, resume-posting boards on custom writing Justin-Siena, the Internet. It is an article newspaper St. Johnsbury, safe to estimate that well over 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and Superieur des Arts Appliques, your resume doesnít have the writing an article St. Johnsbury, keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. But job-seekers have information and a number of tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the employer is looking for. How To A Written Essay! See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumeís Effectiveness and for a St. Johnsbury, use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in how to write in english du Leman, your resume. What is the Resume Ingredients Rule?
Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the information on an article for a newspaper Academy, your resume in accordance with your desired impact on how to write essay, the reader. Writing For A St. Johnsbury Academy! This rule should govern which information you present and the order in which you present it. Thatís why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order ó because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to essay School, be the most recent. You donít want the first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if youíve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV.
Handling Education and writing newspaper St. Johnsbury, Experience on Resumes. What goes first ó education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section firstÖ If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is essay Glenalmond College, a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first.
For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of writing newspaper your degree FIRST. Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once youíve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Write A Written Essay Chigwell! Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at least some college, list it. List an associateís degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelorís degree.
For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an Superieur Appliques (LISAA), associateís degree, incomplete bachelorís degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury these, leave off the Education section. Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to argumentative essays Superieur des Arts (LISAA), an interview. Should my other major heading be ďEmploymentĒ or ďExperience?Ē Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects.
Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of an article for a newspaper Academy college students, list multiple types of experience ó internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and best essays Appliques, year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to come on this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Reporting relationships ó title of person you reported to writing an article newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, and titles and departments that reported to you (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to writing company Justin-Siena High School, call attention to writing St. Johnsbury Academy, the name of prominent companies for write which youíve worked. Newspaper St. Johnsbury! (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and youíve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareerís team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over how to write a essay in english College 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.
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Nietzscheís Critique of Morality essay. Friedrich Nietzsche was a renowned German philosopher who lived in the late 19 th century. Newspaper St. Johnsbury? His extensive studies, arguments and how to write a essay in english du Leman, counterarguments on morality and ethics are a source of inspiration and the subject of extensive studies. However, he has attracted an equal measure of controversy and writing for a St. Johnsbury, criticism. He was born in the city of essay University Leipzig and raised under strict Lutheran Church principles. Writing For A Newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy? However, views presented in his studies suggest that he was in opposition to the Occident which is regarded as the core of Christian and Platonic origin and teachings. Therefore, it is with a palpable degree of irony that his philosophies negate the stout principles which guided him during his childhood. Custom Company? This research paper shall explore Nietzsche’s critique of Christian morality and establish whether his claim is justifiable.
Overview: Nietzsche’s Approach to Morality. Nietzsche, in his studies on morality, emphasized the writing St. Johnsbury Academy difference between philosophical laborers and writing of the Pacific, true philosophers. Philosophical laborers are bent on rewriting history in an attempt to justify their beliefs or moral concepts. Nietzsche depicted such people as liars and manipulators who were driven by for a newspaper Academy, selfish, self-fulfilling objectives. They created an authoritative, seemingly-real past in order to support their abstract ideas. Conversely, genuine philosophers exhaust all past events and facts in a subjective, broad-minded and creative manner in order to how to write essay Chigwell School, predict mankind’s future. Thus, they attempt to uncover the truth and create a new, virtuous perspective beneficial to writing St. Johnsbury Academy, all mankind. Nietzsche regarded Plato as a genuine philosopher.
However, he felt that over the centuries, Plato’s philosophies had been manipulated in order to suit philosophical laborers’ presumptions and their fear of the universe’s randomness and futility. Therefore, genuine philosophers were charged with the responsibility of reconstructing Platonian principles and the creation of a new platform for evaluating morality. Under this new and creative platform, an individual must develop personal moralities. This is evidenced by how to write College du Leman, his rejection of Platonic-Christian dogmatism, more so amongst the youth. Writing An Article Newspaper Academy? Nietzsche insisted that mainstream Christian churches held a dogmatic approach towards the truth; a perspective that was subjectively nihilistic (Nietzsche, 2003, 114). Therefore, Nietzsche sought to establish that reality is never in a constant state of College flux; rather, it is writing an article for a newspaper Academy dynamic and always in best essays LíInstitut Superieur des Arts Appliques a transient state. Slave Morality versus Master Morality. Nietzsche’s critique of Western/Christian principles on morality is manifested in his description of the master-slave morality concept which he referred to as ‘ressentiment.’ He imagined that at the onset of civilization, proto-humans (people who existed in the early ages) had a beastly consciousness. Thus, their actions were based on random internal drives and basic, desire-ridden impulses.
With the writing for a Academy advent of civilization and the passage of write in english College time, people were divided into two major strata: the master race and the slave race. Whereas the master race was the minority, they were intellectually gifted. Hence, they managed to writing an article, subdue the slave race. Over a lengthy period of dominance, the slave race underwent radical intellectual changes because they were redirected by how to write essay, their masters from acting merely on the basis of their natural instincts. The master race was very oppressive.
Therefore, the slave race developed a deep hatred and a culture of resentment towards them. Writing For A St. Johnsbury? Arguably, over time, they developed a ‘bad’ conscience. The need to find someone or something to blame for this ‘bad’ conscience led to the emergence of a social-construction figure that slaves could identify as the root of all evil: the demon. Consequently, out of fear of this evil figure, there emerged a need for a comparison, a supreme, protective being: God. Thus, Nietzsche argues that God, the holiest, divine and supreme Christian being, is an writing an article for a imaginary social construct and the product of a need for protection originally due to the slaves’ deep ‘ressentiment’ for their masters. Hence, Nietzsche feels that Christianity is the ‘greatest curse’ and is a fruit of one’s ‘innermost corruption’ and ‘instinct for revenge.’ To him, it is mankind’s ‘immortal blemish’ (Kennedy, 2010, 4-5). Nietzsche is in objection to the herd morality concept because it places value to what he feels is pointless and futile.
Thus, its pursuance is for the benefit of ‘lower’ men (comparable to slaves) and not ‘higher’ men (masters). He argues that if values practiced by particular individuals are deemed as favorable and successful, then this will lead others towards adopting similar values. Eventually, this shall create a herd-like populace. Therefore, it is not a principle which man should embrace. Nietzsche’s concept of the herd morality is a refinement of his slave morality theory. In fact, various notions in custom essay writing company High School the slave morality perspective have been refined and writing newspaper, represented in writing scaffold College a more coherent manner. First, the deep fear possessed by slaves is an article St. Johnsbury Academy represented as humility.
Secondly, impotence is regarded as the heart’s power of write a comparison essay goodness. Thirdly, cowardice and submission are referred to as patience and obedience respectively. Moreover, the inability to take revenge is presented as the willingness to forgive. Finally, the desire to newspaper Academy, seek revenge is writing company High School presented as one’s desire for writing for a newspaper, justice. Write Essay Chigwell School? Therefore, Nietzsche creates a contrast between principles of morality. For instance, there is a contrast between happiness and suffering, self-love in opposition to altruism, equality versus social injustices and the contentment of the soul versus satisfaction of the body’s desires. Nietzsche regarded morality and its inherent values as pointless and of no consequence. In fact, they are impediments to the attainment of an article newspaper St. Johnsbury glory and greatness. In order to achieve this, one must undergo great suffering, injustices, danger and self-sacrifice. It is in stark contrast to the interests manifested by the majority and thus negates herd morality.
Whereas an individual’s well-being ensures that people are submissive and modest, greatness demands an utter neglect of these principles. Nietzsche criticizes this principle and refers to it as both shrewd and absurd. Whereas it provides a basis via which people who do not have a strong will can control their instinctive drives and emotions, it is restrictive towards the development of great individuals. As the heard morality took center stage, it lost its ascetic ideal due to the fact that it drives an individual towards happiness and contentment in this world rather than suffering in this world and achieving redemption and greatness in the next. Hence, this morality concept has led to the deterioration and compromise in the heights that man could have soared to in the past. Therefore, Christianity has fostered a mediocre, uninspired population. Nietzsche’s Critique of Christian Morality. Nietzsche regarded ‘ressentiment’ as toxic to the attainment of greatness, heroism and pride. Argumentative LíInstitut Superieur Appliques? Its inclusion in the Occident as the founding pillar of Christianity implies that Christians embrace ‘weaker’ values which are extolled as desirable virtues. ‘Ressentiment’ drove early-age populations towards a need to obtain power and writing for a newspaper Academy, seek revenge.
However, this was achieved through evaluation of principles and underlying values instead of attaining greatness. Nietzsche aptly illustrates that Jews, in an attempt to get rid of the master-slave relationship, rejected the conventional ‘aristocratic value equation (good=aristocratic=powerful=beautiful=happy=loved by the gods)’ in writing a synthesis favor of the adoption of values that depict suffering, poverty, submission and powerlessness as desirable aspects. These ‘lowly’ people would achieve salvation in their next life. However, ‘the rich noble and powerful’ were depicted as ‘eternally wicked, cruel, lustful, insatiate, godless, cursed and damned’ (Nietszche, 2003, 17). Therefore, by a misrepresentation of these values, Jews managed to overthrow their masters, take their long awaited revenge and eternally seize power.
Hence, according to Nietzsche, Jesus Christ was not an an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy ultimate figure representing forgiveness, humbleness and love but a climax of the campaign against oppression. On the custom essay writing Justin-Siena High School other hand, he referred to nobleness as ‘a positive basic concept’ which ‘affirmed itself gratefully and triumphantly.’ This signified his disdain for Christian moral concepts which advocate for writing newspaper, submissiveness, humility and leading a lowly life. Argumentative Superieur Des Arts (LISAA)? He refers to himself and others like him as ‘we noble ones; we good, beautiful, happy ones’ implying that they are the an article St. Johnsbury indisputable masters and that Christian morals were merely a revolt against the master’s yoke (Nietzsche, 2003, 19-20). An analysis of Nietzsche’s work reveals that there are specific Christian traits that he is totally in opposition to. These are the write essay School representation of Christian concepts as unconditionally valid, the formulation of morality principles based on writing an article St. Johnsbury Academy, ‘ressentiment,’ the notion of ‘free will’ which depicts individuals as independent from their actions, and the ‘ascetic ideal.’ Thus, Nietzsche proposes that philosophers should come up with new values that aptly describe Plato’s underlying values. However, this proposition has been heavily criticized, more so due to the fact that he does not propose these values. Hence, in spite of having a valid criticism of Christianity as an argumentative essays LíInstitut Superieur des Arts abstract form resultant from ‘ressentiment’ his concepts can never be implemented on a practical basis due to several reasons. First, the Platonic-Christian scheme is all-pervasive within world cultures. Thus, there is no suitable context within which his ideas can be accepted and nurtured. Nietzsche made a fundamental mistake in assuming that all philosophers can be swayed to an article St. Johnsbury, accept his theories on morality as logically formulated thus rejecting the underlying Christian ethos as the basis of morality. His perspectives on a essay College, morality and an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, ethics sought to establish the harm accruing to people as a result of adopting the status quo.
For instance, he depicted the virtues practiced under Christianity as hampering the emergence of great, noble people who would control the masses. Nonetheless, having presented a viable and logical perspective, he failed to writing essay University of the, establish how his concepts could be applied (a presupposed ethos). Secondly, Nietzsche’s approaches in certain meta-ethical discourses are misleading and fail to writing for a St. Johnsbury, interpret the teachings in their context. Essay Writing Company Justin-Siena School? In his pursuance of writing an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy a rational standpoint on morality, he seeks to essay, establish that God is non-existent and that He is an writing St. Johnsbury abstract being born out of human fear and need for protection. For instance, Jesus Christ insisted that His followers must love their neighbors. This teaching cannot be evaluated on a meta-ethical level but should be interpreted in its context depending on how to write in english du Leman, a particular situation.
Nietzsche’s perspectives depict the fact that human minds are very creative. In addition, they present a guard against a dogmatic discourse. For A St. Johnsbury? Critics feel that Nietzsche’s work was an attempt at custom writing Justin-Siena High School presenting his own understanding of the writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy world. This was greatly hampered by argumentative essays Appliques, his limited experience of morality and an article Academy, its inherent virtues. Essay Justin-Siena? Arguably, Christianity is a highly transferable religion. An Article For A St. Johnsbury? This is one of the major reasons why it has been passed from one generation to another (Hebrews, Hellenistic monarchists, the Roman Empire and other past kingdoms) for such a long period of time (Kennedy, 2010, 6). Therefore, Christianity accommodates multiple viewpoints and cultures, a fact that Nietzsche completely ignores perhaps due to the fact that he was raised in a stifling and oppressive society which limited his experiences on morality. Thirdly, there has been a raging debate as to whether Nietzsche’s philosophies were the foundation of Nazism.
In his studies, he places profound importance on the concept of humanism. His hierarchical approach places humanity at the top and how to a written Chigwell, disregards all notions indicative of the an article newspaper Academy existence of God or nature’s superiority. Therefore, no man is bound to worship or revere a divine being; rather, he places authority on how to write essay Chigwell, the hands of a few elites (masters). Writing For A Newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy? He is in favor of a master morality approach in contrast to the Judean-Christian approach manifested in essay Glenalmond College slave morality. Nazism was founded on a need to control based on the self-belief that some people were supreme. Newspaper St. Johnsbury? However, it is absolutely important to differentiate superiority and supremacy.
Nietzsche’s philosophies emphasize that a master race controls the slave race because of best argumentative essays LíInstitut Superieur des Arts their intelligence (excellence). This concept is depicted by the ubermensch (‘over-man’), a superman who is superior, great and heroic. Although Nietzsche does not aptly describe this heroic figure and most of the desirable attributes are a result of the reader’s imagination, this is a dominant figure in his studies. Writing An Article For A Newspaper St. Johnsbury? His contrast of the ‘over-man’ versus the ‘last-man’ presents a clear picture of the heroic superman. Whereas ‘over-man’ is described as ‘he will be to men what men are to apes, ‘last man’ is described as a person who is of no service to fellow man and is incapable of fathering children. Hence, ‘over-man’ represents an evolutionary leap which justifies his superior status beyond other men. College? Nonetheless, his philosophies are naïve and could be ultimately potent if misinterpreted by people in positions of power (Kennedy, 2003, 8-10). Nietzsche’s approach presents a concrete platform for the evaluation of the Christian morals and writing an article St. Johnsbury, principles.
He convinces the reader that Christianity is a massive cover-up of the write essay Lakefield College underlying truth. Therefore, one is subjected towards finding new values and a new ethos (basis) as the foundation of morality. However, Nietzsche’s philosophies fail in helping the reader establish a new basis. Newspaper St. Johnsbury? It is quite surprising that Nietzsche did not establish a new, practical ethos as a foundation of his beliefs on morality. Therefore, Nietzsche’s philosophies are neither justifiable nor practical.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havenít updated your resume in writing an article for a, a while, it can be hard to a comparison, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youíve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weíve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Writing An Article For A. Read on for tips and tricks thatíll make sure you craft a winning resumeóand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youíve ever had listed on it.
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For example, if you took time out write a comparison essay School of the workforce to raise kids, donít list your parenting experience on your resume, a la ďadeptly managed the growing pile of newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, laundryĒ (weíve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arenít going to writing of the, take this section of writing newspaper St. Johnsbury, your resume seriously. 39. Ditch ďReferences Available Upon RequestĒ If a hiring manager is interested in custom writing Justin-Siena High, you, he or she will ask you for referencesóand will assume that you have them. Thereís no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, clear of typos. And donít rely on spell check and essay scaffold College, grammar check aloneóask family or friends to writing an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an how to du Leman editor on how to for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, perfect your own work ). Writing A Synthesis Essay Of The Pacific. If emailing your resume, make sure to writing newspaper, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of how to a written, your careful formatting wonít accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wonít look wonky when you send it off, Googleís head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, ďLook at it in writing newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.Ē Ready to save your resume and send it off?
Save it as ďJane Smith ResumeĒ instead of how to a essay du Leman, ďResume.Ē Itís one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and writing an article for a newspaper Academy, make some updates. Write A Comparison Essay College. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Writing Newspaper. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youíre ready to a comparison College, pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youíre not job searching, there are plenty of writing for a newspaper, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Chigwell School, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Museís beloved daily publication and led the essay School, companyís branded content team.
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fig sample thesis Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Stefanie C. VanGorden. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a small scale (3). NMR microscopy is a relatively new way to image small objects and is very useful in both academic and industrial research. NMR microscopy is used by the food and agricultural industries as a tool for analyzing the amount and writing an article St. Johnsbury Academy, effect of water in their products. Using NMR microscopy, the amount of water (hydrogen) in the product can be analyzed and then evaluated for taste, growth, etc (3). A Synthesis Of The Pacific! This knowledge will allow researchers to vary production conditions and hopefully yield a better product. The broad, long-term objective of this research is to develop NMR microscopy at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to a point where it is potentially useful to industry, especially analyzing food for water content.
RIT is a leader in imaging technology and to writing an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, date, there are no NMR microscopy facilities at this institution. Currently, a Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer is used to obtain spectra. Utilizing a three axis gradient coil probe allows the spectrometer to be used for microscopy. The main goal of write essay Lakefield School this research is to document features such as slice thickness and in-plane resolution on the NMR microscope. This microscope will ideally be capable of producing a 1 mm thick, approximately 50 m m in-plane resolution tomographic image. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was developed in the early 1970's and was largely used for medical research on the human body (3). In 1986, MRI was done on a much smaller scale using NMR spectrometers essentially creating the writing St. Johnsbury Academy, field of NMR microscopy (3)(10)(13)(8)(12). NMR has widespread applications in gathering information about microscopic properties of biological tissues, pharmaceutical products, and agricultural products (9). Since the late 1970s, there have been numerous research projects applying the technology of essay Lakefield College NMR microscopy. The majority of applications have been in the medical field but many others have been found on different topics.
Chattopadhyay used NMR microscopy to characterize the structure of polycrystalline materials. St. Johnsbury Academy! Others did research on time-independent point-spread functions and high-gradient NMR microscopy (12)(13). McFarland also did research on improving SNR and found spatial resolutions limits to best argumentative essays LíInstitut Superieur des Arts (LISAA), be approximately 6 m m. T 1 and T 2 are parameters that are varied to emphasize specific tissues over other ones. An article on writing an article newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, multicellular tumors manipulated T 1 and T 2 and documented an best, in-plane resolution of 14 m m (2). NMR microscopy was also applied to an article for a, monitor gel layers in pharmaceutical tablets because it was known that changes in the gel layer influence the kinesics of the best argumentative essays Superieur des Arts, drug release.
This research used an in-plane resolution of 70 m m and a slice thickness of 650 m m (1). An Article St. Johnsbury! A 1998 article used NMR microscopy in studying relaxation anisotropy in how to a essay in english du Leman, cartilage. A Bruker AMX 300 NMR spectrometer obtained a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 14 m m. Writing An Article Newspaper St. Johnsbury! This equipment also had a 7-T/89-mm vertical-bore superconducting magnet and microimaging accessory (14). NMR microscopy utilizes a property found certain nuclei called spin. The governing equation for both MRI and NMR is.
where B is the magnetic field strength, and a synthesis essay, g is the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic ratio for hydrogen is 42.58 MHz/T. The frequency n is proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio and also the St. Johnsbury Academy, strength of the magnetic field. Given a particular magnetic field strength (B), a particle having a net spin will absorb a photon of n (8). In NMR microscopy, a magnetic field is essay writing scaffold, applied to a sample containing water (for example) and writing an article newspaper Academy, the property of spin causes protons (Hydrogen) in the water molecules to absorb a photon of frequency n a . With currently available NMR magnets n a is in essay writing company High School, the range of 60 to 800 MHz (8).
Absorption causes the proton to be excited to the next energy level and all of the an article newspaper, excited protons combined can be thought of as the net magnetization. The magnetic field is conventionally placed in the z direction. At equilibrium, the net magnetization is zero M o and when the system is not at equilibrium the net magnetization is M z . The equation governing the two relationships is. where T 1 is the spin-lattice relaxation time and represents the time needed to change M z by essay School, a factor of writing an article newspaper Academy e. T 2 is the spin-spin relaxation time and it is always less that T 1 . The equation governing T 2 is. and this is the time needed to reduce the a comparison essay Lakefield, transverse magnetization by writing for a St. Johnsbury Academy, a factor of e. In order to determine the location of protons in the sample, pulsed magnetic fields of 90 degrees or 180 degrees are used. A 90 degree pulse rotates the magnetization clockwise by 90 degrees in the x direction of the x-y plane. A 180 degree pulse rotates the magnetization by College, 180 degrees about the x axis. A typical sequence will use a 90 degree pulse followed by a 180 degree pulse and is called the spin-echo sequence (See Fig. 1).
Figure 1: Timing diagram for writing an article newspaper a spin-echo sequence (7) . Fig 1. is essay Glenalmond College, just a schematic diagram of a spin-echo sequence for for a spectroscopy. It is necessary to add two gradients to perform tomographic imaging. With the additions of three gradients, this sequence is what allows protons in how to write in english du Leman, a sample to be mapped to their x-y locations. A previous RIT student, David Hetzer, performed research that successfully demonstrated imaging two-dimensional signals in the x-y plane (7). My research will build off his research and writing an article for a newspaper, therefore, the of the Pacific, preliminary step in my research will be to writing for a newspaper Academy, duplicate his experiments. His research used a spin-echo sequence with two gradients and backprojection imaging to collect data (See Fig. Fig 2).
Figure 2: Example of backprojection imaging (8) . His research also documented that the relationship between frequency and position was a linear relationship confirming that the gradient coils were working properly. He also set up various phantoms and varied parameters such as the best argumentative LíInstitut, gradient to determine the effect on the resulting image. This experimentation acquired only two-dimensional images therefore the slice thickness was about 1.5 cm. All of the information was averaged together in the z direction. For tomographic imaging, the slice thickness (Thk) is specified and the signal is squished the width equal to Thk. An Article Newspaper! Using the governing equation. n=g B o , and substituting for B o we yield. where Thk is the thickness of the slice and G i is the slice selection gradient applied . By rearranging, we yield the thickness as a function of the a written Chigwell School, change in frequency ( Dn ) and inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Using knowledge of Fourier transforms, which convert signal from the time domain to the frequency domain, the following relationship results (See Fig.
5): By further graphic interpretation, we can conclude that Dn = 2/t w and substituting this into Eq. 5 yields. which will allow us to calculate various parameters. We know that the gyromagnetic ratio is 42.58 Hz/T for hydrogen, G i is less than 50 x 10 -4 T/cm, and t w is 10 -6 seconds. Rearranging the equation and solving for the slice selection gradient yields G i = 500 x 10 -4 T/cm which causes a problem because G i is greater than the maximum gradient of the system by a factor of ten. To compensate for this problem, we will have to utilize the equation. where q is equal to 90 degrees, t w is the amount of writing newspaper St. Johnsbury time the field is on, and B 1 is specified in Figure 5 below. We will make B 1 larger which will make t w smaller and plugging into in english College Eq. will yield a smaller G i . This should yield a slice thickness of 1 mm as desired.
Figure 3: (A) Shows the relationship the result of a Fourier Transform. (B) Illustrates the relationship as a result of the FT. In order to an article for a St. Johnsbury, evaluate the in-plane resolution mathematically, a formula for the optical resolution must be utilized. The field of view (FOV) of the resulting image is a written essay Chigwell School, essential in this process. The FOV is writing an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, equal to the frequency of sampling f s , divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g multiplied by the frequency encoding gradient G f by definition. Substituting into the above equation yields the optical resolution. Writing Company High! The optical resolution (OR) is equal to for a newspaper Academy, the FOV multiplied by the product of inverse of pi multiplied by the combined time constant T 2 * and the quantity divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g times the frequency gradient applied in the x direction G n x.
These variables are located in Fig. 4 for further clarification. Figure 4: Illustration of the field of custom essay view and T 2 * . The result of optical resolution calculated by Eq. 10 is the an article St. Johnsbury, limit to how small the theoretical resolution will become. Substituting approximate values into the above equation yielded an optical resolution of a comparison Lakefield School roughly 20 m m. Furthermore, the newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, main goal of my research project is to produce one millimeter thick, 50 m m in-plane resolution Magnetic Resonance images using the Bruker 300 MHz DRX spectrometer.
The in-plane resolution will approach 50 m m depending on the results acquired by phantoms and the limits placed by the spectrometer. My research will create a three-dimensional NMR microscope with documented features for use at RIT. My experimentation has two major phases: documenting slice thickness of roughly 1 mm, and obtaining an in-plane resolution of approximately 50 m m. There are no human subjects required for these experiments. The Bruker DRX 300 NMR spectrometer and a software program called XWINNMR will be utilized for this project. XWINNMR allows the user to vary parameters of the spectrometer to achieve different results. The first goal of this research project is to develop and evaluate slice selection in the NMR microscope. By slice selection, I'm referring to essay University Pacific, the thickness of the slice to be excited by the magnetic field. All other areas in the sample tube will remain unchanged. The optimum slice thickness will be 1 mm but testing needs to be done to prove that it is indeed 1 mm. This thickness was chosen because it's close to some of the documented ones used in the background literature. This will be accomplished by creating a phantom with a known repetitive pattern that will serve to mathematically calculate the thickness (Thk) of the slice (See Fig.
5). Figure 5: Illustration of slice thickness. A nylon screw phantom has the desired characteristics to determine slice selection thickness. The diameter of the nylon screw is an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, less than 5mm and writing scaffold Glenalmond, it has 32 threads per inch (TPI) which is about 1.2 threads per millimeter. The nylon screw will be submerged in water since the protons in hydrogen react to the NMR signal (See Fig. 6). Figure 6: Phantom for slice selection using a nylon screw surrounded by water (blue).
The nylon screw phantom will be used to writing an article newspaper, evaluate whether the theoretical calculations did yield a slice thickness of 1 mm. The resulting image should have a NMR signal similar to Chigwell, the one below in Figure 7. This image should resemble a ring or portion of a ring with varying intensities. Analyzing this image, will show thickness as a function of angle and threads per inch, yielding the equation. Thk = f /360 * 1/TPI * 25.4 mm/In  from trigonometry and converting TPI to threads per millimeter. Below is a Figure illustrating these concepts.
Figure 7: Resulting image of the slice selection phantom. used to determine the thickness of the slice. Once the thickness of the slice selection has been documented the experimentation will take another route. The second set of experiments that I'll be doing will evaluate the an article, in-plane resolution of the NMR microscope. How To Write Chigwell School! Resolution refers to the measure of the system's ability to newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, distinguish between to closely spaced point sources (6). The fundamental limit to this system is that as size of the essay University of the Pacific, volume element gets smaller, its signal contribution is reduced and a reduction occurs in the signal-to-noise ratio (3). Writing An Article For A Newspaper! This phenomenon can be reduced using signal averaging. This will not be concentrated on in this experimentation though. The theoretical resolution limit of this system is how to write a essay College, about 20 m ms. To quantitatively test this limit, a specific phantom will be created.
It should be noted that since the diameter of the sample tube is 5 mm, it is very difficult to construct useful phantoms small enough to fit inside the tube. Writing Academy! After much consideration, a phantom with nylon cords of custom essay writing company High School varying diameter will be used. The lower limit of cord diameter used will be approximately 45 m m or about the thickness of the diameter of glass rods. The upper limit will be approximately 139 m m for fishing line. The sample tube will contain cords ranging from the lower limit to the upper limit. St. Johnsbury Academy! The sample tube will also be filled with water around the cords since the protons in water will generate a NMR signal.
This phantom will utilize slice selection and it is writing a synthesis, also very important that the cords be perpendicular in the sample tube. An illustration of the sample phantom is located in Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Illustration of phantom to writing for a newspaper Academy, evaluate in-plane resolution. The goal of this phantom is to essay Chigwell School, use the known diameter of the nylon cords and the resulting NMR image to determine the in-plane resolution of the system. The number of pixels that the image of the cord occupies will be recorded for each cord diameter. These results will then be graphed and to show how pixel size ( m m) and writing an article, diameter ( m m) are related. How To Write A Written Essay Chigwell School! The slope of this curve should equal one for the ideal case where the an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, objects are the same size in the image as they were when measured. If possible, the exact location of the cords will vary some to writing company High School, yield an average curve.
This is attempting eliminate samples taking up more pixels because of falling half on writing an article newspaper, one pixel and half on the next pixel. This graph will then serve as a lookup table for a synthesis essay of the Pacific further application to writing an article for a Academy, celery stalks or plant stems. These organic structures will be measured using a microscope and then compared to the LUT values to further evaluate the system. This research evolved around the existing Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and a program called XWINNMR for editing parameters. A portion of the research time was spent learning how to operate the spectrometer, and use the software. There are two probe heads on the spectrometer, one for taking spectra (qnp #7) and one for imaging (bbi #11). Custom School! This spectrometer is normally used for taking spectra so the probe head was changed and replaced for each day of for a St. Johnsbury Academy data collection. Files are located in various directories that are in the rigid XWINNMR directory structure that is automatically used. Writing Glenalmond College! The pulse programs are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/pp/ and they have .ssse extensions. For A St. Johnsbury Academy! The gradient matrices are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/gp and have extensions similar to .ssse.r.
Images are located in /disk2/data/scv996/nmr/. How To Write In English Du Leman! The pulse programs and gradient matrices are located in the appendix. XWINNMR was utilized to perform this research since it allows the user to vary input parameters for changing features on the microscope. The table below contains many of the commands that were used. Research was done in manual control mode that turns off the sweeping feature of the spectrometer. Table 1: Common XWINNMR commands and their meanings. Read in writing for a St. Johnsbury, shim file for a particular probe. Write a shim file for a particular probe.
Change probe seen by the software. Shows the FID (Free induction decay) window. Allows the a synthesis essay University, user to view a simulation or timing diagram. Receiver gain adjustment. Allows user to an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, tune the probe. Ends the wobb command. Runs the program specified in the eda display. Used to change programs or length of how to write in english du Leman pulses. Performs the FT to turn resulting signal into an image for this research. Number of scans taken.
Number of dummy scans. Duration of the 90 degree pulse. Duration of the 10 degree pulse. Amplitude of the above pulses. Loop counter parameters (choose 4 and it'll perform 4*256 scans)
The time it takes for image collection varies. The user can specify the writing an article newspaper Academy, image size and the number of essay repetitions. Images collected were 256x256. It takes about 1.5 minutes to obtain an image. Raw images were transferred by using file transfer protocol (FTP) for processing. An Interactive Data Language (IDL) program was used to read in the raw data and change the resulting images into TIFF format. This IDL program is located in writing for a St. Johnsbury Academy, the appendix. To begin this research, previous non-tomographic microscopy results needed to be verified (7). This research essentially created a NMR microscope which would take the hydrogen signal from the entire sample tube range of 1.5 cm and average it to a essay in english College du Leman, create an writing an article newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, image. The length of the sample tube is represented by the z-axis and the magnetic field excited the entire portion of the sample tube.
The resulting image has all the sample values in the z-direction averaged to yield one z value for essay Lakefield College School each x-y location. This causes differences from the bottom to the top of the sample tube to be filtered out. The timing diagram for this pulse sequence is located in Figure 9. The images collected showed the amount of hydrogen mapped in the xy-plane over newspaper Academy, the full range of the sample tube (7). Figure 9: Diagram illustrating the two-dimensional sequence . The same phantoms and identical pulse sequences were used to verify his results. However, while verifying his results, a horizontal artifact was present in the resulting images (See Fig. Superieur Appliques! 10). This image is of capillary tubes filled with water.
The artifact was caused by residual longitudinal magnetization remaining after the 180 degree pulse. To minimize this artifact, a crusher pulse was applied before and after the phase encoding gradient to remove the remaining magnetization. The crusher pulse effectively removed the an article for a newspaper, artifact and the previous research was verified. Figure 10: Image with a horizontal artifact present. Slice Thickness Documentation. Nylon Screw Phantom. To create a tomographic NMR microscope, a slice selective gradient was applied in custom company High School, addition to the phase encoding gradient, and frequency encoding gradient (See Fig. 11). A spin-echo sequence was used for this research and the code is located in the appendix. This sequence, by manipulating the writing for a newspaper Academy, pulse width and how to write in english College du Leman, the values for the slice selection gradient, caused a specific portion of the sample tube to writing an article, be excited and custom essay School, created a tomographic NMR microscope. The slice selection gradient must be applied perpendicular to the imaging plane.
The phase encoding and frequency encoding gradients need to be applied in the same plane as the slice but orthogonal to each other (See Fig. 12). By manipulating the writing for a newspaper, application of the three pulses, slices may be taken in the xy-plane, the xy-plane and the yz-plane (See Table 2). Oblique imaging can also be implemented by applying combinations of the various gradients to yield the desired angles. A Written School! To change the thickness of the slice, the slice selection gradient was modified.
The thickness of the an article newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, slice is found using the formula Thk = Dn/(g Gs) where the how to write College, thickness is inversely proportional to writing an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, the slice selection gradient. Gradient values implemented into the time sequence are percentages. The maximum gradient is 50 G/cm for this spectrometer and by using a slice selection gradient of 100%, the gradient applied will be 50 G/cm. Using a value of 10% would yield a gradient of 5 G/cm. Since thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient, implementing a value of 10% will yield a thicker slice than that of 100%.
Figure 11: Pulse program for a tomographic spin-echo sequence using three gradients. Figure 12: Diagram of the three gradients used for how to a written Chigwell School imaging with their plane locations. Table 2: Gradients for writing St. Johnsbury imaging in various Planes. To evaluate the performance of the tomographic sequence, a nylon screw phantom was imaged to attempt to document slice thickness. This phantom consisted of a nylon screw with 32 threads/inch submerged in water. It was thought that this phantom would work well due to it's repetitive shape and by yielding signal such that the angle of signal was related to the thickness.
Images were taken with various gradients (See Fig. 13). By increasing the gradient, the most obvious change in the image was the signal-to-noise ratio. Chigwell School! This is understandable since a thinner slice will have less hydrogen atoms relative to the thicker slice causing less signal. Figure 13: Images of the screw phantom taken with 20, 30, 40, and 60 % of writing for a newspaper maximum gradients respectively.
While trying to write a comparison Lakefield School, document the results from this phantom, it became apparent that if multiple turns were present in the image, there'd be no way to determine how many turns occurred. Also, the St. Johnsbury Academy, input for the 90 and in english College du Leman, 180 degree pulses is square. Therefore, the Fourier Transform of writing for a this input is a sinc function. This means that a uniform slice is writing University Pacific, not excited and that determining the exact thickness of the slice is much more complicated. Due to an article St. Johnsbury, these factors, the screw phantom was abandoned as a way to essay Lakefield School, document slice thickness. This phantom did serve to illustrate that by changing the z gradient, the signal-to-noise ratio varied from image to image as seen in Figure 13 above. The difficulty documenting slice thickness due to the repeating threads on the screw phantom led to the implementation of a new phantom. This phantom consisted of St. Johnsbury Academy a hollow plastic cone submerged in water.
The cone was originally used for best argumentative LíInstitut . The premise behind this phantom was to vary the for a newspaper Academy, gradients (thickness) to determine if the resulting images reflected a thicker or thinner circle from the a comparison Lakefield College, cone. The angle of the cone was found to be degrees and the width of the writing an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, cone wall was found to be 0.55 mm (See Fig. 14). Essays Des Arts (LISAA)! Since the writing for a newspaper, 90 and 180 degree pulses are square waves, the Fourier Transform yields a sinc function with a width 1/160 m s. The sinc means that a uniform slice is not excited in the sample but can be schematically represented by Figure 15. Figure 14: Schematic diagram of the cone phantom used to document slice thickness. Figure 15: Illustration of the non-uniform slice excited by the sinc function. Utilizing information about the essay writing scaffold Glenalmond, sinc function (See Fig. 15), showed the relationship Dn= 2/tw. By plugging it into Thk = Dn/(g Gs), yielded Thk = (2/tw) /(g Gs) where the thickness of the slice (Thk) is inversely proportional to the width of the 180 degree pulse. The 180 pulse was 160 m s in newspaper Academy, duration. Write A Comparison! By calculations, this yielded a slice thickness of an article Academy 0.01 mm (gradient = 60%) and slice thickness of best argumentative essays Superieur des Arts 0.59 mm (gradient=10%).
The original goal was to produce a slice equivalent to writing an article for a newspaper, 1 mm. Due to this optimal goal, the argumentative essays LíInstitut Superieur des Arts Appliques, above equation was rearranged to solve for newspaper St. Johnsbury the width of the pulse that would create a 1 mm slice. A gradient of 30 G/cm (gradient=60%) was used and the theoretical width of the pulse (tw) was calculated to be 157 m s. Therefore, by making the width of the 180 degree pulse 157 m s, the pulse sequence would theoretically yield a thickness of 1 mm. The width of the 90 degree pulse is 7.5 #109; s or half that of the argumentative LíInstitut des Arts Appliques, 180 degree pulse. A gradient of newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy 60% was used so that the thickness of the slice could increase or decrease without changing the width of the RF pulses. This result may be useful for more intricate studies but for this research, images were taken using a 180 degree pulse width of 160 m s and a 90 degree pulse width of 80 m s. The slice selective gradients varied the thickness from a essay in english College approximately 0.01-0.59 mm. These pulse widths were used for all of the writing an article for a, collected images and thicknesses seemed satisfactory to see changes in the images. For this piece of equipment, as mentioned previously, the maximum gradient is 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact although the theoretical calculations assume that it is. It should also be mentioned again that the pulses were square so a non-uniform thickness was excited in the sample causing the signal to write essay College, be generated from an average of the thickness that followed a sinc pattern. This also leads to inaccuracies in the resulting image dependent on the phantom or sample used.
Below are some images taken of the cone phantom for various slice selective gradient parameters. Most of the noticeable differences in the image result from the change in SNR for the different thicknesses. The cone also appears to be slightly skewed in the sample tube as seen by the circle being somewhat lopsided. Figure 16: Images of the cone phantom taken with thinner and thicker slices. In order to quantitatively measure the width of the circle present in the above images, a horizontal profile was taken through the center of each image.
The horizontal profiles are located below in Figure 17. For these profiles, the x-axis represents the width of the image which is 256 pixels and the y-axis is the NMR signal created by hydrogen present in the water molecules of the excited slice. For A St. Johnsbury Academy! The width of the areas of lower signal represent the thickness of the slice. Essay Scaffold Glenalmond! This graph was then compared with the theoretical horizontal profiles of the newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, cone knowing the dimensions of the a comparison Lakefield, sinc function. Figure 17: Horizontal profiles of the images used to determine if the newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, images followed the right shape functions. The top image in Figure 17 shows the horizontal profile for a thick slice and the lower image shows an image of thinner slice. The x-axis shows the location along the horizontal line in the image and the y-axis shows the grayscale value. The shape of these profiles matches the essay company Justin-Siena, expected relationship. The edges are slightly tapered and writing an article newspaper Academy, the data value reaches a minimum that is not zero. Visible in the plots is the how to write a essay in english, difference in the amount of signal-to-noise from varying the slice thickness. These slices vary from an article St. Johnsbury about 1 mm (Left) to a thin slice of.
0.3 mm (Right). These are theoretical values. Due to the small slice thickness relative to the geometry of the cone, there is how to write a essay du Leman, not much difference in writing an article for a, the width of the non-signal areas for the different thicknesses. These results make sense when conceptualizing the cone phantom. The thicker the slice, the wider one would expect the area of non-signal to how to write College, be. This is true but since the slice is really a sinc function, there will always be signal present from outside the theoretical thickness range. In-Plane Resolution Documentation. The next goal of this research project was to document the in-plane resolution of the system.
In-plane resolution represents the size of the object necessary to be visible in the image. The fundamental optical limit was calculated to be approximately 20 m m. Writing! There were a few difficulties encountered during this area of experimentation. In order for the phantom to be relatively accurate, it needed to writing a synthesis essay, be very small in an article Academy, diameter and also have a constant shape so that minimal effects would occur when the signal was averaged over the thickness ( 0.5 mm). Finding objects with a small diameter proved to be very difficult so fishing line was used. Writing! Human hair is around the same diameter but the line is an article newspaper Academy, much tougher. The other main dilemma was how to suspend these items in the sample tube and also keep them perpendicular. Fishing line also sometimes floats in how to in english College du Leman, water to add to the burden. After trial and an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, error, the best method to how to Chigwell, keep the line perpendicular to the imaging plane (xy-plane) was to place the line inside capillary tubes (See Fig. 18).
A micrometer was used to writing an article Academy, measure varying diameters of fishing line. The fishing line varied in diameter from 87-139 m m and the width of the write, capillary wall was measured to be 4.25 mm. The line and capillary tubes were then submerged in water to complete the phantom. All of the line was easily visible in the images as seen in Figure 19. Figure 18: Skematic diagram illustrating fishing line phantom design. Figure 19: Images of the fishing line phantom taken at 10, and 40 % gradients respectively.
Since this really was not a limiting resolution for the system, glass rods were stretched to diameters of. 50 m m and suspended in water. The rods were not exactly perpendicular to writing, the imaging plane and appear oval in a essay du Leman, the resulting image. As seen in writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, Figure 20, the how to write a written Chigwell, three glass rods are visible to the eye and take up about 5 pixels. Figure 20: Image of the glass rod phantom taken with 10 % gradient. No other phantoms were used for in-plane resolution documentation due to an article for a St. Johnsbury Academy, the difficulty in a comparison essay College, finding phantoms with diameters small enough to be useful. An Article For A Newspaper! Therefore, the smallest diameter object imaged was around 50 m m and the above images used for documenting slice thickness. The eye can detect the write a written essay School, presence of the fishing line and glass rods in the images for the FOV used. This however, doesn't give us an writing St. Johnsbury, accurate portrayal of the relative size of these objects. The dimensions of the how to College, objects are known and by writing an article for a Academy, assuming that the inner diameter of the sample tube is the same size in the image as was measured. LíInstitut Superieur! The inner diameter was measured as 4,250 m m and corresponds to approximately 179 pixels.
Dividing these numbers yielded 23.7 m m/pixel which was used to calculate the writing an article newspaper Academy, size of the essay writing scaffold Glenalmond College, capillary tubes, fishing line, and an article, glass rods. This formula is listed below in Eq. 12. Image Size = (23.7 m m/pixel) * (Number of pixels in image)  The calculated image size numbers should ideally match the measured dimensions of the objects and custom company, yield a slope of 1 for the graph. This was not the case.
As illustrated in the below table and graph, there were numerous discrepancies between the two measurements. Table 3: Calculated values for measured diameter [ #109; m] and image diameter [ #109; m]. Inside dia. Cap. Tube.
Outside dia. An Article For A Newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy! Cap. Best Superieur (LISAA)! Tube. Inside dia. Sample Tube. Figure 21: Graphs of writing for a newspaper Academy measured diameter [ #109; m] vs. calculated image diameter [ #109; m]. For the smaller objects, the scaffold, image size is writing an article for a Academy, more than double that of the original size but for write School the larger measurements, the size in the image is smaller than the measured value. The glass rods measured 45 m m in diameter but are 118 m m in writing for a St. Johnsbury, the resulting images.
Therefore, the smallest in-plane resolution is writing scaffold Glenalmond, 118 m m in newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, the image and corresponds to approximately 5 pixels. The cause of this discrepancy in size is unclear. It might be due to rods not being perpendicular in the sample tube. The phantom consisted of a large area of water which generated the NMR signal. Depending on the organic substances imaged, there may be less signal generated in the images and it may become more difficult to document features of the essay Pacific, images. Errors were present in the images due to the fishing line or glass rods not being exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane. Also, this documentation used a fixed FOV which allowed the entire diameter of the sample tube to be present in the images. Modifying the FOV such that only one capillary tube is writing for a newspaper St. Johnsbury, present in the image would likely increase the in-plane resolution. The increased size of the smaller objects is due to a fundamental limitation of MRI. This causes the objects to become smeared in LíInstitut des Arts, the images and the exact reason is unknown. Due to this knowledge, the image results appear feasible for this system.
To demonstrate the potential usefulness of this microscope, flies and celery stalks were imaged. The flies were unsuccessfully imaged but this is probably due to the fly being dehydrated from being imaged at a post-mortem date. The celery stalks were submerged in water and the resulting images showed a lot of variation resembling a realistic view of the celery. The signal variation represents areas of high hydrogen content (white) and low hydrogen reaction (black). Images were taken with thicker and thinner slices and also an image was taken two weeks after the initial images. Structure variations are present between all images. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases proportional to the thickness of the slice and writing an article St. Johnsbury Academy, is visible in the images. Decomposition is present in the right hand image and the structures appear to custom essay company, have broken down also. This application has successfully imaged vegetation with the microscope.
Future work could be done on writing an article newspaper, germinating seeds and NMR images could potentially capture various stages of development. Figure 22: Images of celery taken with gradients 10%, and 20% respectively and essay writing scaffold Glenalmond College, an image taken two weeks after the initial image with a gradient of 40%. The purpose of this research was to use a Bruker 300 DRX Spectrometer for tomographic NMR microscopy and document features such as in-plane resolution and slice thickness. The in-plane resolution refers to the smallest object that can be resolved in the resulting image. Slice thickness for this research represents the amount of sample to get excited by the magnetic field documented in the z-direction. An Article For A Newspaper Academy! Ideal goals were a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 50 m m. This research set numerous optimistic goals that were slightly out of range for the amount of time available. It was very difficult to find phantoms with the desired characteristics that were also small enough to fit inside the sample tube. It was also difficult to essay School, determine a slice thickness due to the pulse being shaped like a sinc in Fourier space and a non-uniform slice being excited from the writing an article for a Academy, phantom. Another dilemma was that most of the essay Justin-Siena School, known parameters on the Bruker Spectrometer were not fully trusted for accuracy.
An example of this is that the maximum gradient is defined as 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact. This value changes the theoretical calculations if inaccurate. A nylon screw phantom was initially used to document slice thickness because it was thought to have the desired characteristics. The screw was submerged in water to create the nmr signal. The screw phantom was going to have signal corresponding to the number of thread turns but this did not work as first expected. There was no way to discriminate between thread turns of more than one. Also, due to the sinusoidal nature of the excited hydrogen protons, it was difficult to tell whether the slice was thick or whether sinusoidal shape was adding additional signal from outside the desired 1 mm slice. The screw phantom was abandoned due to these difficulties and a new phantom consisting of a cone submerged in water was imaged. Writing Newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy! Intricate measurements were taken of write a essay in english College this phantom and the theoretical amount of signal was modeled for an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy use in determining the slice thickness. This phantom behaved as expected for the system given a non-uniform slice thickness.
The horizontal plots of the images show both signal-to-noise changes between the images and write essay School, also a relative shape that takes into account the an article newspaper, slice thickness. The next goal of this research was to document the a comparison Lakefield School, in-plane resolution using a constant field of view. The major difficulties with this phantom were that it was difficult to find objects with the desired characteristics that were small enough to test the in-plane resolution limits. Initially, fishing line was imaged but the smallest diameter was 87 m m and writing for a newspaper, the goal of the system was at College du Leman least 50 m m. To test the limits further, glass rods were stretched and submerged in water since they were the smallest objects available for use with diameters of approximately 45 m m. Glass rods are visible in writing Academy, the resulting images. It was very difficult to keep the glass rods perpendicular in the sample tube and this is how to a written essay, visible in the images by their oval shape. Since the glass rods were pieces of stretched glass, the diameter might not be uniform anyway. The calculated image size using the images shows that the in-plane resolution is 118 m m for a 45 m m object diameter. These results could also be effected to the large amount of signal present in the sample relative to the tiny glass rods. The smearing of the an article, object size in the image is due to a limitation of MRI so these results aren't unusual. Future work in this research area should include adding user control of the slice location the write in english College, sample tube.
Some ideas for St. Johnsbury this are in the following paragraphs. Building off the phantom for slice selection, a new phantom will be developed to University of the, test a slice selection locator feature. Assuming that that the results from the first phantom adequately documented the writing St. Johnsbury, thickness of the slice, this feature will allow the user to essay, freely choose the writing an article for a newspaper, particular location of the 1 mm slice. The user will also be able to choose different slice locations to be taken from the same sample tube. This concept is illustrated below in custom company Justin-Siena High School, Figure 10 and an article for a newspaper, will work best for samples that vary in the z direction such as a fly or corn kernel.
Figure 23: Fly with varying signal components in the z direction. and illustration of the slice selection locator. Mathematically, this will be accomplished by utilizing the relationship between frequency and the location in custom essay High School, the z direction. Writing For A St. Johnsbury Academy! The location in the z direction is equal to the change in frequency divided by the product of the gyromagnetic ratio and the frequency gradient of the slice. Change in frequency will be equal to the frequency we apply minus a reference frequency at zero. The phantom for this experiment will have similar characteristics to the slice selection phantom. This phantom must have a measurable variance in the z direction as far as water content or signal variance. A simple phantom can be constructed with capillary tubes filled with varying amounts of water in them over the z range of the detector. Writing Glenalmond! This should result in writing an article for a Academy, a variance of signal proportional to the z location and give us enough knowledge to narrow down where the slice is being taken. An illustration of this phantom is in Figure 11 below. Custom Essay Writing Company Justin-Siena High School! After getting an approximate region of where the slice is being taken, the nylon screw may be placed in a measured amount of writing an article St. Johnsbury water and the results should yield enough information to write a comparison essay, determine the final location of the slice.
Figure 24: Slice taken at location (dotted lines) for slice selection locator phantom. Given that the thickness of the writing newspaper, slice and the in-plane resolution are both accurately documented, the phantom mentioned above should allow the specification to the location of the slice. Custom Company Justin-Siena High! The amount of accuracy may also be tested by an article for a newspaper St. Johnsbury Academy, varying parameters slightly to detect a subtle change in how to a written Chigwell School, signal.