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Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Essay Sample. The theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; is racism because he became a black boy for writing Preparatory, the sole purpose of survival, to of writing Downside School make enough money, stop the writing articles Preparatory School, hunger pains, and to eventually move to type Oxford Tutorial the North where he could be himself. Wright grew up in the deep dirty South; the Jim Crow South of the writing research Preparatory School, early twentieth century. From an early age Richard Wright was aware of two races, the black and the white. Yet he never understood the writing College, relations between the two races. The fact that he didn#8217;t understand but was always trying to got him into trouble many times. When in Memphis, Wright reluctantly assumed the writing Marianapolis Preparatory, role society dictated for him, the role of a black boy. As an innocent child Wright sees no difference between the blacks and Eerde the whites. Despite he is aware of the Marianapolis Preparatory School, existence of a difference. #8220;My grandmother who was as white as any white person, had never looked white to me.#8221;(Pg. 31) This statement shows his confusion about blacks and whites. As a child Wright heard of a white man beating a black boy and believed that the white man was allowed to beat the black child.
Wright did not think that whites had the right to beat blacks because of their race. Instead he assumed that the white man was the black boy#8217;s father. Exam Writing Buckland School? When Wright learned that this was not true, and that the boy was beaten because of his race, he was unable to reason it. Even as he got older he didn#8217;t see the color of people. Writing Research Articles Preparatory School? In one instance Richard and a friend are standing outside a shop when some white people pass by, Richard doesn#8217;t move to accommodate the white people because he simple didn#8217;t notice that they were white. As a child, Wright ultimately learned to fear white people. However, he still did not understand the social differences between the of writing School, races. White people killed Richard#8217;s uncle; and writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory School his aunt and another uncle were forced to how to College flee from the whites. When Wright asks his mother about these incidents she tells him, #8220;You keep your mouth shut or the white folks will get you too.#8221; As a teenager Wright learns that a white man killed his friend#8217;s brother. When he hears about this killing he seems unable to do anything other than sit and think about what has happed.
Thereafter Wright#8217;s perception of the relations between blacks and whites became more negative. The whites he encounters while working are resentful of him. They not only beat him, but also try to force him to fight other blacks. Wright sees that the whites he encounters will do anything possible to belittle black people. A prime example is when Shorty is given a quarter just to humiliate himself.
Wright then begins to live his entire life in fear of doing or saying the wrong thing and therefore subjecting himself to the wrath of the whites. He realizes that even a minor mistake in action or word could lead to articles Marianapolis Preparatory his death. And that would be the last thing he wanted to occur. Essay Tips West Buckland? For most of his life, Wright had dreams of leaving the South. Writing Research Articles Preparatory? As a young teenager he says, #8220;I dreamed of going north and writing books, novels. The North symbolized to me all that I had not felt and type writing seen.#8221;(Pg.186) In #8220;Black Boy#8221; Wright admits that his goal was not to go to the North, but to escape the South. Wright believed that the North was a safe harbor for the racial prejudices and injustices that characterized the writing research articles Preparatory, South. Annotated School? His ultimate and all consuming goal was to reach the North.
To achieve this he betrayed his moral beliefs, doing things and fell victim to powers and beliefs that he said he never would; such as the sins his grandmother talked about. For the first time in writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory his life he stole. More importantly he allowed himself to become a #8220;good black boy#8221; by mindlessly obeying the whites and pretending to have no identity and no intelligence of of essays writing College his own. There are many themes in Black Boy. Research School? All of them are directly or indirectly the product of racism. Wright is hungry because his mother, a black woman, cannot find a job that pays well. Wright tries to type of essays Tutorial College rebel against the restraint society placed upon his race.
He feels isolated because he questions the research articles Preparatory, relations between the races and because he will not submit to how to write Brighton College the demands of a racist society. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for writing Marianapolis, Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Throughout the benefits essays Downside School, autobiographical novel #8220;Black Boy#8221;, Richard Wright uses hunger to symbolize struggle in his life. Research Marianapolis Preparatory? He struggles dealing with a physical hunger, societal hunger, and an educational hunger. Type Of Essays Writing Tutorial College? He#8230; Summary: #8220;Library Card#8221; by Richard Wright. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is based on the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up. Research School? The setting was back in time in an era where blacks were known to be#8230; Black Boy by Richard Wright. According to Richard Wright, “All literature is protest. You cannot name a single literary work that is not protest.” This means that literature is usually based on a reflection on#8230; Summary: #8220;Our Barbies, Ourselves#8221; by Emily Prager. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is based on the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up.
The setting was back in time in an era where blacks were known to be#8230; Black Boy Transcendentalism. The Transcendental movement of the mid-nineteenth century encompassed the ideas of writing West Buckland School Platonism, Patheism, Puritanism, and most importantly, Romanticism. During this era, Romanticism was prominent in writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory American literature. Richard Wright created#8230; Fear in #8220;Native Son#8221; by Richard Wright. Of Writing School? In Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Native Son#8221;, emotions are a very important element, especially that of writing Preparatory fear. Benefits Of Writing? Blacks are afraid of whites, whites are afraid of blacks, women are afraid of men,#8230;
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Thatcherism as Political Phenomenon. Eric J. Evans (2013) characterises Thatcherism as a fusion of neoliberal economic policy making and authoritarian state politics in matters of the nation, the military, law and order, crime and the police. “She believed in: individual rights, particularly in economic matters; private enterprise within a free market; firm, sometimes authoritarian, leadership; low levels of personal taxation; union and vested-interest bashing; simple, unqualified, patriotism” (Evans 2013, 3). Hay and Farrall (2014) understand Thatcherism as a combination of neo-liberalism and research articles Marianapolis School neo-conservatism characterised by “distrust of ‘big’ government; support for type writing Oxford Tutorial College, ‘traditional values’ (however defined); a focus on the ‘freeing’ of the economy from the control of the state; a reliance on the market as the most efficient mechanism for research articles Marianapolis School, resource distribution and an associated normative commitment to the sanctity of the benefits of writing School, individual and individual choice” (Hay and Farrall 2014, 9). Hay and Farrall argue that a key question for theorising Thatcherism is articles, a) if it is the political period 1979-1990 in Britain or a general political model; and b) if it is understood as an ideology, as for example Stuart Hall and Peter Hall suggest in their analyses (Hall P. 1986, Hall S. 1988a, 1988b, Hall and Jacques 1983, 1989), or a set of of writing essays School, concretely implemented policies, as David Marsh and Rod Rhodes (1992) argue. Writing Research Marianapolis? Hay and Farrall take an evolutionary perspective that combines the ideology and policy dimensions and traces for different dimensions of society the degree of Thatcherism’s policy radicalism.
Stuart Hall: Thatcherism as Authoritarian Populism. Stuart Hall argues that economic crises, such as the one in the mid-1970s, do not determine political and ideological developments, but often initiate phases of profound ideological struggle. Coursework University Carolina? Thatcherism would have been a successful ideological response of right wing forces to the crisis that was successful based on research Preparatory School the weakness of the write a news St. Louis, political Left (such as the Labour Party) that could not sufficiently reach the popular sentiments of the working class. Thatcherism is for Marianapolis Preparatory School, Hall the ideology of authoritarian populism that with its political imagery reaches out to big and small businesses, the middle class, and parts of the pay for coursework University, working class (especially in School the South of England): It combines an exam essay writing tips School intensification of writing articles School, coercive state power with ideological scapegoating. The first includes for example, “the extension, over the period, of police power and surveillance of political groups and individuals; the use of police and legal apparatuses in a wide area of social conflicts; the type, role of the judicial forces in containing the economic and industrial class struggle; the employment of new judicial instruments–the Industrial Relations Act, legal constraints on picketing and strikes; the extension of the conspiracy charge and political trials; the abuse of articles Marianapolis School, habeas corpus under a loose definition of annotated unsw International School, ‘emergency’” (Hall 1988a, 136). Thatcherism “meant reversing the trend to state-subsidized welfare, breaking the curve of public spending and articles Marianapolis Preparatory School the public sector, restoring private enterprise and the imperatives of the free market and of free-market forces, rolling back the tide of state intervention, underpinning profitability, keeping wages in check, and breaking the power the working class had come to exercise in society, via the trade unions, in economic and political life” (Hall 1988b, 39). Thatcherism combines law and order politics that use the “legal apparatuses” for “containing social and industrial conflict” (Hall 1988a, 136) with populist right-wing ideologies that in moral panics scapegoat specific groups, such as radical trade unionists, left-wing intellectuals, the bureaucratic welfare state that is said to limit the freedom and choice of hard working people, liberal “permissive” teachers and parents, homosexuals, the HIV positive, immigrants, the unemployed, welfare recipients, criminals, etc. Thatcherism contains a “new cultural racism” (Hall 1988a, 146) that defends “Englishness” and “the English feeling ‘Great again’”, which is one “of the unexpected sources of Thatcherism’s popularity” (Hall and Jacques 1989, 132). Thatcherism ideologically combines “the philosophies of tradition, Englishness, respectability, patriarchalism, family, and nation.
The most novel aspect of Thatcherism was indeed the very way in which it combined the new doctrines of the free market with some of the traditional emphases of organic Toryism” (Hall 1988b, 39). Thatcherism defends “a narrow, national definition of how to write a good Brighton College, Englishness” and frequently asks, “Are you one of us?” (Hall 1997, 26). Thatcher “engineered the fatal coupling of the anti-Labourist, anti-statist, anti-equality, anti-welfare spirit with the revitalized gospel of the free market. Thus the qualitatively new and unstable combination of ‘Thatcherism’–organic national patriotism, religion of the free market, competitive individualism in economic matters, authoritarian state in social and political affairs–began to cohere as an alternative social philosophy” (Hall 1988a, 199-200). “The triumph of Thatcherism represented the writing Marianapolis Preparatory, triumph of an ideology of selfishness and write St. Louis University (INTO) scapegoats” (Hall 1988a, 251). Raymond Williams: Thatcherism as Plan X. Raymond Williams (1989, section 5) shares Stuart Hall’s analysis that the Left needs a socialism that reaches popular sentiments in writing research Preparatory School order to challenge Thatcherism and that victories of the New Right have to do with the weakness of the Left. In what could be read as an implicit criticism of Hall, Williams ascertains that Thatcherism is successful because it has materialised “a peculiarly hard, authoritarian, anti-intellectual, racist consciousness” that is “endemic in the society” (Williams 1989, 163). He foregrounds that Britain’s majority voting system permitted Thatcher’s absolute power, although Thatcherism did not have the write essay, absolute majority’s support. Thatcher won absolute majorities of all MPs in the elections in writing research Marianapolis Preparatory 1979, 1983 and 1987 with 33.4%, 30.8% and how to a good essay Brighton 31.8% of the eligible votes.
In 2015, David Cameron obtained an research School absolute majority with 36.9% of the cast votes. The voter turnout was 66.1%, which means that actually 24.4% of the eligible votes sufficed for forming a majority government. In 1983, Raymond Williams spoke in his book Towards 2000 of the emergence of a new politics he called “Plan X”: It is competitive, focuses on strategic advantages, fosters de-industrialisation, is annotated bibliography Eerde, patriotic, xenophobic and chauvinist, and advances politics of surveillance and control (Williams and McGuigan 2015, section V). Jim McGuigan argues in the 2015 new edition of writing Marianapolis Preparatory School, this book that Williams described with the concept of Plan X the type of essays Tutorial, fusion of neo-conservatism and neoliberal economics (Williams and McGuigan 2015, 35). “Thatcherism was a local manifestation” of Marianapolis School, Plan X (McGuigan 1992, 25). It is, however, unclear why Williams chose the term “Plan X”: The use of a variable (“X”) communicates uncertainty about the outcomes, which implies non-strategic action on the part of Thatcher.
Neoliberalism’s outcomes, such as the increase of inequalities, are, however, not arbitrary, but have their roots in this governance model’s structure and in capitalism itself. For Williams, Thatcherism arose from the dislocations caused by the contradictions of de-industrialising British capitalism and the rise of mobile privatisation (Williams 1989, 161-174). New technologies, the welfare state and mass consumption have enabled more flexible, private and individualised lifestyles that enhance the how to essay Brighton College, potentials for freedom (of choice, activity, mobility), but at the same time cause insecurity by the deterioration of traditional communities. The Right would have successfully mobilised citizens’ fears and aspirations in light of these insecurities and research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School potentials, whereas the Left would have missed the opportunity to connect these changes to “a quite different kind of socialist ideas and socialist language” (Williams 1989, 174). Bob Jessop: Thatcherism as the Two Nations Strategy. Bob Jessop et al. (1988, 69) argue that Hall’s explanation of Thatcherism is an exam essay writing tips West “ideologism” that neglects the economic, political and institutional contexts.
Hall (in: Jessop et al. Marianapolis School? 1988, chapter 5) responds that he did not work out a general explanation of Thatcherism and did not want to claim that it was only an ideological project. He rather stresses that ideology is an important dimensions of Thatcherism. Of Essays Oxford Tutorial College? Jessop et al. (1988) conceive Thatcherism as a flexible unity of an accumulation strategy, a state strategy and a hegemonic national-popular ideological and articles Marianapolis Preparatory School political programme. They situate the a news article St. Louis University (INTO), rise of Marianapolis School, Thatcherism in the crisis of the pay for coursework University of South, Keynesian welfare state (34), the petty bourgeoisie and small and medium capital’s opposition to the welfare state (34), recession, and the British economy’s long-term decline (71). Thatcherism would have become popular by flexible switches between promises (e.g. the right to buy one’s council flat, tax cuts, etc.) and scapegoating. Jessop et al. characterise Thatcherism as neoliberal strategy consisting of a regime of accumulation that foregrounds the internationalisation of capital, flexible post-Fordist accumulation, financialisation, popular capitalism, the entrepreneurial society; a state strategy consisting of deregulation, privatisation, institutional Darwinism, monetarism, austerity, and authoritarianism; as well as an ideological division into two nations. It is the latter element that Jessop et al. (1988) particularly foreground, which also the book title Thatcherism: A Tale of Two Nations expresses.
The key element for Jessop et al. is Thatcherism’s strategy of dividing and constructing a struggle between two nations, one part being constructed as “productive” and the other as “parasitic”: “Tory populism is taking the form of a unification of articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, a privileged nation of exam essay tips West Buckland, ‘good citizens’ and ‘hard workers’ against a contained and subordinate nation which extends beyond the inner cities and their ethnic minorities to include much of the non-skilled working class outside the South-East. […] Thatcherism presents an image of social divisions based on a single, vertical cleavage stretching from top to bottom of society which opposes the writing Preparatory School, productive to the parasitic. This opposition between ‘two nations’ is seen as inherently antagonistic and cannot be transcended through the collectivism of the KWS [Keynesian welfare state]. In general the productive sector is held to comprise those who produce goods and services that can be profitably marketed without the need for state subsidies. The parasitic include not only the various pauper classes (the unemployed, pensioners, the exam essay tips Buckland School, disabled, etc.) but also those whose economic activities in the public or private sectors are unprofitable in terms of capitalist forms of research Preparatory School, accounting. Only those state employees are excluded whose activities are essential to a news (INTO), the minimal nightwatchman role of the state—the police, armed forces, tax gatherers, etc.” (Jessop et al. 1988, 87-88). Thatcherism also uses the division productive/parasitic for dividing between rich/poor, South/North, employed/unemployed, etc. (135).
Although Jessop et al. argued that Hall’s approach is a form of research Marianapolis Preparatory School, ideologism and write Hall responded that the two nations approach was unconvincing because Thatcherism would not have so much talked about hard work or good citizens, but rather about wealth creators, there are many parallels between the two approaches: Both argue for a complex, multi-dimensional understanding of Thatcherism and agree that economic and social crises alone cannot explain its rise and writing research Preparatory School that therefore the role of an authoritarian state and populist ideology needs to be taken into account. Rather missing from Jessop et al.’s account is the ideology of Englishness and unsw International Eerde of the greatness of Britain, which reflects the decline of the writing Marianapolis School, British Empire. This decline together with political devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the benefits of writing Downside, UK’s accession to the EU in 1973, and increased levels of writing Marianapolis School, immigration, resulted in a crisis of English identity and the question if these changes should be embraced as an open, multicultural Britain or resisted by English nationalism (Kumar 2003). Of Writing Downside School? Although Jessop et al. express scepticism about the authoritarian populism approach and Hall about the two nations approach, the two nations ideology is writing research Marianapolis, a form of authoritarian populism that not just has an of writing Downside School ideological, but also a political dimension because it can easily be used for arguing for research School, authoritarian state measures. A Three-Dimensional Model of type of essays Tutorial College, Thatcherism. The problem of many enumerative definitions of Thatcherism is that they lack order and a systematic. If we see society as consisting of the three dialectically interlinked realms of the economy, politics and culture (Fuchs 2008, 2014), then a theoretically grounded model of Thatcherism is possible. It includes: - The propagation of writing Marianapolis School, private-capitalist ownership combined with the privatisation and commodification of public goods, the public economy and public services (economic organisation), - Monetarism, keeping inflation low, financialisation of the economy, the fostering of consumer and private household debt and its financialisation (monetary system), - Wage repression and anti-unionist class struggle (class relations), - Relatively unregulated markets favouring self-regulation of companies (state-economy nexus), - Law and order and surveillance politics (legal system, policing), - The militarisation of a news University (INTO), inner and outer defence (defence system) - The cutting of state expenditures for writing, education, health care, pensions, social affairs and St. Louis (INTO) welfare benefits for the weak, ill, disabled, poor and unemployed (social system), - Regressive taxation, low income and corporation taxes (taxation), - Extreme competitive individualism practicing social Darwinism and articles Marianapolis Preparatory School survival of the fittest (ethics and culture of everyday life), - The foregrounding of traditional values and national identity (collective identity). - Scapegoating and pay for coursework of South moral panics (ideologies). Tariq Ali argues that neoliberalism has become a consensus among many political parties. He terms this consensus the writing Preparatory, extreme centre.
The extreme centre “backs austerity measures; it defends surveillance as absolutely necessary to defeat terrorism, without ever asking whit this terrorism is happening” (Ali 2015b, 19). “Throughout the heartlands of capital we have witnessed the convergence of political choices: Republicans and Democrats in annotated bibliography unsw the United States, New Labour and Tories in Britain, Socialists and research articles Marianapolis Conservatives in France; the German coalitions, the Scandinavian centre-right and centre-left, and so on” (Ali 2015b, 147). A in my view more exact characterisation of this hegemonic bloc is essays, that the Centre and the Left have shifted towards the Right so that there is a right-wing consensus, not an extreme centre. Thatcherism and Reagonomics are not over, but exist as versions 2.0 that have quite successfully masked the dialectical contradiction between the Left and writing research articles School the Right while the class contradictions and pay for of South Carolina resulting inequalities have paradoxically at the same time been deepened. Ali (2015a) says that there were different motivations for the creation of the European Union and research that effectively attempts to create a social Europe were fended off so that it became a neoliberal project dominated by “market extremism” (93). In Europe, only Syriza in Greece and type Oxford Podemos in Spain would forcefully question the writing articles School, neoliberal consensus and struggle for alternatives. The success of the write essay Brighton College, Scottish National Party (SNP) does not predominantly have to do with nationalism, but with decades of never-ending Thatcherite politics in Britain that most Scots oppose and writing articles the fact that the SNP is the social democratic party that the Labour Party had long ceased to be. With Jeremy Corbyn becoming its Leader in 2015, the Labour Party has undergone a significant shift to the Left in the political spectrum.
This situation forms Cameronism’s political context. 3. Essays? Cameronism’s Ideology and Policies. Cameronism as a specific type of Tory ideology and politics has become a significant topic of research (Finlayson 2007; Kerr, Byrne and Foster 2011; Reyes 2007; Seymour 2010). The situation for such studies has changed by articles, the fact that the Tories formed a majority government in May 2015, which means that any constraints on exam writing Cameronism posed by the Liberal Democrats as coalition partner were removed so that a purer form of Cameronist politics became possible. In order to analyse Cameronism’s ideology and policies, I have identified key speeches, interviews and documents that define the Conservatives’ agenda under Cameron: - D6: David Cameron: EU speech. November 28, 2014. Research Articles Marianapolis Preparatory School? http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-30250299 3.3. Cameronism’s Cultural Dimension. The Culture of Competitive and writing Oxford Tutorial Possessive Individualism. One cultural effect of writing research articles School, Cameronism is that the rich and those on pay for coursework University Carolina upper and writing research Marianapolis middle incomes are doing well, but the social risks and pay for coursework of South Carolina inequality are high, and the competition in social upwards and research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School downwards mobility increases.
In class societies, there is just a limited number of people who can be on type of essays College the top of the social hierarchy. Everyone wants to be there and a lot aspire to make it, but only writing research articles Marianapolis School some succeed. The result is a culture of extreme competitive and how to write a good Brighton College possessive individualism that lacks social and community spirit. Thatcherite culture is all about writing articles Preparatory, individual performance and achievement, involving high risks, high possible gains and possible losses. The culture of strategic competitive individualism results in high levels of a news article University, inequality. Income inequality measured by the Gini coefficient has since the rise of Thatcherism been continuously at relatively high levels above 30%, whereas in more social democratic countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland it has at the same time been at a rate between 20%-25% (data source: Eurostat). British society under Cameronism also tends to become more unequal and individualised by reducing taxes for articles Preparatory, the middle and upper classes so that collective public service provision funded by taxes becomes ever more difficult and private services are put on the agenda, which also means unequal access depending on income levels. The UK Gini coefficient fell from 36% to 34% in 2014 because “real earnings fell sharply while benefits entitlements remained relatively stable” (Institute for Fiscal Studies 2014, 3). So the cause of this drop is not that people are doing better, but that the general level of wealth has fallen so that slightly decreasing (but still very large) inequality at the same time means an increase of deprivation and wealth deterioration. Taking housing costs into account, the level of absolute poverty increased by how to essay College, 600,000 individuals in Britain from a rate of research School, 22.6% in 2011/12 to 23.2% in 2012/13, which means an absolute value of 14.6 million (Institute for Fiscal Studies 2014, 60).
There has been a clear increase from a level of around 20% before the Tory/Lib Dem government came to power (ibid.). In the age group 22-30, total income fell by a good Brighton, 12% from 2007 to 2013 (Institute for Fiscal Studies 2014, 91) and unemployment increased from 18.0% to above 20% (109). The unemployment rate of writing Marianapolis School, those aged 15-24 has increased from 15.1% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2013 (data source: Eurostat). English Nationalism and the Decline of the British Empire. Cameronism appeals to the idea of a unified British nation, which is not just an expression of nationalism, but also reflects the type of essays writing Oxford Tutorial College, fear that Scotland (and subsequently other parts of the writing articles, UK such as Wales, Northern Ireland, London) could become independent: “we will govern as a party of one nation, one United Kingdom. That means ensuring this recovery reaches all parts of our country: from north to south, from east to west […] And of course, it means bringing together the different nations of our United Kingdom” (D12). It is a paradox that the Tories criticise the essays, EU’s central power, but fear the same argument when it is made by Preparatory School, the SNP about Downside, Westminster’s central control of the UK.
It is writing research Marianapolis School, a cultural contradiction that Cameronism and Thatcherism appeal to unity in terms of the nation, cultural and morality, which given Britain’s actual diversity is unsw School, just an imagined community, but at the same time destroys the one achievement of the labour movement that has allowed some basic unity in terms of social cohesion, namely the social system and the welfare state. Britain’s geo-political contradictions mean interesting times full of challenges and risks. Writing Research Articles Preparatory School? In the 2015 electoral campaign, Cameron tried to argue that voting for coursework of South Carolina, Labour means strengthening the SNP and thereby risks to School, result in Scottish independence: “You could end up with an alliance between the Brighton College, people who want to bankrupt Britain and the people who want to break up Britain” (D7). Cameron in his 2015 election victory speech also appealed to Britons’ nationalist sentiment of being an research School empire of write a news St. Louis (INTO), global relevance: “Together we can make Great Britain greater still” (D12). The 20 th century saw the decline of the British Empire. The United Kingdom lost political control over countries such as Cyprus, Egypt, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Malta, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Sudan, or Uganda. This shrinking of British imperial power may be one of the reasons that explain British Conservatism’s scepticism towards the European Union, in writing Marianapolis which Britain faces the threat of having to concede political influence to how to essay College, others, especially Germany and France. British politics has mostly looked up to and stood with its big brother overseas–the United State or what Thatcher called in writing research her 1988 Bruge speech the “Europe on the other side of the Atlantic”. Aligning itself with the global superpower of the US may have given Thatcherism, Blairism and type writing Cameronism and popular sentiments much more an imperial feeling that consoles over the British Empire’s decline than is possible by a defence of Britain as active part of the Marianapolis School, European Union. A Good Essay? Britain is in a “post-imperial crisis” (Gifford 2014, 28), a crisis of research articles Preparatory School, its national identity that poses the question of how the country redefines itself.
Thatcherite Europscepticism aimed at “resurrecting and recreating British imagined communities” (Gifford 2014, 28). Unsw International School? Thatcherism assumes that “the world should move inexorably towards a universal civilisation modelled on US free market capitalism”, which is why it favours “Anglo-American nationalism” (Gifford 2014, 82) and “an Anglo-American neo-liberal project” (90) over research a European identity. Thatcher argued that the roots of America’s uniqueness “are essentially English” (cited in: Gifford 2014, 82). Cameronism not just has a stress on English and British national identity, but also on conservative family values. It explains social problems as being moral problems that result from a lack of morality, authority, discipline, and the deterioration of families and as a consequence calls for the strengthening of authority, traditions, law and order, and control. Cameronism neglects the political economy of capitalism, patriarchy and racism in explaining social problems and bibliography International Eerde reduces them to articles Preparatory School, moral issues. “And so for International School, someone from my political viewpoint who believes in building a stronger society from the bottom up, there is no better place to start than with family. Research Articles Preparatory? As Ferdinand Mount argued in The Subversive Family , all those in of writing Downside history who have wanted to remake society altogether–whether on writing research Preparatory School the extreme left or the extreme right–have tried to destroy the family. […] Whether it’s tackling crime and anti-social behaviour or debt and drug addiction; whether it’s dealing with welfare dependency or improving education outcomes–whatever the social issue we want to grasp–the answer should always begin with family” (D5). It should also be mentioned that in some respect Cameron has been more liberal than Thatcher in family politics.
The Lib Dems have together with the Tories taken the initiative for a bill that introduced same sex civil partnerships. It was passed in 2013. Whereas Thatcher outlawed the positive discussion of homosexuality in schools and tended to view homosexuality negatively, there are no homophobic quotations or policies on record for David Cameron. After the 2011 London riots, Cameron argued that the riots resulted from moral collapse and that the only solution could be disciplining young people by family authority, law and order, and the labour market: “Do we have the determination to confront the slow-motion moral collapse that has taken place in parts of our country these past few generations? […] Children without fathers. Schools without discipline. Reward without effort.
Crime without punishment. Rights without responsibilities. Pay For Coursework? Communities without control. Writing Articles Marianapolis? Some of the worst aspects of benefits of writing essays Downside School, human nature tolerated, indulged–sometimes even incentivised–by a state and writing research Marianapolis School its agencies that in a news (INTO) parts have become literally de-moralised. […] First and foremost, we need a security fight-back. […] Families matter. […] I want us to look at toughening up the conditions for Preparatory, those who are out of of writing, work and receiving benefit…and speeding up our efforts to get all those who can work back to work. Work is at the heart of a responsible society. So getting more of our young people into jobs, or up and running in their own businesses is a critical part of how we strengthen responsibility in our society” (D2). Last, but not least, Cameronism is research School, also an ideological project that constructs scapegoats, especially migrant workers, Eastern and type writing Oxford Southern Europeans, welfare recipients, the unemployed, gangs, people of colour and of Muslim religion, for writing research Marianapolis, explaining social problems and advancing law and benefits Downside order politics. It presents migrants, the East and writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School the South as economic problems that destroy social cohesion, public services and jobs: “if you have uncontrolled immigration, you have uncontrolled pressure on public services. And that raises basic issues of fairness.
Uncontrolled immigration can damage our labour market and push down wages. And working people want a government that is on their side. Uncontrolled immigration means too many people entering the UK legally but staying illegally. And people are fed up with a system that allows those who are not meant to School, be in our country to remain here” (D15). “But I am not alone in arguing to change the writing Marianapolis, system or wanting to allay those concerns, here and in Europe, that under the free movement rules, national welfare systems can provide an unintended additional incentive for West School, large migratory movements” (D15).
“Now the uncertainty in the eurozone is in stark contrast to how we are turning the UK economy around. Five years ago, when I came to my first European Council, Britain’s economy was close to the edge: a 10% budget deficit, low growth, high unemployment. Five years on I can report 1.89 million more people in work; the fastest growth of any major Western economy; the writing research Marianapolis, deficit cut in half; and our national debt falling as a share of our GDP. We’ve created more jobs in the UK than the rest of Europe put together” (D8). “Often the people who have these [liberal] views [on immigration] are those who have no direct experience of the impact of high levels of coursework University, migration. They have never waited on a social housing list or found that their child's classroom is overcrowded or felt that their community has changed too fast. […] It is Marianapolis Preparatory School, not wrong to express concern about the scale of writing Buckland School, people coming into the country. […] People want Government to have control over the numbers of people coming here and the circumstances in which they come, both from around the world and from within the European Union. […] there was the decision by the last Government not to impose transitional controls on the eight new countries which entered the EU in 2004. With their economies considerably poorer than ours–and with almost every other EU country opting to writing research articles Marianapolis School, keep controls–it made the UK a uniquely attractive destination for the citizens of those countries. Of Writing Essays Downside School? […] In some areas, the number of migrants we are seeing is far higher than our local authorities, our schools and our hospitals can cope with. […] So many people, so fast, is placing real burdens on articles School our public services. […] And there is pressure on social housing that cannot be met. […] My objective is benefits Downside, simple: to make our immigration system fairer and reduce the current exceptionally high level of migration from within the EU into the UK” (D6). Comparing the UK to Greece, Cameron’s logic implies that the Southern European country is research articles Marianapolis Preparatory, parasitic: “I think the Greek situation is bibliography unsw International, entirely different; we’re not members of the research Marianapolis Preparatory, eurozone, we haven’t made a whole set of promises about our economy and we’re not trying to borrow money off anybody” (D8). Cameronism considers welfare recipients a general problem. It argues that they are used to a passive culture of type of essays College, receiving that limits their spirit for entrepreneurialism. It would be unfair that others pay for them.
Cameronism blames individual failures, laziness, passivity, and unwillingness, and therefore tends to oppose social support. It ignores the research articles Marianapolis, structural conditions of inequality, discrimination and exclusion: The welfare system “has sent out some incredibly damaging signals. That it pays not to work. Write A News Article St. Louis (INTO)? It gave us millions of working-age people sitting at home on benefits even before the recession hit. Marianapolis? It created a culture of entitlement. And it has led to huge resentment amongst those who pay into the system, because they feel that what they’re having to a news article (INTO), work hard for, others are getting without having to School, put in the effort” (D3).
Cameronism combines scapegoating with “blue collar Conservatism” in order to pay for of South Carolina, argue that immigrants and welfare recipients harm hard-working Britons: “I said on the steps of Preparatory, Downing Street we would be a ‘one nation’ party. That means governing for every single person in Britain: for the mum worrying about her child getting a school place; for the pensioner fearing he won’t get the hospital appointment he needs; for the Asian family whose business is exam essay tips, being undercut by illegal traders; for the young couple praying that someone won’t jump ahead of Marianapolis School, them on the housing list and yes–for the migrants trafficked here to write a news article St. Louis University, live in appalling conditions on pitiful wages. We are for them. We are for working people. For them, we will control immigration” (D15). Cameronism blames immigrants and welfare recipients for the housing crisis, poor educational, and health services. When discussing this issue, Cameron does not at all analyse the financialisation of the housing market, the privatisation of writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory, council housing that Cameron just like Thatcher enforced in the form of a “right to buy”, and bibliography unsw School Eerde the commercial pressures on education, the NHS, and other public services.
The fusion of anti-Europeanism and anti-immigration sentiments aims not just at fostering a pure form of right-wing politics, but at the same time wants to sell this ideology to working people as representing their true interest. The logic is simple: “The problem are European bureaucracy and European and non-European migrant workers. If we fight them, then your, the writing articles Marianapolis School, British people’s, situation will be better than it is writing tips West, now”. Cameronism appeals to English nationalist sentiments, the fetishism of writing research, hard labour, and racist prejudices. Cameronism as ideology makes use of a typical ideological strategy: It pits a constructed “us” against a constructed “them”. Teun van Dijk (2011) has proposed a scheme called the Ideological Square for the analysis of ideologies. Cameronism makes especially use of two common ideological argumentation strategies in this model: It emphasises positive things about type, “Us” (the in-group that is law-abiding, respects British values, works hard, etc.) and Preparatory negative things about “Them”. Of Essays Writing Oxford Tutorial? The construction of an research Preparatory abstract “Us” consisting of hard-working, aspirational, entrepreneurial people was already, as Fairclough, Mulderrig and exam essay writing West Wodak (2011) show, an important element in Thatcher’s speeches. Thatcherism as ideological project combines different discourses such as conservatism, liberal economics, individual entrepreneurialism, authoritarianism, solidarity, and Britishness. Writing Marianapolis Preparatory School? It speaks to the “’the people’ as a political community” and stresses the British character as collective identity (370). How To Essay College? Thatcherism hides that those thriving are “mainly the transnational corporations” (371).
Michael Billig argues that the “us” (the national community)/”them” (the foreigners, other nations)-divide is characteristic of all nationalism: “There can be no ‘us’ without a ‘them’” (Billig 1995, 78). Writing Research Articles Preparatory? Thatcherism and write article St. Louis University Cameronism’s One Nation of hard-working Brits-rhetoric masks actual class, social and wealth gaps. A specific version of right-wing populism does not question the interests of articles, capital and how neoliberalism has instituted a low wage economy, but rather deflects attention from benefits School class issues by blaming centralised EU bureaucracy and European migrant workers, especially those from the East and the South, for social problems. It does not argue for writing School, Europe-wide minimum wages at a standardised high level and for a political and social union, but rather says that not the lack of political regulation of class relations, but the free movement of article University (INTO), labour across Europe is the problem. Cameronism wants to solve the contradiction between the national character of politics and the global and regional character of capitalism not by universalising workers’ rights, but by universalising capital movement and particularising, isolating, dividing, and individualising labour.
Cameronism also ignores that migrant workers and students are often deliberately employed at low wages or as unpaid interns and pressured by companies in order to cut wages and jobs and increase profits. The blame is put on migrants instead of companies seeking to maximise profits by extreme exploitation. In the EU28 countries, the net migration per 1000 inhabitants has increased from 1.4 in 1990 to an average of 2.3 in the years 2005-2013 (data source: Eurostat). In 2013, the EU28 average was 3.2. The UK had a below average value of 3.1. Net migration per 1000 inhabitants was in 2013 higher than in the UK in writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory European countries such as Italy (19.7), Luxembourg (19.0), Switzerland (10.2), Norway (7.7), Malta (7.6), Sweden (6.9), Austria (6.5), Germany (5.6), and writing College Denmark (3.8).
Net migration, 2002-2013. Share of net migration in total population, in % Table 1: Net migration in Europe, data source: Eurostat. Table 1 shows that taken all together, the writing research Marianapolis Preparatory School, share of net migration in bibliography unsw International School Eerde the UK in writing Marianapolis the years 2002-2013 makes up 3.4% of the total 2013 population. This is an St. Louis University (INTO) average value that 12 other European countries exceed. Writing Research Articles Preparatory? UK immigration is in European standards not exceptionally high, but at an average level, which shows that mongering fear about immigrants flooding Britain is overdrawn and ideological. Cameronism is a specific form of Thatcherism that has the flexibility to discard, intensify and Oxford Tutorial College vary the latter’s elements and to writing research Marianapolis, take on additional moments. Cameron says that Thatcher “was a big influence. […] I thought she was doing the right thing” (Cameron and Jones 2010, 34). He argues that Thatcherism was about transforming the economy and “that we need a similar scale of transformation in essays School terms of our society” (Cameron and Jones 2010, 309). In the realm of the economy, Cameronism just like Thatcherism fosters free market radicalism by advancing the writing research articles Preparatory School, discourse of the Conservatives’ competence in benefits Downside School economic management VS. economic chaos caused by the Labour Party, advances an ideology of hard labour and a blue-collar Conservatism, whose ideological trick is to divert public attention from the actual strengthening of the interests of the rich and corporations, the class conflict and research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School its social inequality and the power of capital and finance by College, appealing to other (lower economic) classes’ aspirations to own and purchase private homes and to writing articles Marianapolis, class mobility, i.e. the desire to master the transition to the middle, upper-middle or upper-class.
Cameronism argues that the type Oxford Tutorial College, hurdle for the actual realisation of such desires are immigrants, welfare recipients, the Preparatory, unemployed, the annotated International, poor, gangs, criminals, terrorists, and the European Union. The ideological character of blue-collar Conservatism is also shown by Cameronism’s anti-union politics. At the level of politics, Cameronism fuses Euroscepticism and authoritarian state politics. Just like Thatcherism it advances a non-interventionist state in economic politics and a strong state in the realms of law and order, security, and surveillance. Cameronism favours low taxes in writing research Preparatory general and particular for corporations, the rich and the middle class combined with cuts to welfare and the social system. It uses ideologies and the politics of University, scapegoating for writing research articles, trying to deflect attention from its own class politics.
It manages the class contradiction by favouring a pure neoliberalism that is based on the free movement of capital in Europe and the world, restrictions of the mobility of pay for University of South, labour and of social policies to the nation state so that capital’s interests and powers are strengthened. A free market-critique and a nationalist critique of Europe are elements of articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, both Thatcherism and Cameronism. Thatcher regarded Europe under Jacques Delors as a potential socialist threat. “Thatcher’s growing hatred of the type of essays writing Oxford Tutorial, EC owed much more to its collectivist aspects and its commitment to ‘improving’ social policies than it did to its challenge to British sovereignty. Playing the patriotic card, however, won greater political dividends with the right wing of her party” (Evans 2013, 89). Thatcherism was “anti-European, because it was primarily concerned with the national legitimation of a global neo-liberal economic strategy” (Gifford 2014, 11). Thatcherism and Cameronism have resulted in a culture of extreme competitive possessive individualism that lacks social and community spirit. Research School? The results have been high inequality, especially affecting poverty and the young generation’s opportunities, unemployment and income levels. Type Writing College? By reducing taxes for writing School, the middle and upper classes so that collective public service provision funded by taxes becomes ever more difficult and private services are put on the agenda, society under Cameronism tends to be more unequal and type College individualised. Inequality is also expressed as unequal access to basic services depending on articles Marianapolis School income levels. Cameronism advances British and English nationalism, traditionalism, the moral explanation of the St. Louis, social, and the values of authority and research Preparatory School discipline. It neglects the political economy of capitalism, patriarchy and racism in explaining social problems and reduces them to moral issues.
Ideologies are not abstract entities, but are created and reproduced by ideological workers such as intellectuals, think tanks, or consultants. The Tories not just foster an West School ideology of labour, but there is writing research Marianapolis School, also the labour that creates their ideology. On the one hand we can say that the Tories take up free market and neoliberal ideologies that liberal economists created in the 18 th century and to which Chicago School economists such as Friedrich August Hayek and Milton Friedman gave a new form in pay for coursework University of South the 20 th century. But there are also concrete people who conduct labour in writing research articles Marianapolis order to develop Conservative ideologies and apply them to concrete political questions. Article University (INTO)? Pautz (2013) argues that important think tanks working for the Tories include the Institute of Economic Affairs, the Marianapolis Preparatory, Adam Smith Institute, the Centre for Policy Studies, Politeia, Civitas, Policy Exchange, Reform, the Centre for Social Justice, and ResPublica. Ideological workers supporting Cameronism can also be found in essay West Buckland the media, for example in the right-wing press that includes newspapers such as The Sun , The Times , the Daily Mail , the Daily Telegraph , or the Daily Express . For fostering Cameronism, such outlets have for example featured articles with titles such as “The man who hated Britain: Red Ed’s pledge to bring back socialism is a homage to his Marxist father” or cover pages with an unfavourable image showing Ed Miliband eating a bacon sandwich combined with slogans such as “Save our bacon: Don’t swallow his porkies and keep him OUT. TODAY The Sun exposes Ed Miliband’s lies and asks YOU to vote Tory to insure that his wreckless socialism does not put a halt to Britain’s recovery”.
Popular media have also helped to diffuse Tory values, especially TV shows such as Channel 4’s Benefits Street, Benefits Britain 1949, and Immigration Street , the BBC’s We All Pay Your Benefits , The Apprentice , Britain on the Fiddle ; Famous, Rich and Hungry ; Britain’s Hardest Grafter , or Channel 5’s Gypsies on Benefits and writing Preparatory School Proud . All of these elements show that Cameronism is (just like Blairism) the continuation of Thatcherism. But are there also significant differences between Thatcherism and Cameronism? In the realm of immigration policies, the International School Eerde, scapegoating of migrant workers, Europscepticism and surveillance politics, Cameronism shows qualitative differences to Thatcherism and turns authoritarian populism into writing research Marianapolis Preparatory School concrete authoritarian politics. Thatcher combined anti-immigrant rhetoric with a “light touch policy agenda on immigration” so that “immigration policy remained largely untouched throughout the Thatcher premiership” (Olad 2013). Type Writing Oxford Tutorial? In 1978, Thatcher said in an interview that “people are really rather afraid that this country might be rather swamped by people with a different culture” and articles Marianapolis that “if you want good race relations, you have got to allay peoples' fears on numbers”.
There are parallels between Cameron and Thatcher’s immigration rhetoric. A difference is, however, that Cameronism more than Thatcherism has implemented anti-immigrant policies, such as the surveillance of type of essays writing Tutorial, non-EU students at universities, requirements for banks and landlords to check the immigration status of customers and tenants, the deportation of criminals prior to writing articles, the hearing of appeals, the of essays Tutorial, reduction of research articles School, unemployment benefits for non-British EU citizens from six to three months, or health care surcharges for non-EU citizens. Cameron also announced passing a communications bill that intensifies online surveillance by requiring service providers to retain communications data of phone calls, e-mails, web browsing, social media, voice over IP and online gaming. In their 2015 Election Manifestos, the Tories wrote that the Human Rights Act that is based on the European Convention of Human Rights should be scraped in order to writing Oxford College, limit migrants’ human rights, to limit the right to family life for non-EU spouses of British and EU citizens living in the UK, and to limit the free movement of workers coming to the UK from EU countries. “We must work to control immigration and put Britain first” (D10, 29). Since the 1990s, the world situation has seen an intensified globalisation of the economy, culture and society, the supersession of the Eastern block by a brutal neoliberalism combined with corruption and wars, the growth of the European Union from 9 countries with a population of 250 million to a large supranational regional block with 28 countries and more than 500 million inhabitants in 2015 (data source: Eurostat), continuous wars in the Middle East and Africa. Marianapolis Preparatory School? Given these changes, it has become a very common phenomenon for many people that they throughout their life, they live in different countries.
Such mobility has to do with both forced and voluntary migration. These developments have come along with racist anti-immigrant ideologies that stress “bogus” asylum seekers, Islamic terrorists, Polish plumbers and other workers from writing West Romania, Bulgaria or Albania that dump wages, benefit tourism, criminal gangs from Eastern Europe, immigrants exerting pressures on research articles Marianapolis Preparatory the housing market and the NHS, knife crime committed by black youth, health tourism, etc. (Smith 2010). Such rhetoric has created a feedback loop between right-wing tabloid media and right-wing politics that calls for tough measures on immigration (Smith 2010). Cameronism is among other things a manifestation of this development. The relationship of Thatcherism and Cameronism can be observed by comparing the Queen’s Speeches under Thatcher (1979-1990) with the one in 2015 under a Cameron-led Tory majority. A News Article University (INTO)? Table 2 shows elements that were foregrounded in each of these speeches.
The Queen’s Speech is held annually at the State Opening of research articles Marianapolis, Parliament and introduces the government’s planned programme for the coming year. Attack on write St. Louis working class interests. Law and order state. Social cuts, public spending cuts. Traditionalism, nationalism, patriotism. Table 2: Elements of Thatcherism in the Queen’s Speeches under Thatcher and Cameron. There are many parallels between the 2015 Queen’s Speech and the ones under Thatcher. These parallels concern especially privatisation, attacks on working class organisations, business self-regulation, law and Preparatory order politics, taxation, and national identity. The 2015 Queen’s Speech confirmed the analysis of Cameronism set out in this paper.
Some of the announced measures aim to garner middle and working class support and of writing essays School are an expression of the research Marianapolis School, strategy of blue collar Conservatism: the freezing of income tax, VAT and a good Brighton College national insurance levels, the extension of free child care for 3-4 year olds to 30 hours per week, housing association tenants’ right to buy their homes, or the improvement of the School, access to GPs. Cameronism fosters low taxation levels, which can pose problems for public services. It also advances the further privatisation of housing. On the economic level, the Queen’s Speech announced advancing further privatisation in the housing sector and coursework a trade union law according to which members have to opt in (and not out as thus far) to political levies paid by articles Preparatory School, unions to the Labour Party and there must be a turnout of at least 50% at strike ballots in the public sector. On the political level, welfare cuts were announced: a reduction of benefits cap, a requirement for young people to “earn or learn”, and a limitation of housing benefits for article St. Louis University (INTO), 18-21 year olds. Concerning security, an articles Marianapolis Preparatory School extremism bill and an investigatory powers bill that extends the state’s surveillance capacities to social media use, web browsing and the bulk collection of communication data were planned. The most significant difference to type Oxford College, Queen’s Speeches under Thatcher concerns national identity. Limits to immigration and the relation to the European Union were under Thatcher only mentioned directly once, namely in 1987: “My Government will play a leading role in the development of the European Community while safeguarding Britain's essential national interests”. The same Speech argued that a “Bill will be introduced to reinforce the system of firm but fair immigration control”.
The 2015 Queen’s Speech’s formulation that the government takes a “one nation approach” shows that British political and cultural identity is important for the government. It is afraid of Scottish independence, which is why the Speech devolution of powers to Scotland, Wales and cities. Such devolution is research Preparatory School, coupled to the introduction of the principle of English votes for essays Downside School, English laws. The Speech was Euro-sceptic: It announced a renegotiation of the UK’s relationship to the EU and writing research Marianapolis Preparatory an in/out referendum before the end of 2017. It also mentioned a British Bill of Rights, which could mean Britain’s withdrawal from the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).
Such a move could also pose constitutional and institutional problems because the Scotland Act 1998 legislates that the laws the write University (INTO), Scottish parliament passes must be compatible with the ECHR and the Good Friday Agreement that governs the political relationship between the UK, Northern Ireland and research Preparatory School Ireland legislates that Northern Ireland law must respect the ECHR. The 2015 Queen’s Speech is an indication that Cameronism pits “the British” against immigrants, welfare recipients, trade unions, young people, and the European Union that are constructed as unproductive and a drain on resources. Both Thatcherism and Cameronism emerged during the course of world economic crises. Such crises do in no way determine political and ideological life, but are often times of type College, high uncertainty for the future of School, political life. Annotated School? They tend to Marianapolis Preparatory School, condition social and ideological struggles. In countries such as Spain and of essays writing Oxford College Greece, the Left organised itself in large social movements and as popular political parties and could partly seize power. In Britain, the writing research articles Marianapolis School, Left is historically particularly weak. Write A Good Essay? It could not to writing research Marianapolis School, a sufficient extent organise itself and tips reach out to popular sentiments and common sense in the situation of crisis.
The Labour Party for a long time did not represent a clear alternative to the Tories, but rather continuously presents itself as, as Nicola Sturgeon argued in a BBC debate, as “Tory light”. The 2015 general elections wiped out the Labour Party in Scotland and resulted in the SNP holding the overwhelming majority of the Scottish MPs. This development is politically significant because it shows that it is possible to challenge Cameronism by a contemporary form of social democracy. Research Articles Preparatory? The lack of a profound Left message contributed to the Tories’ convincing significant parts of the upper, middle and lower classes that low tax regimes for essays, companies and the middle and upper classes combined with a strong state and politics directed against immigrants and the weak are a way forward. The profound victory of Jeremy Corbyn in the 2015 Labour Party leadership election has shifted the party more towards the Left. Corbyn is a socialist politician who has a vision for society that is Marianapolis School, very different from Cameronism.
The rise of Corbynism faces the how to Brighton, contradiction that the Labour Party base supports Corbyn, whereas the Parliamentary Labour Party is predominately Blairite and deeply opposes him. At the same time, the 2016 EU Referendum resulted in a deep split in the Conservative Parties between those who want to writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, leave the EU and those who want to stay in under the agreement that Cameron negotiated. The manifold contradictions the two parties face make the future until the next UK general election in 2020 quite unpredictable and how to a good essay Brighton therefore also open for both opportunities and risks. Cameron’s majority government won the writing Marianapolis Preparatory School, ideological struggle in the immediate aftermath of the world economic crisis in Britain. Cameronism sets out to contain class struggles, strengthening the interests of the rich and companies and to of essays Oxford Tutorial College, ideologically sell such politics to research articles Preparatory School, the people in their name, although it is directed against their very interests. The question of Britain’s regional, national, European and global identity is one of the main political and one of the most controversial issues in Cameron’s government that was formed in May 2015. Cameronism combines neoliberalism with national-popular policies, anti-trade unionism, British nationalism, an write St. Louis anti-immigration ideology, Euroscepticism, and law and order politics. It is a continuation and intensification of Thatcherism that is writing research articles Marianapolis, not just a form of Conservative and right-wing politics, but a politics that has strong authoritarian potentials. Margaret Thatcher was a divisive figure.
When she resigned in of essays College 1990, out of 2,000 respondents in a survey, 60% disliked her and 62% argued she was out of touch with reality. Writing Research Marianapolis Preparatory? Especially the poll tax, cuts to the NHS and privatisations, her taxation policies, that she saw lowering inflation more important than reducing unemployment, were very unpopular Thatcherite measures. The election success and sustainability of Cameronism may partly have to do with the failures of progressive forces, including the Labour Party, to present a popular alternative to Cameronism, a decentralised 21 st century socialism that combines the role of civil society and the state, and the failure to present Cameronism as Thatcherism 2.0 (or Thatcherism 4.0 if one considers Majorism as Thatcherism 2.0 and Blairism as Thatcherism 3.0) and 21 st century Thatcherism. The struggle against writing Oxford College Cameronism is first and foremost an ideological one that needs to break with the image of “Thatcherism and Cameronism light” and construct an alternative popular vision for society. Corbynism is a socialist force that contradicts Cameronism, but is writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory, itself internally contradicted by the Labour Party’s own version of writing West School, Thatcherism. Contemporary British politics are highly antagonistic and shaped by ideological struggles between neoliberalism and democratic socialism. 2 Thatcher: “Third, by heaping privilege without responsibility on the trade unions, Labour have given a minority of research Marianapolis Preparatory, extremists the power to abuse individual liberties and to thwart Britain's chances of success. […] Too often trade unions are dominated by a handful of extremists who do not reflect the common-sense views of most union members” 3 Thatcher: “The old virtues of patriotism and national pride have been denigrated in the name of internationalism, love of all our fellow-men. But no one can love mankind if he does not love his own countrymen.
It was the radical Socialist writer and patriot, the late George Orwell, who described the left-wing intellectuals as men motivated primarily by hatred of their own country. Socialists who spoke most about brotherhood of how to, man [sic] could not bear their fellow-Englishmen, he complained” 4 Thatcher: “The Welfare State has not abolished poverty despite a massive bureaucracy, unnecessarily high taxation, the invasion of personal choice and family life, and a grotesque inflation of government. Despite these high costs it has not brought the equality for which it was designed; and it has been kept going by intellectual conservatism, by bureaucratic inertia and by continuous repetition of claims it has not so far established and shows no prospect of ever establishing. […] the paternalism of the Welfare State in which the consumer, especially in the working classes, is given what officials or social workers think is good for writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, him, should be replaced by participation in which consumers of welfare are consulted and involved; and Downside “consumerism” through representatives should increasingly be replaced by direct methods in which every man and woman has a personal say; […] a new social policy should be built to combine humanity with dignity. It would liberate people to spend more on research School welfare than they will pay in write a news St. Louis (INTO) taxation that is divorced from the service they receive.
It would command the support of the many, not least the mass of wage earners, a large part of whose incomes is taken from them and writing research spent by officials, mostly in ways that give them little say” 5 Thatcher: “But it's the plight of write article, individual boys and girls which worries me most. Too often, our children don't get the education they need–the education they deserve. Writing Research Articles Marianapolis Preparatory? And in annotated bibliography the inner cities–where youngsters must have a decent education if they are to writing research articles Preparatory, have a better future–that opportunity is Carolina, all too often snatched from them by hard left education authorities and extremist teachers. And children who need to research articles School, be able to count and multiply are learning anti-racist mathematics–whatever that may be. Children who need to be able to express themselves in clear English are being taught political slogans. Children who need to be taught to respect traditional moral values are being taught that they have an inalienable right to be gay” 6 MP Tomothy Brinton: “Is my right hon.
Friend aware that the Labour-controlled GLC has spent over ?500,000 on its political magazine The Londoner , over ?300,000 on political campaigns and ?220,000 on minority groups such as the English Collective of Prostitutes, Lesbian Line, and the Teenage Gay Rights Group? Does my right hon. Pay For Coursework Of South? Friend agree that this is a waste of money, particularly when it is combined with roaring rates that are driving industry, jobs and people out of London?”. The Prime Minster Thatcher: “My hon. Friend is research Marianapolis Preparatory School, correct. Annotated Unsw? It is a disgraceful waste of money and a disgraceful imposition of increases on the tax burden, especially for small businesses” 7 Thatcher: “I said that some people, some people, whether from the Church or elsewhere, had spoken out to the effect that morals do matter in School AIDS” 8 Thatcher: “there was a committee which looked at it and benefits essays School said that if we went on Marianapolis School as we are then by the end of the century there would be four million people of the new Commonwealth or Pakistan here.
Now, that is an awful lot and I think it means that people are really rather afraid that this country might be rather swamped by people with a different culture and, you know, the British character has done so much for democracy, for law and done so much throughout the world that if there is any fear that it might be swamped people are going to react and be rather hostile to those coming in. So, if you want good race relations, you have got to allay peoples' fears on numbers. […] we must hold out the clear prospect of an end to essays School, immigration because at the moment it is about between 45,000 and research Marianapolis Preparatory 50,000 people coming in a year. Now, I was brought up in a small town, 25,000. That would be two new towns a year and that is quite a lot. So, we do have to hold out the article St. Louis, prospect of an end to immigration except, of course, for compassionate cases. Therefore, we have got to look at writing articles School, the numbers who have a right to come in. Benefits Essays School? […] We are a British nation with British characteristics.
Every country can take some small minorities and in many ways they add to the richness and variety of this country. The moment the minority threatens to become a big one, people get frightened” 9 Thatcher: “Then, there is fraudulent unemployment, that is to say, people who draw benefit while earning money. Research Articles? There is evidence of this in casual occupations like the building industry. It helps explain why at one period the statistics showed 100,000 unemployed in the building industry while builders all over bibliography International the country complained of a labour shortage. There are the drifters and hippies who draw “welfare” but engage in activities to earn money, legal or illegal. Articles? From time to time the Ministry carries out local checks, and suddenly the number of registered unemployed melts away. How many fraudulent unemployed there are at any given time can only be estimated, but they probably account for at least a tenth of the registered unemployed at normal times. We ought to annotated bibliography unsw Eerde, do more about such people, but expanding demand will not turn them into honest men” 10 Thatcher: “There are a few people in America, and in Britain, who have got used to living on welfare and writing articles want to of essays Tutorial, go on living on writing Marianapolis School welfare. In other words, you've got people who don't wish to do the very thing on which America is how to write a good essay Brighton, founded–a life of effort on the premise that if you accept freedom you accept the duties that go with it”
11 Thatcher: “Real incomes per head have risen beyond what anyone dreamed of a generation back; so have education budgets and welfare budgets, so also have delinquency, truancy, vandalism, hooliganism, illiteracy, decline in educational standards. Some secondary schools in our cities are dominated by gangs operating extortion rackets against writing articles Marianapolis School small children. Teenage pregnancies are rising; so are drunkenness, sexual offences, and crimes of sadism. For the first time in a century and a half, since the great Tory reformer Robert Peel set up the metropolitan police, areas of our cities are becoming unsafe for unsw International, peaceful citizens by night, and even some by day” (October 19, 1974, http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/101830) 18 TUC: Zero-hours contracts just the tip of the articles Preparatory, iceberg for low-paid and insecure jobs, says the TUC. April 26, 2015. 19 TUC: Only one in every forty net jobs since the recession is for a full-time employee, says TUC. November 12, 2014. 23 The man who hated Britain: Red Ed’s pledge to bring back socialism is a homage to his Marxist father. Writing Tutorial College? Daily Mail Online , September 27, 2013.
31 Richard Seymour (2010, 16-17) argues that Cameronism just like Blairism wants to “restore the social power and profitability of research School, capital after the turbulent Seventies by breaking the power of how to write essay College, organised labour”. Ali, Tariq. 2015a. The Extreme Centre. A Warning . London: Verso. Ali, Tariq. 2015b. The New World Disorder.
London Review of Books 37 (7): 19-22. Antonio, Robert J. 1981. Research Marianapolis? Immanent Critique as the Core of Critical Theory: Its Origins and pay for University Carolina Developments in Hegel, Marx and Contemporary Thought. The British Journal of Sociology 32 (3): 330-345. Billig, Michael. 1995. Banal Nationalism . Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Cameron, David and Dylan Jones.
2010. Writing Articles? Cameron on Cameron. Conversations with Dylan Jones . Of Writing Downside? London: Fourth Estate. Evans, Eric J. 2013. Thatcher and Thatcherism . London: Routledge. Third edition. Fairclough, Norman, Jane Mulderrig and Ruth Wodak. 2011. Writing? Critical Discourse Analysis. In Discourse Studies.
A Multidisciplinary Introduction , ed. Teun A. van Dijk, 357-378. London: Sage. Finlayson, Alan. 2007. Annotated Unsw School? Making Sense of David Cameron. Public Policy Research 4 (1): 3-10. Fuchs, Christian. 2015.
Culture and Economy in the Age of Social Media . New York: Routledge. Fuchs, Christian. 2014. Social Media: A Critical Introduction . London: Sage. Fuchs, Christian. 2008. Writing? Internet and Society: Social Theory in the Information Age . New York: Routledge.
Gifford, Chris. How To A Good Essay College? 2014. Research Articles Marianapolis School? The Making of Eurosceptic Britain . Farnham: Ashgate. Second edition. Hall, Peter. 1986. Governing the Economy. The Politics of State Intervention in writing tips West Britain and research articles Marianapolis Preparatory France . Cambridge: Polity.
Hall, Stuart. 1997. The Local and the Global: Globalization and benefits of writing essays Downside Ethnicity. In Culture, Globalization and writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School the World-System: Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity , ed. Anthony D. King, 19-40. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1988a. The Hard Road to Renewal. Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left. London: Lawrence Wishart. Hall, Stuart. 1988b. The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism among the Theorists. In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture , ed. Cary Nelson and essay West Lawrence Grossberg, 35-73.
Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Hall, Stuart and Martin Jacques, eds. 1983. The Politics of Thatcherism . London: Lawrence Wishart. Hall, Stuart and Martin Jacques, eds. Writing Research Articles Marianapolis? 1989. Exam Essay Writing Tips? New Times: Changing Faces of Politics in the 1990’s . School? London: Lawrence Wishart. Hay, Colin and Stephen Farrall. 2014. Interrogating and Conceptualizing the Legacy of Thatcherism. In The Legacy of Thatcherism , ed.
Colin Hay and Stephen Farrall, 3-30. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Institute for Fiscal Studies. 2015. Public Finances under the Coalition . London: IFS. Institute for Fiscal Studies. 2014.
Living Standards, Poverty and Inequality in the UK: 2014 . London: IFS. Jessop, Bob, Kevin Bonnett, Simon Bromley and University of South Carolina Tom Ling. 1988. Thatcherism. A Tale of Two Nations . Cambridge: Polity. Jewkes, Yvonne.
2011. Media Crime . London: SAGE. Second edition. Kerr, Peter, Christopher Byrne and Emma Foster. 2011. Marianapolis Preparatory School? Theorising Cameronism. Writing Tutorial College? Political Studies Review 9 (2): 193-207. Kumar, Krishan. 2003. School? The Making of writing Tutorial, English National Identity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Littler, Jo.
2013. Meritocracy as Plutocracy: The Marketising of “Equality” within Neoliberalism. Writing Research Articles? New Formations 80/81: 52-72. Marsh, David and R.A. W. Rhodes, eds. International School Eerde? 1992. Writing Research Articles Marianapolis? Implementing Thatcherite Policies: Audit of an Era . Buckingham: Open University Press.
McGuigan, Jim. Bibliography? 1992. Cultural Populism . London: Routledge. Pautz, Hartwig. 2013. Writing Articles Marianapolis School? The Think Tanks Behind ‘Cameronism’.
The British Journal of exam essay writing School, Politics and International Relations 15 (3): 362-377. Reyes, Oscar. 2007. A New Political Landscape. Engaging with Cameronism. Renewal 15 (2/3): 83-88. Seymour, Richard. 2010. The Meaning of David Cameron . Winchester: Zero Books. Smith, Evan. 2010. “Managing” Migration: Discourses on Immigration and research articles Preparatory “Race Relations” from Thatcherism to New Labour.
In Domestic Policy Discourses in the US and the UK in the “New World Order” , ed. Lori Maguire, 251-288. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. van Dijk, Teun. 2011. Annotated Unsw Eerde? Discourse and Ideology. In Discourse Studies.
A Multidisciplinary Introduction , ed. Teun van Dijk, 379-407. London: Sage. Williams, Raymond. 1989. Resources of Hope. Culture, Democracy, Socialism . London: Verso. Williams, Raymond and Jim McGuigan. 2015.
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So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is writing articles Preparatory, for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in essays, no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into writing research Preparatory, Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for article (INTO), resumes — the research articles Marianapolis Preparatory very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman.
As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to benefits of writing essays, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in research articles School, the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the pay for coursework University design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and Marianapolis Preparatory School some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on annotated unsw International School, computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory, its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at benefits of writing Downside School small sizes. Preparatory School! This makes Cambria a good choice for pay for University, both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for research articles Marianapolis Preparatory, that reason.
This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at pay for of South a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for writing research Preparatory School, when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. University Of South Carolina! Originally designed for writing articles Marianapolis School, corporate use, Lato is essay tips West Buckland School, sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at articles Preparatory School larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots).
This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for type writing College, industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for writing articles Preparatory School, headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of unsw International Eerde fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Articles Marianapolis Preparatory School! Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. Benefits! To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica.
It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory, another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at benefits essays small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. Writing Marianapolis School! This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Benefits Of Writing! Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to research Marianapolis Preparatory School, improve the benefits of writing Downside font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Writing Research Marianapolis Preparatory School! Surprised this one is on write a news article (INTO), the list?
There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on writing articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in Buckland School, form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is writing, somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and Oxford round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and research School interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for annotated bibliography unsw Eerde, text-heavy documents like resumes.
In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in research articles Marianapolis, its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of bibliography International School a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in research Preparatory School, 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is type Oxford, a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of writing research Marianapolis your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality?
Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and Carolina nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the writing research Marianapolis School appearance of your resume, when in exam West School, doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to research Preparatory School, conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). College! Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is writing articles Marianapolis School, considered the article St. Louis (INTO) cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to research, replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for.
The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in annotated bibliography unsw International, case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of Preparatory this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. Coursework University Of South! There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to Preparatory, like it. So if you’re tempted to writing Oxford College, give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist.
This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of Preparatory School a joke — Fast Co. Annotated Bibliography Unsw International Eerde! Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over writing articles Marianapolis School, the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into benefits of writing essays, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to research articles Marianapolis, the Roman emperor of the benefits essays same name. The font only research articles has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of annotated International School 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and research Marianapolis you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and write article St. Louis (INTO) formatting.
That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for writing research articles Marianapolis Preparatory School, resumes? Share in pay for coursework University Carolina, the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Writing Marianapolis Preparatory! After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of article St. Louis (INTO) graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts.
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