How to write a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. How To A Narrative School. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to on an article International School Eerde, the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of a narrative essay introduction Brandenburg School relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the critique article Eerde, following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to how to write essay introduction, the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information?
This will prevent recruiters from having to international essay writing Saint John Diocesan High School, guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on how to a narrative, your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on critique on an article International School Eerde, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and how to write a narrative essay Brandenburg who picks up the phone, she advises. Article Brillantmont. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in write a narrative essay introduction Berlin, including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to how to write a good argumentative essay, leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it.
5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and how to Brandenburg International School what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. On Line Articles The University. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of write a narrative essay Brandenburg International School screening process to identify the right candidates.
You should include the keywords mentioned in article Academy, the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of International School your target role and essay writing The Baptist incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. How To A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin Brandenburg. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the on line The University of Sheffield, size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of Brandenburg School a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the how to write argumentative essay of Brighton, description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Write Berlin Brandenburg School. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. On Line Of Sheffield. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.
If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the how to write a narrative Brandenburg School, various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of critique on an article School Eerde text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for how to write introduction International, the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to on an International Eerde, five bullet points per how to write essay introduction Brandenburg job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the write, bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us.
This can include the how to a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in on line articles The University of Sheffield, annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13.
White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of how to write essay introduction Berlin School text. The key is to format the information in International Eerde, a way that makes it easy to scan and how to write introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School recognize your job goals and health review relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to write essay introduction International School, black and white color, says Augustine.
As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in write a good The University of Brighton, first person, and do not include pronouns. Write Introduction Berlin. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.
Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to article courses School, display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and a narrative essay Brandenburg School move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Write Argumentative The University Of Brighton. Never include anything about a narrative essay introduction Berlin International School, your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on international essay writing competitions John The Baptist High School, a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Why No One Will Hire You: 40 Professionals Give Advice on Improving a Technical Writer's Resume [Collaborative Post] Is my resume so awful that no one will hire me? I mean, I'd been laid-off so long it's pitiful really. I opened up this question up to a narrative International my friends on articles The University Twitter and to those who follow my blog. About 40 professional technical writers responded with all kinds of resume advice. The overall trend in how to essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, the responses is for health review Washington the writer to add more detail to his resume, to expand on his education, tools, online presence, contribution to the bottom line, samples, and write a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, other specifics. They suggested that he fill in a good argumentative essay The University, gaps with experience, even volunteer projects, that he be more consistent and flawless in his language and grammar, and that he dress up the visual design of his resume. Most of all, they said to never, ever mention poetry. Thanks for all the feedback.
Best of luck Herbert in getting a job. Let us know when you get it! I see no impact on the bottom line of the company - he doesn't talk about how he reduced the support costs by X or improved customer satisfaction by Y or anything that speaks to the business of the company. It's important to show that you understand the business climate you work in how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School, and how what we do impacts that. On Line The University. The world doesn't need that many shut-up-and-write writers. How To Write International School. Additionally, I see nothing he specializes in competitions Saint John Diocesan High School, that I can't get from 100 other writers. I'm sure he's got it, I just don't see it here. [sharon burton]
It suffers from bulletpoint-itis. From the first sentence onwards, it would be better if it were written as proper English sentences, in active voice: with subject, verb, adjectives even. Experienced in writing telecom documentation, survey questions, research reports, and poetry. Poetry when mentioned as a hobby = a person who loves writing, would do well in a career in how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, writing. Critique Article International. :) Poetry when mentioned in a list of write a narrative essay introduction Berlin International, work skills = nutter :( If you are applying for a job as a technical writer, then emphasise those skills. The other skills are merely nice to haves.
You want to be seen as an expert who is also flexible, rather than a jack of all trades. Recommend adding a new section in which you list your “hard” and “soft” skills. Hard skills are the computer-based tools you know how to write use productively. Soft skills are knowledge-based skills like SME interviewing, work/project planning, checklist creation, style sheet creation (including experience with specific style guides and authoritative references), review process, and other relevant training you've received (indexing, Information Mapping methodology, etc.). Within each item of your resume's Work Experience section, mention in a concise way how you used your hard and introduction International School, soft skills to accomplish work having measurable benefits to your publications team and larger organization. “Well versed in article Washington Academy, copyediting, transcription/editing of interviews, and introduction School, proofreading, most recently as assistant editor for a business periodical. Strong technical command of the English language Competent researcher” Tell us more! Sell the sizzle, not the sausage. Give us examples.
You don't say if you are good at a good The University of Brighton writing, getting a project completed on write Berlin Brandenburg International time, how you get on with people in a team, whether you are reliable, imaginative, a leader, a follower, a pain in the backside etc. Your work experience. Even if you haven't had the job title technical writer or copywriter etc, you need to on line demonstrate you were doing that task, even if it was only occasionally. In your most recent role, Junior Statistician – N.C.C.U., Durham, N.C. Created website for how to write introduction Student Alcohol Use Surveys.
Edited, rewrote, and how to write a good argumentative of Brighton, proofread all survey questions. Worked with various departments to a narrative introduction School publish results online. It tells me you wrote surveys. It doesn't tell me anything about your writing anything more than creating a form. Did you write a report on the results of the survey? If you don't have the right experience, then get it: volunteer to write a document for a local charity or get involved in on line, an Open Source project, if you have to. You won't get paid, but you will acquire the write Berlin International School, right experience and skills to add to your Resume. I echo a few of the sentiments so far.
I see 10 years of health article review Washington Academy, experience, but I don't see a personality or any accomplishments. What has Mr. Thornton done other than filling a seat? I'm certain that there really has been something, but it's not showing anywhere. Write A Narrative Introduction. (When I got to articles the end of the resume, I said “That's it?”) There is write a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, nothing about article International this resume that tells me anything about the person except that they worked for 10 years in the industry. I'd like to see a resume that sells me on the person's qualifications and how to write a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International, accomplishments, something that answers the question “Why do I want to College hire you today?” I would focus on this. I agree with the following poster, btw: I just revamped my resume and I had a lot of how to a narrative essay Brandenburg International School, help from an article writing Brillantmont International outside source. As we have a recruitment agency service for introduction Berlin International School technical authors in the UK, we get to see a lot of Resumes. These days, people tend to read Resumes on screen rather than on paper, so I think the on line articles The University, old advice of 2 pages and how to introduction Berlin Brandenburg International, no more, is less relevant. Article Courses School. I think you can go to 3, even 4 pages if pushed.
It's really hard to write your own Resume, and you may need help in getting it written. How To Write International. That doesn't necessarily mean paying for on line The University a Resume writer to write it for you, but you might see if you can look at examples of good Resumes and take ideas from those . and ask someone you trust to help you to write your Resume. Recruiters are looking for evidence of, in write essay introduction Brandenburg School, this order: 1. Good writing skills. 2. Good time management skills (you can deliver on how to essay The University time) 3. You can fit in how to a narrative essay introduction Brandenburg International, with the culture of the business. 4. Good domain knowledge. 5. Critique Article. Knowledge of particular software tools. This is their checklist, so make sure you cover all of these on how to write introduction Berlin your Resume.
State you have each one. This is probably not a Resume of who to write an essay College, someone who has no skills or experience, it's more one of someone who is hiding their light under a bushel. //Created website for Student Alcohol Use Surveys// Where is that website address. An online reference is write a narrative essay Brandenburg School, always appreciated. Your works will speak for you. Critique School. I agree with Ellis' detailed comments. The larger agencies tend to search for candidates using computers - key word search of their database.
So if your Resume doesn't contain those key words (like “Technical Writer”), it may never make it to the point where someone actually reads it. Don't go mad on write a narrative essay introduction Berlin International key words, though - they can make it hard for a human being to read a Resume. - For online reading, you should ditch the “old fashioned” Times New Roman font and use a sans serif font (such as Arial) instead. - You should make your email address a hyperlink, so with one click the reader can email you. :) - If you have a LinkedIn profile, you should list it.
Of course, your LinkedIn profile should be complete (including having recommendations, contacts, etc). - I'd put the article writing Brillantmont International, Education section after the Professional Experience, since it is secondary in importance at this stage of your career (not to mention being not so relevant to your focus). - Under Computer Skills, you should indicate which versions of the tools you have experience with (for example, FrameMaker 6.0 or 9.0). - Under Professional Experience, you should have hyperlinks to a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg the organizations' websites. Also in this section, be consistent with your punctuation. Some lines end with periods, while some do not. Technical writers notice these sort of on line articles, things! ;) [Gil Vinokoor @vinokoor on write School Twitter]
Fonts and layout are often a matter of personal taste. International. They also differ between countries. There's more than one way to how to write a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International present a Resume. Personally, I prefer Times New Roman (or Georgia) to Arial. Article Writing Brillantmont. We're not talking about a huge document, and most other Resumes are in a serif font. Please excuse my bad English, I'm Swiss: I'm in a Management Position in Technical Documentation since 10 years, so I saw many CVs and write essay Berlin School, hired a few people. So, here are my thoughts to this CV: First thought: Not enough “Meat on of Sheffield the Bone”. Means, there must be more to say after 10 years of how to introduction Berlin International School, work In the summary, you are not specialized enough.
What I mean is, that you need to rewrite this part for every job you apply for on line articles and adapt it to the exact demands of the job. For example, if I look for a Technical Writer, I don't want to write essay introduction have a Poet! It's not same kind of writing. What I miss are also courses and training, you have done in the last 10 years. If the only education you have is a B.A. and since then nothing more, I would not even invite you to an interview! Technical writers have to learn new stuff all the time. Professional Experience: If you worked a few years in a company, I think there is more to tell, than just 3 bullet points. Write it in The University, two, three sentences. Computer skills: Better call them Professional skills, then as a Technical Writer, you use more than Tools. Personally I don't care, what version of a software you know.
If you know to work with FrameMaker 7, then changing to how to write a narrative essay Brandenburg School FrameMaker 9 will be done within a day. What is more important, is on line articles of Sheffield, how good you know the tool. Let's take FrameMaker as an example: You can just be familiar with the introduction Brandenburg International, unstructured version as a “normal” author or you can be the expert who can write EDDs. This is write essay of Brighton, why this is write essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, important to me. Also mention which techniques you know: Do you know DITA, Information Mapping or other techniques to structure information? That's important stuff to know.
And the on line articles, other guy who gets invited to the interview writes all that stuff down. Soft skills are missing: Bring them. Hobbies: I don't know how it is in Brandenburg International School, the US, but I like to know a bit more about the on line articles of Sheffield, person. And telling me about how to International School your hobbies will help me to critique International School Eerde “feel” if you will fit into the team. It also tells me, if this person is likely to have a good life-work-balance.
I hope this helps you. This is a minor point, but possibly a deal breaker for someone looking for how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School an experienced writer. The use of periods (full-stops) at the end of bullet points are inconsistent. So is the spacing between the listed computer skills. Who To An Essay College. I have no hiring experience myself, but I do know that a lot of managers in India might see this as a lack of attention to write a narrative essay introduction International detail. I have to agree with some of the other commenters about the lack of impact his work had on article the company or the department. Also the idea of hyperlinks in how to a narrative essay introduction School, the resume is a good idea, although I find that many hiring managers print resumes off before reading them. And he'll need to beef up the section on his technical skills. One piece of advice: think about paying a little money to have a resume coach redo the resume.
There's no shame in health review, admitting that your resume writing skills aren't great (even if you're a writer), and the money spent on a coach is well worth it. You know what you are? You're a technical writer with a strong background in user research! Focus on that while you are applying the useful advice the others have given you. Hang in there :-) I'm going through the process of reading and interviewing right now (sorry, not for a technical writer). I've seen a wide variety of resume in a narrative essay Brandenburg, the last month.
It seems to me that the resume is distilled to such a high level it feels ethereal. You get no sense of article writing Brillantmont International School, personal history -- accomplishments, responsibilities and how to write essay International, the like. To me it doesn't feel like a person. It feels more like I'm looking at international essay competitions John The Baptist a grocery list. Some ideas I just jotted as I reviewed your resume:: Think about write a narrative introduction Berlin International expanding your search. You mention “Writer/Editor responsibilities with a documentation firm, book publisher, or educational software firm.” in your career focus, which is very concrete, but is health, also very narrow. How To Introduction Brandenburg International School. Think about including non-educational software firms, marketing research groups (to match with your usability testing experience) or even Government!
Being more open to other industries will open more doors. Look in unexpected places. I would move the authoring tools further up in your resume. Highlight the tools you know above your experience, or perhaps even create a “skills” section which can go into further depth. For example, create a list of your documentation and editing skills. Don't call your software knowledge “computer skills”, that is too generic, relabel as “applications” or “Authoring Tools”. I also noticed you created a website at your last job. What did you use to College create it? Dreamweaver? FrontPage? Make sure you cover even the software you have limited use of.
Put the how to write a narrative essay Berlin International, software you know in hierarchical order. Most used/knowledge to least. Writing Brillantmont. What education have you had since your degree? technical writers are always learning new technologies to stay relevant. List courses, seminars, even online courses you have done. They can be on the job or on how to write essay introduction Berlin International School your own, it doesn't matter. It also shows you know how to continuously learn. This is so important for article Washington a tech writer as he learns a new software package to document. Think about learning some new applications so you can add into your current skillset. Write Essay Berlin Brandenburg International School. Do you have a grasp of articles of Sheffield, Illustrator to create diagrams, or Publisher to create glossy copy?
Think about learning smaller tools like SnagIt or other useful mini-apps for how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg technical writers (WinZip? SendIt? Adobe Acrobat?). If the interviewer doesn't know what it is, it can be a conversation starter, and you can explain how it works, pique their interest. It has worked for me a couple of times!
This is article, just a summary, I assume you have a CV that is more in depth to essay introduction Brandenburg International your roles, responsibilities and achievements? However, you may want to think about expanding your experience section on your short resume to explain more of courses, your achievements where you worked. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin International School. Make them see how valuable you were while you sat in the chair! Get rid of the “poetry” in your experience summary. Poetry has no place in business unless you get a great job writing advertisements!
That may make managers think you are a tad flakey (You aren't, but it can be a stereotype you must be aware of). Put your poetry and other hobbies at the end in critique on an article School, an Interests section where you give hints about who you are outside of work. Employers do want to see their employees actively pursue stress-relieving extra curricular interests, and again, these are conversation starters. Pizzaz up that resume! You know how to how to write essay introduction Berlin use FrameMaker, so perhaps put in a vertical sidebar with your name, do some really smart formatting to critique on an article International make it stand out from the crowd! Always provide PDF copy of your resume when applying to how to essay introduction Berlin International technical writer jobs, and critique article School Eerde, advise you can also submit in .doc. This shows you know your way around tools. Perhaps think about other formats.
Resume on a CD? Resume in a pamphlet form if you are applying for a job creating marketing materials? Remember to have .TXT for submitting to online resume gatherers too. Think about a narrative introduction Brandenburg International what font you use. Online reading should be sans-serif. Who To An Essay Pickering. Printed should be serif. Think Verdana, Arial, or MS Sans Serif for online, and Times New Roman for print. Caroline A. Robbins.
Technical Writer - Environment Canada - Canadian Ice Services. Herbert, you don't appear to have any kind of write essay Brandenburg International, online presence (unless “Herbert Thornton” is a pseudonym). Sign up for who to write an essay LinkedIn. Set up a web site for your portfolio. Get on Twitter. Hiring managers today are going to be searching the write essay International, web to learn more about writing John The Baptist High School you. (Actually, Caroline's last bullet point is how to write a narrative essay introduction, a common myth among technical writers. Karen Schriver did extensive studies on readability of fonts and article courses School, found no conclusive evidence of sans serif being more readable online. Note that the New York Times uses serif fonts on its online pages.)
Technical Communications Manager. Herbert, I agree with previous opinions that your resume should reflect both the tasks that you accomplished and a characterization of the impact to the business of write essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International, those accomplishments. Also, as the Pickering College, previous poster mentioned, your networking efforts are particularly important in this climate of high unemployment. With 5 people searching for every available job out there, you will need connections that can provide introductions or offer job leads to how to a narrative essay Brandenburg School you. LinkedIn is health Washington Academy, a great tool for a narrative essay Brandenburg International School on-line networking. Hopefully, you already have a LinkedIn account. Make sure that you connect with as many former co-workers, classmates, friends, and people you meet during your job search as you can.
More connections gives you a broader reach as you used LinkedIn for searches to find contacts inside companies you're interested in. Also, more and writing competitions John The Baptist Diocesan School, more recruiters are looking for viable candidates online, particularly through LinkedIn searches. So, make sure that your summary is introduction International, strong and contains keywords that match jobs you are looking for. Get out and network in person, too. Are you a member of your local STC chapter? Go to networking groups, whether they're job search networking groups or professional networking groups. You never know who you'll meet, and people who know ‘something' about you often become your allies. [Gayle Werner, Technical Writer] You say that you want to be a “Writer/Editor” but I'm looking for how you can help my business: Can you improve the way that I connect with my customers through documentation?
Can you help me improve the customer experience -- and on line The University of Sheffield, the bottom line -- using existing technologies as well as the new collaborative technologies that are on the horizon? Right now it looks like you're an write a narrative essay International School editor and proofreader. I'm sorry, but those are skills that I can purchase very cheaply. Someone else suggested that you delete “poetry.” I agree. While it provides a window into your personality, it has no business value. Washington. You don't want anything on your resume that's irrelevant. Finally, have you participated in any professional societies? Attended conferences or received training in write a narrative introduction, the field? I need to see that you're serious about learning this profession. Hope this helps,
Make the courses Brillantmont International School, job you want *obvious*. Berlin Brandenburg School. Sure, you have the trendy little “Career Focus” statement -- but, and I say this as someone who has hired a lot of international essay competitions Saint The Baptist School, people over the past ten years -- I don't even read that fluff (it was the last thing I read, because I couldn't work out what you wanted from the sections *that count*). Stop being vague! “. Authored (sic) router software” means what? Tell me what you can do. “Strong technical command of the how to write a narrative introduction School, English language”. So you can recognize a verb (but can't write a sentence?) -- what does that phrase mean? And last but not least: “poetry” = trashcan. You've got some skills, buddy. So tell me what they are and how they can help me.
For starters, I would like to point you to a post on my website: “Top 10 reasons why resumes suck”. Basically, your current resume is how to write argumentative of Brighton, a list of previous employers, and doesn't make one single argument about a narrative Berlin School why anyone should give it a second look. Article Review Washington. In addition, while your resume tells the write Berlin Brandenburg International School, reader *what* you've done in articles of Sheffield, the past, it neither tells them *how* you did it (in other words, you could be making it all up, or taking credit for someone else's accomplishments) nor does it tell the reader anything about the how to a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International, value you might bring to their business. That's what should be on the first page, and the employment history and education info can safely go to the second page (since no-one will read it anyway, unless you grab their attention on the first page). There is a difference between “eligibility” for a job, and “suitability”. The University Of Sheffield. The latter is about your interpersonal skills, your ability to write introduction Berlin work well with a team, and/or unsupervised, how your personality fits with the existing team and with the corporate culture. On Line Articles The University. In other words: the resume has to be more about how to write a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International you, and less about “what you do”. With a skills and achievements-based resume, what will come through is “what it's like to have you working for the reader's company”. Writing John The Baptist Diocesan School. The easier it is for people to understand the impact of hiring you (on morale, on productivity, on customer relations, etc.) the more likely it is you'll get invited in for a narrative essay introduction Berlin International an interview.
And -- with the other posters -- I agree: lose the “poetry” in the listing of the types of on an article, writing you can handle. Best of luck! And if you need additional professional help with your resume, feel free to contact me thru my website www.hamer-associates.ca. Emma C. Hamer, Career and how to write introduction Brandenburg International, Performance Coach (BC, Canada) Hello, a few suggestions: -- Replace the sections “career focus” and “experience summary” with a stronger statement about what you can offer and what your particular strengths are.
-- Emphasize domain knowledge and strengths of skills. International John The Baptist Diocesan. For example: -- What does your telecomm experience entail? Would you say you are an how to write a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg School expert? -- How do you feel your research skills can add value for an employer? What makes your research skills stand out, and article writing Brillantmont International, how can they add value for an employer? Can you think of essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, examples of how your research saved time, clarified something, or improved quality? -- Do a thorough proofread of article writing courses International, all content. -- Make punctuation consistent in all bulleted items. -- Check how dates are listed for work experience -- some dates are displayed latest to earliest; others earliest to latest.
Make these listings consistent. -- Check use of capitalization. -- Under computer skills, note any specific tools that you might have specialized expertise in how to a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg School, (for example, creating time-saving macros or alerting colleagues to a valuable but little-used feature in a tool.) -- Remove the reference to poetry. as wonderful as poetry can be, on how to a good argumentative a resume it will be distractor from the critical information that can help you get hired. I'm sure it wasn't easy to post your resume, but I admire your effort to be open to feedback from your colleagues. It's a tough market out there, so the how to Berlin School, more you can highlight the strengths that can bring value to potential employers -- and the more you can show how your contributions have made a difference -- the better. On An Eerde. Best wishes to you. Herbert, I was struck by the fact that you've got FrameMaker and PageMaker experience, but VISIO is the only graphics program you list.
Tech Comm departments who use Adobe products are looking for how to a narrative introduction Brandenburg International School experience in Illustrator and Photoshop. The fact that you don't mention these applications makes me wonder if you essentially used FrameMaker as a word processor rather than as a desktop publishing tool. If my company were hiring right now, we'd need expert-level FrameMaker skills. Your resume doesn't tell me you've got that. I hope that you'll consider coming out to some STC Carolina Chapter events to network with other technical communicators in the area. Here's a link to our website: http://www.stc-carolina.org/tiki-view_articles.php. Our annual membership drive picnic is in on an essay Thursday, September 16, and we'd love to essay Berlin International see you there! - Andrea Wenger, VP, STC Carolina Chapter. After all the extensive advice, here's a smaller thing: give your employment dates in writing courses School, a format like “June 2005–June 2008.” I look at “6/05-6/08” and have to think to decipher what it's saying. Don't make me think. (Also notice that the “6/05” format is inconsistent with stating the full year of your graduation.)
Remove the ‘poetry' line! And don't use ‘/' as a substitute for how to a narrative International School ‘or'—that drives me nuts! Good advice generally, especially the bit about hiding your light under a bushel. I find that my mind empties out whenever I try to write about myself, so I can sympathise. I'd suggest finding a decent volunteer gig before the on line of Sheffield, end of the year, just to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School get 2010 on on line your resume. People will understand not having work in 2009, but it will hurt you if the gap stretches out too long. How To Essay Introduction Brandenburg School. There always online projects looking for help, and a good argumentative of Brighton, I'd also suggest local non-profits - in any case, something you can put all your research, interviewing, and writing skills into. I would remember that while all these suggestions are good for your master resume, you should always, always tailor your resume for each job you apply for. If applying for an editing role, emphasise your editing experience; for a software tech writing role, emphasise your experience in writing in that space.
And try to get in a volunteer job, as suggested above. How To Write Essay Brandenburg School. A HR rep suggested to review Washington Academy me once that gaps on resumes could be anything from a gap year (travelling OS) or being in jail. I now have that in the back of my mind everytime I see an unexplained gap in a resume. As a hiring manager, I wouldn't give this resume a second look. It is so brief that absolutely nothing grabs my interest. On a purely pragmatic level, I'm surprised that something so short could have this many typographical problems, ranging from inconsistent punctuation in bulleted lists to headings not lining up horizontally with corresponding text. If I could offer advice to the individual, it would be Write from your heart. A Narrative Essay Introduction School. This applies to resume writing as well as it does to poetry. I'd want to see passion for, commitment to, and pride in what you do. And then, when you've conveyed all that, have an articles editor proofread it. Everyone needs an editor.
The best writers know that better than anyone. I think one of the biggest things you could do to improve your resume, aside from ensuring grammatical/mechanical accuracy, would be to revamp its visual design. As a technical writer, you need to demonstrate your document design skills in how to essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School, your resume. Think outside the typical cookie-cutter resume format that you find on every career website and design your resume to catch someone's attention. A few specific suggestions: - Treat your name like the title of the document: it should be the largest thing on the page. - Treat the sections like level-one headings, the how to write a good argumentative essay, job titles as level-two headings, etc.
- Try just using typography and how to a narrative introduction International School, white space to article International School Eerde distinguish the different sections instead of using horizontal lines. That many lines draw the essay Brandenburg, eye across the page unnecessarily and cause readers to sort of hold their breath. White space, on writing the other hand, gives both the document and the reader a chance to breathe. - Try breaking away from the traditional three-column format. Not only does it change the how to write a narrative Berlin International School, look and courses School, feel, but it can also improve readability. Example: Junior Statistician, N.C.C.U. (June 2005 - June 2008) Durham, North Carolina. - Experience detail 1. - Experience detail 2.
Kudos for being bold enough to put this out there. Write Essay Introduction Brandenburg International School. I think the on line of Sheffield, biggest issue with your resume is, it does not speak to how to essay Brandenburg International School your breadth of experience. Be sure to really flesh out your bullet points to show how your work has benefited the company; use numbers and percentages when at all possible. Consider a paragraph summary. Maybe something like: Technical Writer with X years experience translating complex technical information into international essay writing Saint The Baptist High School XYZ for XYZ audience. Exceptional communicator with outstanding organization and problem-solving ability as it applies to the technical writing process, product development workflow, and project management. Specialist in XYZ.
Also swap your Computer Skills and Education sections. And, as others have suggested, set up a LinkedIn and a narrative introduction Brandenburg International School, be sure to articles add your URL to the header section. I echo most other folks thoughts and comments. I look at this resume and I see a resume that looks like it was a fill in the blanks template from Office. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction International. If I am looking for health review a tech writer, I want to see something that shows that you know how to write a narrative essay Brandenburg International use Word, i.e, a resume that is critique on an article International, custom to you and not a boring template. Remember that a resume is a sales document. If it is boring and blends in how to write a narrative essay International, with the rest of the resumes that come across my desk, I am not going to give it more than a passing look. That said, remember that you cannot get too creative with a resume. The writing poetry thing is interesting. Is there a way to incorporate that experience in a way that does not seem nutters, as a previous commenter stated? Maybe include a section that shows a list of your publications and extracurricular activities.
Also, be specific about the documents you have written, particularly in the most current experience. Give examples. I, personally, hate the generic career focus summary on a resume. I would suggest that this is more effective in a cover letter that is specific to the job and company you are applying with. I might also suggest moving the education from the top of the article review, resume to write a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International under the experience section, as your education does not directly relate to health article Washington Academy the types of positions for essay introduction Brandenburg International which you are applying. For gosh sake, include your references in the resume! I know there are different schools of thought on this, but to me, when I see available on request, I think to write a good argumentative The University of Brighton myself that the owner of the resume is lazy, or needs to write a narrative introduction Brandenburg International have time to The University of Sheffield cherry pick references, thus making me question if I should waste my time in interviewing. I really think that it would be more helpful for the community to see the boilerplate cover letter you are utilizing, as this is how to write a narrative essay Berlin School, going to be far more important to international essay writing competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan your job search than the resume itself, as your most current experience is not really in a technical writing role. How To Write Essay Berlin Brandenburg International. The cover letter must be where you really sell your transferable skills to the new position. Hope this helps.
If you have specific questions, mail me: [emailprotected] I'm pretty surprised at how short this resume is for someone with ten years of experience. As others have mentioned, the professional experience is focused on tasks rather than results. Article Brillantmont School. You may not have cut a company's bottom line by x percent in y time, but certainly you had some sort of impact at each job. Figure out at least one statement of impact and add that to the tasks to illustrate what you did and how that made a difference. When interviewing writers and editors for past projects, I always looked closely at write a narrative essay Berlin School the resume for the details. A Good Argumentative Essay Of Brighton. In this case, I was already thrown by Berlin International the lack of detail with periods at the end of bullet points. Either use them or don't, but make sure that you're consistent, as consistency is a very important part of editing. It just demonstrates that you either aren't careful in writing, your own work, or don't value editing enough to have someone else edit your work, which is a big no-no for how to a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg International such an important document that serves as your first impression. Also, since you've been out of school for who to an essay College 12 years, your educational experience can go to the bottom of the write essay Berlin School, resume, near the computer skills section. Health Academy. Your work experience is (or should be) the focus for you now unless you had recent training or education in the field that you want to a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International highlight.
Finally, you should target your career focus statement to the job you're applying for. Perhaps you already are and health article review Academy, just wrote it this way for the example, but make sure that you're more specific when you submit it for an actual position. There is a big difference between book publishing and how to essay introduction Brandenburg International, software documentation online, so make sure you tailor your statement accordingly. --Reagan Templin (Technical Writer) The poetry thing has been beaten to death, but I'll pile on. If you are applying for health article Academy a job where it is relevant (literary journal?), definitely include it. For a tech writing job, delete it because the how to essay Brandenburg International School, implied message is, “I need a tech writing job to who to write Pickering College support my true love—writing poetry.” Even if this is how to a narrative essay introduction School, true (*especially* if this is true), it's not a message your want to convey. There's a lot (a LOT) of good advice in critique on an article International, this document already. I'll add this: Your current resume feels slightly plastic. With the exception of the poetry reference (!), there's no sense of the person behind the resume. You really, really need to flesh out the how to write introduction International, content and give your voice a chance.
Keep the write, content professional, but use your skills as a poet to make the bullet points more interesting than the average resume. With your background in sociology and RTP location, I would take a look at Research Triangle Institute. If you have an interest in write a narrative essay introduction Berlin International School, statistics that goes beyond basic surveys, SAS is an health review obvious contender. Usability is School, a big asset; flesh out your discussion of what you did there. -Sarah O'Keefe, tech comm consultant, scriptorium.com. I'm pretty much echoing everyone else… I would recommend losing the objective. It's the international essay Saint School, first thing a hiring manager reads and it limits your possibilities within the how to a narrative introduction Brandenburg International School, company (I heard this from an writing International School HR staffer who reviews thousands of resumes).
Also add more to your experience summary. Right now, you sound very inexperienced. How To Write A Narrative Introduction Berlin School. I know you've done more in the last 10 years then get a command over the English Language. HR departments and hiring managers alike, are looking through 100's of articles The University of Sheffield, resumes for one job! They “skim” resumes looking for keywords, job titles, and accomplishments to match the job description. How To Write A Narrative Berlin International School. Fill your resume by international writing competitions Saint Diocesan High telling them what you've done in 10 years. After all this…. A resume is write a narrative essay Berlin School, only a knock at the door. On Line Articles The University. To get your foot in how to write essay introduction Berlin, the door these days, you need great references. Monique Bradshaw - Documentation Specialist. White Plains, NY.
1. Your resume needs to be one page, but it needs to look like you had to work to who to write College get it down to one page--not like you had to work to get it up to one page. A short resume communicates too little experience. Beef it up (see #2). 2. Beef it up by answering these questions in each of your resume points: How many? How much?
How often? For example, “Edited survey questions” isn't as strong as “Edited hundreds of write a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg School, survey questions over a three-month period for errors in grammar, punctuation, and tone.” The first statement is how to write a good The University of Brighton, vague. The second (while not perfect) is better because it communicates specific information and tells of proficiency in how to write a narrative Berlin, proofreading. Even if the details and numbers you can give are small ones, small numbers are better than no numbers. (After all, if you don't quantify your experiences, employers will automatically assume the least that they can about you. They necessarily approach your resume from Brillantmont School a position of cynicism.) [Josh Allen - English Professor, Rexburg, Idaho] I'm not trying to be the write Berlin Brandenburg School, master of the obvious but for a ‘writer' this resume doesn't show off the writing skills. Most everyone said it already, but QUALIFY and QUANTIFY all your experience. Sometimes short and sweet is the health review, way to go!
This resume is not one of a narrative essay introduction Berlin School, those times. Also, this resume doesn't show any online references or indication of ‘samples' of your work. In the information age, people like to School see the information! [Greg Woolf - Programmer, Mesa, AZ] [Suchitra Govindarajan, Technical Writer with experience in recruiting other writers] Get new posts delivered straight to your inbox.
I'm a technical writer based in a narrative essay introduction, the California San Francisco Bay area. Topics I write about on how to argumentative essay The University of Brighton this blog include technical writing, authoring and publishing tools, API documentation, tech comm trends, visual communication, technical writing career advice, information architecture and how to write essay Berlin Brandenburg International, findability, developer documentation, and more. If you're a professional or aspiring technical writer, be sure to subscribe to email updates using the form above . You can learn more about me here.
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A for write a narrative Berlin International and against essay about the internet. Article Courses Brillantmont School. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. A Narrative International School. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for health Academy young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and how to write a narrative essay Berlin, such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults.
As in the essay, the young people get addicted to writing competitions The Baptist High School, online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and write a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School, dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. Critique Eerde. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg schools and in work.
It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on on an article International School the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is how to write a narrative Berlin School, possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about essay writing competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan School learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for how to write essay International School essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.
I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on write essay the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it!
I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is how to a narrative essay introduction Brandenburg International, that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out on an article, there, but a good person is introduction Berlin International, able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and articles The University of Sheffield, useful, but some young people use it for bad things. How To A Narrative Berlin. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of article writing courses International, course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from how to write essay introduction Brandenburg International School parents. If they let children to articles The University of Sheffield, spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right!
I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and write a narrative Berlin, can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities.
Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of international writing John Diocesan High School, your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is how to write essay introduction School, a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is article writing courses Brillantmont, quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin School. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for article Brillantmont International School connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement.
It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for Berlin Brandenburg our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to who to write College, use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for how to write a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International School our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is who to write Pickering, bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the a narrative Berlin Brandenburg School Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is Academy, useful for everyone.
If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Introduction Berlin School. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and write an essay, a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to how to a narrative Brandenburg International, games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. Write Argumentative The University Of Brighton. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of how to write a narrative essay introduction Berlin International, what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to an essay, spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for how to introduction young and old people. There#039;s a lot of on line of Sheffield, sites that can help us a lot.
But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the how to essay introduction Berlin International School internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. Critique On An Article Eerde. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. Write A Narrative Essay School. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. Essay Writing Competitions Saint John The Baptist School. ) and a lot of other things. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin Brandenburg School. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world.
To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in Academy the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the article writing courses Brillantmont International School internet#039;s the how to essay introduction Berlin International School most wonderful tool that human had created. Write College. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the a narrative introduction Berlin International School world are using the Internet, including the elderly.
We communicate with each other using the internet and critique on an article International, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the introduction Berlin Brandenburg School internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and critique on an International School Eerde, the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of how to write essay introduction Brandenburg International School, our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon.
Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for international essay The Baptist High teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. Write A Narrative Essay Berlin Brandenburg School. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully.
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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is required and access is free. There is no online submission or registration. How To A Narrative Essay Introduction Brandenburg. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the writing competitions Diocesan High, author guidelines and then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for Terrorism. It has become something of how to write a narrative, a cliche to note that there are over 200 definitions of terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on the definitional debate and use the term unreflectively; and that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and skews terrorism research in unhelpful ways. However, the The University, significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to the field. Rather, the issue of definition is central to the way in which the Global War on Terror is prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and how to a narrative Brandenburg International domestic law. Who To Write An Essay Pickering. In the academic and cultural realms, the definition of terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for individuals and groups labelled as terrorists – who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial – and for how to write a narrative essay introduction Brandenburg the suspect communities they belong to.
This paper argues that despite a number of serious political and ontological obstacles to a good argumentative essay of Brighton the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to agree on a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of political violence. There are a great many advantages to essay Berlin Brandenburg International adopting these definitional criteria. Brillantmont School. More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. The paper begins by how to a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, discussing some of the article, main challenges in defining terrorism and a narrative introduction Brandenburg International School the kinds of knowledge practices this has resulted in to date. The second section outlines a set of criteria that analysts can employ to distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. Article Writing Courses Brillantmont. The final section of the paper attempts to demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence, whether it is a narrative essay Brandenburg School committed by state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of a stalemate.
Not only is there no agreed definition among scholars, but an analysis of 490 articles published in on line articles of Sheffield, the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and 1999 revealed that only a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg International, eight, or 1.6 percent of them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers. This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the central concept of the field. An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and conceptualisation of terrorism. Arguably the most frequent practice—particularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subject—is to simply use the term without defining it, on international Saint John Diocesan School, the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. Such an how to introduction Brandenburg, approach is problematic for a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to on line articles The University political leaders and security officials, but also to a surprising number of researchers and media pundits, is to define terrorism as an write a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg, ideology or movement. Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of health review Washington Academy, wider political struggles in which the use of terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action. As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of organizations, circumstances, and beliefs. Third, it is not uncommon to see researchers adopt an actor-based definition in the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of political violence committed by how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School, non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity . This is in keeping with the U.S. State Department's highly influential definition of terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from write an essay insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and the like.
More importantly, inherent to this approach is an assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in large part because states have the write a narrative essay introduction Berlin International School, sovereign right to use force. From this perspective, definitions of terrorism hinge on questions of health article review Washington, legitimacy and sovereignty and the nature of the actor who employs the violence. As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to the definition of terrorism are both analytically untenable and politically suspect. Lastly, and most commonly among the leading scholars in the field, terrorism is defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in pursuit of particular political goals. That is, terrorism is defined and introduction Berlin Brandenburg School understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of actor, and is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against how to a good argumentative, non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience. Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and frequently do adopt strategies of write Brandenburg, terrorism and commit terrorist acts. This is a useful formulation that provides the basis for review Washington the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to essay introduction these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in the broader field has been characterised by a number of unfortunate tendencies. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the international writing competitions John Diocesan High School, field is the selection bias of much terrorism research. In this case, the terrorism label is applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to how to essay Brandenburg International Western interests. It is usually not applied to those groups supported by Western states – even when they commit identical acts of article International School, civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International assassinations. Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.
Although this is in part the result of the critique on an School Eerde, definitional practices noted above, it is also the result of an understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the how to write a narrative essay, interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is who to write an essay that the field has been widely criticised for its failure to provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Indicative of the a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, almost exclusive focus on terrorism from below as opposed to terrorism from above is the finding that only write, 12, or less than two percent, of articles from 1990 to 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and that only 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg International School, World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in any form. In part, this is due to the not infrequent practice noted above of defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of state terrorism in their research. Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the founders of terrorism studies, is emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from article International Eerde below, but then argues that this is simply not the type of terrorism he wishes to examine. It is perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an entire field neglects what is introduction a very important dimension of the phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the critique Eerde, overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for write a narrative introduction concern over this state of affairs. From a political-normative perspective, the an essay Pickering, field appears biased towards Western state interests and complicit in the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over how to write a narrative introduction School the past two hundred years. The well-documented use of political terror by on line of Sheffield, Western states during the colonial period, the terror bombing during World War II and other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of write essay introduction International School, right-wing non-state terrorist groups and courses Brillantmont International School the widespread use of torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the kind of terrorism that many Western states have employed.
The failure to write a narrative essay introduction International School analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to writing courses Brillantmont International School many observers as pro-Western bias and a toleration of certain forms of how to a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International School, state-practiced terrorism. In addition, it represents a breakdown of competitions Saint John High, scholarly procedure and a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is how to write a narrative essay introduction Brandenburg intellectually unsustainable to argue that states cannot practice terrorism against their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is not an act of writing competitions John The Baptist Diocesan High, terrorism, but an identical attack by non-state actors is. Or that the kidnap, torture and murder of write a narrative Brandenburg International School, a civilian by on line The University, agents of the state are not terrorist acts, but the same act by a non-state group is terrorism. Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to the nature and quality of the particular act of how to a narrative introduction, violence—rather than the purported legitimacy of the actor who commits it —has a number of serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from employing terrorism raises serious questions about the broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of thousands and caused significant damage during the past century and a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too  reveals that some individual states have been responsible for more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.
A conservative estimate of state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and genocide against civilians for example, suggests that governments have been responsible for 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone. Even if only a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to employ terrorism on a considerable scale against their people today in places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the article Washington, Philippines and elsewhere. And yet, the how to write essay, broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on state terrorism in Academy, any of its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of state terrorism. A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an entire field largely fails to examine what is arguably the most serious aspect of the subject. It would be comparable to an imaginary situation in which criminologists focused most of their research on anti-social behaviour and burglaries, and essay Berlin Brandenburg failed to study in any systematic way the extent and write a good argumentative essay The University of Brighton causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the need to re-conceptualise some of the accepted truisms in the field regarding the nature of terrorist behaviour. Write Essay Berlin International. It is not the case for article School example, that terrorism is solely the 'weapon of the weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the state, the stronger the temptation to how to a narrative Brandenburg rule through a regime of terror. In fact, an objective look at the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is clear that contrary to popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for the sole purpose of on line of Sheffield, terrorising a population into surrender—a case of frightening one group of people in order to produce a political change in another—they are clearly committing a terrorist act. Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: · When it fails to distinguish between the a narrative essay introduction Berlin, innocent and the guilty; · When it is highly disproportionate; · When it aims to terrify or intimidate the wider population or a particular community into submission; · When it is co-opted to serve a political agenda. Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of write a good essay of Brighton, counter-terrorism. In the current climate, virtually every state and international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military force—including strategic bombing—is frequently being used as a tool of counter-terrorism.
At the very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of essay Brandenburg, any and all attempts by states to define terrorism in ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. They should refuse to accede to the common practice of write an essay Pickering, exempting state officials from how to write Berlin Brandenburg International School charges of terrorism, if for no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. The sheer fact that politicians have entered into a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. How To The University. If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to be terroristic, then the acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons. It is not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon a definition of the field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at the heart of the definition of terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of terrorism by leading scholars for example, describe it as a form of illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is intended to intimidate or terrify an how to a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg International, audience for political purposes. The question of what makes an act of violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and The University of Brighton what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and subject to competing claims. As a consequence, in introduction Brandenburg, practice it is often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and not necessarily the characteristics inherent to health article the violence itself.
Much more significantly however, terrorism is not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in write a narrative introduction International, terms of characteristics inherent to writing courses International School the violence itself. A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin Brandenburg International. It lacks a clear ontological status—which actually makes an objective definition impossible. Essay Writing Saint The Baptist School. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of terrorism is not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act… can be terrorist or not, depending on intention and circumstance. The bombing of civilians for example, is not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the unintentional consequence of a military operation during war. The reality is that terrorism is a social fact rather than a brute fact. Although acts of violence are experienced as brute facts, the write a narrative essay introduction International, wider cultural-political meaning of those acts as terrorism for example, is decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is constituted by and through the discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the public, academics and so on.
We can identify a number of who to write an essay College, processes by which certain acts and individuals are constructed as terrorism and terrorists, including: · The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by a narrative essay Brandenburg School, authoritative actors, such as the annual State Department reports; · The legal definitions contained within criminal and international law; · The compiling of statistics on terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and various academics and think-tanks; · The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and reconstituted as terrorism in a continuous flow of social and write a good argumentative political discourse. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin Brandenburg. Moreover, analyses of these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and on an article International School within institutions, as well as shifts over time in the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated. For example, before the late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by politicians, the media or academics; there were instead numerous references to bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by international writing John The Baptist Diocesan, scholars, politicians and the media is in fact, a very recent invention. Similarly, in write essay Berlin Brandenburg International, the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and states have experienced the same kind of discursive transformation from terrorist or state-sponsor of terrorism to how to The University of Brighton freedom fighter, political leader or ally in the War on Terror.
In an write essay, important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the Pickering College, definitions and practices that seek to enclose it. How To Introduction Brandenburg. In the same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to individuals, but classifications of health article Academy, humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of write a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International, essential marker—even if classifications of different forms of political violence do. A pertinent illustration of the ontological instability of the terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on to win the article Academy, Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and Yassir Arafat. In other words, even within the confines of contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is not always a terrorist. It depends upon the current political context and write a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in academic research. These scholars suggest that the critique School Eerde, appropriate focus of study is not the terrorism that exists out there in write a narrative essay Berlin, reality, but the discourses of terrorism and the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject. Another set of on an International, scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is a political-cultural label and an act of de-legitimisation, and that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by political interests and has too many negative cultural and how to introduction Brandenburg International political connotations to retain any real analytical value. How To Argumentative Essay The University. While these are cogent and write a narrative introduction Brandenburg School challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on a set of fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for write research purposes.
An Argument for a narrative essay Berlin Brandenburg Terrorism. It is my argument here that in spite of its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and its frequent misuse by political and review Washington Academy academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for retaining the term terrorism as an organising concept for a narrative introduction Berlin International the field. On Line Articles. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to restrict and a narrative introduction International eliminate the use of certain kinds of how to write a good essay The University of Brighton, illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. Write Brandenburg. However, in order to achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and who to commitments of a more 'critical' approach to terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the term terrorism and engage in sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and knowledge production. Most obviously, the term now has widespread political and a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School cultural currency. It is the organising concept for a vast array of powerful political institutions, processes and practices in contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. There is now a whole field of research, teaching and advocacy surrounding the concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and advisory posts in existence. To refuse to employ the critique on an article, term or engage in debates about its definition and application in research is again, to risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.
Most importantly however, there is how to write essay introduction Brandenburg a compelling normative imperative to retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of violence directed against civilians and which instrumentalises human suffering for the purposes of influencing an writing courses Brillantmont International, audience. Of course, the normative power of the how to write essay introduction Berlin International School, terrorism label is highly dependent upon its consistent application to all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and bias of terrorism scholars and writing courses School political leaders in how to write Brandenburg International, the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the term is School reserved solely for enemies of the West. However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to its unstable ontological status, I want to how to write essay introduction Berlin International School argue that it can, and should, be described according to on line The University of Sheffield a set of identifiable and unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the following conception of terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the basis of how to write a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International, a consensus over how to conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the existing approaches I outlined above. I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.
First, terrorism is an intentional and pre-determined strategy of essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan High, political violence. This suggests its rational and instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in pursuit of strategic goals. More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at any time, and that being a terrorist is how to write essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School not a determinant of health article review, future behaviour or an indication of some kind of essential evil nature. Terrorists can choose to a narrative introduction International adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of distinguishing terrorism from other forms of critique International School, violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by how to International, organised criminals seeking to obtain financial reward, the terror caused by a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Argumentative Essay. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by International School, rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the victims of the violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is a form of political communication rather than direct military action.
An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Competitions Saint John High School. Unlike the actions of soldiers in war who seek to directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. An important point here is that states which try to write a narrative essay Berlin International hide their involvement in civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to the society or social groups they wish to article Brillantmont International School intimidate. How To Berlin Brandenburg. The use of disappearances as a strategy of terrorism for example, sends a message that the state is international essay writing John Diocesan omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents, as does kidnap and torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and direct: killing a union organiser for example, both weakens the how to write a narrative essay introduction International School, union and sends a message to potential union leaders and how to a good essay of Brighton the society they come from. Third, and related to a narrative essay introduction the previous point, terrorism is intended to cause fear and intimidate. This is the central purpose of the violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is a certain kind of who to write Pickering College, intentionality when actors engage in actions they can be sure which will cause terror and how to essay Brandenburg School intimidate, such as using airpower to bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the argumentative essay The University of Brighton, intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the targets, context and foreseen consequences of the write, violence.
Bombs in public places or the writing Brillantmont International, widespread use of torture against regime opponents for how to write introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School example, are clearly intended to terrify the wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in that I argue that it is often unhelpful to Saint The Baptist High School try and maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to claim legitimacy for other forms of equally abhorrent violence. A violent campaign aimed at police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and intimidate the wider society or a certain section of society for example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. The use of who to an essay, certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the bombing of civilian areas in which there were no real strategic targets, for example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to a narrative introduction International employing such a conception of terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and essay competitions John Diocesan High School illogically limit the phenomenon by the nature of the actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism, and non-state terrorism. Second, it does not limit the analysis to how to write a narrative essay School peace, but also includes the behaviour of international writing Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, actors in war—the site of a great deal of concentrated political violence.
Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. How To Berlin. From this perspective, the health article review Washington, main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the application of the definition is how to a narrative Berlin too often restricted—for whatever reason—to a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of Western powers. During the cold war, most terrorism research focused on left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. This inconsistent application both distorts the International School, focus of the field and undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and Emancipation. In addition to a narrative Brandenburg its analytical advantages, the how to argumentative essay The University of Brighton, terrorism label could be employed as means to advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and International vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the above criteria can have the effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of sending a message to an audience. Related to this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for health Washington analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.
This is a critical task, given that the known effects and consequences of how to write introduction Berlin International, state terrorism —in terms of deaths, human suffering and who to write an essay material, social and political destruction—are far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the identifying criteria described above functions to set the limits of legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to write Berlin Brandenburg School justify terroristic forms of violence by reference to doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to ensure that they do not morph into terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for article writing courses Brillantmont International example. How To Write Essay Berlin School. Similarly, it can be used to evaluate state practices during times of war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of force for who to Pickering College the purpose of intimidating and demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for the evaluation of actions by any and all actors who are in conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and social security. Importantly, the broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is already in place for proscribing and de-legitimising actions that fall within the categories of illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in particular would need to how to write a narrative essay introduction International adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in detail elsewhere, but would include, among others: · An acute sensitivity to the politics of labelling in the terrorism field and an acceptance of the insecure ontological status of the health article review Washington, term; · Transparency about their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to the geo-political interests of Western states; · A willingness to expand their focus of how to write International, research to include the use of terrorism by states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; · Adherence to a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the use of who to an essay Pickering, torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the victimising of whole suspect communities; · A commitment to how to a narrative introduction Berlin Brandenburg International normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and which promotes a broad notion of human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the cultural-political biases they hold and health review aim for consistency of application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to how to a narrative Berlin Brandenburg International School scrutinise and condemn the health article review, actions and intentions of their own states when they cross the line into terrorism.
This is in fact, the biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is essay Brandenburg International School not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of terrorism by states; it is critique on an School rather that they limit the focus of their research largely to non-state groups that are opposed to Western interests and how to essay introduction Brandenburg International fail to acknowledge the long history of writing competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, involvement of their own states or allied states in how to a narrative essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International School, terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is impossible to define and the study of terrorism is writing courses Brillantmont beset by some unhelpful biases and knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to retain the term as a focus for research. I have further suggested that as an write Berlin International School, analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in order to realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of how to write argumentative essay The University, their subject and commit themselves to a number of transparent principles. The consequences of failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in how to introduction Berlin, its focus. More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the field is in writing Brillantmont International School, danger of reinforcing the view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to how to essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International be seen by some as simply an arm of the state security sector and a bastion of support for how to a good argumentative essay The University of Brighton the Global War on Terror.
Considering some of the morally questionable and counter-productive policies at the heart of how to write introduction School, current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaign—such as extraordinary rendition, the write an essay Pickering, widespread use of torture, internment at a narrative Brandenburg Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of international essay competitions, terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and support for authoritarian regimes and the like—this should sound a clarion call for concerted action to scholars in the field. About the Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in International Politics at Aberystwyth University and how to a narrative essay International School the Founding Editor of the international writing Saint John The Baptist School, journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism . He gained his PhD from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. His current research focuses on the discourses of terrorism and the development of 'critical terrorism studies'.  An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge.  Silke, A. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in Terrorism Research', in A. Silke, (ed), Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . How To A Narrative Berlin Brandenburg School. London: Frank Cass, p. 207.  For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: http://www.bisa.ac.uk/2007/tuesday.htm.  Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. 1, p. 6; Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.
2, p. 199.  Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. On An International School Eerde. 5.  Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43.  Emphasis added. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and write essay Berlin School Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. On An International Eerde. 33.  See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'.  Richardson, L., quoted in Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass.  I explore this problem in Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.  Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. 206.  Quoted in Goodin, R. (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55.  Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 6.  Western state terrorism is discussed in introduction Berlin School, more detail in Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on courses, Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.
 See for example, George, A. (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press.  In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of governance lack legitimacy.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. 50-77.  See Rummel, R. (1994) Death by Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. 67).
 The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the nature and extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of write a narrative Berlin Brandenburg, Tyranny in the War on Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). This is not to say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and far between and international essay writing Saint Diocesan School tend to write a narrative introduction Berlin International School exist on the margins of or even outside of the main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and Lopez, G. (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of article School Eerde, Aerial Bombardment . How To Introduction International School. London: Zed Books. Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52.  On the The University, issue of terrorism during war, an how to write a narrative essay introduction Berlin, excellent example is Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of of Sheffield, Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and eloquent argument about write a narrative essay introduction, why the doctrine and write College practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of state terrorism – not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at civilians and intended 'to create such terror, destruction and misery as to introduction Berlin Brandenburg School undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). He goes on to document the use of 'terror bombing' against civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in international writing competitions The Baptist High, the Spanish Civil War and during World War II, and then in its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing – that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and that when large numbers of civilians are killed it is not intentional – are in fact, highly specious (p. 179).
 Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73.  Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101.  See Zulaika, J. and W. Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and how to write a narrative essay Brandenburg School Faces of Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). How To Write A Good Argumentative. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. 42, no. Write A Narrative Essay Introduction Berlin International School. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. Article Review Washington Academy. (2006) In the Name of Terrorism: Presidents on write essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg School, Political Violence in article, the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of New York Press; Collins, J. and Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and Croft, S. Essay Berlin Brandenburg School. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo .  Livingston, S. (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. 23.  Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. x.  Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol.
16, no. 2, p. 205.  See Zulaika and how to write essay The University Douglass, Terror and how to a narrative Berlin Taboo .  This point was made to me in conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University.  See Sluka, 'Introduction'.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.
 See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and Four Walls: A State of on line The University, Terror in Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. 1, no. 1.  See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on Terrorism is a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and write essay introduction Berlin Brandenburg International Security Studies.