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c.s lewis essay We owe gratitude to. http://cslewis.drzeus.net for learn to think the use of this image. Two of these articles were taken from the book, Present Concerns -- Essays by how to write a conclusion essay College C.S. Learn Du Leman. Lewis . How To A Critique University Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Edited by Walter Hooper. Published 1986. The third is to think du Leman a excerpt from The Screwtape Letters -- Screwtape Proposes a Toast . Of Work College. Click [ Here ] to go directly to the article, Democracy - or - 'I Am As Good As You Are !!' Click [ Here ] to go directly to the article, Democratic Education Click [ Here ] for an excellent article entitled, C. Learn College. S. Lewis and how to write, the Meaning of Freedom Read more Excerpts From the Writings of C.S. Lewis [ Here ] “It is Christ Himself, not the Bible, who is the true word of God. The Bible, read in the right spirit and with the guidance of learn College du Leman, good teachers, will bring us to Him. We must not use the Bible as a sort of encyclopedia out of which texts can be taken for a persuasive essay School use as weapons.” Equality is reprinted from The Spectator, vol. CLXXI (27 August 1943), p. Du Leman. 192.
I am a democrat (1) because I believe in legit writing services the Fall of Man. I think most people are democrats for College the opposite reason. A great deal of concluding St. Louis School, democratic enthusiasm descends from the ideas of people like Rousseau, who believed in democracy because they thought mankind so wise and good that everyone deserved a share in the government. The danger of defending democracy on College, those grounds is that they're not true. Whenever their weakness is exposed, the people who prefer tyranny make capital out school coursework Cardiff College of the exposure.
I find that they're not true without looking further than myself. I don't deserve a share in to think du Leman governing a hen-roost, much less a nation. Nor do most people #151; all the people who believe advertisements, and think in catchwords and spread rumors. The real reason for concluding School democracy is just the learn to think, reverse. Mankind is so fallen that no man can be trusted with unchecked power over his fellows. Aristotle said that some people were only fit to be slaves. I do not contradict him.
But I reject slavery because I see no men fit to schemes Abbey College, be masters. This introduces a view of equality rather different from that in which we have been trained. I do not think that equality is one of those things (like wisdom or happiness) which are good simply in themselves and for their own sakes. I think it is in the same class as medicine, which is good because we are ill, or clothes which are good because we are no longer innocent. I don't think the learn, old authority in kings, priests, husbands, or fathers, and medical coursework Cardiff Sixth Form College, the old obedience in subjects, laymen, wives, and sons, was in itself a degrading or evil thing at learn to think College du Leman, all. I think it was intrinsically as good and beautiful as the nakedness of Adam and Eve. It was rightly taken away because men became bad and abused it. To attempt to restore it now would be the same error as that of the Nudists. Legal and write narrative essays Abbey Cambridge, economic equality are absolutely necessary remedies for to think College du Leman the Fall, and a persuasive essay St. Louis School, protection against cruelty. But medicine is not good. There is no spiritual sustenance in flat equality.
It is a dim recognition of this fact which makes much of our political propaganda sound so thin. We are trying to be enraptured by something which is merely the negative condition of the good life. Learn To Think College. That is why the imagination of people is so easily captured by appeals to the craving for inequality, whether in a romantic form of films about loyal courtiers or in the brutal form of Nazi ideology. Write A Critique University Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The tempter always works on some real weakness in our own system of to think du Leman, values -- offers food to some need which we have starved. When equality is treated not as a medicine or a safety-gadget, but as an ideal, we begin to breed that stunted and envious sort of mind which hates all superiority. That mind is the special disease of school coursework Cardiff Form College, democracy, as cruelty and learn to think, servility are the special diseases of privileged societies.
It will kill us all if it grows unchecked. The man who cannot conceive a joyful and loyal obedience on the one hand, nor an St. John's-Ravenscourt School, unembarrassed and noble acceptance of that obedience on the other - the man who has never even wanted to kneel or to bow - is a prosaic barbarian. But it would be wicked folly to to think du Leman, restore these old inequalities on the legal or external plane. Their proper place is elsewhere. Write A Conclusion Essay Algonquin. We must wear clothes since the to think College du Leman, Fall. Yes, but inside, under what Milton called these troublesome disguises (2) . We want the naked body, that is, the real body, to be alive. We want it, on proper occasions, to appear -- in the marriage-chamber, in the public privacy of a men's bathing-place, and (of course) when any medical or other emergency demands. In the same way, under the necessary outer covering of legal equality, the whole hierarchical dance and harmony of our deep and joyously accepted spiritual inequalities should be alive. It is there, of course, in our life as Christians -- there, as laymen, we can obey #150; all the more because the priest has no authority over us on the political level.
It is there in our relation to parents and teachers #150; all the school Form, more because it is now a willed and wholly spiritual reverence. It should be there also in marriage. This last point needs a little plain speaking. Men have so horribly abused their power over women in the past that to to think du Leman, wives, of all people, equality is in danger of appearing as an write a conclusion for an Algonquin, ideal. But Mrs. Naomi Mitchison has laid her finger on the real point.
Have as much equality as you please #150; the more the better #150; in our marriage laws, but at some level consent to inequality, nay, delight in inequality, is an erotic necessity . Mrs. Learn To Think. Mitchison speaks of women so fostered on a defiant idea of St. Louis, equality that the mere sensation of the male embrace rouses an to think du Leman, undercurrent of resentment. Marriages are thus shipwrecked (3) . This is the tragi-comedy of the modem woman -- taught by St. John's-Ravenscourt Freud to consider the act of love the most important thing in learn to think College life, and write Algonquin, then inhibited by feminism from that internal surrender which alone can make it a complete emotional success. Merely for learn to think du Leman the sake of her own erotic pleasure, to go no further, some degree of obedience and humility seems to be (normally) necessary on the woman's part. Medical School Sixth. The error here has been to du Leman, assimilate all forms of affection to that special form we call friendship. It indeed does imply equality. But it is quite different from the various loves within the same household. Friends are not primarily absorbed in each other. It is when we are doing things together that friendship springs up #150; painting, sailing ships, praying, philosophizing, fighting shoulder to shoulder. Essay. Friends look in College du Leman the same direction. Lovers look at each other -- that is, in opposite directions.
To transfer bodily all that belongs to one relationship into how to of an (UCLA), the other is learn to think blundering. We Britons should rejoice that we have contrived to reach much legal democracy (we still need more of the economic) without losing our ceremonial Monarchy. For there, right in the midst of our lives, is that which satisfies the craving for inequality, and Cardiff Sixth Form College, acts as a permanent reminder that medicine is learn College du Leman not food. School. Hence a man's reaction to Monarchy is learn du Leman a kind of test. Monarchy can easily be debunked, but watch the faces, mark well the legit St. John's-Ravenscourt School, accents of the debunkers. These are the men whose taproot in Eden has been cut -- whom no rumor of the polyphony, the learn College du Leman, dance, can reach #150; men to whom pebbles laid in a row are more beautiful than an arch. Yet even if they desire mere equality they cannot reach it.
Where men are forbidden to honor a king they honor millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead -- even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served -- deny it food and it will gobble poison. Coursework Cardiff Sixth Form. That is why this whole question is College du Leman of practical importance. Every intrusion of the spirit that says , I'm as good as you into our personal and spiritual life is to be resisted just as jealously as every intrusion of bureaucracy or privilege into our politics. Hierarchy within can alone preserve egalitarianism without. Romantic attacks on essay Algonquin College, democracy will come again. We shall never be safe unless we already understand in our hearts all that the anti-democrats can say, and have provided for it better than they. Human nature will not permanently endure flat equality if it is extended from its proper political field into learn College du Leman, the more real, more concrete fields within.
Let us wear equality; but let us undress every night. (1) C.S. Lewis lived and medical, wrote in England. Hence, his reference to being a Democrat had nothing to do with our (USA) Democratic Party. (2) John Milton, Paradise Lost (1667), Book IV, line 740. 18. (3) Naomi Mitchison, The Home and a Changing Civilization (London, 1934), Chapter I, pp. 49-50.
Democracy - or - 'I Am As Good As You Are !!' The following is a excerpt from The Screwtape Letters -- Screwtape Proposes a Toast . (The scene is in hell at the annual dinner of the tempters' training college for young devils. The principal, Dr. Slubgob, has just proposed the health of the guests. College. Screwtape, a very experienced devil, who is the guest of honor, rises to essays, reply:) Do you realize how we have succeeded in learn to think du Leman reducing so many of the human race to the level of ciphers? This has not come about by legit essay services accident.
It has been our answer #8212; and a magnificent answer it is #8212; to one of the most serious challenges we ever had to face. Let me recall to your minds what the human situation was in the latter half of the nineteenth century #8212; the period at which I ceased to be a practicing Tempter and was rewarded with an administrative post. The great movement towards liberty and equality among men had by learn to think College du Leman then borne solid fruits and grown mature. Slavery had been abolished. The American War of Independence had been won. The French Revolution had succeeded.
Religious toleration was almost everywhere on the increase. In that movement there had originally been many elements which were in our favor. Much Atheism, much Anticlericalism, much envy and how to write Abbey College, thirst for revenge, even some (rather absurd) attempts to revive Paganism, were mixed in it. It was not easy to determine what our own attitude should be. On the one hand it was a bitter blow to us #8212; it still is #8212; that any sort of men who had been hungry should be fed or any who had long worn chains should have them struck off. But on the other hand, there was in the movement so much rejection of faith, so much materialism, secularism, and hatred, that we felt we were bound to encourage it.
By the latter part of the century the learn to think College du Leman, situation was much simpler, and also much more ominous. In the English sector (where I saw most of my front-line service) a horrible thing had happened. School Sixth Form College. The Enemy, with His usual sleight of hand, had largely appropriated this progressive or liberalizing movement and perverted it to His own ends. Very little of its old anti-Christianity remained. The dangerous phenomenon called Christian Socialism was rampant. Factory owners of the good old type who grew rich on learn to think College, sweated labor, instead of being assassinated by their work people #8212; we could have used that #8212; were being frowned upon by their own class. The rich were increasingly giving up their powers, not in the face of write a conclusion for an Algonquin College, revolution and commission, but in obedience to their own consciences. As for the poor who benefited by this, they were behaving in to think du Leman a most disappointing fashion. Instead of using their new liberties #8212; as we reasonably hoped and expected #8212; for massacre, rape, and looting, or even for schemes of work College perpetual intoxication, they were perversely engaged in becoming cleaner, more orderly, more thrifty, better educated, and even more virtuous. Believe me, gentle-devils, the du Leman, threat of something like a really healthy state of society seemed then perfectly serious.
Thanks to Our Father Below, the threat was averted. Our counterattack was on narrative essays College, two levels. On the deepest level our leaders contrived to call into to think College, full life an legit essay writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School, element which had been implicit in the movement from its earliest days. Hidden in the heart of this striving for Liberty there was also a deep hatred of personal freedom. That invaluable man Rousseau first revealed it. In his perfect democracy, you remember, only the state religion is permitted, slavery is restored, and the individual is told that he has really willed (though he didn't know it) whatever the to think du Leman, Government tells him to do.
From that starting point, via Hegel (another indispensable propagandist on medical Form College, our side), we easily contrived both the Nazi and the Communist state. Even in England we were pretty successful. I heard the learn to think College, other day that in medical Sixth College that country a man could not, without a permit, cut down his own tree with his own ax, make it into planks with his own saw, and use the College du Leman, planks to build a tool shed in legit essay services School his own garden. Such was our counterattack on one level. You, who are mere beginners, will not be entrusted with work of learn to think College, that kind. You will be attached as Tempters to services St. John's-Ravenscourt, private persons. Against them, or through them, our counterattack takes a different form. Democracy is the word with which you must lead them by the nose. The good work which our philological experts have already done in the corruption of human language makes it unnecessary to warn you that they should never be allowed to give this word a clear and College du Leman, definable meaning.
They won't. It will never occur to them that democracy is of work Manchester properly the name of to think, a political system, even a system of Abbey College, voting, and learn College, that this has only the how to a conclusion College, most remote and tenuous connection with what you are trying to sell them. Nor of course must they ever be allowed to to think, raise Aristotle's question: whether democratic behavior means the behavior that democracies like or the behavior that will preserve a democracy. For if they did, it could hardly fail to occur to them that these need not be the same. You are to use the word purely as an incantation; if you like, purely for its selling power.
It is a name they venerate. It is, of course, connected with the schemes of work Abbey, political ideal that men should be equally treated. You then make a stealthy transition in their minds from this political ideal to a factual belief that all men are, in ACTUAL FACT , equal. Especially the man you are working on. As a result you can use the word democracy to sanction in his thought the most degrading (and also the least enjoyable) of all human feelings. Learn. You can get him to practice, not only without shame but with a positive glow of self-approval, conduct which, if undefended by the magic word, would be universally derided. St. Louis School. The feeling I mean is of course that which prompts a man to say, I'm as good as you !! No man who says I'm as good as you !! believes it. He would not say it if he did. The St.
Bernard never says it to the toy dog, nor the scholar to the dunce, nor the employable to College, the bum, nor the pretty woman to essay St. Louis, the plain. The claim to equality, outside the strictly political field, is made only by those who feel themselves to be in some way inferior. What it expresses is precisely the itching, smarting, writhing awareness of an to think College, inferiority which the patient refuses to accept -- And therefore resents. Yes, and therefore resents every kind of superiority in others ; denigrates it; wishes its annihilation. Presently he suspects every mere difference of being a claim to superiority. No one must be different from himself in voice, clothes, manners, recreations, choice of food: Here is someone who speaks English rather more clearly and euphoniously than I #8212; it must be a vile, upstage, la-di-da affectation.
Here's a fellow who says he doesn't like hot dogs #8212; thinks himself too good for them, no doubt. Here's a man who hasn't turned on the jukebox #8212; he's one of those goddam highbrows and is doing it to show off. If they were honest-to-God all-right Joes they'd be like me. They've no business to be different. It's undemocratic . Now, this useful phenomenon is in how to write a critique article of California, (UCLA) itself by no means new. Under the name of Envy it has been known to the humans for learn to think College du Leman thousands of years. But hitherto they always regarded it as the most odious, and also the most comical, of vices. Those who were aware of feeling it felt it with shame; those who were not gave it no quarter in of work Abbey Manchester others. The delightful novelty of the present situation is that you can sanction it #8212; make it respectable and even laudable #8212; by du Leman the incantatory use of the word democratic . Under the influence of this incantation those who are in any or every way inferior can labor more wholeheartedly and successfully than ever before to pull down everyone else to their own level. But that is not all.
Under the same influence, those who come, or could come, nearer to medical school Cardiff Sixth Form, a full humanity, actually draw back from it for College fear of being undemocratic . I am credibly informed that young humans now sometimes suppress an how to write essay, incipient taste for classical music or good literature because it might prevent their Being Like Folks; that people who would really wish to be #8212; and are offered the du Leman, Grace which would enable them to be #8212; honest, chaste, or temperate refuse it. A Conclusion For An Algonquin. To accept might make them Different, might offend against to think College the Way of Life, take them out of Togetherness, impair their Integration with the Group. Write Essay. They might (horror of horrors! ) become individuals. All is summed up in du Leman the prayer which a young female human is said to have uttered recently: O God, make me a normal twentieth century girl! Thanks to our labors, this will mean increasingly, Make me a minx, a moron, and of an, a parasite. Meanwhile, as a delightful byproduct, the few (fewer every day) who will not be made Normal and Regular and Like Folks and to think, Integrated increasingly tend to become in concluding essay St. Louis reality the prigs and cranks which the rabble would in any case have believed them to be. For suspicion often creates what it suspects. (Since, whatever I do, the neighbors are going to think me a witch, or a Communist agent, I might as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb, and become one in reality.) As a result, we now have an learn du Leman, intelligentsia which, though very small, is school coursework Form College very useful to the cause of Hell. That, however, is a mere byproduct. What I want to fix your attention on is the learn, vast, overall movement towards the discrediting, and finally the elimination, of every kind of human excellence #8212; moral, cultural, social, or intellectual. And is it not pretty to notice how democracy (in the medical, incantatory sense) is now doing for us the work that was once done by the most ancient Dictatorships, and by the same methods? You remember how one of the Greek Dictators (they called them tyrants then) sent an envoy to another Dictator to ask his advice about the principles of government.
The second Dictator led the envoy into a field of grain, and there he sniped off with his cane the top of every stalk that rose an learn to think College, inch or so above the general level. The moral was plain. Allow no preeminence among your subjects. Let no man live who is wiser or better or more famous or even handsomer than the mass. Cut them all down to a level: all slaves, all ciphers, all nobodies. All equals. Thus Tyrants could practice, in a sense, democracy. Essay School. But now democracy can do the same work without any tyranny other than her own. No one need now go through the field with a cane. The little stalks will now of learn College du Leman, themselves bite the tops off the big ones.
The big ones are beginning to write a critique of California, (UCLA), bite off their own in their desire to Be Like Stalks. My own experience, as I have said, was mainly on the English sector, and I still get more news from learn to think College du Leman it than from how to write Abbey Cambridge any other. It may be that what I am now going to learn College du Leman, say will not apply so fully to the sectors in which some of you may be operating. Schemes College Manchester. But you can make the necessary adjustments when you get there. Some application it will almost certainly have. If it has too little, you must labor to make the country you are dealing with more like what England already is. In that promising land the spirit of to think du Leman, I'm as good as you has already become something more than a generally social influence. It begins to work itself into their educational system.
How far its operations there have gone at the present moment, I should not like to say with certainty. A Conclusion For An Algonquin College. Nor does it matter. Once you have grasped the to think College, tendency, you can easily predict its future developments; especially as we ourselves will play our part in the developing. Write For An Essay Algonquin. The basic principle of the learn, new education is to be that dunces and coursework Cardiff Sixth College, idlers must not be made to feel inferior to du Leman, intelligent and industrious pupils. That would be undemocratic.
These differences between the pupils #8212; for how to narrative essays they are obviously and to think College du Leman, nakedly individual differences #8212; must be disguised. St. Louis School. This can be done on learn du Leman, various levels. At universities, examinations must be framed so that nearly all the how to write, students get good marks. Learn To Think College Du Leman. Entrance examinations must be framed so that all, or nearly all, citizens can go to universities, whether they have any power (or wish) to profit by higher education or not. At schools, the children who are too stupid or lazy to services School, learn languages and mathematics and elementary science can be set to doing the learn du Leman, things that children used to do in their spare time. Let them, for example, make mud pies and call it modeling. But all the time there must be no faintest hint that they are inferior to of California,, the children who are at work. Whatever nonsense they are engaged in must have #8212; I believe the English already use the learn du Leman, phrase #8212; parity of esteem. An even more drastic scheme is not impossible.
Children who are fit to proceed to a higher class may be artificially kept back, because the others would get a trauma #8212; Beelzebub, what a useful word! #8212; by being left behind. The bright pupil thus remains democratically fettered to his own age group throughout his school career, and a boy who would be capable of tackling Aeschylus or Dante sits listening to schemes Abbey College Manchester, his coeval's attempts to spell out A CAT SAT ON A MAT. In a word, we may reasonably hope for the virtual abolition of education when I'm as good as you has fully had its way. All incentives to learn to think College du Leman, learn and all penalties for a critique of an University Los Angeles not learning will vanish. The few who might want to learn College, learn will be prevented; who are they to over-top their fellows? And anyway the teachers #8212; or should I say, nurses? #8212; will be far too busy reassuring the write narrative essays Abbey, dunces and patting them on the back to waste any time on real teaching. We shall no longer have to plan and toil to spread imperturbable conceit and College, incurable ignorance among men.
The little vermin themselves will do it for us. Of course, this would not follow unless all education became state education. But it will. School Coursework Cardiff College. That is learn to think College du Leman part of the same movement. Penal taxes, designed for that purpose, are liquidating the Middle Class, the class who were prepared to save and Abbey College Manchester, spend and make sacrifices in order to have their children privately educated. The removal of learn College du Leman, this class, besides linking up with the abolition of education, is, fortunately, an inevitable effect of the spirit that says I'm as good as you . This was, after all, the social group which gave to the humans the overwhelming majority of their scientists, physicians, philosophers, theologians, poets, artists, composers, architects, jurists, and administrators.
If ever there was a bunch of tall stalks that needed their tops knocked off, it was surely they. Legit Essay Writing Services School. As an English politician remarked not long ago, A democracy does not want great men. It would be idle to ask of such a creature whether by want it meant need or, like. But you had better be clear. For here Aristotle's question comes up again. College. We, in Hell, would welcome the disappearance of democracy in a conclusion for an Algonquin College the strict sense of that word, the political arrangement so called. Like all forms of to think, government, it often works to our advantage, but on concluding a persuasive St. Louis, the whole less often than other forms.
What we must realize is that democracy in the diabolical sense (I'm as good as you, Being like Folks, Togetherness) is the learn to think, finest instrument we could possibly have for essay services School extirpating political democracies from the face of the earth. The democracies were surprised lately when they found that Russia had got ahead of them in learn College du Leman science. What a delicious specimen of human blindness! If the whole tendency of their society is opposed to every sort of excellence, why did they expect their scientists to excel? It is our function to encourage the schemes Abbey College, behavior, the manners, the whole attitude of mind, which democracies naturally like and to think College du Leman, enjoy, because these are the very things which, if unchecked, will destroy democracy. How To Cambridge. You would almost wonder that even humans don't see it themselves. Even if they don't read Aristotle (that would be undemocratic) you would have thought the French Revolution would have taught them that the behavior aristocrats naturally like is to think College du Leman not the behavior that preserves aristocracy.
They might then have applied the same principle to all forms of government. However, I would not end on that note. I would not #8212; Hell forbid! -- encourage in essay Algonquin College your own minds that delusion which you must carefully foster in the minds of learn du Leman, your human victims. I mean the delusion that the narrative, fate of nations is in itself more important than that of individual souls. The overthrow of free peoples and learn to think College du Leman, the multiplication of slave states are for us a means (besides, of course, being fun); but the real end is the destruction of Sixth Form College, individuals . For only individuals can be saved or damned, can become sons of the learn to think College du Leman, Enemy or food for us. The ultimate value, for legit us, of to think College, any revolution, war, or famine lies in the individual anguish, treachery, hatred, rage, and despair which it may produce. I'm as good as you is a useful means for the destruction of democratic societies.
It has, however, a far deeper value as an end in essay St. Louis School itself --- as a state of learn to think, mind which, necessarily excluding humility, charity, contentment, and all the pleasures of gratitude or admiration, turns a human being away from almost every road which might finally lead him to medical coursework Cardiff Sixth Form, Heaven. Democratic Education is Lewis's title for his Notes on the Way from Time and to think College, Tide, vol. XXV (29 April 1944), pp. 369-70. Democratic education, says Aristotle, ought to mean, not the education which democrats like, but the essays College Cambridge, education which will preserve democracy. Until we have realized that the two things do not necessarily go together we cannot think clearly about learn to think College du Leman education. For example, an education which gave the able and diligent boys no advantage over the stupid and idle ones, would be in one sense democratic. It would be egalitarian and democrats like equality. The caucus race in Alice in Wonderland, where all the legit writing, competitors won and all got prizes, was a democratic race: like the Garter it tolerated no nonsense about merit (1) . Such total egalitarianism in education has not yet been openly recommended, but a movement in College du Leman that direction begins to appear.
It can be seen in the growing demand that subjects which some boys do very much better than others should not be compulsory. Yesterday it was Latin -- today, as I see from a letter in one of the papers, it is Mathematics. Both these subjects give an schemes, unfair advantage to boys of learn du Leman, a certain type. To abolish that advantage is therefore in one sense democratic. But of course there is no reason for stopping with the abolition of these two compulsions. To be consistent we must go further. We must also abolish all compulsory subjects, and we must make the curriculum so wide that every boy will get a chance at something.
Even the legit essay writing services, boy who can't or won't learn his alphabet can be praised and petted for something #151; handicrafts or gymnastics, moral leadership or deportment, citizenship or the care of guinea-pigs, hobbies or musical appreciation #151; anything he likes.. Then no boy, and no boy's parents , need feel inferior. An education on College du Leman, those lines will be pleasing to democratic feelings. It will have repaired the inequalities of nature. But it is how to write article University of California, Los Angeles quite another question whether it will breed a democratic nation which can survive, or even one whose survival is learn du Leman desirable. The improbability that a nation thus educated could survive need not be labored. Obviously it can escape destruction only if its rivals and how to essays Abbey College Cambridge, enemies are so obliging as to College, adopt the same system. A nation of dunces can be safe only in a world of dunces.
But the question of concluding a persuasive essay St. Louis, desirability is more interesting. The demand for equality has two sources -- one of them is among the noblest, the other is the basest of learn to think, human emotions. The noble source is the desire for fair play. But the other source is the legit writing School, hatred of superiority . At the present moment it would be very unrealistic to overlook the importance of the latter. There is in all men a tendency (only corrigible by good training from without and persistent moral effort from within) to resent the existence of what is stronger, subtler or better than themselves. In uncorrected and brutal men this hardens into an implacable and disinterested hatred for every kind of excellence. The vocabulary of College, a period tells tales. There is reason to be alarmed at the immense vogue today of such words as highbrow, upstage, old school tie, academic, smug, and essays Abbey College Cambridge, complacent. These words, as used today, are sores -- one feels the poison throbbing in them.
The kind of democratic education which is already looming ahead is bad because it endeavors to propitiate evil passions -- to appease envy. There are two reasons for not attempting this. In the first place, you will not succeed. Envy is learn insatiable. The more you concede to it the more it will demand. Medical Coursework Cardiff Sixth Form. No attitude of humility which you can possibly adopt will propitiate a man with an inferiority complex. In the learn College, second place, you are trying to introduce equality where equality is fatal.
Equality (outside mathematics) is a purely social conception. It applies to man as a political and economic animal. It has no place in the world of the mind. Beauty is not democratic -- she reveals herself more to the few than to the many, more to schemes Abbey College, the persistent and disciplined seekers than to the careless. Learn College. Virtue is not democratic -- she is achieved by those who pursue her more hotly than most men. Truth is not democratic -- she demands special talents and special industry in those to how to a conclusion essay, whom she gives her favors. Political democracy is doomed if it tries to extend its demand for equality into these higher spheres. Ethical, intellectual, or aesthetic democracy is death. A truly democratic education #151; one which will preserve democracy #151; must be, in its own field, ruthlessly aristocratic, shamelessly highbrow. In drawing up its curriculum it should always have chiefly in view the interests of the boy who wants to know and who can know (with very few exceptions they are the same boy).
The stupid boy, nearly always, is the boy who does not want to know. It must, in learn a certain sense, subordinate the interests of the many to those of the few, and it must subordinate the school to College Cambridge, the university. Only thus can it be a nursery of those first-class intellects without which neither a democracy nor any other State can thrive. And what, you ask, about the learn to think du Leman, dull boy? What about our Tommy, who is so highly strung and doesn't like doing 'sums and grammar'? Is he to be brutally sacrificed to other people's sons? I answer -- dear Madam, you quite misunderstand Tommy's real wishes and real interests. Narrative Essays College Cambridge. It is the aristocratic system which will really give Tommy what he wants. If you let me have my way, Tommy will gravitate very comfortably to the bottom of the form; and there he will sit at the back of the room chewing caramels and conversing sotto voce with his peers, occasionally ragging and occasionally getting punished, and du Leman, all the time imbibing that playfully intransigent attitude to authority which is our chief protection against England's becoming a servile State. When he grows up he will not be a Porson (2) ; but the world will still have room for a great many more Tommies than Porsons. There are dozens of concluding a persuasive essay, jobs (much better paid than the intellectual ones) in which he can be very useful and learn du Leman, very happy.
In addition, there will be one priceless benefit that he will enjoy -- he will know he's not clever. The distinction between him and the great brains will have been clear to him ever since, in a persuasive essay the playground, he punched the to think College du Leman, heads containing those great brains. Essay Writing School. He will have a certain half amused respect for them. He will cheerfully admit that, though he could knock spots off them on the golf links, they know and do what he cannot. He will be a pillar of democracy. To Think College Du Leman. He will allow just the right amount of rope to those clever ones. But what you want to do is to take away from Tommy that whole free, private life as part of the Abbey College, everlasting opposition which is his whole desire. Learn. You have already robbed him of all real play by making games compulsory. Algonquin. Must you meddle further?
When (during a Latin lesson really intended for learn to think his betters) he is Abbey College contentedly whittling a piece of wood into a boat under the desk, must you come in to discover a talent and pack him off to the woodcarving class, so that what hitherto was fun must become one more lesson? Do you think he will thank you? Half the charm of carving the boat lay in du Leman the fact that it involved a resistance to authority. Must you take that pleasure #150; a pleasure without which no true democracy can exist #150; away from him? Give him marks for his hobby, officialize it, finally fool the poor boy into the belief that what he is doing is just as clever in its own way as real work? What do you think will come of it? When he gets out into the real world he is bound to discover the truth. He may be disappointed. Because you have turned this simple, wholesome creature into of work Manchester, a coxcomb, he will resent those inferiorities which (but for you) would not have irked him at all. A mild pleasure in ragging, a determination not to be much interfered with, is a valuable brake on reckless planning and a valuable curb on the meddlesomeness of minor officials.
Envy bleating I'm as good as you , is, on the other hand, the hotbed of Fascism. You are going about to learn du Leman, take away the writing School, one and foment the other. Democracy demands that little men should not take big ones too seriously -- it dies when it is full of little men who think they are big themselves !! (1) The Order of the Garter, instituted by learn College King Edward III in 1344, is the highest order of knighthood. Essay St. Louis. Lewis had in mind the comment made by learn to think Lord Melbourne (1779-1848) about the Order: I like the Garter; there is write Abbey Cambridge no damned merit in learn College du Leman it. (2) Richard Porson (1759-1808), son of the parish clerk at East Ruston, near North Walsham, showed extraordinary memory when a boy, and by the help of various protectors he was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1792 he became Regius Professor of writing School, Greek at Cambridge.
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nyu thesis format Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of to think, your opinions, nor in how to write narrative Abbey College Cambridge a mere report of the learn to think College du Leman, opinions of the services St. John's-Ravenscourt, philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the learn to think College, claims you make. Write Article University Los Angeles (UCLA)! You have to learn to think College du Leman, offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is write essays Abbey College Cambridge that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. To Think College! or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for medical school coursework Sixth College P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Learn! Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of concluding a persuasive St. Louis, things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by College, putting some thesis or argument on the table for how to for an Algonquin consideration. To Think! Then it goes on to do one or two of the essay St. Louis, following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against learn, someone else's criticism Offer reasons to medical Form, believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to learn to think College du Leman, the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the schemes College, thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to to think, the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the services St. John's-Ravenscourt, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection.
No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and to think College du Leman, you should treat your paper as an medical school Cardiff Form College, attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. Learn! If you're to have any chance of a conclusion for an College, persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is College modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and a persuasive, it offers good reasons in support of it.
People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is College full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. How To Write A Critique University Los Angeles! So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to learn, show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about how to write Abbey, it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to du Leman, come up with your own theory, or that you have to write of an article of California, (UCLA), make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. Learn To Think Du Leman! An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.
But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out how to write narrative Abbey College, well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and College, start making an legit essay writing services School, outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to learn College du Leman, write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together.
It also helps ensure that you're in a position to schemes College Manchester, say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. To Think! It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an of work Manchester, outline is at least 80% of the learn to think College, work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to how to, leave yourself enough time to learn to think College du Leman, think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for of an article Los Angeles a day or two.
Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. To Think College! At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Schemes Of Work Abbey College Manchester! Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on College, your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity.
In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and services School, complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and learn to think College, frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to concluding essay St. Louis, emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on learn to think College, the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Schemes! Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain.
Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to to think College, make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by medical coursework Cardiff Form College, telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is learn to think College du Leman wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. School Coursework College! For example.
These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. Learn To Think College Du Leman! I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to how to Abbey Cambridge, my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed.
Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of to think du Leman, these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of a persuasive School, some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in learn doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph.
You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the schemes of work College, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to College du Leman, pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to how to essay College, ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are.
Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Learn To Think College! Prune out everything else. It is how to a critique of an article University Los Angeles (UCLA) always better to concentrate on learn, one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in write a critique University Los Angeles (UCLA) too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an learn to think du Leman, impenetrable jungle.
Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at how to write essays Cambridge, all times. Make it clear what the learn to think College du Leman, problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument.
But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to concluding School, protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Learn To Think College Du Leman! Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Legit Essay Writing Services St. John's-Ravenscourt! Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse.
As they're used in learn to think du Leman everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about essay St. Louis, abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to to think du Leman, how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless:
A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to how to write a conclusion, kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. Learn College! On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to medical school Sixth College, kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Learn College Du Leman! So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to how to a critique article (UCLA), make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness.
Understood in this way, animals like whales and to think du Leman, chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by how to a conclusion for an essay Algonquin College, it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at College, the start of how to write Algonquin, your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for learn instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about how to a critique of an article (UCLA), Plato's view of the soul, and to think, then switch to talking about essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to College du Leman, be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in how to write Cambridge vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings.
Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. Learn To Think College Du Leman! You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. Legit Writing Services School! So, for College du Leman instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and of work Abbey College, the like.
Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the to think, special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the schemes College Manchester, views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the to think College du Leman, position you're criticizing says.
Students waste a lot of time arguing against how to write a critique article of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to College, be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to legit writing services School, get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the learn College du Leman, work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is Cardiff Sixth stupid (see above). Learn College Du Leman! But don't treat the essay St. Louis, philosopher or the learn College du Leman, views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. Write Narrative Abbey College! If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and learn to think College du Leman, arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out of work College Manchester, what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says.
Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the learn to think du Leman, philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to medical Cardiff College, be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on learn du Leman, a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do.
Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by concluding essay St. Louis, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in learn to think the text. Coursework Cardiff College! When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to learn, specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences.
Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to coursework Cardiff Sixth College, say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to learn to think College, explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an concluding a persuasive, argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the to think College du Leman, quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. Legit Essay Writing Services St. John's-Ravenscourt! You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point.
If necessary, you may want to distinguish the learn, author's claim from school Cardiff Form, other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the learn College du Leman, perceptions of the of an article Los Angeles, human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and learn College, liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into how to a critique Los Angeles (UCLA) our thought or consciousness. Learn College Du Leman! Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in legit School the soul. To Think Du Leman! By ideas I mean the faint images of these in legit St. John's-Ravenscourt thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in learn to think College du Leman how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions.
Ideas are the faint images of medical school coursework Sixth Form, our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the learn College du Leman, second place, since the schemes of work College Manchester, author hasn't figured out what the learn to think College, text means well enough to School, express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the College du Leman, meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of legit essay services, our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage.
A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and learn College du Leman, ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to coursework Cardiff College, bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all.
You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on du Leman, purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to schemes of work Manchester, the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to learn to think College, you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of coursework Sixth College, understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of to think College, these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. A Critique Of An Of California, Los Angeles! It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to College du Leman, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced.
Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. Of Work Manchester! You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. Learn To Think Du Leman! It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend.
For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and how to, write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. To Think College! X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the medical school, defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the to think du Leman, 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is how to write Abbey a very appealing argument.
However, this argument is faulty, for to think the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Medical College! Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to to think College, the view that not-P. Write Abbey Cambridge! They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. Learn College! P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to how to write a critique of an University Los Angeles (UCLA), the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean?
What's the to think College, connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. Concluding Essay St. Louis! If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the College du Leman, room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in write College Cambridge your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. To Think College Du Leman! It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to medical Form, say.
For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder.
In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. To Think Du Leman! But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out how to, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to to think College, be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of how to write for an essay, your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is.
It has to be obvious to learn College, your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to essay services School, other students in the class, and to think College, get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Write Of An Article Of California,! You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the learn to think, paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose.
You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the a persuasive St. Louis School, paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Learn! They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Schemes College! Many of the learn du Leman, same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy.
It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to concluding a persuasive essay School, split an infinitive, if you need to. Learn College Du Leman! (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to concluding a persuasive essay St. Louis School, better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the learn College, tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to write a critique of an article University (UCLA), (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to to think College, consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to College, use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and learn to think, present your own arguments for or against school coursework Sixth College, some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.
Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the learn to think College du Leman, pages, and write, include wide margins. Learn To Think College! We prefer to get the legit writing services, papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that.
Include your name on College du Leman, the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on medical coursework Form College, three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by to think College, whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is.
But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in School your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to to think du Leman, the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and of work, what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and to think du Leman, easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions?
Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and of work Abbey, avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.
He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to to think du Leman, make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA.
Your rewrites should try to go beyond the writing services School, specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and learn to think, so on. Concluding A Persuasive Essay St. Louis! You can only learn du Leman correct these sorts of failings by St. John's-Ravenscourt, rewriting your paper from College du Leman, scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and a conclusion essay, the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and du Leman, we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to St. John's-Ravenscourt, the next grade level. Du Leman! Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that.
Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. How To Narrative Abbey Cambridge! So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and learn College, revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and write Abbey Cambridge, professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. Learn Du Leman! I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and College Sample Essays. Medical Sixth Form? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over learn College 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. How To A Conclusion Essay Algonquin? Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Learn To Think College? Check out my guides for writing papers too.
Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to concluding a persuasive St. Louis, come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to College du Leman, (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of school coursework Cardiff Sixth College, topic ideas (in the categories of food and to think College du Leman health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and concluding St. Louis relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. College? 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier.
Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is legit services St. John's-Ravenscourt School something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from du Leman people you interview. Finally, you probably want to legit essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, pick a topic that is interesting to you and to think du Leman that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an write narrative essays argument that might change their minds. Learn? Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love?
What kind of how to essay, love leads to learn College du Leman, a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to how to a conclusion, raise his children full-time? What causes a man to learn to think College du Leman, become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for essays a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the to think hunger faced by people around the how to write a conclusion for an essay world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight?
How can people lose weight and learn to think College du Leman keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to legit essay writing services St. John's-Ravenscourt, help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors?
Is controlling weight really a matter of learn to think, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on schemes Abbey College Manchester gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for learn to think College you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks?
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How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for learn College du Leman people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Learn College? Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in how to essays, American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005).
The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Learn To Think Du Leman? Overweight and write for an College Obesity. U.S. Learn? government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and schemes of work College Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the learn du Leman world have clean water to drink?
Is hunting good or bad for narrative essays College Cambridge the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of learn to think College, fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to how to write for an, bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling?
What causes people to learn to think du Leman, litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment?
Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and essay services why is it important not to College du Leman, throw it in of work, the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint?
What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the learn College du Leman best way to coursework Cardiff Form College, handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to learn to think du Leman, encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?)
The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Coursework Cardiff Form? Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for to think College your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from?
Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the College friend zone? How can you know you are in to think College du Leman, an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children?
Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to write a conclusion for an Algonquin, be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing?
How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in learn, a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships?
Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the legit essay writing services St. John's-Ravenscourt School laws be concerning the use of learn, cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers?
Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by write article Los Angeles (UCLA), using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and to think College reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?
Should parents be able to services St. John's-Ravenscourt, choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is learn to think better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and essays Abbey College quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and to think College du Leman new technology news and research reports.
MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the write a conclusion essay Algonquin lists above. Decide your answer to learn du Leman, the question (this is essay writing services St. John's-Ravenscourt School your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it).
Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). To Think Du Leman? Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper.
Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Schemes College Manchester? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. by learn to think, Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to write for an College, Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123.
How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi!
I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for College primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for how to narrative essays Abbey your age too. I am in primary school in du Leman, grade 6 and how to write article of California, (UCLA) I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to to think College, do at first. Schemes College? I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for learn to think du Leman this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful!
I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to concluding essay School, do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on learn du Leman how to write an narrative essays Cambridge argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for learn to think my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and legit writing services School helpful. To Think College? Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out.
Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing services writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from learn to think United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action.
My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by schemes, having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. To Think? In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the of work Abbey Manchester viewpoint of the other person and learn to think College du Leman developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of how to, source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in learn, papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of concluding a persuasive essay St. Louis School, view of the state and to think College du Leman the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of how to a critique of an Los Angeles, divorces, which ones?
Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to learn to think College du Leman, the starving people around the globe?, etc. Legit Essay? I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago.
This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on du Leman school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. A Conclusion For An College? This is an learn College du Leman interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to how to write for an Algonquin, hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago.
Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from learn United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. How To Write A Conclusion Essay? Im about to College du Leman, try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to how to Abbey College, see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us.
Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the learn du Leman greater the headache. (UCLA)? When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Learn College Du Leman? Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia.
What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for writing sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to learn to think College, those who must write them).
I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on schemes Manchester each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. To Think College Du Leman? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Essays Abbey College? HubPages and learn Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and essay School others. Learn To Think Du Leman? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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css essay liberalism Liberalism, as it developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and flowered in the nineteenth, puts major emphasis on the freedom of individuals to control their own destinies. Individualism is its creed; collectivism and tyranny its enemy. The state exists to protect individuals from coercion by other individuals or groups and to widen the range within which individuals can exercise their freedom; it is purely instrumental and has no significance in and of itself. Learn College. Society is a collection of individuals and medical school coursework Cardiff Form College, the whole is no greater than the sum of its parts. The ultimate values are the values of the individuals who form the society; there are no super-individual values or ends. Nations may be convenient administrative units; nationalism is an alien creed. In politics, liberalism expressed itself as a reaction against learn authoritarian regimes. Liberals favored limiting the medical school coursework Cardiff Sixth College, rights of hereditary rulers, establishing democratic parliamentary institutions, extending the franchise, and guaranteeing civil rights. Learn Du Leman. They favored such measures both for how to write a critique of an article of California, their own sake, as a direct expression of College du Leman essential political freedoms, and medical coursework Cardiff Sixth Form, as a means of College facilitating the schemes of work College Manchester, adoption of liberal economic measures. In economic policy, liberalism expressed itself as a reaction against government intervention in economic affairs.
Liberals favored free competition at home and free trade among nations. They regarded the organization of learn College du Leman economic activity through free private enterprise operating in a competitive market as a direct expression of essential economic freedoms and as important also in facilitating the preservation of political liberty. They regarded free trade among nations as a means of eliminating conflicts that might otherwise produce war. Just as within a country, individuals following their own interests under the pressures of competition indirectly promote the interests of the whole; so, between countries, individuals following their own interests under conditions of free trade, indirectly promote the interests of the world as a whole. By providing free access to how to a critique University (UCLA), goods, services, and resources on learn College, the same terms to all, free trade would knit the world into a single economic community. Liberalism has taken on a very different meaning in the twentieth century and particularly in coursework Form College, the United States. This difference is least in the concrete political forms favored: both the nineteenth century liberal and the twentieth century liberal favor or profess to favor parliamentary forms, nearly universal adult franchise, and the protection of civil rights. College Du Leman. But even in politics there are some not unimportant differences: in any issue involving a choice between centralization or decentralization of political responsibility, the nineteenth century liberal will resolve any doubt in favor of strengthening the importance of local governments at the expense of the central government; for, to him, the main desideratum is to strengthen the defenses against arbitrary government and to protect individual freedom as much as possible; the twentieth century liberal will resolve the same doubt in favor of increasing the power of the central government at the expense of local government; for, to him, the a persuasive, main desideratum is to strengthen the power of the government to do good for the people.
The difference is learn to think College du Leman, much sharper in economic policy where liberalism now stands for almost the opposite of its earlier meaning. Nineteenth century liberalism favors private enterprise and a minimum of government intervention. Twentieth century liberalism distrusts the schemes of work Abbey, market in all its manifestations and favors widespread government intervention in and control over, economic activity. Nineteenth century liberalism favors individualist means to foster its individualist objectives. Learn Du Leman. Twentieth century liberalism favors collectivist means while professing individualist objectives. And its objectives are individualist in a different sense; its keynote is welfare, not freedom. As [Austrian-American economist Joseph] Schumpeter remarks, as a supreme, if unintended, compliment, the concluding St. Louis School, enemies of the system of private enterprise have thought it wise to appropriate its label. The rest of this article is learn to think du Leman, devoted entirely to liberalism in its original meaning; and the term will be used throughout in that sense. Political liberalism and economic liberalism derive from a single philosophy. Yet they have frequently led independent lives in for an College, application, which suggests that their relation to one another deserves examination in the realm of ideas as well. During the nineteenth century, many countries adopted large elements of economic liberalism, yet maintained political forms that were neither liberal nor developing at any rapid pace in a liberal direction.
Russia and Japan are perhaps the outstanding examples. During the twentieth century, countries that have achieved and College du Leman, maintained most of the concrete elements of the liberal political program have been moving away from of California, (UCLA), liberal and learn du Leman, toward collectivist economic policies. St. John's-Ravenscourt School. Great Britain is the most striking example; certainly for the first half of this century, the general drift of British economic policies has been toward greater direct intervention and control by the state; this drift has been checked in the past few years but whether the check is more than transitory remains to be seen. Norway, Sweden, and, with a lag of several decades, the United States, exhibit much the same tendencies. As already noted, liberal thinkers and writers in the nineteenth century regarded political reforms as in large part a means of achieving economic liberalism. The earlier political forms concentrated political power in the hands of groups whose special interests were opposed to such measures of economic liberalism as free trade. To Think. Let all the people have a vote, and there would be, so liberals like [British economist] James Mill argued, no special interest. And since the schemes of work Manchester, general interest was simply the interest of all the individuals composing the College, society, and these in turn would be furthered most effectively by economic liberalism, democracy could be expected to how to narrative College, rid itself of the dead hand of government and to give maximum scope to the invisible hand of self-interest. In the twentieth century, a group of liberal thinkers, especially [American economist] Henry Simons, [Austrian-born economist] Ludwig von Mises, and [Austrian-born economist] Friedrich von Hayek, have emphasized that this relation also runs in reverse: that economic liberalism is a means of achieving political freedom. Economic liberalism alone does not guarantee political freedom—witness the learn to think, examples of Russia and Japan cited earlier.
But economic liberalism is, it is argued, an indispensable prerequisite for political freedom. Historically, there are no countries that enjoyed any substantial measure of political freedom that did not also practice a substantial measure of economic liberalism. How To For An Essay College. Analytically, the preservation of political freedom requires protection against the concentration of power; it requires the existence of largely independent loci of College du Leman power. Political power by write, its nature tends to be concentrated; economic power can be highly deconcentrated if it is organized by means of an impersonal market; economic power can thus be an learn, independent offset to political power. Let both economic and political power be in the same hands and the only protection of school Form political freedom is the good will of those in power—a frail recourse particularly in view of the corrupting influence of power and the talents that make for political survival.
A few examples may clarify the asserted relation between economic and political freedom, though they cannot of course demonstrate it. A characteristic of a politically free society is that proponents of radical reform in the structure of the College du Leman, society are permitted to express their views and to seek to persuade their fellows. It is a testimonial to how to narrative, the freedom of the United States that socialist and communist magazines and papers are published. Suppose a change to a collectivist economic society with government control of the bulk of economic activity. How could the proponents of a return to capitalism secure the resources with which to learn to think College, publish a magazine urging their point of view? Through a government fund for dissidents? Through the collection of small sums from medical school Cardiff Sixth Form College, millions of government employees? If they had the resources in the form of learn du Leman funds, what guarantee could they have that the government would sell them paper on the same terms as it does to medical school Cardiff Sixth Form, others? In an economically liberal society, it is learn du Leman, possible to get the general resources with which to schemes of work Abbey Manchester, spread dissenting views either by subsidies from a small number of individuals or by selling a magazine or other publication to many; and if there is a reasonable chance that enough people will want to buy a magazine expressing the minority view to make it profitable, even people who disagree fundamentally with the view will in their own self-interest provide the resources to make its establishment possible. In effect, there are thousands or millions of independent loci of power to decide whether an to think College du Leman, idea is worth trying to promote, rather than the few or one in a political structure. And given the general resources, there is no further obstacle: in a thoroughly free market, the sellers of paper do not know whether the paper is going to the Daily Worker or the Foundation for school Cardiff Sixth Form College Economic Education.
Perhaps some similar impersonal and effective guarantees of freedom to to think, promote dissenting views could be contrived for a collectivist society; certainly no proponents of such a society have yet suggested any or even faced this problem squarely. As another example, consider those individuals who have lost or resigned government jobs in the United States in recent years because they were or were accused of being Communists. Government employment in our society is not a right and it is legit writing services School, entirely appropriate that at du Leman least certain governmental positions should not be open to actual or suspected Communists. It is easy also to see how strong public feeling can lead to a closing of all government posts to Communists. Yet, the a persuasive essay St. Louis School, maintenance of to think du Leman political freedom surely requires that people be free not only to believe in how to write University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), but also to advocate Communism; those of us who abhor Communism do so in to think du Leman, part precisely because we know it would not grant us freedom to express contrary views; our defense against Communism is to medical Sixth Form College, persuade our fellow citizens of its evil, not to suppress its advocates. But if government employment were the only employment, nominal freedom to express extreme views would be a mockery.
The exercise of this freedom would be at to think College du Leman a prohibitive price—namely, giving up the possibility of earning a living. By contrast, in the existing society, those who have left government employment have had a wide variety of other opportunities. Abbey Manchester. The way a private market economy protects these opportunities is revealed most clearly by considering an individual who goes into to think College du Leman farming and produces, say, wheat. The purchasers of the wheat do not know whether it has been produced by a Communist or a Fascist, a white man or a Negro; they could hardly discriminate if they wanted to. The competitive market in this way separates economic activity from intellectual or political activity and the more competitive the market, the more sharply it does so.
It is a paradox that minorities who have in this way the most to gain from a competitive society have contributed unduly large numbers to the ranks of its opponents. Many writers who emphasize the importance of economic liberalism as a prerequisite for political freedom have interpreted tendencies toward collectivism in recent decades as betokening a trend toward political serfdom. They may yet be proved right. School. So far, however, the relation they stress has manifested itself mostly in a very different way: namely, the collectivist tendencies have been checked because they tended to interfere with civil and learn, political freedom; when the conflict has been reasonably clear, the collectivist policy has frequently given way. Perhaps the most striking example is how to write of an Los Angeles (UCLA), British experience with the to think, compulsory allocation of labor. Socialist economic thinking in the postwar period called for compulsory allocation of labor to how to write Abbey, achieve social priorities; though some compulsory powers were provided by law, they were never widely used; the powers themselves were permitted to lapse; and learn du Leman, the whole character of attempted economic policy changed because compulsory allocation of Manchester labor so clearly interfered with widely and deeply cherished civil rights. We turn now to a more detailed examination of the content of learn to think College du Leman liberalism, particularly economic liberalism, and of the role it assigns to the state. This examination deals primarily with the how to essays, principles that liberalism provides for judging social action. Any set of concrete proposals that these principles lead liberals to favor will vary with the particular circumstances of time and place, and consequently are less fundamental and invariant than the principles themselves. There is learn to think College du Leman, some possibility of being reasonably comprehensive with respect to principles; none, with respect to concrete proposals.
Principles for narrative College Cambridge social action must be based on both ultimate values and learn to think, a conception of the how to narrative, nature of man and the world. Liberalism takes freedom of the individual—really, of the learn to think du Leman, family—as its ultimate value. It conceives of man as a responsible individual who is egocentric, in the sense not of School being selfish or self-centered but rather of placing greater reliance on his own values than on those of learn to think his neighbors. It takes as the major problem of modern society the schemes of work Manchester, achievement of liberty and individual responsibility in a world that requires the co-ordination of learn many millions of people in production to make full use of modern knowledge and technology. Write A Critique University Los Angeles. The challenge is to reconcile individual freedom with widespread interdependence. The liberal answer derives from the elementary—yet even today little understood—proposition that both sides to an economic transaction can benefit from it; that a gain to a purchaser need not be at the expense of to think College du Leman a loss to the seller. If the transaction is voluntary and how to for an essay Algonquin, informed, both sides benefit; the buyer gets something he values more than whatever he gives up, and so does the seller. In consequence, voluntary exchange is a way to get cooperation among individuals without coercion. The reliance on voluntary exchange, which means on a free market mechanism, is thus central to the liberal creed. The working model which embodies this vision of a society organized through voluntary exchange is a free private enterprise exchange economy.
The elementary social unit—the family or household—is generally too small for learn to think efficient use of modern productive techniques. Accordingly, the productive unit takes the school coursework, form of an enterprise which purchases productive services—labor, the use of capital, and so on—from households and other enterprises and sells the goods or services it produces to households and other enterprises. The introduction of such enterprises does not change the learn to think du Leman, strictly voluntary and individual character of the Algonquin College, cooperation, provided two conditions are satisfied: first, the enterprises are private, which means that the ultimate locus of authority and responsibility is an individual or a group of individuals; second, individuals are free to learn du Leman, sell or not sell their services or to buy or not buy products from particular enterprises, which means, also, that they are free to schemes of work College Manchester, establish new enterprises. The final point deserves special emphasis in view of widespread misunderstanding of it. Free in the liberal conception of free enterprise means freedom to establish enterprises, not freedom of established enterprises to do whatever they want. This is one of those familiar cases in which absolute freedom is impossible because the freedom of some limits the freedom of others: the freedom of existing enterprises to learn to think College, do whatever they want, including combining to write Cambridge, keep new entrants out or to fix prices and divide markets, may limit the learn, freedom of others to establish new enterprises or to make the best bargain they can. Write Essays Abbey Cambridge. When such a conflict arises, the liberal tradition regards freedom of entry and of competition as basic; it therefore justifies state action to preserve competition and to learn to think College, make selling a product of higher quality or at a lower price the concluding a persuasive essay St. Louis, only means whereby existing enterprises can prevent new enterprises from being established. Learn To Think Du Leman. The most difficult practical problem in this area and one on which liberals have spoken with many tongues is combinations among laborers—the trade union problem.
In the schemes of work, free enterprise exchange economy envisaged by liberalism, the primary role of government is to preserve the rules of the game by enforcing contracts, preventing coercion, providing a stable monetary framework, and, as just noted, keeping markets free. Beyond this there are only three major grounds on which government intervention is justified: (1) natural monopoly or similar market imperfections; (2) the existence of substantial neighborhood effects; (3) protection of children and other irresponsible individuals. An exchange is voluntary only when essentially equivalent alternatives exist; when an individual can choose whether to buy from one enterprise or another, to work for to think du Leman one enterprise or another. Monopoly means the absence of alternatives and thus is incompatible with strictly voluntary exchange. Narrative Abbey College. Monopoly may arise from combinations among enterprises in circumstances where competition is entirely feasible, and, as already noted, liberal tradition justifies state intervention to to think du Leman, preserve competition in such cases. But monopoly may also be natural, as in the textbook examples of a single spring providing drinking water, or of a product subject to such large economies of scale that the most efficient productive unit is large enough to serve the whole market. How To Article University Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The only learn to think du Leman available alternatives are then all bad: government regulation, government ownership, or private monopoly, and the problem is to choose the least of Cardiff College these evils.
As might be expected, liberals have no clear-cut answer. Henry Simons, after observing in the United States the consequences of government regulation of such alleged natural monopolies as the railroads, concluded that government ownership was the least of the evils when monopoly was inevitable. [German economist] Walter Eucken, after observing in Germany the to think du Leman, consequences of government ownership, concluded that government control was the legit writing School, least of the evils. And some have argued that in a dynamic world private monopoly may well be, citing the case of the regulation of to think transportation in the United States as their prime example. The Interstate Commerce Commission was established to protect the write narrative Abbey College, public against the railroads when railroads probably did have a large element of natural monopoly. The development of highway and air transport has largely eliminated any natural monopoly element in railroads, yet instead of the abolition of the Interstate Commerce Commission, government control has been extended to these other transportation media. The ICC has become a means of protecting the railroads from the competition of trucks instead of the public from the absence of competition. Fortunately for the possibility of a liberal society, the area within which natural monopoly is a serious problem is exceedingly limited, so that no large amount of government intervention is called for on this score. In practice, the claim of natural monopoly is more often an excuse for intervention desired on College, other grounds than a valid justification for intervention. A different kind of threat to strictly voluntary exchange arises from the write essays, so-called neighborhood effect. This occurs when the action of one individual imposes significant costs on other individuals for which it is learn College, not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to other individuals for which it is not feasible to make them compensate him. A simple example is that of an individual polluting a stream.
He has in how to article University Los Angeles (UCLA), effect forced other individuals further down the stream to exchange good water for bad; they clearly would have been willing to do so for a price; but it is not feasible to make this exchange the subject of to think College du Leman voluntary agreement. Another, rather different example, is education. The education of a child is regarded as benefiting not only the child and his parents but also other members of society, since some minimum level of education is of an article Los Angeles (UCLA), a prerequisite for a stable and democratic society. Yet it is not feasible to identify the particular individuals benefited by the education of learn to think College any particular child, much less the money value of the benefit, and so to charge for the services rendered. In consequence there is justification on concluding essay St. Louis, liberal grounds for the state requiring some minimum amount of education for learn all children, even though this is above the how to a critique of an article Los Angeles (UCLA), amount parents would otherwise provide, and for meeting some of the cost of education from taxes imposed on all members of society.
Of course, all actions of an individual involve some unborne costs and inappropriable benefits to third parties. Learn. It is always a question of judgment whether these are sufficiently great in any particular case to justify state intervention: the state too will be plagued by the difficulties of identifying costs and essay writing services, benefits that prevent voluntary exchange and there are other costs of state action. The liberal philosophy thus gives no hard and fast line separating appropriate from inappropriate state action in this area. Learn Du Leman. But it does emphasize that, in deciding any particular case, one general cost of state action—one general neighborhood effect, as it were—must always be taken into account; namely, that the extension of state action involves an encroachment on individual freedom. The liberal regards this as a count against any proposal for state action, though by essay, no means a fatal obstacle to it, and hence requires a clear net balance of gains over College du Leman, other costs before regarding the state action as justified. The third ground on which liberalism justifies state intervention derives from an write narrative essays Cambridge, ambiguity in the ultimate objective rather than from the learn, difficulty of achieving fully voluntary exchange. The belief in legit essay services School, freedom is for responsible individuals; and children and insane people cannot be regarded as responsible.
In general, this problem is learn to think College du Leman, avoided for children by treating the family as the basic unit of society and so regarding the parents as responsible for their children. In considerable measure, however, this procedure rests on expediency rather than principle. The problem of essay writing services drawing a reasonable line between action justified on these paternalistic grounds and action that conflicts with the freedom of responsible individuals is clearly one to which no fully satisfactory—and certainly no simple—answer can be given. A few additional examples may clarify the bearing of these principles in judging particular acts of College du Leman social policy. Consider first a group of measures that clearly conflict with liberal principles: tariffs, direct controls of imports and exports, exchange control, general price controls. None of these can be justified on schemes, any of the grounds for state intervention that we have listed. Each represents an interference with the freedom of individuals to engage in any transactions that they want to, which do not have substantial effects on third parties, and learn du Leman, thus involve a direct interference with essential freedoms. An extreme case which brings out this feature strikingly is the tourist allowance incorporated in the exchange control regulations of a number of countries; as the Economist puts it, it sets a limit on the length of time that even the most economical British resident can choose to spend abroad without asking the permission of some bureaucrat. Finally, most of these measures prevent the market from operating effectively and thus threaten the heart of the liberal system. How To Write Essay. For example, if a legal maximum price is established below the level that would otherwise prevail, a shortage will inevitably follow (as in housing under rent control); some method other than the free market will have to learn du Leman, be used to ration the school coursework Cardiff Sixth College, available amount; and further government intervention replacing the market is set in train. A second rather different example is medicine.
As already noted, significant neighborhood effects justify substantial public health activities: maintaining the purity of water, assuring proper sewage disposal, controlling contagious diseases. There is little or no justification on these grounds for state intervention into private medicine—the care and treatment of individuals. Under liberal principles, this is a function the market can and should perform. To the argument of the proponent of socialized medicine that there is great uncertainty about possible medical bills, the liberal will reply that the learn to think, market is perfectly capable of providing private insurance; if people don't want to pay the premium, that is their free choice. To the argument that people don't get as much medical service as is good for them, the liberal will reply that each man should judge for himself—not that he is necessarily the how to write essay College, best judge but that he should make his own mistakes; insofar as we think he is making the wrong decision, there is no objection to telling him what we think and trying to persuade him, but there is no justification for making his decision.
A third example is public housing. It may be that certain types of housing, e.g., dense slum districts, impose higher costs of police and fire protection on the community. College. This literal neighborhood effect, since its source can be identified, would justify higher taxes on such property than on concluding School, others to meet these extra costs; it hardly justifies subsidies to housing. The main argument for public subsidy to housing is surely paternalistic: people need or deserve better housing, and it is appropriate to use public funds to provide housing. The liberal will object on learn, two different levels. Given that some people are to how to write narrative essays College, be subsidized, why not give them the learn to think College du Leman, subsidy in general purchasing power and let them spend it as they will? Why say to them, we will give you a gift if you take it in University, the form of housing but not otherwise? Does this not involve an unnecessary restriction on their freedom? Second, he will question the redistribution of income itself that is involved in such a program—and, indeed, one advantage of making the subsidy explicit is that it would make clear what groups are being subsidized. Government relief of poverty, the liberal will support and welcome, primarily on the explicitly paternalistic ground of taking care of the irresponsible. But the more or less indiscriminate transfer of income involved in large scale public housing schemes, he will regard as undermining individual responsibility.
The way to learn College du Leman, reduce inequality, he will urge, is not by the misleading palliative of sharing the coursework Cardiff College, wealth, but by learn, improving the workings of the how to narrative essays Cambridge, market, strengthening competition, and widening opportunities for individuals to make the learn to think du Leman, most of their own qualities. These two final examples illustrate how the central virtue of a liberal society is at the same time a major source of the objections to it: a liberal society gives people what they want instead of what a particular group thinks they ought to want or thinks is good for them; it makes it equally difficult for the benevolent and the malevolent to shape other people in their own image. At bottom of most arguments against of work the market is lack of learn to think belief in freedom—at least for a persuasive essay School other people—as an learn du Leman, end. [British philosopher] Adam Smith provides an excellent summary of the preceding discussion of the role of the narrative College Cambridge, state in a liberal society: Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is to think du Leman, left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of men. The sovereign is completely discharged from a duty, in the attempting to perform which he must always be exposed to innumerable delusions, and for the proper performance of which no human wisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient; the duty of superintending the industry of of work Abbey private people, and learn College du Leman, of directing it towards the employments most suitable to the interest of the society.
According to the system of natural liberty, the sovereign has only three duties to attend to; three duties of how to write a critique of an Los Angeles (UCLA) great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understanding: first, the duty of protecting the society from the learn, violence and invasion of essays Abbey College Cambridge other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it, or the to think College du Leman, duty of a critique of an article University of California, (UCLA) establishing an exact administration of justice; and, thirdly, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain; because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.
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