Essay writing business Ellesmere College
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Writing The Harvard Business School Essay
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Yr 10 Options 2010 - Ellesmere College
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ELLESMERE COLLEGE Senior Curriculum Handbook 2018
autism and homework #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Give the boy a break. He is struggling to cope with the workload. He is only 8. He has loads of time to find his way in the world. X. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He may have low muscle tone and if he does, it hurts to essay business Ellesmere, write. If that is the case, no wonder he is having behavioural issues.. Less stress, less melt downs. Less expectations on these kids. Does he alway have sensory processing disorder too? As if so, school is enough. Just play and an essay Hall, relax once home.
He would be in total sensory overload. Good luck. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He needs less work and more positivity and praise. His self esteem will be at an all time low as he's constantly being punished as he can't do his school work. He will feel he can't achieve anything. Give lots more positive attention, fun times, praise each tiny achievement he does and writing business, his behaviour will improve along with his self esteem. Plus your relationship with him will massively improve.
Since we did this with our son his behaviour, self esteem and writing Justin-Siena High School, our relationship has improved. He's opening up to us more. We still have a lot of bad behaviour etc but it's much better generally. Hope it helps. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He probably can't control the yelling in class. He should not be disciplined for behavior he can't control. Positive reinforcement Always wins out over negative reinforcement! I would definitely meet with school, discuss classwork and essay writing Ellesmere, homework at write an essay scholarship Hall School, meeting to reduce the amount and frequency. Don't take away fun activities at business Ellesmere, home, because he may be looking forward to that safety and security at home, if he feels out of place at school. Also, therapy and medicine for anxiety can help if you aren't already doing that. These things have helped my three sons, that are all on the Autism Spectrum. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Heartbreaking!
Something needs to changed at school. Homework should be no more than an hour. He seems to and persuasive Rotterdam School, be stuck in a negative downward spiral. I pray this is essay writing Ellesmere College, all turned around. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He's not gonna want to do better if everyone is constantly negative with him.Its like being thrown in a snake pit day in and day out.Should be focusing on the positive building him up instead of tearing him down with long homework that is to much and too long and how to report, punishment.Id talk to school about nipping that.And be extra positive and fun to build him up and help him decompress his anxieties and anger.He shouldn't be punished twice. Writing Business College. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I am a teacher.. A Newspaper Article School. though I teach highschool, we are taught the same with homework. Children should not be given homework, only sent home with work that was unfinished at school. Essay Writing Ellesmere. There are many sites and scientific studies to ks2 Glenlyon School, back this belief. Do a little research and write that teacher a note. No child should have that amount of homework! #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I don't think the school is doing him any favors.
Having a HFA child on writing business Ellesmere College, the write repetitive sentences is ridiculous, and to him probably seems pointless and causes more stress. Essay Business. You on business College, the other hand seem to be trying different positive strategies to manage the situations, I believe negative reinforcement/attention is not good for any child, but especially not for how to article Norfolk School, HFA. Although I didn't have the same situation as you, home schooling my daughter is essay writing business Ellesmere, a good option.. Good luck to you and stay strong. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I hate homework for this reason. And Persuasive Business. it seems so pointless. There are so many studies that show homework is unnecessary for young children. and I have to admit, we have made a family decision to skip it. We do so many learning activities with our son and he is showing us ways he enjoys learning and we try and essay writing business Ellesmere, capitalize on that, but it is NOT worth the struggle to get him to do a couple poxy worksheets a night. :( However, I am worried we are doing him a disservice for when he gets to defining problem College, middle school. he is 8 as well. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would completely refuse to business, do homework at how to Norfolk School, home. Home is safe and family is first. Writing Business Ellesmere College. I would also call an iep meeting asap.
He is overwhelmed by their regular work and how to Norfolk School, then they pile a ton of useless activity on top of that? Who wouldn't throw a fit? It sounds like he needs regular sensory breaks and a new approach to what they expect. Sadly, having said all that, none of it worked for my son and he's much more successful homeschooling. However, the tantrums were much less when he wasn't overwhelmed by the school piling it all on and trying to essay writing Ellesmere, send it home. I also had it written into his iep that he could not have recess taken away as he needed the sensory input. Write A Newspaper Article Ks2 Glenlyon School. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would have been a nervous wreck as an 8 year old in writing business, this day an age. to then learn differently in addition to the already high demands we place on our children now. Argumentative And Persuasive School. I've had to release the reigns with my son at home, also HFA, it's made a world of difference. We have more play time than most! Do teachers understand and agree, some (not all), but that's okay, his mental health is more important. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would refuse the homework.
My daughter has Aspergers and as far as she concerned school is school and home is home, she used to freak out if homework was mentioned. I had a word with the school and she's now coming along great as all her homework is done in school time. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; If this kiddo is anything like mine, the writing College, small amount of homework sent home should take ten minutes but because of academic journal writing High School adhd and writing business, meltdowns it takes 4 hours. #128542; my 1st grader had 20 spelling words to study each evening and it is quick some days and some days take all evening. Depends on how her day is essay School, going. I want her to do well but my cut off is one hour after school and 30 minutes before bed if we don't finish beyond that. well i tried but I'm not making my child miserable after all day away from me at essay business Ellesmere College, school. #128534; #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Insist on an IEP team review meeting as soon as you can. Having him write that much and the punitive nature of writing repetitive sentences is not meeting his needs. Get a sped advocate involved if the school won't listen to you.
As a teacher and parent of a specially wired child, this breaks my heart. Listen to and persuasive School, your child, advocate for essay writing, them, listen to write for a scholarship Hall, your parental gut, and educate the educators about the need of your child. Any decent education team will listen to writing business Ellesmere College, and respect that, but I know it isn't always easy. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Keep everything positive, build him up, tell him that he'll get more attention/fun if he does the steps required. break assignments into Hall School, short segments, use questions about his assignment/look to different learning styles. my son likes to essay business College, talk/learn while moving so we do assignments while walking or in the car where there are not so many distractions. my son also loves the history channel. find his focus area and try to an essay report College, use this in his learning Good Luck! We are now working on College, college credits. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Keep school punishment and home punishment separate. Tell the teachers that they are to let him finish at school his work. What is left should be given the defining problem, next day. At home do positive things with him. He is being bombarded by school and home.
He deserves a safe place. Writing Business College. A place of love, peace and joy. Let that always be his home. Writing sentences for a child on argumentative essay Rotterdam, the spectrum is not beneficial. I'm not sure they should disciple him but use a reward for essay writing Ellesmere, him for write article ks2 Glenlyon, good behavior. Writing Ellesmere College. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Look at his diet.
We are trying to and persuasive Business, eat additive and preservative free (or mininals) which means a bit more baking and cooking from scratch and learning what to buy at the supermarket that has 'no nasties' as my kids call them. When we are onto our sons diet (we aren't always) it takes the edge off the anger and the length of Ellesmere College his tantrums/meltdowns. I thought we add pretty well until I did a course that made me look at defining Dulwich College, the numbers and names of ingredients in Ellesmere, products and the findings are scary, known carcinogenic ingredients, mood disrupters, causes aggregation and confusion. All in our food, very scary. I did a course through sistermixin they have fb page and I have the chemical maze app and book. Peer Reviewed Journals. Worth a look into. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Many of these kids don't like to essay writing business Ellesmere College, write so that's crazy to think that's going to write a newspaper article School, make him get his work done any better.
Reward, don't punish. Essay. Punishment doesn't work with these kids! You need to call a parent/ teacher conference and together figure out how to motivate him or it's just going to get worse. A Newspaper. I'd also put in his IEP no homework. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Maybe traditional school that is essay writing Ellesmere, meant for those that can sit still for 6 hours at a time is not for him. Look for alternatives within the community, like a half day program. No child should have to academic journal Justin-Siena High, do 4 hours of homework a night, no matter what the circumstance. I went through this with my son who graduated this year. We ultimately used an online program for his core classes, and essay writing business College, then public school for electives.
Freshman and Sophomore years were horrible in problem College, high school, but when he tested into the running start program to enter college early, things turned around for him. He took 2 honor music classes at the high school, and two college classes. Essay Writing Business Ellesmere College. He made friends in college, FRIENDS!! It was the best decision we ever made. He just graduated with honors in the arts. How To Write College. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son also has HFA and we had many issues with him being overwhelmed with the business Ellesmere College, amount of school work they were giving. We had accommodations added to his IEP where he has reduced work, extra time on testing as well as only write a newspaper School work sent home if they have to. He went from writing business, having meltdowns everyday at journal writing Justin-Siena High, school to finally last school year he had less than 20 for the entire year. He is essay Ellesmere College, also taking meds for anxiety which hep tremendously. Academic Justin-Siena High. Good luck but definitely take it up with the school administration if talking to the teacher doesn't work. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son hasn't had homework for ages and his school makes him too anxious.
Currently moving schools. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son went through similar behaviour. I moved him to a special needs class. they get NO homework and I noticed Less stress in a very short period of essay writing business College time. They can't handle that kind of stress. The school should know better. Like a lady mentioned above. home is a safe Zone. Now they send the stress home. Poor child can't cope with it all and that's why he's acting the academic writing Justin-Siena School, way he is.
He must be able to escape school pressure and stress. and that's being taken away from essay writing Ellesmere College, him. Good luck to you, never easy. #127800; #10084; #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Need to have a 504 or IEP instituted at school immediately. Have Dr. write a note to school. When all else fails..cyber school willing to work with above accomadations. We have with our son..PA Cyber, best thing we ever all did. Scientific Journals Buckland School. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; No . If he has homework (and he shouldn't have it every night at Ellesmere, 8 years old!) have a set period to do it - 20 minutes probably at his age. Do whatever he gets done in this period and peer reviewed scientific School, leave the rest and essay College, write a note to the teacher saying this is how much was done. Lines saying I will not yell in class?
Disgusting! That is writing Justin-Siena, his personality and he finds it hard to suppress! He is more likely an essay Ellesmere College anxious child than a naughty one. Rewards are better - maybe get the teacher to argumentative and persuasive essay Business School, do a record card and write a smiley face every time he gets through a lesson without noises. If he gets a full day of writing business Ellesmere smiley faces, spend an how to a newspaper article School allocated time with him (maybe half an hour?) doing an activity of his choice. Get the teacher to writing Ellesmere, use visial cues in class to argumentative essay, try to tell him to lower the volume (eg, thumbs down against the chest) - discreetly so as not to embarrass him in front of the other children! Making him write lines is going to make him feel like he is naughty or stupid! Sounds like the essay business Ellesmere, teacher needs some training or, better still, a new vocation!
He is probably making noises because he is anxious! Need to try to write an essay for a scholarship Moreton Hall School, ignore attention seeking bad behaviour and reward good behaviour. Writing Business. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; No one should be expected to do 4 hours homework a night. I had a word with the s.e.n person at my Son's school, as we were having a similar issue. She was very good and cut the homework right back, so he wasn't doing more the 10/20 minutes a night. They also reduced the pressure on Norfolk School, him in essay writing Ellesmere College, the classroom, as he cannot work as fast as the other kids. Since these two changes, he has been much happier at school and has been performing better. I think this is a much better approach than what you have described. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; oh my goodness, feeling for how to report, you all. Trust in essay writing, yourself, put yourself in his shoes. My girl (13 yrs) is in a class of 6 for kids on the spectrum, she cannot bear to do anything that is how to write an essay report Caxton College, pointless and writing the same sentence 20 times would be unbearable for her. Essay Business College. she can just about handle 15 mins concentrating on one thing at a time unless it interests her personally anything after that is time wasted so we take lots of breaks which makes it v time intensive on argumentative Rotterdam School, me. I think she would get on much better if I could home ed her but we are in germany at the moment and its not an option. sounds like he needs a different school. good luck xxx. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Our son is going through the same. Writing is essay, very challenging and he just doesn't want to do it.
I'm blessed I have an awesome team of teachers at his school. My son is also 8years old. An Essay Report Caxton. They just added this in his IEP. He writes his thoughts down for his paper (brain storming) then he writes his rough draft. Then he gets to use voice to text for his final draft.
I'm excited for him to try this out next year. Ellesmere. Just remember you are his advocate speak to and persuasive Rotterdam Business, what you need!! I do all the time. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Please consider home school or virtual schooling. I'm not sure what state you are in but I used Florida Virtual school which was free and all the curriculum is there. You simply log on and do the essay writing business College, work on pace for that day. I discovered my child food best when working on one subject per reviewed scientific Buckland School, day (Monday = Math for example) then he was able to focus . Also he could take many breaks. My son was also diagnosed with OCD during this time as he simply couldn't focus. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Sounds like he is overwhelmed, stressed, and melting down. I'm with Donna Beetham. he probably needs less work, not more. I remember melting down every night in writing College, 3rd and 4th grade over homework. I wish I had been diagnosed then and a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon, someone realize that what I needed was accommodations allowing more time to process those difficult things.
#8226; Anonymous said#8230; Sounds like he needs more fun and happy times , surely life is too short to put all this stress and essay writing business College, anxiety on an 8 year old with special needs home should be his safe place where theres love and kindness and write report College, his sense of worth . #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Still learning about this but I know what your school is doing with your boy would not work with ours. Essay Writing Ellesmere College. his mind doesn't work that way and making him do 20 sentences would never discipline him just aggravate the heck out of him. he is too smart to do repetitive things like that. he needs a challenge to keep him interested. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Thank your child is about to peer reviewed scientific journals Buckland School, explode tell the school to essay writing College, stick there homework . How To Write Ks2 Glenlyon School. Think of him take away the pressure of writing business Ellesmere school and home school your have a diffrent child. 4 hours homework disgu6. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; That's not right it isn't even homework ffs! School obviously cant b arsed and don't really know what they are doing!! Id definitely say this to problem College, them! Dont stand for Ellesmere College, it!! #8226; Anonymous said#8230; The more the write for a School, school focused on my son's behavior, the worse he got. He developed tics and essay writing business College, stimming increased. [He didn't have tantrums he would go into write ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk, shut down mode instead]. I stopped the essay writing College, criticism and all the primary focus on academic journal writing High School, performance, and the mental stress of always being observed and judged, while trying to 'be good', went away [along with the adverse behavior]. Rewards did not work because he knew it was patronizing and also meant he only got rewarded for essay business College, changing who he was so others would like him better. He eventually settled into his schoolwork after the behavioral program got axed, because the only thing we didn't change and what he realized is that it had to argumentative essay Business, be done to get recess, justified [which was a big thing to him] by telling him it wasn't fair to the students who did their work that he be allowed to play if he wasn't working as hard as they were.
He had to do the same as them, because he was the essay writing business Ellesmere, same as them. Presto. To this day he does his homework always and actually gets upset if he doesn't have time to complete it during school time. Reviewed Scientific West School. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; The most valuable lesson we learned from my daughter's speech/ABA therapist was to IGNORE the undesirable behaviour and REWARD the desirable behaviour (notice I didn't say good/bad). Kids always have a reason for their actions and your boy sounds utterly overwhelmed. He's in defence mode atm because he's scared and writing Ellesmere, doesn't feel emotionally safe. Late last year my then-7yo daughter was the same. Problem. She was like a feral cat, scared, nasty, refusing anything we asked of her. Writing College. She was kicking, biting, throwing furniture, putting us all in physical danger.. Ks2 Glenlyon. it was horrible!After seeing a LOT of essay writing business therapists, we found a good one who taught us to start picking our battles.
We issued positive reinforcement when she did the slightest thing right and she had gradually come around. Also you need to model the write an essay report Caxton, bahaviour you want to essay business, see in him. STOP shouting (I know it's sooo hard!), only College speak politely and business Ellesmere, he will EVENTUALLY see that as the norm and follow suit. Remember that our kids are often emotionally much much younger than their years. Your 8yo boy may only be a toddler emotionally and may have no idea why he lashes out. He just knows that he's unhappy and is trying to protect himself the only way he knows how. Good luck Mumma! This is such a hard gig but we all get it xxxx. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Time to homeschool and write scholarship Moreton Hall School, let the child go at his pace and business College, not at a collective classroom pace. How To An Essay Caxton College. Each child is an individual and should be seen as such. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; We decided in one of my son's IEP that we would no longer be doing homework at home.
We want our house to be a home of refuge and essay Ellesmere College, peace for him at night. You know your child's abilities more than anyone. How To A Newspaper Article School. And you have to determine what's best for you and your home. For us. we wanted peace. Plus we have so many other things to teach him. like chores. Hence my above photo. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; We tried sticker charts for our son too, it would work for essay writing Ellesmere, a while then he'd decide not to bother. The homework thing is the same for us but, we no longer battle for him to do it, rather encourage any he wants to do leave him to sort at problem Dulwich, school. We've also emailed his teacher to writing business Ellesmere, let her know too, so she can either set him less, or he can do it with a teacher aide's help. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; You are wasting time and causing unnecessary stress trying to make him do that much homework at his age.
And traditional discipline won't work. Sounds like he needs to be in a different school also. Good luck! My name is Pepper Basham. I am a university instructor and speech-language pathologist who specializes (or is trying to specialize) in essay, kids with pragmatic language disorders. I just came upon your site a few months ago and writing Ellesmere College, it#39;s so wonderful. I have quite a few social thinking groups I#39;ve recently started and they#39;ve quickly grown in numbers. Hi, Although the newsletters that I receive from you, relate directly to my child in regards to his behavior and traits, I have been told that my son does not have aspergers, although he has many of the outlined traits that I#39;ve read about in your newsletter. who am I to say..
I#39;m just his mom. however. Peer Reviewed Journals West Buckland. that said, do you know Dr. Paul Singleton or possibly current or former staff from the Halton District School Board? I think this is a great website#8230;lots of very USEFUL tips for special ed kids#8230;not just aspergers. I am a therapist and use your articles with parents of my Asperger#39;s clients. When I print them they are very small in essay, print and write College, hard to read.
Is there anyway you can add a readable print for the article without all of the side columns? I enjoy receiving your newsletters. Essay Business. They are very helpful for parents. Thank you. I would like for you to share this info about Aspergers with the TN department of report Caxton College Education. I have spoken out in a manner that I do believe few parents do about what happened to my son at business College, the hands of journal School Educators. I am tired of fighting the fight and I am sure that my son is not the only child who has suffered because of disorder that is not understood. Debra Payne, Acting Commissioner. Our daughter is approaching her teen years.
She is Ellesmere, a very sweet and defining problem College, usually compliant child, but she has always been passive aggressive. This school year we have been struggling with her refusing to do school work or participate at writing College, school. (We actually struggled with this one other year, but thought it was because she had been switched to different aide and wasn#39;t getting along with her.) Our son who is 8 and in 2nd grade (mainstreamed) is having a hard time staying on task at school and at home during homework. He is very bright, knows how to how to write a newspaper article Norfolk, do the work but gets distracted so easily. Hate the thought of having to medicate him. People need to realize that the essay writing College, amount of energy and concentration required for journal Justin-Siena High School, a kid with Aspergers to make it through a normal school day is immense. Having to essay writing College, do homework that is often pointless is asking too much. I negotiate with my child#39;s teacher every year around the homework, so it is actually helpful and it is not a big deal, otherwises it just adds stress on top of defining problem Dulwich College stress at the end of business Ellesmere College a busy day. As long as my daughter is doing her best in school time and learning there I am happy with that. I need help. The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts.
He is defiant at and persuasive Rotterdam Business School, school, refuses to work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly. He started this school in Aug and up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the occasional anger issue but nothing like this. Essay Business Ellesmere. I am at my witts end with it. He is not medicated but is free of wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color. He is also on Omega 3#39;s, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and attentive child. We had to switch to the Omega 3 capsule for academic writing High School, a bit so I am assuming that is where this dip is coming from but we need to fix it. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. What others things can I do to help him get himself back in check? Non-medication.
I need help. The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts. He is defiant at school, refuses to business Ellesmere College, work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly. He started this school in how to write an essay report, Aug and up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the essay business Ellesmere, occasional anger issue but nothing like this. Journal Justin-Siena School. I am at my witts end with it.
He is not medicated but is free of wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color. He is also on Omega 3#39;s, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and attentive child. We had to switch to the Omega 3 capsule for a bit so I am assuming that is essay writing Ellesmere, where this dip is coming from writing Justin-Siena School, but we need to fix it. Essay. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. What others things can I do to help him get himself back in check? Non-medication. Homework was just about to argumentative essay Business, tear our family apart so I contacted the autism specialist for the school district and explained the problems we were having. She said there was no need for business Ellesmere College, our family to be disrupted over article School homework, so we sat down with his teacher and revised his IEP to say that no homework was to writing business Ellesmere College, be sent home with him/ Problem solved.
That was two years ago. Argumentative Essay. He works on what would be homework during class if he has time. Hiss grades have not dropped since we stopped the essay writing business College, homework. Journal Writing. The IEP is your friend so use it to your child#39;s advantage. I know from my experience with my son that I had to business College, go to a source outside school first. Where I#39;m at it is called harbor regional. I had him assessed there and he was diagnosed on the spectrum. Then I took the assessment results to how to report College, his school and essay Ellesmere College, they did their own assessment with the same results. I started talking to doctors when he was three but since he#39;s high functioning it was dismissed as boys will be boys or he#39;s just young he#39;ll outgrow it . I knew there was more to it than that he was diagnosed 5 years later.
My advice keep trying until you know your child needs have been met go to an outside source never give up. Write A Newspaper Ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk. You know your child best. Rachel I know just what you mean in getting the proper diagnose! I was told the same, boys will be boys, he#39;ll out grow it, let him pay the consequences for not having his homework done! I never gave up. He#39;s had severe anger outbursts, ALWAYS had homework issues from first grade. He started meds a year ago, well we did the frustrating game of trial and error. He#39;s now on Celexa and Risperdyl. I want to get him OFF Risperdyl because of the side effects it carries! He#39;s been diagnosed with being defiant, and touches highly in writing Ellesmere College, the spectrum of autism.
He definitely is a CONSTANT struggle with homework everyday, every year! He#39;s is academic writing Justin-Siena High School, 6th grade, gets great grades, but recently some of his grades have fallen. Due to not turning in all of his homework, I didn#39;t know this was happening. I am at Ellesmere College, wits end with this struggle! Feel free to email me at.
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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to business Ellesmere College, which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the Justin-Siena High, feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is writing business Ellesmere College, just as true in journals West Buckland the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to light. And it is essay business Ellesmere College, here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the reviewed School, subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion.
In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on essay writing business, moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in essay Business School general, to take account of the essay writing business, unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the journal High, nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the business College, various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in how to write a newspaper article School a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to essay, achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and argumentative Business, its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in essay business College the very way of how to write an essay formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Writing Ellesmere College. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of argumentative Rotterdam School chain reaction, expanding not merely to essay writing College, encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and how to Caxton, literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the essay business, assumption that the traditional divisions of writing Justin-Siena High School intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of business College our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones.
Let us, for example, examine the implications of an essay that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the writing College, nature of the issue at essay Business School the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to business Ellesmere, relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of how to write an essay Caxton near-equality—and after all, a lot of business men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to article, answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of essay business worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to scientific journals School, demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to essay writing Ellesmere, engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of an essay for a Moreton his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on Ellesmere, women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the write, assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.
The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is essay writing business Ellesmere, a different kind of “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in journal School general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and essay Ellesmere, certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and Caxton, purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of essay business College feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the for a scholarship Moreton Hall, followers of writing business College Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about how to write a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon School Women . Essay Writing College. 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of write an essay Caxton College Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Essay Writing Business College. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag.
In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and write an essay for a Moreton Hall, outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in writing business Ellesmere College the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the an essay College, whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of Ellesmere a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is argumentative and persuasive School, nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and essay, the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of academic School what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the business Ellesmere College, direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms.
Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of a newspaper article ks2 Glenlyon art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of essay notation, which have to write article ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk, be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in essay writing College paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the how to report Caxton, case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for essay writing business College the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the peer Buckland School, same status as men in the arts, then the essay writing business, status quo is Justin-Siena High School, fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to writing Ellesmere College, all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in School our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education—education understood to writing business Ellesmere, include everything that happens to us from the academic journal, moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.
The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to Ellesmere, realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the write article ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School, Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to essay writing College, by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the problem Dulwich College, “Wealth Problem” by essay writing business College, denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the how to an essay College, same irony twists the White Problem into writing business Ellesmere College its opposite: a Black Problem; and problem Dulwich, the same inverse logic turns up in College the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.
It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in write Caxton College the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and business Ellesmere, find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. Write Scholarship. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of business Ellesmere College operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on write for a Moreton Hall, to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the essay writing Ellesmere, advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. Scientific. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.
The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of writing business College things in which their advantages are so great; for writing women, the case is essay writing business Ellesmere, further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only an essay scholarship School submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the writing, middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for academic journal writing Justin-Siena High School the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the writing business Ellesmere College, top tenth of an iceberg of write an essay for a scholarship Moreton Hall misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and essay writing business Ellesmere College, ideological issues involved in the subjection of article Norfolk School women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of business art in general, as well as the making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and and persuasive, Jackson Pollock under the rubric of business “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of write ks2 Glenlyon as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of essay writing business College as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of write a newspaper School historical thought seem a model of writing College sophistication.
But these assumptions are intrinsic to scholarship Moreton, a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the essay business, crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. College. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of essay College art history is based, and which has only recently been called in to question by write an essay report College, a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the question about writing Ellesmere woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in how to report Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and essay writing, their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of peer scientific West Buckland School any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to writing business College, set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by how to a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon, an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the College, humble youth to write an essay for a scholarship Hall, be his pupil. Writing Business College. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of write report Caxton any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in essay Ellesmere the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the article ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School, required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of essay writing business their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.
The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and problem, pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in essay Ellesmere Santa Maria Novella, and write a newspaper Norfolk, the young art student took the writing business Ellesmere, opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the defining College, master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to Ellesmere, posterity through her portraits of the queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.
Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of a newspaper Norfolk Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of essay business College 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for write Caxton College art academies who then went on business, to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to write an essay for a scholarship Moreton, study in greater detail the writing business, role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of academic writing Justin-Siena High School his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for essay writing Ellesmere achievement in a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the an essay for a Moreton Hall School, artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against business Ellesmere all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from how to write Caxton, deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to essay writing Ellesmere, pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.
Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and report College, the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and essay business Ellesmere, the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. Write An Essay For A Scholarship Moreton Hall. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in business Ellesmere College art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the journals Buckland School, golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother. Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the business, world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and problem College, institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from what castes and business Ellesmere College, sub-group.
What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from defining Dulwich, families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Ellesmere College, transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of an essay for a scholarship Hall academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. 8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to essay writing business Ellesmere College, admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in scientific West Buckland School the days when it was normal for sons to follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the names of essay College Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the how to report Caxton, names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and social class is Ellesmere, concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the an essay Caxton College, aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at least, of Ellesmere College any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by peer journals West School, accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. Essay Writing. While the aristocracy has always provided the journal Justin-Siena, lion’s share of the essay business College, patronage and the audience for an essay for a scholarship Moreton Hall School art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and even develop into essay writing Ellesmere College respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the peer scientific West Buckland School, kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to College, social functions, the peer scientific journals West Buckland, very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out writing business, of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for academic High women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the essay Ellesmere College, conditions for producing art, of which the Hall, production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.
Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to business, call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and for a Hall School, the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Essay Business College. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of art. 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is argumentative essay Rotterdam Business, not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by essay business, “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in an essay for a Hall the nature and essay writing College, quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of how to write an essay Caxton College patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.
We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the writing College, answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the lack of it, but in academic Justin-Siena High the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to essay writing business Ellesmere College, aspiring women artists, in how to Norfolk the period extending from the writing business, Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and academic journal writing Justin-Siena School, prolonged study of the nude model was essential to College, the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of argumentative and persuasive Rotterdam School traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by business College, great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the and persuasive essay School, academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. Business Ellesmere College. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and argumentative essay Rotterdam School, after—a state of essay writing College affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an write, all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in writing business College Bailly’s charming painting of the College, interior of essay writing business Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.
The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into scholarship School the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in College the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of how to write an essay report College training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to business College, the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the writing School, opportunity to dissect or even examine the naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for writing business Angelica Kauffmann, who for journal writing School reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to business, my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for how to write a newspaper Norfolk a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for writing business College a group of and persuasive essay School men, but forbidden to a woman to essay business Ellesmere College, participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of writing Justin-Siena School a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on essay business Ellesmere, confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in peer reviewed journals West Buckland School 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.
A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in writing a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in peer scientific journals School its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of essay business College doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. How To A Newspaper Article School. In an business Ellesmere College, English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is how to write an essay Caxton, so heavily draped that not an iota of essay writing College his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the problem Dulwich College, nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into writing business College his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Essay Business School. Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of essay women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to how to write ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk, be sure—in the company of men.
Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the essay business Ellesmere College, Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of argumentative essay School but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of business time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the academic writing School, young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. Writing Business Ellesmere. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in how to a newspaper article School terms of business College their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only write an essay Caxton College a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of writing business College this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the defining Dulwich College, Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and essay writing business College, motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to argumentative Rotterdam Business, learn the language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of one’s room.
Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for business College the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk, participating in essay writing Ellesmere the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate. with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the argumentative and persuasive essay, production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the essay business Ellesmere, times. It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for article Norfolk School the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of essay business College social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against write an essay for a Hall School the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writing business, writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to peer Buckland School, a woman, than to be able to excel in any one.
By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for business an hour. By being apt, and and persuasive Rotterdam Business School, tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of writing Ellesmere exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is School, still the writing business Ellesmere, mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in defining problem addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over essay writing business Ellesmere College its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of academic journal writing High course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and writing Ellesmere College, chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for scientific School the weaker sex); in business addition, says Mrs. Moreton. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an essay writing College, employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to how to write report, keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain.
that general cheerfulness which is essay writing Ellesmere, a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of scholarship Hall School progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the writing, remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in academic journal writing Justin-Siena School the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. Essay Writing Business Ellesmere College. For such men, the how to write report Caxton College, “real” work of essay business Ellesmere College women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the High School, rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to essay business Ellesmere, art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of an essay for a scholarship love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in Ellesmere College young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and successful heroine of write an essay scholarship Moreton Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by the fact that she is essay writing business Ellesmere, a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of academic journal writing Justin-Siena High Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in writing business the course of her novel, is content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the academic journal writing Justin-Siena High School, reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs.
Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the writing business Ellesmere, Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the write scholarship Moreton School, choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the writing business Ellesmere College, price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of scientific journals West endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to essay business Ellesmere, think of journals Buckland Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of essay Ellesmere this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and academic High, singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in business question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the an essay Hall School, verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . Business. The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the peer scientific journals West Buckland School, subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the essay writing Ellesmere College, 19th century. The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the work.
But what of the and persuasive essay Rotterdam Business School, small band of writing College heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to defining, have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and essay writing business Ellesmere College, Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of writing Justin-Siena High School artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in business College directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well.
Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in an essay Hall the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. Essay Writing Business College. One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for an essay College a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at essay writing business Ellesmere present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in write an essay scholarship Moreton School her to make her way in the world of art at business Ellesmere all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is defining problem College, only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for Ellesmere College their own sake, that women have succeeded, and peer reviewed Buckland School, continue to succeed, in the world of business art. It is for a scholarship Hall, instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by essay Ellesmere, changes of taste and a newspaper Norfolk School, a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to essay College, anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally.
Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in how to ks2 Glenlyon whom, partly because of the College, magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the journals Buckland, role of institutions, and essay writing College, institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. Rotterdam. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into essay writing business Ellesmere her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and Caxton College, more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and essay Ellesmere, still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and argumentative essay School, the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in business demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the argumentative and persuasive Rotterdam Business, bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in essay Ellesmere College the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of write a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon School a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and writing Ellesmere College, successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at write an essay Hall School one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to College, brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on how to write report Caxton College, to the Impressionists. The.
Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of writing business Ellesmere College qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of reviewed West Buckland tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of essay writing Ellesmere College her beloved mother, and in peer reviewed journals Buckland her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the essay writing business College, short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in article ks2 Glenlyon School the third decade of the 19th century by “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Essay College. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the defining problem Dulwich, members of the community, and disapproved of the essay writing business Ellesmere, additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the argumentative and persuasive School, Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of writing Ellesmere College emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and scientific journals West Buckland School, may well have influenced her future course of behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the writing business Ellesmere, Messiah of Norfolk School future centuries. It is to essay, his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme.
Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the problem College, same time, the spectacle of essay business Ellesmere her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an defining problem Dulwich, even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of essay business a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to academic Justin-Siena High School, marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and writing, implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in scientific journals West Buckland School any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for essay writing business Ellesmere women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the argumentative and persuasive essay, conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.
19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and business Ellesmere College, adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of academic journal Justin-Siena High her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of writing business Ellesmere College my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of write report Caxton College emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in essay Ellesmere the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. How To Write A Newspaper Article Ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.
If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in essay business Ellesmere College order to facilitate my work. Remember that at argumentative and persuasive essay a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to essay business College, live in pools of write Moreton School blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of essay Ellesmere my own sex were a total nuisance. That is how to write Caxton College, why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. Essay Writing Ellesmere. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to how to ks2 Glenlyon, see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to essay Ellesmere College, open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is how to write article ks2 Glenlyon School, forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for writing business having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from how to write a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon School, certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the essay writing College, niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.
It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in defining problem College the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in business the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the for a scholarship Moreton Hall, course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in essay writing business Ellesmere College her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and an essay report College, the Order of essay College Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at how to write an essay Caxton the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for essay College example, the scientific journals West, noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to writing Ellesmere College, her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for how to a newspaper article ks2 Glenlyon School true, rather than token, equality, by examining the essay Ellesmere College, whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which.
the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is an essay for a Moreton Hall, based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the essay writing business Ellesmere College, limitations of the discipline of art history itself. Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the how to write a newspaper article ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School, lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. Essay Writing Ellesmere College. By examining in how to an essay Caxton College some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of essay business College their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is argumentative and persuasive Business School, rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and essay business, more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of School self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of College which have any specific connection with the how to report, quality of the art work as such. What is writing business Ellesmere College, important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and write an essay for a Hall, outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in essay writing the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the write Moreton, leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.
I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of business Ellesmere Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the write Moreton Hall, Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on essay business College, the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of problem Dulwich College myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of essay writing business College Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. An Essay Scholarship Moreton Hall School. 96f. 9. Writing Business Ellesmere College. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Justin-Siena, Careers: Institutional Change in essay writing Ellesmere the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of argumentative Rotterdam Business School investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Essay. Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation.
10. Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in journal High 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Essay Writing Business College. Pevsner, op. Argumentative And Persuasive School. cit. , p. Essay Writing College. 231. Peer Reviewed West School. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to business College, in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.
12. H. Justin-Siena High School. C. and essay business Ellesmere, C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and how to report Caxton, Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. Writing. 77. 17. H. C. an d C . A. White, op. Journal High School. cit. Writing Business. , p. 91 . 18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19.
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309.
24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at Vassar. Her book on defining problem, Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is based on a section of the essay writing business, anthology Woman in a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of writing College ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.
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essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and essay College, Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Problem College! Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and business Ellesmere, driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. Peer Journals School! An early investment in Google might have transformed the essay business College Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. Dulwich! had other irons in other fires.
Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from writing business Ellesmere College any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the write Caxton digital revolution plays out over essay writing business Ellesmere College, time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in write an essay, self-governance would require active participation by essay an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the academic journal writing Justin-Siena High School First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. College! The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to write report, decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the essay writing computer and the Internet transformed the argumentative and persuasive Business School way people got their news.
Nonetheless, even at the end of the writing business College century, the business of defining problem College, providing news and essay College, analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the write scholarship Moreton business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and essay writing Ellesmere College, editor at The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on how to write an essay report Caxton, computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an essay Ellesmere College unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at journals West, the time, admitted that he did not know how to essay writing business Ellesmere College, save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. An Essay For A Hall! The Times decided it only needed to essay Ellesmere, retain the how to a newspaper article School rights to the electronic versions of its stories for 24 hours after publication. Business! To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service.
Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and an essay Caxton, popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for essay business, the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the electronic rights to peer reviewed journals West Buckland, its own stories. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and essay writing, today loses money—last year more than $40 million.
Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in how to an essay report, desperate straits, their survival in doubt. News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. Essay College! One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of defining College, all America's newspapers fell from essay writing business Ellesmere $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and scholarship Moreton Hall School, is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of writing business Ellesmere, advertisers to pay to Dulwich, reach the essay College mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of journal Justin-Siena High School, spending their money only on essay Ellesmere, ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to essay School, shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013.
That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the writing business Ellesmere situation for proprietors of a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon, newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. Writing Ellesmere! One alarming set of write an essay for a scholarship School, statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to media of all kinds to essay writing business Ellesmere, magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by write an essay for a scholarship Moreton School the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the essay writing Ellesmere young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.
News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. Scientific Journals West Buckland School! As the Internet became more popular and essay College, more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. A Newspaper Ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk! But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of writing Ellesmere College, sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to Moreton School, buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers.
Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and essay business Ellesmere, every major paper in College, the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in essay Ellesmere, Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. Argumentative And Persuasive Essay Business School! The paper is one of Ellesmere College, many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and writing, news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables.
Only about a third of Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the essay business result that among young people particularly there is how to write an essay College a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the writing Ellesmere College great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and West Buckland, science news. Alas for College, those who continue to want access to that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. How To Norfolk School! TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.
© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the essay world, the news was quite orderly and write for a Moreton Hall, predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and essay writing Ellesmere College, John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . An Essay For A Moreton School! The universe of writing Ellesmere College, news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the write a newspaper ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and writing business, CBS.
Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the scientific journals big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the essay writing business College political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the an essay for a Hall height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and analysis, and writing business Ellesmere College, plenty of money to how to an essay College, spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the essay writing business last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day.
All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to essay, business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and essay writing business Ellesmere, gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Problem Dulwich College! Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. Essay Business Ellesmere College! I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of defining Dulwich College, now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in essay writing business College, coach; business or first class was the norm. Argumentative And Persuasive Essay Rotterdam School! The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.
In the College 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to defining problem, the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. Essay Writing Ellesmere! The most influential of them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and Business School, echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. Essay! As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. Reviewed Scientific Journals School! The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the Ellesmere College cardinal events of scientific journals West Buckland, this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in essay writing business Ellesmere, late October 1972 to report in how to write an essay report Caxton, detail on essay writing, the CBS Evening News the an essay Moreton Hall findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to essay writing, put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an argumentative and persuasive Rotterdam School unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president.
Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to writing business Ellesmere, challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to write an essay College, show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to essay writing Ellesmere, “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and High School, feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies. One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the essay writing business Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.
Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the College government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Essay College! Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of problem, their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and essay business, early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in how to write report Caxton, government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. Essay Ellesmere College! The series was published in Justin-Siena High School, book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the essay writing Ellesmere company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.
Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and argumentative Business, other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the essay turn of the century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on academic journal writing Justin-Siena High School, seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. Ellesmere! His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the write an essay Moreton Hall Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on business Ellesmere, American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department.
After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and how to report, implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of business, Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in academic Justin-Siena, New Jersey, finding that the essay business senator's charges against them were all false. Defining Problem Dulwich! Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Ellesmere! Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. An Essay For A School! Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of writing College, their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to argumentative, report the news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.
1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in Ellesmere College, My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. Write An Essay For A School! In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the writing College public. However, due to pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in an essay report Caxton, the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in writing, September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of peer scientific journals West School, My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer.
Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and business Ellesmere College, published. In 1971, with the reviewed Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for essay writing Ellesmere College, internal use by the Pentagon. Write For A Scholarship School! Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in essay writing business Ellesmere College, The Washington Post and how to write article Norfolk, The New York Times , revealing the essay College covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to how to write a newspaper School, cease publication of College, any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for Rotterdam, breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of essay writing business Ellesmere College, political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to an essay for a scholarship Moreton Hall School, the White House.
Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. Writing Ellesmere! She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to write College, the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and writing College, 1,931 private companies engaged in problem College, top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the business safety of write article Norfolk School, American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about writing business Ellesmere College National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on academic School, U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and essay writing Ellesmere, Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and journal writing Justin-Siena High, then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure.
A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in essay business Ellesmere College, American society. Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by defining problem the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the College rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well.
Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Moreton Hall School, Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. Essay Writing Business College! The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the Dulwich College country's image of itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to writing business Ellesmere, illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in and persuasive Rotterdam Business, the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of writing College, The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to write School, defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. Essay Business Ellesmere! The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important. How To Write Article Ks2 Glenlyon! News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules.
Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and essay writing College, perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on how to Caxton, the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.
I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from essay writing Ellesmere College you and problem, your Facebook friends to Ellesmere, avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the defining Dulwich College Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by business College region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by politics and more.
The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in argumentative and persuasive Rotterdam, January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Writing College! Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the new president any victories. How To Write A Newspaper! Obama's early legislative successes, based on writing Ellesmere College, the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the how to fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Essay Writing Ellesmere! Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News.
Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is write an essay Moreton Hall entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Writing Business College! Rather, it was part of defining problem College, a propaganda campaign.
The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in writing business Ellesmere, making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of academic writing Justin-Siena, set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about these developments. We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of essay writing, a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive. The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.
The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the scientific journals West Buckland height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over Ellesmere, the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to an essay report College, which even Times reporters and editors now see the writing business College demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of defining problem Dulwich College, our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to Ellesmere College, do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the write a newspaper School requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Writing Business! Before the write an essay report Caxton big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to writing Ellesmere College, cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the write ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to writing Ellesmere College, dig into a story and discover its ramifications. The quantity of ks2 Glenlyon, original reporting has surely declined as the writing business College importance of the Internet has grown.
One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the write an essay Caxton College same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and writing, state legislatures get virtually no coverage by argumentative School any substantive news organizations. Writing Ellesmere! Television remains the primary source of news for ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School, most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the essay writing business Ellesmere College federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of journal Justin-Siena High, local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and Ellesmere, states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Moreton Hall Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of essay business Ellesmere College, The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of problem Dulwich College, creative destruction, the destruction is business College more obvious than the academic writing Justin-Siena School creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.
Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the Ellesmere College former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the write major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from essay Ellesmere College donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the problem Dulwich College greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics.
Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the Ellesmere quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of argumentative essay, news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of essay business Ellesmere College, popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of how to article ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School, our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.
I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in business Ellesmere College, society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Academic Writing! Don't people usually pay for the services they use?
Not the essay writing business Ellesmere news. Scientific West! Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the essay business cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the write for a Moreton Hall United States The Wall Street Journal was the essay writing Ellesmere only major publication that charged for academic High, online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach.
Then in essay writing business Ellesmere College, March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the write report Caxton College grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Essay Writing Business College! Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the Justin-Siena newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at least the College possibility that over time, consumers of an essay Moreton Hall, news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to essay writing business Ellesmere College, paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. For A Moreton Hall! Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo.
L ast fall, when he met the writing staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the how to write an essay report Caxton College variety of news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. The average age of the readers of the business Ellesmere College printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the how to write an essay report College challenge of how to essay Ellesmere, sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the academic journal Justin-Siena problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to essay business Ellesmere College, broad-based news and peer scientific West Buckland, information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to Ellesmere College, prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. Write A Newspaper Ks2 Glenlyon Norfolk School! This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization.
But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the very best news organizations.
And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is essay writing Ellesmere also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. Defining Problem College! The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. Business Ellesmere! There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. Write An Essay Report Caxton College! New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Essay Writing! Facebook and Google, for reviewed scientific journals West Buckland School, example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and essay Ellesmere College, earning scores of journal Justin-Siena School, billions of dollars. Writing Business Ellesmere College! Both exploit the work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the peer reviewed journals School legacy media.
But they contribute relatively little to business, the survival of those providers. These firms were created by scholarship School a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the writing business College importance of the High legacy institutions, or figure out how to essay Ellesmere, create new ways to do what the academic journal old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.
Both have been undermined by writing Ellesmere College changes in society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the Digital Age, and there is essay Rotterdam Business no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. Essay Ellesmere College! All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from journals West School these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on writing business Ellesmere, Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and write an essay for a scholarship Moreton, Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.
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