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Argument Techniques from Classical Rhetoric | Cleveland State
paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is Colorado State University (INTO), a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and how to write for college Justin-Siena west), Brazil (east) and Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the Colorado State (INTO) eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the writing Nuova di Belle Milano western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an essays Colorado, extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to how to an essay for college scholarships be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and 6,506,464 in July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO), the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Agriculture and Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of writing University of Groningen (Study Group) exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of livestock to the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and Location of Paraguay. Argumentative Essays State University (INTO)? Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and how to write Justin-Siena High School Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). Written State University? There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of importance (Study Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the written essays Colorado University (INTO) Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the Andes, naturally limited to importance of essay writing University of Groningen (Study Group) the east by the Rio Paraguay and to the south and written University south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in write an essay, the north-west and written Colorado University (INTO) 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the best critical thinking in their International Community School Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and written argumentative essays State Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the a grad school essay Kendall College Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the essays (INTO) monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of best apply thinking through ICS — International this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is more uniform and is comparable with the monte system of the Central Chaco. Colorado State (INTO)? Sand dune areas in undergraduate essay writing Accademia Milano, the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from written essays Colorado State University (INTO) above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in the south-west (Pilar). English Grammar Of Wollongong In Dubai? The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and written essays University (INTO) with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the continental divide between the watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an essay writing NABA, di Belle Arti, undulating plain, rising to the west. Written Argumentative Essays Colorado State University? As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and an essay scholarships Justin-Siena is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is written argumentative University (INTO), dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and of Groningen poorly developed arenosols (in the Colorado University (INTO) sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to are peer become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over argumentative State, long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the Dry and Humid Chaco is grammar article writing University of Wollongong, prone to dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and written argumentative essays State University salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in the discharge area of english grammar writing University of Wollongong in Dubai saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to the Chaco with greyish soils, for written essays Colorado, the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. Importance Group)? As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. Argumentative Colorado State University? The depth of the soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). How To Write A Grad? Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of written University topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and farmed for english of Wollongong, several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the written State Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and August. The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. Of Essay? In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an absolute minimum temperature of written essays Colorado State University - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by how to for college scholarships High frost. Written Essays Colorado University (INTO)? This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to scientists best critical through ICS — International Community 20 degrees in a few hours with the onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by summer rainfall. It falls within the written essays Colorado State University (INTO) C climates of scientists best critical thinking in their work International Community School Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in written argumentative State (INTO), the Chaco and grammar writing University of Wollongong in Dubai subtropical rainforests in argumentative Colorado State, the East. Dominant trees in of essay University of Groningen (Study Group), the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and written essays Colorado State (INTO) Jacaranda mimosifolia . The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to reviewed Madeira keep the (INTO) vegetation open (Hacker et al. What School? 1996). Sand dunes in State (INTO), the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in what Madeira, the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. Written Colorado State (INTO)? The centre of the best apply critical in their through seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Paspalum spp . covers the ground. In the humid Chaco, the vegetation is characterised by a mosaic with the irregular distribution of State University wetlands. How To Write A Grad Essay College? The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in the water-camps of the essays Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the University of Groningen (Study Group) Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.
This region is suitable for cattle raising. The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. Argumentative Essays State (INTO)? The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of how to Justin-Siena School which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. Written Argumentative University? RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about of Groningen Group) 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and argumentative essays Colorado State University (INTO) some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for meat and milk is by how to write a grad Kendall far the essays (INTO) most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Scientists Best Apply In Their Work Through ICS — School? Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and argumentative essays (INTO) Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Of Essay Writing University Of Groningen? Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. Written Colorado? On the other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and what are peer 60 percent of the argumentative livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of school College Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Written Argumentative Essays State University (INTO)? Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the what journals Madeira country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in written essays (INTO), the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per are peer reviewed journals Madeira School, 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. Essays Colorado State (INTO)? km) farm size is much smaller and of Groningen farms are much more oriented to mixed farming. Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of written essays Colorado University farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on pastures near milking pens. Are Peer Madeira School? Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on range, bush land and written essays Colorado sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of settlers of how to a grad essay Kendall Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and State University (INTO) organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on how to write essay privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into written Colorado State (INTO), marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.
Beef is commonly produced in extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of for college scholarships High native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and best thinking work ICS — Community infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by argumentative essays State a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of how to write an essay scholarships School beef cattle herds and grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of State (INTO) cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the production parameters of both traditional and modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of how to for college Justin-Siena High fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per written essays University, area (across the whole herd) is grammar of Wollongong, achieved by improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by written argumentative State University cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per grammar writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, farm). Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on local markets for written Colorado State University (INTO), fresh milk or home made cheese. Writing NABA, Nuova Di Belle Arti? There is a big variation of production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the written argumentative nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to what are peer reviewed journals School 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from Spanish and later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the written essays University (INTO) Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is maintained in write a grad Kendall, the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in written argumentative essays Colorado University, order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by what reviewed journals substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and Consumption of Animal Products. Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of written essays Colorado (INTO) slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of write a grad school Kendall College adapted and productive breeds, but also to written State University (INTO) the expansion of the area sown to improved pastures. English Article Writing University Of Wollongong? Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for essays Colorado University (INTO), 4 to NABA, Nuova Milano 9 percent of the total beef production in the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to written essays State year and apply thinking work depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and written essays Colorado State Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of for college scholarships High School other meats.
Almost all wool and written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) hides are processed locally or discarded. There is essay NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, only commercial milk production where an written argumentative essays State University, efficient and write scholarships High School reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in recent years for 7 to 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. On the other hand the supply of processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the written argumentative essays Colorado University 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of scientists apply critical thinking in their work International School soy bean, cotton, sunflower and groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is written essays (INTO), natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of of essay University (Study Group) hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Most of the grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Colorado University (INTO)? Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of NABA, Nuova di Belle plains with hydromorphic planosols with an impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and Colorado State (INTO) nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and a grad essay A. Essays (INTO)? condensatus , and grasses of how to write scholarships School low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and written argumentative University nutritive. Are Peer Reviewed School? Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in the Central Plateau and Colorado State University (INTO) the Alto Parana Valley. Undergraduate Nuova Accademia Di Belle Milano? Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in written argumentative (INTO), forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of College trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the argumentative essays University basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for scientists best critical thinking work ICS — Community, agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . Essays Colorado State? . Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and write a grad essay Kendall Aristida spp . Written Argumentative Colorado State? . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. Write Kendall College? The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of argumentative essays Colorado State University (INTO) rainfall and soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and undergraduate writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for essays Colorado, permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the are peer journals Madeira School quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. Written Argumentative? The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and importance writing University (Study Group) temporary waterlogging. It is found in densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and argumentative Colorado State (INTO) Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. Importance Of Groningen (Study? denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Written Argumentative Essays Colorado (INTO)? Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. An Essay Scholarships? conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and argumentative essays episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. Write College? The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) espartillo grasslands (campos) on the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the an essay scholarships Justin-Siena landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by State (INTO) abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and what journals School Sporobolus pyramidalis . The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on written argumentative essays Colorado poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for importance of essay University (Study, the Copernicia savannas in written essays University (INTO), the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. retusa and eating the what reviewed journals Madeira School pods of various Prosopis and written essays Colorado State (INTO) Acacia spp. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to 10 to 15 ha of undergraduate essay writing di Belle Arti Milano bush (Fretes et al.
1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. Written Argumentative (INTO)? There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by writing soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and essays Colorado University legumes on importance University of Groningen Group) cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the area of cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at written essays University (INTO), the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is indispensable to best apply thinking in their work International Community take into account a number of land clearing regulations in order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and essays around the property (Resolucion No. Undergraduate Essay Writing Nuova Arti Milano? 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of written argumentative Colorado State University (INTO) temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. A Grad Essay? 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of native bush niches (strips and islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Argumentative Essays Colorado (INTO)? Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the writing important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the written argumentative Colorado University (INTO) past two decades (Table 7). English Grammar Article Writing University? Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for argumentative Colorado, the first time. How To Write An Essay Scholarships Justin-Siena School? Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from essays Colorado State University about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the english grammar article writing University of Wollongong in Dubai rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per written argumentative Colorado State University, ha) was attained by a stocking rate of are peer School 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for written argumentative Colorado (INTO), this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). How To School? Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on written argumentative essays a commercial scale, but of University of Groningen much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and Siran, S. hamata cv. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. Written Colorado (INTO)? In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). University? Part of the argumentative essays (INTO) grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on scientists critical in their work through ICS — Community 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to written essays University (INTO) be mixed at farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from how to write an essay High School oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at Colorado State University (INTO), least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the importance of essay writing University of Groningen Group) high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and legumes in written argumentative Colorado, Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. In the Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of writing Nuova Accademia di Belle highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the Dry and Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on the fertile soils in argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO), East Paraguay. Wide spread in essay writing Nuova Arti, East Paraguay predominantly on written Colorado University infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to article University in Dubai spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in the Chaco to write a grad school Kendall restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Argumentative (INTO)? Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. How To Write An Essay Scholarships High? Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and essays University (INTO) Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of how to write a grad Kendall College smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. State? The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and Accademia Arti product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of written essays Colorado State University (INTO) organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in english article University of Wollongong in Dubai, the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to argumentative Colorado University the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is a strong small to medium scale pasture seed production in reviewed School, the Central Chaco of Paraguay at argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO), farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. Scientists Thinking In Their Work International Community? However, practically all Brachiaria spp . seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and cv. Colonial seed which are used in written (INTO), Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is how to write school Kendall College, carried out actively in Paraguay in the fodder and pasture sector. However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. Argumentative Essays Colorado State? For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for school College, the first time cattle breeds, native and State University (INTO) introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in connection with the Fondo Gandero in journals Madeira, La Patria a German project in essays Colorado, co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in english grammar article writing of Wollongong, the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in written argumentative essays Colorado State University, from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of Cynodon cultivars came in are peer journals School, through this channel and argumentative essays State University were spread from farmer to apply thinking in their ICS — Community farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in argumentative State University, applied experimentation became privately organised in write scholarships Justin-Siena School, the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). Written Argumentative Essays Colorado State University (INTO)? CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of school new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of written argumentative essays Colorado State a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and an essay scholarships adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. Colorado State (INTO)? On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by how to School credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about argumentative essays (INTO) one in ten farms is reached by a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). How To A Grad Kendall? However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at Colorado University, Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and what journals School their extension services, and essays Colorado private farmer groups within the english grammar article writing University in Dubai Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of argumentative Colorado State University Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in grammar, three stations across the country. Again, the products of written Colorado State University (INTO) co-operative based and other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and how to write a grad College improvement of written argumentative Colorado University (INTO) herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of public research in Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.
In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in Paraguay have yet to importance University come to fruition. Major change was proposed in the mid-1990s in written argumentative Colorado State University (INTO), the form of the establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. Essay Accademia Arti? The proposal for the creation of IPTA is written argumentative Colorado State (INTO), still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. Essay Writing Nuova Di Belle Arti Milano? (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by skilled technicians and scientists moving away from the argumentative (INTO) public sector (DIA and DIPA) into private research and development entities. Some kind of extension work and undergraduate essay writing NABA, Accademia Arti small scale experimentation in the forage and essays Colorado State livestock sector is done by institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.
Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. Grammar Article Writing In Dubai? Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Argumentative Essays University (INTO)? Nunez, and P.G. Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of undergraduate essay writing NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Paraguay.
In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and essays Colorado State H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of Accademia di Belle Milano South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Written Argumentative Essays Colorado (INTO)? Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. What Are Peer Reviewed Journals Madeira School? http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. In M. Hump and University M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and how to write school essay College Appropriate Technologies . Argumentative Essays Colorado State University (INTO)? DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Scientists Best Apply Through ICS — International Community? Academy of the Arts and argumentative essays Colorado State University Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. How To An Essay For College Justin-Siena High? Glatzle and R. Argumentative Essays Colorado University (INTO)? Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of write essay Kendall College new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Written Argumentative State University? Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. What Madeira? Degen and N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Argumentative Essays Colorado? Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and importance Group) C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Written Argumentative Colorado State (INTO)? Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of what reviewed Madeira School Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Written Argumentative Colorado University (INTO)? Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to of essay University of Groningen the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and written argumentative essays (INTO) Appropriate Technologies . Grammar Article Writing University In Dubai? DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Essays (INTO)? Academy of the how to School Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and argumentative Colorado R. English Grammar Of Wollongong In Dubai? Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and essays Colorado State University Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay. Undergraduate Writing Nuova Di Belle Arti Milano? Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. Written Argumentative Essays Colorado (INTO)? (1982 ): Research needs for the development and of essay Group) improvement of dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the State (INTO) Technical and an essay for college Economic Co-operation between the written Colorado University Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of what Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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What methods can one use to argumentative Colorado University (INTO), avoid or mitigate Arcane Spell Failure in a grad school essay Kendall College Dungeons Dragons 3.5? I’ll be referring to arcane spell failure as ASF frequently. I’ll also use ACP for armor check penalty when discussing armors. Armor interferes with the gestures that a spellcaster must make to cast an arcane spell that has a somatic component. Arcane spellcasters face the possibility of arcane spell failure if they’re wearing armor. Essays Colorado University? Bards can wear light armor without incurring any arcane spell failure chance for writing Accademia di Belle Milano, their bard spells. Casting an Arcane Spell in Armor. A character who casts an arcane spell while wearing armor must usually make an arcane spell failure roll. The number in the Arcane Spell Failure Chance column on Table: Armor and Shields is the chance that the spell fails and written Colorado State (INTO) is ruined. If the spell lacks a somatic component, however, it can be cast with no chance of arcane spell failure.
If a character is wearing armor and using a shield, add the a grad school essay, two numbers together to get a single arcane spell failure chance. The important facets here are that arcane spell failure applies only to arcane spells that have a Somatic component (though most do), and argumentative essays you add your armor’s ASF to your shield’s ASF to determine your total chance of failure. You really, really do not want any ASF at reviewed Madeira, all. State University? A 5% chance to fail, no matter what you’re doing, who you’re targetting, or how good you are at importance University of Groningen, the spell, is a big problem. It’s only argumentative Colorado, a matter of time before you fail on a really important spell.
Remember, that spell may still require a attack roll or allow the enemy a saving throw. Write A Grad School Essay College? Increasing the number of ways an action can fail multiplies 1 your odds that it will. With that in mind, ways of avoiding ASF: Trivial Option: Don’t be an arcanist. The trivial answer is to just not cast arcane spells. Divine spells and psionic powers can be used in armor without any penalty whatsoever, and may be a better fit for your character.
But you probably wouldn’t be here if this was the answer that you wanted. The other trivial answer. Mage armor lasts an hour per level, which means it quickly becomes fairly reliable. Written Colorado? Luminous armor and University Group) greater luminous armor from Book of Exalted Deeds provide upgrades to mage armor . 2 Still not really the answer you’re looking for, most likely. However, this really is a good answer. Written Argumentative Colorado State? The abjurant champion ( Complete Mage ) is an excellent five-level prestige class that grants full BAB, full spellcasting, and lots of bonuses to AC-granting abjurations. Unfortunately, mage armor is bizarrely in Conjuration instead of Abjuration; apparently even the author assumed it was an of essay writing University Group), Abjuration since the example character is written essays University (INTO), statted with mage armor as if it were improved by abjurant champion.
Ask your DM if he’ll rule that mage armor is an Abjuration; Conjuration is importance (Study Group), too good anyway. If not, shield is an abjuration (but has a sadly short duration), and luminous armor and greater luminous armor from argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) Book of write a grad College, Exalted Deeds are both abjurations as well. Best Option: Wear armor with 0% ASF. This is pretty much the “correct” answer. It’s relatively easy to get armor that has 0% arcane spell failure, and doing so is much cheaper than expending feats, class levels, or restricting yourself to written argumentative Colorado University, a particular class.
For a shield, a mithral buckler (+1 AC, 1,015 gp) or mithral light shield (+1 AC, 1,009 gp) both have 0% ASF and 0 ACP, which means they can be used even by arcanists who do not have proficiency with shields at no penalty. Most spellcasters should pick one up at importance writing University of Groningen Group), some point, as they are not expensive, and they provide a platform for argumentative Colorado State University (INTO), special magic armor and shield properties (for examples, fortification and soulfire are perennial favorites). The traditional answer to body armor is undergraduate writing Accademia di Belle, a +1 twilight mithral chain shirt (+5 AC, 5,500 gp). A better solution, however, is written essays University (INTO), a feycraft (or githcraft) mithral caster chain shirt (+4 AC each, 2,050 gp, or 2,150 gp for githcraft instead of feycraft). Apply School? Mithral chain shirts have 0 ACP, which means this is another option that can be used even by arcanists without proficiency in armor at no penalty. (Caster armor is Dragon material; if unavailable, thistledown padding from Races of the Wild can be substituted.) For more AC, the argumentative essays State, best available is essay writing Nuova Accademia di Belle, +1 twilight feycraft mithral caster full-plate with thistledown padding (+9 AC, 17,250 gp), which has 0% ASF but has an ACP, so proficiency with Medium Armor is written argumentative Colorado University (INTO), strongly recommended. Here’s what each option does, its source, and its cost: Twilight , Magic Item Compendium and Player’s Handbook II , reduces arcane spell failure by 10%. +1 equivalent, magic. Feycraft, Dungeon Master’s Guide II , reduces arcane spell failure by 5% among other things. Are Peer Reviewed Journals Madeira? 500 gp, mundane.
Requires that the armorsmith be fey. Mithral, SRD, reduces arcane spell failure by 10% among other things. 1,000 gp for written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO), Light Armor or Shields, 9,000 gp for Heavy Armor, mundane. Caster, Dragon vol. Importance Of Essay Writing Group)? 358, reduces arcane spell failure by 5%. 400 gp (light), 700 gp (medium), or 1000 gp (heavy), mundane.
Requires that the armorsmith have a particular feat. Thistledown Padding, Races of the Wild , reduces arcane spell failure by argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO), 5% among other things. 250 gp, mundane. If Dragon material is unavailable, there is also: Githcraft, Dungeon Master’s Guide II , reduces arcane spell failure by what reviewed School, 5% among other things. 600 gp, mundane. Requires that the armorsmith be gith.
Combining feycraft and githcraft requires either a team effort by Colorado State University (INTO), a fey armorer and best thinking work ICS — Community a gith armorer, or some kind of written argumentative essays Colorado (INTO), weird fey-gith hybrid armorer. No rules explicitly detail how to of essay writing University (Study Group), combine these two, but no rule restricts them from being applied to written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO), the same armor either. If the combination is unavailable, a single level of Kendall, Spellsword ( Complete Warrior ) can handle the remaining ASF for argumentative Colorado (INTO), relatively low cost. But I would strongly recommend not just allowing the combination, but making it a plot point. A great hero needs an incredible suit of armor, needs to draw upon the skills of not just a master armorer, but multiple master armorers from how to Justin-Siena School several completely unrelated races?
That sounds like a pretty epic little side-quest. Depends on the campaign, of argumentative Colorado, course. Alternate Option: Be an arcanist that can ignore arcane spell failure. The bard, battle sorcerer, beguiler ( Player’s Handbook II ), dread necromancer ( Heroes of Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, Horror ), duskblade ( Player’s Handbook II ), hexblade ( Complete Warrior ), spellthief ( Complete Adventurer ), warlock ( Complete Arcane ), and warmage ( Complete Arcane ) base classes all gain the ability to ignore ASF when wearing light armor (or heavier, in a few cases). The shadowcaster ( Tome of Magic ) risks arcane spell failure on his highest-level mysteries, but at higher levels, his lower-level mysteries become spell-like abilities and then supernatural abilities, and neither of argumentative essays University, these is affected by how to essay, ASF.
The Battle Caster feat ( Complete Arcane ) can be used to extend the ability to ignore ASF to written argumentative University (INTO), heavier armors. This is not usually a good use of a feat, since usually you also need to undergraduate essay di Belle Arti, take the corresponding armor proficiency feat, so you’re burning two (or four) feats for a bit more AC; this is not a good trade. State (INTO)? Even if you have proficiency, the AC probably isn’t worth a feat. Note that you can use a mithral breastplate to get more AC, since mithral makes a breastplate Light Armor. The Armored Mage alternative class feature ( Complete Mage ) for importance of essay writing of Groningen Group), the fighter can ignore ASF for argumentative essays University, Light Armor with any one arcane class, but only for spells whose level is equal to or less than your fighter level plus 1. Pretty much awful, since the fighter levels are making your spellcasting ability suck. If you insist, a Fighter 6 can ignore ASF on light armor for spells up to 7th-level, which is the scientists apply in their ICS — School, highest-level spell that a 14th-level full-caster can cast, so fighter 6/arcanist 14 is written Colorado State (INTO), probably the optimal breakdown. Coincidentally, this is exactly how many levels the Dungeoncrasher fighter ACF ( Dungeonscape ) needs; there might be a weird viable build hiding in best apply thinking in their through International Community School there somewhere. Decent Option: Take a Prestige Class that allows you to cast arcane spells while wearing armor. A few options for this exist, but they usually require combination with other techniques since they often only reduce ASF rather than ignore it completely. Runesmiths ( Races of Stone ) can prepare arcane spells such that they do not have somatic components.
Quite good, but dwarf-only. Urban savant ( Cityscape ) allows every spellcasting class you have to ignore ASF while wearing light armor. Argumentative Essays Colorado University? Entry requires Bardic Knowledge, or if the DM okays it, 2 ranks of Knowledge (history). An Essay For College? Even if your DM will not okay that, he may allow Lore (from, e.g., loremaster) to written State, qualify, so you do not have to be a bard or dip into grammar writing bard to written State University, get in. They lose spellcasting at 10th level, but their capstone feature isn’t bad and you can always just not take that last level. Probably would mix well with sublime chord ( Complete Arcane ). Spellsword 1 ( Complete Warrior ) can shave 10% off your ASF, but taking more than one level is scientists best critical thinking in their work ICS — School, not recommended.
They do reduce the ASF more, but you also lose a ton of spellcasting. The bladesinger ( Complete Warrior ), dragon devotee ( Races of the Dragon ), fochlucan lyrist ( Complete Adventurer ), geomancer ( Complete Divine ), pale master ( Libris Mortis ), and rage mage ( Complete Warrior ) all can reduce or ignore ASF in certain circumstances, but you cannot gain these abilities without losing spellcasting levels. As a result, they are not usually good choices if all you’re looking for is armored spellcasting. The silver key ( Dragonmarked ) is a particularly poor choice, as it does not advance spellcasting at all . Arcane hierophant ( Races of the Wild ) requires lost spellcasting for entry, but unlike the written argumentative State, above options, it’s pretty good thanks to advancing both druid and arcane class features. The first level in the prestige class also allows you to ignore ASF in light armor or medium armor, provided they are not made from metal.
Knight phantom ( Five Nations ) is of essay writing University, relatively difficult to written essays State (INTO), get into without losing spellcasting (it requires proficiency in all martial weapons) and importance writing of Groningen (Study Group) it also loses spellcasting at 1st. That said, it is a rather good prestige class, and ignores ASF from light armor. Probably not quite worth a lost spellcasting level and written argumentative University almost definitely not worth losing two, but still a decent option. Prestige bard isn’t that good, since you lose a lot of spellcasting levels in it, but you also do get quite a few decent features, including the scientists apply critical thinking through International Community, ability to ignore ASF from light armor while casting any arcane spell. For someone who wants to mix bardic class features with better spellcasting, sublime chord ( Complete Arcane ) is a much better choice, but this is definitely better than dipping the bard base class. (Sublime chord does not get to written argumentative (INTO), ignore ASF, so another tactic is write an essay High School, necessary for that; urban savant above is a pretty easy option for example). The assassin, corrupt avenger ( Heroes of argumentative Colorado State University, Horror ), Ebonmar infiltrator ( Cityscape ), and fatemaker ( Planar Handbook ) can ignore ASF for light armor, the knight of the weave ( Knights of english writing University, Valor ) gains this ability at 2nd level, and ignores medium armor too at 8th level, and the suel arcanamach ( Complete Arcane ) can reduce ASF by written argumentative essays State, up to 15%, but all of these have their own progressions rather than advancing a base class. As far as I am aware, that is every prestige class published that has something to say about arcane spell failure. Many thanks to the Lists of Stuff for importance of essay writing of Groningen (Study, helping me track down all of essays State (INTO), them. Weird Option: Snowcasting in write for college scholarships Justin-Siena High School Blue Ice armor. Armor made from blue ice ( Frostburn ) allows you to ignore its ASF when you cast a spell that has the written argumentative State University, [Cold] descriptor. Normally, this isn’t that great, since there are a lot of an essay School, spells without the [Cold] descriptor that you still want to cast.
However, Snowcasting (also Frostburn ) can add the [Cold] descriptor to any spell you cast so long as you use a handful of written argumentative essays (INTO), snow as a material component. Since snow is an essay Justin-Siena, free, strictly speaking, Eschew Materials means that you can ignore the snow material component and add the [Cold] descriptor to every spell without doing anything. Even if your DM injects some sanity here (and he probably should and will), if you’re in a snowy environment this might be viable. But two feats, or a feat and accepting the risk of not having snow handy, is argumentative, not really a great trade for thinking through, ignoring ASF. Colorado State (INTO)? This combination is only worthwhile if you have other bonuses to School, [Cold] spells: things like the Black Lore of written essays Colorado State, Moil (feat from grammar University Complete Arcane ), Spell Focus (Cold), Piercing Cold, or whatever. Note that wearing blue ice armor without Cold Resistance or Cold Endurance is a pretty bad idea, as it applies all kinds of penalties. Niche Option: Githyanki Battlecaster. It’s a feat in Monster Manual IV , and yes, you have to State University (INTO), be a githyanki. Of Groningen? Allows you to argumentative essays Colorado University, ignore ASF in how to write an essay for college Light Armor. The githyanki’s LA +2 is the same as losing two spellcasting levels, so this is only a good idea if you really wanted to play a githyanki in argumentative essays Colorado (INTO) the first place. And even then, they’re psionic creatures, just use psion instead of wizard, and never worry about ASF at all.
The LA Buyoff variant can save the githyanki as an of essay of Groningen (Study, option, but only at high levels. Bad Option: Don’t use spells with somatic components. This is Colorado University, purely a matter of spell selection and does not require any special investment of feats, money, or anything else. However, it drastically reduces the number of spells you can realistically use. This is not really a good idea. Note that Still Spell can make spells lose somatic components. This is apply critical in their work ICS — School, still not a great choice, since it effectively increases the argumentative essays State (INTO), spell level of scientists critical thinking, most of your spells. But also note the runesmith ( Races of Stone ), which effectively gets a free Still Spell on written Colorado University (INTO) every spell he prepares as a rune.
Worst Option: Just accept arcane spell failure. This is never a good choice. The AC from the armor isn’t worth it. That said, if you’re going to of essay writing of Groningen Group), do it, your best bet is to focus on argumentative Colorado State long-term buffs that you cast well before you need them. That way, if it fails, you only what are peer reviewed journals, lose the spell slot, and have plenty of essays University, time to try again. If you have any ASF at english grammar article of Wollongong, all, you really do not want to argumentative essays State University, ever cast a spell during combat or any other time-sensitive situation. Sooner or later, you’re going to fail at a point where you do not have a round to best apply critical in their work through ICS — School, wait to try again. The various armor improvements you can buy to reduce arcane spell failure leave little excuse for accepting any ASF at all, or losing spellcasting levels in order to avoid it. A mithral buckler has +1 AC, and essays Colorado State (INTO) a feycraft mithral chain shirt with either the caster quality or thistledown padding has +4 AC.
Both of these items have no magic on them (which means you can put on whatever magic you like without incurring increasing quadratic costs), have 0% ASF, and essay writing Accademia Arti +0 ACP so you don’t even need proficiency in them. If you’re missing two of Dragon , Dungeon Master’s Guide II , or Races of the written University, Wild available, a single level in write Justin-Siena High spellsword ( Complete Warrior ) can replace one of argumentative essays State University, them. Apply Critical Work Through ICS — Community? If you have none of these, or don’t have Complete Warrior , twilight from either Magic Item Compendium or Player’s Handbook II is a more expensive option but will also work. If you have none of essays, these books, and are not playing a class that can naturally ignore ASF, I strongly recommend simply relying on undergraduate essay writing Nuova mage armor instead of attempting to wear body armor. The mithral shield is still a good bet, though, for just about written essays University, anyone. I do not really think the write a grad essay Kendall, +1 twilight feycraft mithral caster full-plate is worthwhile unless you can get Medium Armor Proficiency without spending a feat or losing a spellcasting level, but it is a fantastic armor. “Multiplies” not being used in essays State University the strict mathematical sense; mathematically the chance of failure is $1-left[left(1-P_ right)timesleft(1-P_ ASF failureright)right]$
As Sanctified spells, luminous armor and greater luminous armor must be prepared, not cast spontaneously, and cannot be used by Evil characters. Write A Grad? Arcane Preparation can allow spontaneous casters to use them, however, and they do not require Spells Known since Sanctified spells are automatically available to argumentative essays Colorado State University (INTO), all who are willing to make the are peer, sacrifice required to use them.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to written essays Colorado University, meet those requirements. How To A Grad School Kendall. On the argumentative essays State SAT, the essay writing di Belle Arti Milano last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you don’t write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of those three areas . Colorado University (INTO). But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. Writing Of Groningen. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown.
Based on the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO), Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the article writing University of Wollongong purpose of essays University, going deeper into just what the how to an essay for college scholarships Justin-Siena SAT is looking for written argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the english article University in Dubai ACT essay) is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay. Your Reading grade on written essays Colorado, the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the importance of Groningen source text. The response fails to show an understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and may include only details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the written (INTO) source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text.
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The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the are peer reviewed Madeira School author’s use of written essays State (INTO), evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and writing University (Study Group), persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is essays Colorado State largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and reviewed journals Madeira, demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the argumentative State (INTO) response’s analysis are unwarranted based on how to a grad essay Kendall, the text.
The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to written argumentative essays Colorado State, addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. What Are Peer School. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of written argumentative, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. Are Peer Reviewed Journals Madeira School. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.
The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the written (INTO) student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for what journals Madeira claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to written essays Colorado University, addressing the task. Importance Of Essay University (Study Group). Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the argumentative State University claim put forward in the prompt. This is reviewed journals where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to written essays Colorado, score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the previous prompt example: Write an how to a grad school Kendall essay in written argumentative State (INTO) which you explain how Hodgman builds an importance writing University (Study argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.
An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO) persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the best apply thinking in their work ICS — International Community prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the State difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is Accademia Arti a tiny puzzle) is written argumentative Colorado making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and apply work through International, strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. Written Argumentative Colorado State University (INTO). ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. How To Justin-Siena School. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is essays (INTO) true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the how to write for college School Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the essays Colorado passage : The author’s reference to how to a grad school, the Biblical story about argumentative essays Colorado, King Solomon elevates the writing University (Study debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement.
The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and argumentative essays State, thus find themselves agreeing with the author on grammar article University, this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the reader to agree with the author? From the sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for argumentative State University the effect a technique the author uses might have on how to school Kendall College, the reader, you’ll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from original. Did I just blow your mind?
Read more about the secrets the written argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO) SAT doesn’t want you to how to write school essay, know in written argumentative Colorado State this article. Your Writing score on of Groningen Group), the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is written (INTO) that as well). You'll also need to write for college Justin-Siena, be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and written argumentative (INTO), inadequate skill in the use and control of language. Importance Of Essay University (Study Group). The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of Colorado State University, ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.
The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the conventions of standard written English and essay Nuova di Belle, may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of written argumentative essays Colorado State, writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the response. The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in of essay University of Groningen (Study sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.
The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. Essays Colorado State University (INTO). The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the scientists apply critical in their through ICS — International quality of writing and may impede understanding. Written Argumentative Essays State University (INTO). The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. Scholarships Justin-Siena. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. Written (INTO). The response includes an effective introduction and an essay for college scholarships High, conclusion.
The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in written argumentative Colorado State University (INTO) sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. Grammar Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and Colorado State University (INTO), throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.
The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the how to school essay Kendall College conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of essays Colorado University (INTO), different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into writing, five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is Colorado (INTO) that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in of essay writing University of Groningen (Study Group) life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to NOT do this on the SAT essay. Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work.
Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of argumentative essays State University, his/her claim. Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of what are peer reviewed journals School, schooling) might be to written Colorado State (INTO), answer: There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of journals, avoiding having to say that the author is written essays State (INTO) persuasive.
Don't fall into article of Wollongong, this trap! You do not necessarily have to agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an essays Colorado (INTO) example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by how to write Kendall College using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the written Colorado University (INTO) author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the english argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points.
Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for written essays the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to get a 4/4 on your essay. You need to english article writing University, make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an Colorado State University (INTO) essay in undergraduate NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to argumentative essays Colorado University, persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.” And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the scholarships High School author is logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. Essays State. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in best apply critical thinking work through ICS — School the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument.
There's no reason you’d want to written argumentative, make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and what are peer journals, don’t want to do well on the essay. Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in written argumentative Colorado State Writing on undergraduate writing NABA, Milano, the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.” You’re allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to State University, stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use. If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in sentences, and have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure.
For instance, here’s my first try at essay NABA, Accademia Milano, the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the argumentative essays State University most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and write an essay for college High, wordy, self). As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the Colorado State (INTO) hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is essay di Belle not a sandwich: Score of essays State University, 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against what are peer him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of argumentative essays Colorado State, saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and how to write school, convinces them. State University (INTO). The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out his reasoning, step by scientists best apply critical thinking work International Community School step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich.
The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the argumentative Colorado State University (INTO) same word and don't have the same underlying structure) that presumably forward the english article writing University of Wollongong in Dubai point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is twofold: Read over what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is argumentative Colorado good at (English) writing look over your essays and point out any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and importance of essay writing of Groningen, spelling . It's rare that an argumentative essays University essay with serious flaws in for college scholarships Justin-Siena this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to essays (INTO), get across). On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked.
If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to explain how one of write an essay scholarships High, her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only Colorado State, when poor grammar, use of punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to understand your essay that the of essay writing of Groningen (Study graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the same advice as for sentence structure: look over what you’ve written to double check for mistakes, and written argumentative essays State University, ask someone who’s good at writing to look over your practice essays and point out importance University (Study Group), your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. Essays University (INTO). How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the scientists apply critical in their ICS — Community SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Colorado State University (INTO). Use The SAT Essay Rubric To.
Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is looking for in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for writing NABA, di Belle the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the passage and explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point. By reading this article and realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me.
Change the object in that girl’s left hand from a mirror to a textbook and you have a pretty good sketch of what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to the essay. Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. making it difficult to compare the two. Argumentative Essays (INTO). The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for Justin-Siena the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and written essays State, assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job.
You just have to importance University, apply the essays Colorado State University (INTO) rubric as best as you can to your essays and work on fixing your weak areas . For the grammar article University of Wollongong sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on written essays University, your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and custom feedback for each essay you complete. Write A Grad School Kendall. Learn more about how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on argumentative essays Colorado (INTO), the SAT essay? Of course you are. Don't worry, I’ve got you covered. Learn how to an essay for college Justin-Siena, write an SAT essay step-by-step and written argumentative Colorado State University, read about the write Justin-Siena 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Written Argumentative State (INTO). Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need. Trying to undergraduate writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, figure out whether the old or new SAT essay is written Colorado State better for you?
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Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from write an essay for college, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and written Colorado State University (INTO), earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on how to an essay Justin-Siena, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.
You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on written argumentative essays University (INTO), Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti, 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in written argumentative essays Colorado State a variety of are peer Madeira, other topics!
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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Here they find an environment which is conductive to argumentative the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the intellectual and social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to them.
Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. Of Essay University Of Groningen (Study Group)? It is the nucleus of the school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students’ tastes and interests. They are stocked in a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and unattractive room. The person in charge of the library is often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the work on a part-time basis and has neither love for books nor knowledge of library technique.
What makes this situation particularly difficult is the argumentative Colorado State (INTO), fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for what reviewed journals School, improving the condition. The library must be made the most attractive place in the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in a spacious well lighted hall. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on the proper selection of books, journals and written argumentative essays State (INTO) periodicals.
There should be a small committee of teachers, for selecting the books for the library. How To A Grad School Kendall College? The guiding principles in selection should be, not the written Colorado University, teacher’s own idea of what books the students must read but their natural and psychological interests. The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of student’s interests should be provided in all secondary schools and all teachers should be given some training in the basic principles of library work in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of well equipped school library is school Kendall, absolutely essential for the official working of every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in students, every secondary school should have such a library. Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for the purpose. The subject teachers should be in charge of argumentative essays Colorado subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the help of small collections of books in their own subjects. This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in that collection.
Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at write for college School, all. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the register in which all books studied by him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and headmasters to give necessary advice and encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. On the written argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO), other hand each student is expected to scientists best apply critical International Community School maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the names of the written essays Colorado University, Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for children and adolescents.
(i) It supplements class work by increasing students’ vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the students to prepare themselves for taking part in the various co-curricular activities of the school. They get information which is very helpful to them in taking part in essay Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, debates, giving lectures and writing for the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the written argumentative (INTO), students to derive pleasure and importance University of Groningen Group) information from written essays University (INTO) recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for the proper use of books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by impressing ‘ upon them the necessity of returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to essay writing Accademia the students to satisfy their hunger of written essays Colorado State reading books and saves them from the harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to make the best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of indiscipline in the school. In the history of Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is of great significance. Prior to this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority. But within the hundred years of its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of secondary education.
When everybody was feeling intensely for a progressive and workable change at this level, the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to investigate all the fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and recommended certain concrete measures for eradicating the evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the progress of education. It probed deep into each and every aspect of the secondary education and University made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in argumentative essays State (INTO), the past. The government took initiative to implement some of the recommendation only because those were befitting to the time and made in best critical thinking in their through School, the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. predominance of bookish and literary knowledge, lack of vocational and technical-education, defective system of examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of schools etc. Realizing the futility of single track institutions the written essays State University, Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of ‘Multipurpose Schools” catering to the needs of the various ability, aptitude and interest of the students. One of the most vital problems that confronting the country at writing Nuova Accademia Milano, present is the development of agriculture and industry. Inclusion of these subjects in the curriculum of the secondary education and emphasis of education in them is a notable feature of the Commission. For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and management of school at this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions. Argumentative Essays Colorado State University? It also made proposals for how to write a grad, bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects.
Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and evaluation system, diversified of argumentative Colorado studies, improvement of teachers’ lot, reform of private management etc. Grammar Article Writing In Dubai? are merely repetition and written argumentative essays University (INTO) lack the spirit of departure from the beaten track. Different Commissions and grammar writing of Wollongong in Dubai Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of essays State these things. As government was not so very keen in an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School, eradicating the written argumentative Colorado (INTO), fundamental defects in the sphere of secondary education, root and branch, the write a grad school College, tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the merits and significance of State University these recommendations there are certain limitations and shortcomings which should not be lost sight off. As a matter of of essay writing University (Study Group) fact the Commission has endeavoured to mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by suggesting improvements and changes which are not very sound and written State effective. Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional.
Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. Scientists In Their ICS —? In-spite of the written argumentative Colorado, above shortcomings and how to a grad school Kendall limitations it can be said that the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and essays Colorado State University reform of education at a grad essay College, the secondary stage. These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and essays (INTO) are likely to go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to of essay University (Study strengthen the weakest link in the system of education of the country. Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of reorganization of secondary education as recommended by S.E.C.” Accordingly financial allocation was made in the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to State (INTO) higher secondary schools. In the 1st plan about 250 multipurpose seconds were established.
About 1150 high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the government’s effort secondary education expanded considerably. At the end of the 1st plan the number of all types of secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the major aims of the 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the an essay for college Justin-Siena, educational effort and to essays Colorado State bring every home within its fold so that in all branches of best apply in their work through ICS — School national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development. Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in scope. The programme for the reorganization and improvement of secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to make it a self contained unit within the Colorado University (INTO), educational process. Writing In Dubai? During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of argumentative essays State elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for vocational education, increased facilities for school, the education of girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships.
However steady progress was maintained during this period and the number of schools increased considerably. The number of higher secondary schools increased from 3,121 to 6,203 and written argumentative essays Colorado State (INTO) the number of secondary schools increased to 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by the end of 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of write scholarships Justin-Siena High School Dr. D.S. Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of written essays Colorado University (INTO) secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by proper planning of the location of secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to that end, by determining the english grammar University in Dubai, enrolment in terms of facilities available and essays State (INTO) selecting the best student; (ii) A developmental plan for secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High School, admission into secondary schools, through a process of self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of external examination results and school records at the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in argumentative University (INTO), vocational courses raised to 20 per cent of total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and 50 per cent of total enrolment at the higher secondary stage by 1986.
(v) A variety of part-time and full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at both these stages to meet the english grammar article writing of Wollongong, needs of the boys and girls, in urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to written argumentative Colorado State (INTO) obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to be in overall charge of the organisation of these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in centrally sponsored sector for the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on a large scale at how to an essay School, the lower and higher secondary stages in general and vocational courses. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on courses in home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the expansion of girls education so that the proportion of girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at the lower secondary stage and written argumentative essays (INTO) 1:3 at what reviewed journals Madeira, the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for girls, provision of hostels and scholarships and part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to avoid waste and duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for the first ten years of Colorado State University (INTO) school education and diversification of studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in english grammar article writing, such a manner as to enable pupils to study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and argumentative essays Colorado (INTO) elasticity in the grouping of subjects. In order to ensure the balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the curriculum at this stage should provide half the time to the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and crafts, moral and spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for the qualitative improvement of secondary education. (i) Enrichment of the content of secondary education by adding one more class to the high school and how to scholarships High School making it higher secondary course of 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the pilot projects for the introduction of work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. As a result of the different measures, the number of schools at the secondary level increased considerably. By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage.
Different states accepted the new-pattern of education and introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and written essays Colorado State University feeling of anxiety in the minds of the people regarding the writing of Groningen Group), practical application of the new pattern, yet in argumentative essays Colorado State University, the overall interest of the grammar article University, student population and for national integration there is great need of a uniform pattern of education. So steps were taken to accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. It was not only for the sake of uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to provide definite stages for Colorado State University, pupils to branch off from the academic streams. If provision would not be made for students to branch off to vocational courses after completion of the are peer reviewed School, particular stage of education, the change of pattern would only partially achieve the written argumentative Colorado State University (INTO), objectives and students who would do better in grammar article, vocational courses would tend to go in for general education. During 5th plan, the objective in this sector was consolidated and controlled expansion. In order to written raise the what Madeira School, standard of education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the methods of teaching, reforms in written essays Colorado State University, the system of examination, development of instructional materials and text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the achievement in this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to achieve predetermined targets and objectives within the stipulated period. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at the school stage in what are peer reviewed School, order to relieve the burden on the child and make it realistic.
It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about 30 lakhs. It had been proposed to achieve this objective by better and efficient utilisation of present secondary schools instead of opening new ones. However, the target would be fulfilled only through hard and sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and involvement of written Colorado (INTO) personnel associated with the planning and implementation of the how to write for college scholarships Justin-Siena, new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of education viz, the 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Written Argumentative? Yet there was no uniformity in the number of years one spent in the three stages of of essay writing of Groningen school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the written argumentative essays Colorado State, upper-primary stage.
When the first and write an essay School second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to written argumentative University (INTO) be a convenient walking distance for write school essay Kendall College, children in classes VI to VIII. Gradually, the distance limit was brought down to three kilometers. Besides, the written essays University (INTO), pattern of writing Accademia di Belle Milano upper primary schools prevailing in respective states and union territories varies. Written Argumentative Colorado University? Therefore, the facilities for higher-primary education were available in different types of schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them.
Unlike primary schools, the upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc. As the best critical thinking work through ICS — Community, government had been giving a major thrust to the expansion of education in rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the essays Colorado (INTO), third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the fourth and College fifth survey was 6.8 percent. Written University? An encouraging feature was that the rate of increase in enrolment had been more in rural areas than in urban areas. The period between the write a grad Kendall College, first and Colorado (INTO) the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in the percentage of habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the habitation or up to a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). Write For College Justin-Siena High? But it was reduced to five kilometers by the time of the third survey. The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of secondary education had been extended to argumentative Colorado State a larger number of habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population. As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in of essay writing of Groningen, India by 1986.
Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and essays Colorado State University the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the time of 1978 (fourth survey) the how to a grad essay, number of written argumentative essays University (INTO) secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of secondary schools during the period between 1973 and 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of secondary and english grammar writing University of Wollongong higher secondary education. During this plan period greater facilities for essays Colorado, secondary education had to provide due to the expansion of the base of undergraduate essay NABA, Nuova Arti Milano education at the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and argumentative essays Colorado State economic independence, particularly among the importance University (Study, socially disadvantaged. Besides, the plan emphasized the importance of paying special attention to the quality of education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing. The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to this growth. For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from 1.35 lakhs to 1.46 laks from 1985-86 to 1990-91, respectively.
Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of high and higher secondary school was checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and strictly observed in essays Colorado University (INTO), order to english University avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions. In expanding the facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of backward areas of under privileged sections of the argumentative Colorado (INTO), community. The teaching of importance writing University Group) science and essays Colorado State University (INTO) mathematics at high and higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. English Article University? Moreover, efforts were made to update and modernize science curricula, improvement of laboratories and libraries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes. In-fact, the progressive outlook of the written Colorado, authority is clearly evident from the introduction of of essay writing of Groningen (Study Group) environmental education in the courses of essays University study which formed an important aspect of science education during this plan period.
As such, the Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and education for the development of positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in reviewed, providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps were taken to extend the written Colorado (INTO), programme to cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application. How To A Grad School Kendall College? The NPE, 1986 laid down that “access to secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at present.” As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of teacher education along with in service training, examination reform, improvement and modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and the quality of education at this stage was enhanced.
Because the key issues in secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and diversification. Though a considerable degree of argumentative essays Colorado University (INTO) uniformity had been achieved in regard to common education structure of 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage. In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and how to scholarships Justin-Siena XIl) which was marked by differentiation and diversification. For the written Colorado State, national system of education the are peer reviewed journals Madeira, NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. Written Argumentative Colorado? The work of curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in Justin-Siena School, almost all the states and the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT. Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on ensuring substantially increased enrolment of written State (INTO) girls and the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Besides, greater autonomy was given to the Board of Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition.
Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the teacher-training colleges to Institute of Advanced studies (IASE) and College of Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and write an essay scholarships Justin-Siena High in-service teacher training programmes were designed and open school system at this level was extended. As time went on, the number of secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in Colorado University (INTO), 1990-91 to 90761 by 2002- 2003. The number of teacher at teacher at this sage was 996054 and english grammar in Dubai teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: