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How to write a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management

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A day in the life of a Les Roches student


From the moment they wake up until they go to bed, Vanessa and Dennis show you how a regular day in the life of a Les Roches ...

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body of book report Why do book reports strike terror in for an essay, the hearts of short stories for essay St Leonards School, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is how to introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and short, other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore!

Read with a pen and paper at your side. How To Introductory International. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. Corse Work University. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the how to write a good essay Les Roches Management first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Critical The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS). Start your book report outline with the how to a good paragraph for an School of Hotel Management following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book.

3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Write Research Articles Adelphi University. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Write Paragraph Of Hotel. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the how to research book’s title, author, genre, and how to for an Les Roches International School of Hotel, publication information (publisher, number of pages, and stories School, year published). Write A Good Paragraph For An Les Roches International School. The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to short stories for essay writing School, build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. A Good Introductory Paragraph Essay International School Of Hotel. Was the how to a good for an essay College book a bestseller?

Is the introductory for an essay Management author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. Articles Adelphi University. This is how to paragraph Les Roches International of Hotel Management, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the Adelphi University book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure?

Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the how to a good introductory essay International School of Hotel Management major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in rev publishing Academy, the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class.

Book Reports on how to a good introductory essay International, Non-fiction. How To Adelphi University. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the how to write for an Les Roches International School Management body of your book report to critical thinking in classroom of Northampton, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. How To Write A Good For An Management. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?

What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by writing St Leonards the author’s arguments? Try to a good introductory essay Les Roches International School Management, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the corse work Stenden University of Applied Sciences book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. A Good Introductory Paragraph Essay International Of Hotel. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to thinking The University (NAVITAS), a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and how to a good introductory essay International, use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the Film book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing.

Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Introductory For An Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for critical in classroom, personalized writing instruction.

Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in how to introductory School Management, your child’s writing.

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IKEA operations management Essay Sample. Operations Management is write a good for an Les Roches International School, how organizations produce goods and services (Slack et all, 2010). Organizations must be able to align their processes to fulfill customer requirements and ensure they are satisfied, which leads to careful planning and if successful to a competitive lead. This reports focus on IKEA, and New York how IKEA operations management has made them one of the how to write paragraph essay International School, leaders in retail in the world, with a deep analysis of IKEA corporate organization and operations management. IKEA is the most successful furniture retailer in the world. The product line consists of well-designed furniture at low prices.

During 2011, IKEA has reported 25.2Billon Euro total revenue and 2.966Million Euro net income. This success was not achieve in one day; it took long time and careful planning in order to achieve customer requirements. COMPANY PROFILE AND SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS. IKEA’s is global organization with sales in more than 250 own stores in 24 countries and work Stenden of Applied Sciences 32 external franchisees in 16 countries. The stores are supplied through 31 distribution centers, or directly from the 2000 suppliers in more than 50 countries. Write A Good Introductory Paragraph Essay Les Roches School? IKEA’s supply chain consequently has a global spread with both sales and purchasing in all major regions of the world. IKEAs growth has been tremendous and sales are still growing. Currently IKEA plans to open 10-20 new stores every year with a goal to double sales within the coming five year (IKEA, 2012). Considering the pace of growth in sales, the many stores and warehouses, and the fact that some business areas change up to how to essay College 30% of its assortment every year, supply chain planning is a real challenge. The supply chain needs tight control and high levels of how to write a good School of Hotel visibility to keep costs down and avoid obsolete inventory and/or stock outs.

The IKEA supply chain is mainly make-to-stock (MTS) and only a few products are made to customer orders. Consequently, the entire supply chain is heavily dependent on forecasts. The regions and the stores have traditionally had a strong power and a high degree of rev publishing New York Film Academy local freedom in terms of planning and placing replenishment requests. This has led to a fragmented supply chain planning with local optimization and a lot of manual intervention with plans throughout the write paragraph Les Roches International Management, supply chain. Furthermore, due to frequent shortage situations some regions have purposely overestimated demand to ensure delivery, which in turn has led to imbalance in terms of demand coverage. Hence, some markets have suffered from stock outs during long periods, whereas other markets have ended up with obsolete inventories. Forecasting has been done on a regional level with approximately 120 users striving for different goals and using different methods.

Part of the explanation to this is that IKEA has lacked a common and structured tactical planning of research articles Adelphi University demand and how to paragraph for an essay International of Hotel Management replenishment. Academy? In terms of capacity planning, all different parts of the supply chain (stores, warehouses, regions, etc.) tried to a good introductory for an essay School optimize its own part of the rev publishing New York Film, supply chain, leading to a set of imbalanced supply plans with a low and unstable total throughput with long. Replenishment times for the supply chain as a whole. The above mentioned situation led to a number of write paragraph International Management problems with direct impact on performance in a number of ways. First of Queen Anne’s School all, the supply chain had a functional orientation with limited transparency, leading to a reactive behavior with fluctuating goods availability (sometimes stock out situation and sometimes over stock). IKEA has also used extensive manual work in its planning processes and the planning was based on fragmented and unreliable Planning information. Hence, there was a lack of trust between different parts of the supply chain, which even further have enhanced the bullwhip effects in the IKEA supply chain. Other problems related to write introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches School Management the supply chain performance was difficulties to get enough attention of data maintenance, the lack of proper follow-up tools to monitor forecast deviations, hard to of Applied change mindsets among users, no synchronization of order and stock data, to name but a few. To overcome the difficult situation, IKEA initiated a program (cluster of projects) aiming to taking better control of its supply chain, and how to a good paragraph for an Les Roches of Hotel Management enhance performance in terms of delivery service and costs. A new global planning concept was developed and is currently being implemented. Its cornerstones are mutually integrated planning processes, a centralized planning organization, focus on data quality and a good introduction Ridley use of advanced software support.

GROWTH AND PROFITABILITY. Global sales in Fiscal Year 2011 were 25.2 Billion Euros (23.5Billion Euros in FT 2010). The operating income in FT 2011 was 2.9 Billion Euros, an increase of 0.2 Billion Euros of FY 2010. Fig: IKEA Operating Income. Fig: IKEA Revenue. IKEA generates 79% of its sales in Europe, 15% in North America and only 6% from Asia. The main financial principles of IKEA are financial stability, independence and flexibility, as a result, most of their profits are reinvested in the company in order to grow. IKEA’s success is directly linked to its culture, which encourages all employees to share values like togetherness, cost-consciousness, respect and simplicity (IKEA, 2012). IKEA has also a high commitment to human resources practices in order to identify the how to write essay Les Roches International of Hotel Management, employee needs, ambitions and capabilities.

The products as well the marketing strategy, also reflect the company culture. The products are named after Swedish cities or famous Swedish people, and corse of Applied IKEA’s colors are yellow and blue, the colors of the Swedish national flag. IKEA’s collaborators are very important, and without them IKEA was not able to write introductory essay of Hotel Management invent and short stories St Leonards produce its products. Nowadays, 10000 products are manufactured by 2000 suppliers and transported to IKEA stores. IKEA has introduced local offices to their suppliers in order to monitor them but also to help creating new products in cooperation with them (IKEA , 2012).

IKEA has also long-time contracts with its suppliers which avoids prices fluctuations and builds close relationships between them. IKEA does not have real competitors. There are lots of how to introductory for an School of Hotel Management furniture retailers, but IKEA is unique in the way it operates. It operates worldwide with well-designed products at low cost. Wide range of well-designed products. Focus on innovation.

Large network of suppliers. Economic of work University of Applied scale. Strong brand image. Sales via Internet. Global expansion – Asia and write introductory paragraph Les Roches of Hotel Management Latin America. Product standardization – problems doing business in Asia. Low level of customer service.

Products unsuitable for older people. Stores layout – just one entrance and just one exit. Competitors trying to persuassive writing Anne’s operate like IKEA. Replace/Substitute/Repair products or parts. Economic recession in Europe.

Demographic factors – Aging in Europe. As part of the national or global trends and changes, IKEA is just one example of firms that are successful in both domestic and how to a good essay International Management international business. The Swedish furniture retailer has found the Scandinavian style of furniture that was combined with “do-it-yourself” flat packaging became popular and set a global cult brand. IKEA due to the economic changes and trends is how to write a good introduction paragraph essay College, adopting different kind of strategies that will take an appeal on their customers and write a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches of Hotel aiming to own the customer loyalty. The strength of IKEA grew from the ownership transfer of the business to the Stitching Ingka. It made the company adopt other furniture style such as dinnerware, lightings and even rugs. Yet, the economic conditions affected the short stories writing St Leonards, company’s market performance and declared a slowdown because of lacking the strategic direction. In order to write for an School generate the corse work Stenden of Applied, high performance of the business, IKEA considers exchange rates, low cost suppliers, lean manufacturing.

The IKEA used quality technology and a good paragraph International of Hotel systems to promote the shorter queues, proper scheduling, tracking and persuassive writing Anne’s School trading patterns, and staffing. It aims to write a good introductory paragraph essay Les Roches International of Hotel be more productive and corse establish employee preferences. The system made the introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches of Hotel, IKEA in a position to ensure the right number of staff in a right place and in a right time to match the unique trading pattern s at each stores of IKEA. The company view in optimizing everything from the supply chain is also optimizing and managing the workforce to create an efficient store environment and keep customers happy. IKEA contributed much in the society as they provide opportunities in people and the employees are entitled in different benefits such as insurance and pensions. Moreover, the company promises to writing Queen Anne’s School provide more high quality furniture that sticks to write a good introductory paragraph essay International School of Hotel Management their original concept – stylish furniture at writing Queen Anne’s School low prices. The legal compliance of IKEA is strictly implemented with the relevant and applicable laws and regulations that pertain to the environment, social and working conditions. The company also scheduled the most demanding requirements to be specific in maintaining the list of laws and write a good introductory paragraph for an essay International School of Hotel regulations and thinking in classroom with the procedures. With regards to how to write introductory for an School the environmental factors such as the air, noise, and water, inspections are implemented to ensure the company provides corrective actions within the stipulated time. The environmental inspection is part of the legal documentation and environmental authorities as the business operations are on-goings and maintains the competence.

Recycled and New York Academy Renewal materials. Finished products(beds, sofas, etc.) Good business behavior. Prevent child labor. Realistic room settings. Specified retailer centers. Delivery of write products. As per Slack (2010) , there are five basic performance objectives that apply to all organizations: quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost . These objectives have order-winning, order-qualifying and less important factors. “Order winning factors are those things which directly and rev publishing New York Film significantly contribute to how to write a good paragraph Les Roches School of Hotel winning business.

They are regarded by customer as key reasons for purchasing the product” (Slack et all, 2010,pp 69). Simplified it is what a company does in writing St Leonards School, order to make customer buy their products and not from how to write a good paragraph for an Les Roches their competitors. According to Slack (2010) raising performance in an order-winning factor, will result in gaining more market share or a better overall performance. Order-qualifying factors are “those aspects of competitiveness where the operation’s performance has to be above a particular level just to be considered by the customer” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.69). Products must fulfill minimum requirements in order to be considered by write Ridley, the customer. If the products are below the minimum requirements, the company will not sell their products end eventually will not be competitive in their business environment. Moreover, less important factors are such factors which are “neither order-winning nor order-qualifying and do not influence customer in a significant way (Slack et all, 2010, pp.69). “Quality is a major influence on customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction” (Slack et all,2010,pp.40).

Quality for IKEA means that their products are functional and write International safe to use. The quality of IKEA’s products is subject to the international standard ISO 17025. Due to this, IKA has established test laboratories, where the products are tested in order to meet the customer’s demands, not only in terms of design, function and critical The University of Northampton price, but also with regards to safety, stability and durability (IKEA Right Quality, 2010). As per IKEA slogan , : Is is our customers that we want to come back – not our products! ” (IKEA Right Quality,2010), IKEA tests products not only during the how to write for an Les Roches School, development phase, but also takes samples from products that are already in one of IKEA’s stores. Quality in short stories writing, this case is an order-qualifying factor for IKA, because if the safety and function is not guaranteed, customers would not consider buying one of IKEA’s products. Nevertheless, quality can be seen under a different aspect, the customer have to go all the way through the store before they can pay for the products, therefore, IKA needs to present their products within the stores in how to write introductory paragraph for an of Hotel, an attractive and short stories appropriate way. A Good Paragraph Les Roches International Management? In addition, referring to families, IKA takes care of their children while they are shopping. This additional service leads to more quality for rev publishing New York Academy the families as well to customer satisfaction. In this case, quality is an order-winning factor for IKEA. “Speed means the elapsed time between customers requesting products and receiving them” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.40).

For IKEA speed is a less important factor since IKEA is not delivering their products. Customers chose their products and pick them up by themselves. Customers also take over the transportation from the store to the home. The speed is depending on the customer and not IKEA. “Dependability means doing things in write for an Les Roches International School Management, time for customers to persuassive writing Anne’s School receive their goods exactly when they are needed or at last when they were promised” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.42). For IKEA dependability means to assure that the wide range of products that IKEA offers is available for customers on how to write introductory essay Les Roches International School Management, time.

Every August IKEA publishes its catalogue to millions of persuassive writing Queen Anne’s customers in 31 countries (The Ikea catalogue, 2011). IKEA must be prepared to handle the run on its products. To ensure that all products are sufficient available on time, IKA has introduced local offices close to their suppliers in order to monitor them. In addition, IKEA has long-terms contracts with its suppliers, which has the advantage that the processes between them run more smoothly due to the experience and consequently the improvements they have made it in the past (Baraldi, 2008, pp.99). Write Paragraph Essay Of Hotel? Dependability is an order-qualifying factor for IKEA because customers expect that all products are available on time. A customer who goes to IKEA and does not find the product as showed in the catalog, will be frustrated and may consider not to buy further products of IKEA. “Flexibility means being able to change the operation in some way. Specifically, customers will need the operation to Stenden University Sciences change so that it can. provide four types of requirement” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.46):

Product flexibility – the operation’s ability to introduce new or modified products; Mix flexibility – the operation’s ability to produce a wide range of products. Volume flexibility- the operation’s ability to change its level of output, to produce different quantities of products. Delivery flexibility – the operation’s ability to change the timing of delivery. For IKEA product flexibility is essential for a good introductory paragraph for an essay School the company’s success. According to IKEA’s slogan ” To create a better everyday life for the many people” (IKEA Welcome Inside, 2010, pp. 19), IKEA puts emphasis on innovation to satisfy all the short for essay St Leonards School, different needs of their customers.

New inventions and developments are the impulses for new products and consequently to be competitive. Furthermore, IKEA has the how to introductory for an essay Les Roches of Hotel Management, ability to produce a wide range of products. How To Research Adelphi University? There are about how to write paragraph International School of Hotel Management 10000 products in the total IKEA product range. The flexibility of IKEA regarding product and mix flexibilities are order-winning factors for IKEA. With its wide range and modern stylish products, IKEA attracts many customers. “To the companies which compete directly on rev publishing New York Film Academy, price, cost will clearly be their major operations objective. The lower the cost producing their goods, the how to a good introductory for an International of Hotel, lower can be the price to their customers.

Not surprisingly, low cost is a universally attractive objective” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.48). The main goal of IKEA is to offer a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them (IKEA Welcome Inside, 2010, pp.7). A Good For An Essay Ridley? This goal reflects the a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School Management, importance of the cost objective to how to paragraph Ridley IKEA. As multinational company, IKEA benefits of economic of scales. Write Paragraph Les Roches Management? IKEA offers their products at work Stenden University Sciences low prices, which attracts more customers as IKEA would offer their products at high prices.

Because of this, the costs to produce one product are going down, which allows IKEA to offer them at a good paragraph Les Roches Management low prices. Furthermore, the flat packages reduce the how to write University, overall warehousing and distribution cost. Write A Good Paragraph Les Roches International School Management? The common packages have most of the critical in classroom of Northampton, time space between the surface of the package and the product inside. This space or unnecessary air cost money. By using the write introductory paragraph essay Les Roches International of Hotel Management, flat packages, IKEA spends less money for transportation and rev publishing Film can offer their products at how to a good introductory Management low prices. Moreover, the customer contributes to stories for essay writing St Leonards IKEA’s low prices. The Stores of IKEA are located outside the city centers where the rest for IKEA is much cheaper, customers to how to introductory essay Les Roches go the stores as well bring the write essay, product they have purchased to their home. How To Introductory Paragraph School Of Hotel? In addition, customers also put the product together by themselves. All these are a factor that reduce the write research Adelphi, overall costs of IKEA and how to write introductory paragraph for an School Management is why IKEA is able to how to write Adelphi University offer such low prices. As a result costs is an order-winning factor for how to a good introductory Les Roches School Management IKEA , because IKEA uses low prices to rev publishing New York Film attract customers.

The polar representation shows the relative importance of IKEA’s performance objectives to a good paragraph essay School of Hotel its products. According to Slack (2010) it is called polar representation because the New York, scales which represent the importance of each performance objective have the same origin. The bold line describes the relative importance of each objective. How To Write A Good Essay Les Roches School? The close the bold line is to the common origin, the less important is the objective to IKEA. Fig: IKEA polar representation. As can be seen in rev publishing Academy, the polar representation the objectives cost, quality and flexibility are the order-winning factors for IKEA. Dependability is an order-qualifying factor and speed does not influence IKEA’s customers in write introductory for an School of Hotel Management, a significant way and is therefore a less important factor. Cost can be seen as an order winning or qualifying factor. For IKEA it is definitely an order winning factor because they attract their customer with low prices. IKEA has lower prices than its competitors do, which gives IKEA a competitive advantage. There are three performance objectives (cost, flexibility and quality) that IKEA puts a lot of emphasis on.

In the following sections, IKEA processes will be identified, and analyzed how the processes meet the performance objectives with the interrelation between product design and process design. To better identify the process types, the “Four V’s” model will identify what implication each dimension (Volume, Variety, Variation in demand, Visibility) for the cost of creating IKEA’s products have. In general, as per Slack (2010) high volume, low variety, low variation and low customer contact all help to keep processing costs down. With 10000 different products, IKEA produces a high volume of products. Due to stories writing School the economics of scale the units’ costs are low.

The wide range of the products means that IKEA has a high variety in its product line. Moreover, the demand is rather predictable for IKEA. Therefore, the variation in how to paragraph Les Roches International School, demand can be seen as low. Finally yet important, the contact to their customers is thinking in classroom The University of Northampton, also rather low. Customer choose their products and pick it them up by themselves, there are some staff and information desks where customers can ask for help , but overall IKEA has low contact with the how to a good introductory, customers. Based on the “Four V’s”, it can be seen that IKEA manufactures a high volume and a good introduction essay Ridley College a high variety of products: Fig: IKEA Variety Vs Volume. Although IKA produces 10000 variants of products, IKEA is using mass production to how to write a good paragraph for an essay of Hotel Management produce its products, the different variety of critical thinking The University (NAVITAS) its products do not affect the how to for an Les Roches School Management, basic process of production (Slack et all, 2010, pp.93) .This means that the variety is high to work of Applied customers but the variety in the production process is write a good introductory paragraph essay Les Roches School of Hotel, low. There are advantages as well disadvantages of mass production.

The main advantage of mass production is that a company can achieve economic of scale. “Economic of scale in production mean that production at larger scale (more output) can be achieved at lower cost (i.e., with economies or saving)” (Hussain, 2010, pp. 149) . Rev Publishing Academy? Since IKEA is write paragraph for an Les Roches, producing a high volume of products, the company is achieving economic of scale as illustrated in the graphic below, which is in fact a competitive advantage: Fig: IKEA average Costs Vs Output. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it reduces nonproductive activities such as preparing materials and tools and it diminishes human errors due to standardization of the persuassive writing Queen Anne’s School, operations, in addition, workers perform simples work, as the tasks are repetitive. This allows companies to hire workers with limited technical or mechanical skills after a short training period and will reduce the employees’ costs in the long term (Dolgui Proth, 2010, pp. 197). Nevertheless , there are some disadvantages, the rigidity of mass productions systems is write a good introductory Les Roches International School, one, which makes any production change very costly, and the variety of products that can be produced on the same system is limited (Dolgui Proth, 2010, pp. 197). Mass production , in one hand, has the advantage that IKEA can achieve economic of scale, as already mentioned in order to meet the performance objective cost, in the other hand, it has the work Stenden University Sciences, disadvantage that the inventory level is high which in particular means that the products of IKEA are make-to-stock (MTS). “IN a make to stock process individual orders are not assigned to customers during manufacture” (Schroeder, 1993, pp.174). This in particular means for IKEA that the company must align their processes in a way that reduces their overall stockholding cost. To reduce the how to a good introductory for an Les Roches Management, costs for storing the products, IKEA uses flat packages that do not waste unnecessary space.

Using flat packages also saves transportation costs that lowers the prices for the products. In addition , the stores of IKEA have all large storing halls from where the Queen, customer picks up its chosen products. This means that the products will be delivered right away from the suppliers to write a good introductory for an International Management the stores. There is short, no between storage. Referring to IKEA’s stores, they are also located outside the city centers, where the write essay International Management, rent for IKEA is much cheaper. Moreover, IKEA does not waste any leftovers that occur from the mass production process. For instance, leftover from a table will be used to produce a chair. Finally yet important, the short writing School, customer has a significant influence on the production costs, IKEA produces the components of the furniture; the installation does the customer. This is one reason why IKEA can produce such a variety and high volume at a mass production level. Furthermore it allows IKEA to offer its furniture approximately 20% cheaper (Koenig , 2000, pp.

67). Another important objective – flexibility – must be considered in the mass production process. As seen the rigidity of how to write a good introductory essay Les Roches mass production systems is a major disadvantage, which makes any production change costly. Nevertheless, to ensure flexibility in terms of a wide range as well as innovative products, IKEA works together with the more than 2000 suppliers. Most of the persuassive School, production occurs at the facilities of the suppliers. Write International School Management? The rest is produced at the IKEA industrial group facilities Swedwood and Swedspan. IKEA is buying production capacity instead of buying product quantities from their suppliers. This means that IKEA is ordering, for instance, 10000 hours of production rather than 10000 beds. If IKEA launches a new product or need to produce existing products, IKEA examines which of their suppliers have the best capabilities to manufacture the product. The next step is that IKEA orders production capacity and 24/7 production at the suppliers facilities can begin, because IKEA cooperates with such a high number of different suppliers, IKEA can provide such a high variety and high volume to their customers an can eventually be flexible.

According to St Leonards School Dolgui and Proth (2010) mass production diminishes human errors due to the standardization of the paragraph for an Les Roches International of Hotel, operations. Rev Publishing New York? In addition, the quality of IKEA’s products is write a good introductory for an essay International of Hotel Management, subject to ISO 17025. Due to this, IKEA has test laboratories, where products are tested in order to meet customer’s demands in how to a good introduction paragraph for an, terms of function, price and how to write a good for an essay Les Roches of Hotel Management also safety, stability and durability (IKEA Right Quality, 2010). PROCESS DESIGN – PRODUCT DESIGN. Process design and product design are interrelated. Usually it is common for manufactures that they fist manufacture or designs a product and then will target a price for the product and set up process that endure that the product will be delivered to the customer. IKEA is going it the other way around (Margonelli, 2002). IKEA first targets a price and tries to find a supplier that is able to manufacture the product. Fig: Process Design relation with Product Design. For example, IKEA is planning to design a new chair; they will target a price (for instance, 10 Eur). Afterwards, IKEA chooses a manufacture that has the capability to manufacture the chair, and then designers of IKEA will design the how to write a good introduction for an essay, chair according to the customer trends.

Finally the chair will be manufactured in large quantities to lower the unit costs and eventually distribution centers will deliver the chair to IKEA stores. In the image below, the “process design has an impact on the product design and vice versa” (Slack et all, 2010, pp.88) Fig: Process Design – Product Design. Today, IKEA is one of the how to a good essay International School of Hotel Management, most successful furniture retailers in the world. This means the Film, operations management of introductory paragraph for an International IKEA has been set up processes, which meets the performance objectives in many ways, therefore it is difficult to find many areas for improvement, especially regarding the University of Applied, mass production process. How To A Good Introductory For An Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management? IKEA generates more than 75% of its sales in Europe and only 6% in Asia, even though Asia has much larger customer market. IKEA has its background in Sweden, but IKEA should be interested in increasing its sales in persuassive Queen Anne’s, Asia. The key reason why IKEA is not successful is write introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches School, that the “Do it yourself” culture, among Asian customers does not exist in the same way as in Europe. Compared to Europe, to hire workers who setup your furniture in Asia is much cheaper, they do not have to do it by themselves. However as already mentioned IKEA produces only the Queen, components of the furniture; the installation does the customer. Write Introductory Essay Les Roches International Management? This is one reason why IKEA can produce such a variety and high volume at a mass production level.

IKEA should rethink its strategy in Asia because some products just simply do not fit to customer needs. Maybe IKEA should provide finished furniture to the Asia customer, but the how to Adelphi, question is if IKEA could provide finished furniture at such low prices. The production process must be redesigned in particular for Asia. In Addition, IKEA might not be able to how to write paragraph essay Management offer finished furniture in flat packages, which increase the overall transportation and stockholding cost. Furthermore, the production process might not be compatible with its suppliers. Work Of Applied? IKEA must find new suppliers that are able to write introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel manufacture finished products. These are all expense factors, which lead to the assumption that it is not feasible to for essay St Leonards School adjust IKEA’s processes in order to introductory for an of Hotel Management meet the needs of Asian customers.

Therefore to be successful IKEA musct create a ” Do it yourself culture” among its Asian customers, giving them more advices on how to set up their furniture. In long term it can provide good results in the Asian market. Another aspect that IKEA should improve, which does not affect the mass production process, is the fact that customers have to short stories for essay writing School pass through the essay Les Roches International Management, whole store before they can pay for their products. This distracts customer who want to buy only one product. IKEA should provide more exits and/or cash desk allowing customers to thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS) pay more quickly.

Furthermore, IKEA attracts many customers who are looking for low prices. IKEA’s marketing strategy is based on write introductory paragraph International, this. This means that high income customers might not regard to how to write a good paragraph Ridley buy at IKEA , because IKEA is seen as a low price furniture retailer. IKEA should also focus on attracting high income customer groups by launching marketing activities which primary focus on these groups. IKEA has modern and good quality products in its product line that will certainly meet the needs of high income groups. In addition, as Europe’s population is aging, it’s important for IKEA to focus also on older population, having furniture to fulfill their needs. Based on the analysis in this report, the most important objective of IKEA is the cost, the processes objectives are to reduce the costs of the final product. IKEA uses mass processes in their production in order to achieve economy of scale. Furthermore IKEA is how to write introductory essay Management, pioneer in introduction paragraph College, using flat packages that reduces transportation costs as well stockholding costs. Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? However, IKEA also focuses in flexibility and critical in classroom qualitity, which further satisfy the how to write International of Hotel, needs of the customers.

Thorught IKEA’s high commitment to innovation the company is able to provide modern, stylish furniture that satisfies customers in terms of flexibility, and with the ISO 17025 standard, IKEA guarantees that their products have quality (are functional and safe). Overall, IKEA has successfully setup processes within the company, which ensures the satisfaction of the customers as well gave IKEA a competitive advantage in its business sector. IKEA has the right approach and corse of Applied Sciences will lead to a good performance in the future. Baraldi, E. Write Paragraph For An Les Roches Management? (2008), “Strategy in Industrial Networks: Experiences from New York IKEA”, California Management Review, vol 50, no. 4, pp 99. Dolgui, A. Proth, J. How To A Good Essay? M. (2010), Supply chain Engineering: Useful Methods and Techniques, Springer. Ikea (2010), The right quality for IKEA products. Available from http://ikea.com/ms/en_GB/about_ikea/press_room/rightquality.pdf [Accessed: April 8, 2012] Ikea (2010) , Welcome Inside. Work University Sciences? Available from http://ikea.com/ms/de_CH/about_ikea/pdf/Welcome_Inside_2010.pdf [Accessed: April 1, 2012]

Koenig, W. (2000), Geschichte der Konsumgesellschaft, Franz Steiner Verlag. Schroeder, R. G. How To Introductory Essay Of Hotel Management? (1993) , Operations Management: Decision Making in the Operations Function, 4th ed, McGraw-Hill . Margonelli, L. (2002), How Ikea designs its sexy price Tags, Business 2.0. Short Writing School? Available from : http://www.ise.ufl.edu/ein43333/articles/How_Ikea_Designs_Its_Sexy_Price_tags.pdf [Accessed: March 28, 2012] Slack, N., Chambers, S. Johnston, R. (2010), Operations Management, 6th ed, Pearson Education. Is this the perfect essay for how to write a good paragraph for an Les Roches International of Hotel Management you? Save time and order IKEA operations management. essay editing for critical thinking in classroom of Northampton only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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A Black Police Officer’s Fight Against the a good introductory paragraph of Hotel N.Y.P.D. A Good Paragraph For An Essay. Edwin Raymond thought he could change the department from the inside. He wound up the lead plaintiff in a lawsuit brought by 12 minority officers. By SAKI KNAFO FEB. How To For An Of Hotel. 18, 2016. E very morning before his shift, Edwin Raymond, a 30-year-old officer in the New York Police Department, ties up his long dreadlocks so they won’t brush against his collar, as the job requires. On Dec. 7, he carefully pinned them up in a nautilus pattern, buttoned the rev publishing Academy brass buttons of his regulation dress coat and pulled on a pair of white cotton gloves. He used a lint roller to make sure his uniform was spotless.

In a few hours, he would appear before three of the department’s highest-ranking officials at a hearing that would determine whether he would be promoted to sergeant. He had often stayed up late worrying about how this conversation would play out, but now that the write of Hotel moment was here, he felt surprisingly calm. The department had recently announced a push to recruit more men and women like him — minority cops who could help the police build trust among black and Hispanic New Yorkers. But before he could move up in rank, Raymond would have to of Northampton disprove some of the a good introductory essay Les Roches International School Management things people had said about him. Over the past year, Raymond had received a series of increasingly damning evaluations from writing School, his supervisors. How To Write Introductory Les Roches. He had been summoned to the hearing to tell his side of the story. His commanders had been punishing him, he believed, for refusing to comply with what Raymond considered a hidden and ‘‘inherently racist’’ policy. Raymond checked in to the department’s employee-management office in downtown Manhattan.

Three other officers waited there with him, all dressed as though for a funeral or parade, all hoping they would be judged worthy of a promotion and a raise. One officer had gotten in work Stenden of Applied trouble for write a good paragraph for an of Hotel, pulling a gun on how to write a good paragraph his ex-girlfriend’s partner. How To A Good Introductory International. ‘‘Everyone was nervous,’’ Raymond says. Queen School. ‘‘I was the only one who was confident, because I knew I’d done nothing wrong.’’ Hours crawled by. Finally, a sergeant announced that the officials — ‘‘executives,’’ as they’re known in the department — were ready to see them. One by one, the officers entered a conference room. Raymond saluted the write a good introductory essay School Management executives and stated his name. Then the work Stenden University of Applied Sciences executives began to speak. Beneath the stiff woolen shell of Raymond’s dress coat, tucked away in his right breast pocket, his iPhone was recording their muffled voices. Les Roches School Management. Over the last two years, Raymond has recorded almost a dozen officials up and down the New York Film chain of command in what he says is an attempt to change the daily practices of the New York Police Department.

He claims these tactics contradict the department’s rhetoric about the write a good for an essay of Hotel arrival of a new era of fairer, smarter policing. Corse. In August 2015, Raymond joined 11 other police officers in filing a class-action suit on introductory International School Management behalf of minority officers throughout the force. The suit centers on what they claim is how to articles, one of the introductory for an Les Roches International School Management fundamental policies of the New York Police Department: requiring officers to meet fixed numerical goals for rev publishing New York Film, arrests and court summonses each month. In Raymond’s mind, quota-based policing lies at the root of how to write Les Roches School of Hotel almost everything racially discriminatory about policing in New York. Yet the department has repeatedly told the public that quotas don’t exist. Since January 2014, the how to write introduction paragraph for an Ridley College start of the two-year period during which Raymond made most of his recordings, the department has been led by Police Commissioner William Bratton, who has presided over how to a good International School of Hotel Management, a decline in summonses and arrests even as crime levels have remained historically low. How To Research Articles Adelphi. He has revamped the department’s training strategy and has introduced a new program that encourages officers to how to a good introductory for an Les Roches International spend more time getting to know the people who live and work in the neighborhoods they patrol.

Chief of Department James O’Neill told me that the expectations of how to a good introduction paragraph for an College officers have changed. How To Write Introductory For An Essay Les Roches International School. ‘‘Whatever arrests we make, whatever summonses we write, I want them connected to how to introduction paragraph for an Ridley the people responsible for the violence and crime,’’ he said. The department is now focused on the ‘‘quality’’ of arrests and summonses rather than the ‘‘quantity,’’ he said. Raymond and his fellow plaintiffs will try to paragraph for an International School of Hotel Management prove otherwise. The suit accuses the department of violating multiple laws and statutes, including a 2010 state ban against quotas, and how to research the 14th Amendment, which outlaws racial discrimination. It asks for damages and how to write essay Les Roches International School of Hotel an injunction against the practice. Although plaintiffs in stories writing St Leonards other cases have provided courts with evidence suggesting the department uses quotas, this is the first time anyone has sued the department for violating the 2010 state ban against the practice. A Good Introductory Paragraph For An Of Hotel Management. Black and Latino officers have long contributed rare voices of dissent within a department that remains predominantly white at its highest levels. Raymond has cultivated a friendship with Eric Adams, a former police captain and the current Brooklyn borough president, who founded, during his time on the force, 100 Blacks in Law Enforcement Who Care, an organization that advocates for law-enforcement professionals of color. Adams has had a hand in several recent policing reforms. As a state senator, he sponsored the bill that led, in 2010, to the New York ban against critical The University, quotas for stops, summonses and arrests.

Then, in 2013, he joined several current and former minority officers in testifying against the department in the landmark stop-and-frisk case Floyd v. City of New York, which culminated with a federal judge’s ruling that the introductory essay Management department had stopped and searched hundreds of thousands of critical thinking in classroom minority New Yorkers in ways that violated their civil rights. Between 2011 and 2013, the a good for an International Management publicity surrounding the case prompted the department to all but abandon the tactic — the number of annual stops fell by more than two-thirds over two years — but, according to Raymond and how to articles University others, the pressure to arrest people for minor offenses has not let up. ‘‘Every time I read the write paragraph for an essay School of Hotel paper, I thought, Why do they think the problem is stop-and-frisk?’’ Raymond says. Film. ‘‘Although stop-and-frisk is unlawful, and it’s annoying, you’re not going to not get a job because you’ve been stopped and frisked,’’ he says. ‘‘You’re going to get denied a job because you have a record.’’ The lawsuit claims that commanders now use euphemisms to sidestep the how to write paragraph Les Roches International of Hotel Management quota ban, pressuring officers to ‘‘be more proactive’’ or to ‘‘get more activity’’ instead of explicitly ordering them to bring in, say, one arrest and 10 tickets by the end of the month. ‘‘It’s as if the how to a good introduction for an essay Ridley College ban doesn’t exist,’’ Raymond says. Other cops agree. At a Dunkin’ Donuts in Ozone Park, Queens, a black officer who is not involved in how to write for an essay International School of Hotel the lawsuit (and who, fearing retribution, requested anonymity) spoke at length about the persuassive writing Queen Anne’s School inconsistency between the department’s words and actions, her anger building as she spoke, the how to a good paragraph Les Roches School Management tea cooling in her cup, until she concluded, bluntly, ‘‘It’s like they’re talking out of their ass and their mouth at the same time.’’ I recently spoke to Daniel Modell, a retired lieutenant who in 2014 testified to the grand jury in how to write articles Adelphi University the case of for an Les Roches International School Management Eric Garner, the Staten Island man who was killed during an encounter with the police. Modell, who is white, said the frustration is thinking in classroom, departmentwide. ‘‘It’s not only black and Hispanic officers,’’ he said. ‘‘The rank and file generally, they’re utterly demoralized and critical of the department. Sign Up for the Magazine Newsletter.

Get the best of the Magazine delivered to your inbox every week, including exclusive feature stories, photography, columns and more. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. ‘‘But they don’t have a voice,’’ he added. ‘‘If they speak out, they get crushed.’’ When I described Raymond to Modell, he told me that he had actually met him. How To Write Introductory For An Essay Les Roches. In September 2015, Modell spoke on a panel at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

The topic was ‘‘bridging the critical thinking The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) gap’’ between minorities and the police. Raymond, who attended the seminar, made an impression. ‘‘He’s a good guy,’’ Modell said. A Good Paragraph Essay Les Roches School Of Hotel Management. ‘‘I could tell by the way he spoke, and the sincerity in his eyes. How To Write Research Articles Adelphi. I wish I could say his career would be a pleasure going forward, but he’s got a tough road ahead.’’ Raymond is not the first police officer to record his commanders. How To Write A Good Essay Les Roches School Of Hotel Management. Adrian Schoolcraft, who became the primary stop-and-frisk whistle-blower, was forcibly admitted into a psychiatric ward for six days after objecting to police practices in 2009. He recorded the whole incident.

One of Raymond’s fellow plaintiffs in the lawsuit, Adhyl Polanco, taped his superiors while complaining about stop-and-frisk and was banished to a desk deep in Brooklyn, two hours from persuassive School, his home. Look up their names on write a good introductory for an School of Hotel Management Thee Rant, an anonymous message board for how to research University, police officers, and the epithets come pouring forth: ‘‘crybaby,’’ ‘‘rat,’’ ‘‘zero.’’ Even some of how to write a good introductory for an International of Hotel Management Raymond’s closest friends and confidants, people who admire his boldness and vouch for persuassive Queen Anne’s, his integrity, have told him, quite frankly, that what he’s doing is how to introductory, nuts. Raymond says he has lost sleep worrying about how to a good introduction essay College, what might happen, but he can sound contemptuous of those who advise caution. ‘‘Everyone else, they’re just so scared,’’ he says. ‘‘My thing is, never be afraid to a good essay Les Roches International School Management do what’s right.’’ Raymond grew up in East Flatbush, a West Indian neighborhood of wood-frame houses and brick apartment buildings in Brooklyn. A few blocks from his building was a corner that residents nicknamed ‘‘the front page’’ because of the how to introduction essay College many murders that ended up in paragraph essay School the papers. Raymond remembers stepping over a dead body, blood pooling on the floor of the building lobby, to get to school. His father, a Haitian immigrant who barely finished grade school, managed to keep the rev publishing Academy kids well fed for a while, but then, when Raymond was 3 and his brother was 4, their mother died of cancer, and how to write paragraph for an Les Roches International of Hotel then their father lost his job at how to write research articles Adelphi University, a paper factory. He fell into a depression and never worked again.

Raymond and his brother often went to bed hungry, a feeling Raymond remembers as ‘‘sadness mixed with a headache.’’ Sometimes a neighbor, Florise, a single mother of two from Haiti, gave them something for dinner; Raymond came to see her as an aunt, and Billy Joissin and Melissa Baptiste, her children, as his cousins. Other mothers in the neighborhood occasionally helped care for Raymond. In a very real sense, the how to write a good introductory essay School of Hotel Management neighborhood raised him. Starting at 14, he spent 45 hours a week bagging groceries and stocking shelves after school and on the weekends. Raymond saw what the how to write a good introduction paragraph for an essay Ridley College crack trade had done to the neighborhood and wanted no part of it. His friends say he had a powerful, even rigid sense of how to write for an essay International morality, lecturing them about the dangers of drugs and gangs, refusing to try even a puff of weed. ‘‘We always tell him he’s different,’’ Baptiste says. Joissin noted wryly that Raymond was ‘‘not afraid to not be popular and to not be liked.’’ His unwavering rectitude kept the gangs from write a good paragraph Ridley College, bothering him. The police, however, were a different story. ‘‘As soon as I had a little hair on my chin, I was getting stopped almost once a week,’’ he says.

One day at write a good introductory for an essay Les Roches School of Hotel Management, a Haitian street fair when he was 16, Raymond ran into a family friend who had become a police officer. To Raymond’s surprise, his friend raved about the corse Sciences job — about the benefits and the pension and the possibility of being promoted. How To Introductory Essay International School Management. Raymond decided to enter the police academy as soon as he was old enough. Even then, he says, he had vague ambitions of becoming a different kind of officer — one who would go after actual criminals. But he mainly saw the job as a way to pay the bills. And that’s how he might still see it if, about three years before he joined the force, a friend hadn’t lent him a copy of ‘‘The Destruction of Black Civilization.’’ The book, a work of Afrocentric history by Chancellor Williams, is a classic of how to University its genre. Raymond still recalls ‘‘the pride that rushed through your veins’’ as he realized, he says, that the history of black people didn’t begin with slavery. In high school, his work schedule got in the way of his studies, and he had never liked reading. Now he couldn’t get enough of how to write for an Les Roches International School of Hotel it. He read Malcolm X and Marcus Garvey. He says he started an how to write articles Adelphi University email correspondence with Tim Wise, an activist and writer known for his books on how to introductory Management critical race theory.

As he read that the slave patrols of two centuries ago had evolved into the police departments of today, it occurred to him that the cops who stopped him in his youth weren’t intentionally racist; they were merely complying with the demands of a system that was ‘‘historically rooted in keeping you down.’’ Then, in 2008, he joined the how to write a good for an essay system himself. At first, and for most of his career, Raymond worked out of Transit District 32, the division of the Transit Bureau responsible for policing the Brooklyn sections of the how to write introductory paragraph Les Roches School of Hotel Management 2 and 3 lines and how to research articles Adelphi several other stretches of the subway system. Many of his colleagues spent their time writing tickets or arresting people for how to write paragraph Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, ‘‘theft of how to write service’’ — a minor violation better known as turnstile hopping. (From 2008 to 2013, fare-beating arrests shot up to 24,747 from 14,681, according to a 2014 Daily News analysis of public data.) Legally, individual officers have the power to decide how to deal with certain minor offenses. Some officers, trying to increase their totals of summonses and arrests for the month, hide in bathrooms and closets meant for how to write a good paragraph, subway employees, peeking out through vents so they can jump out at anyone foolish or desperate enough to vault the turnstiles. Critical Thinking The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS). If the offender, typically a teenager, lacks an ID or has a criminal record, the officer can make an arrest. According to a recent analysis by a good essay International School of Hotel, the advocacy group the rev publishing New York Film Academy Police Reform Organization Project, 92 percent of those arrested for theft of service in 2015 were black, Hispanic or Asian. A Good Paragraph International School Management. Those offenders who aren’t arrested are generally summoned to court to pay a $100 fine. If they fail to pay it or forget the court date or miss an appearance for Academy, any reason, the judge signs an how to write paragraph for an Les Roches School arrest warrant.

Raymond didn’t hide on the job. For An College. At the introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International Management academy, he says, future officers were trained to remain ‘‘present and visible’’ while working in uniform, partly so passengers could find a police officer when they needed one. On Oct. 8, 2015, for example, a group of teenage girls approached Raymond at the Pennsylvania Avenue stop in persuassive Queen School Brooklyn and pointed out a man who had been following them. Had Raymond been hiding, he says, they might never have found him. Raymond stopped the man, asked him some questions and ultimately arrested him for stalking. ‘‘He does these honorable things,’’ said Willie Lucas, one of the other black officers who worked in Raymond’s district. How To Write Essay International School. ‘‘The first time I worked with him, we were doing patrol out in the East New York area. There was a mother, she may have been a teenager, and she was in some kind of distress, crying and really upset.

Her baby may have been around 3 or 4 months old. I remember him going to thinking in classroom The University of Northampton talk to her and help her out. He was willing to how to write introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School Management ride with her to write research articles Adelphi the Bronx, all the way out of write a good International School of Hotel his jurisdiction.’’ Raymond didn’t shy away from confrontation when it was necessary. Essay Ridley. While he was still at the academy, the department awarded him a badge of a good introductory essay Les Roches School Management honor for paragraph for an essay College, breaking up a street fight during one of his lunch breaks, grabbing a metal pipe from one of the brawlers and pinning him to the ground. ‘‘When it’s time to introductory paragraph Les Roches get busy, I get busy,’’ he says. He says he typically stopped about three people a day, mostly for little things like holding the doors at how to introduction paragraph essay College, a station. But usually he let them go with a warning. He worried about how an arrest could follow a kid through life. Raymond realized that his supervisors didn’t approve of write paragraph for an essay International School of Hotel his approach. Some of them came right out and told him he was dragging down the district’s overall arrest rate, and said they had been taking heat from persuassive writing Queen Anne’s School, their own bosses as a result. In the summer of 2010, a commander stuck him with the weekend shift at Coney Island, the sort of write a good introductory for an essay International School of Hotel unwanted job that cops call a ‘‘punitive post.’’ Other undesirable assignments followed: sitting around with psychotic prisoners in psychiatric emergency rooms, standing at ‘‘fixed posts’’ on specific parts of how to write University subway platforms with orders not to move, staring at video feeds of the tunnels from the confines of an how to introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches of Hotel airless booth called ‘‘the box.’’ As the how to Ridley pressures intensified over the next few years, Raymond decided he needed to do something to a good essay Les Roches International protect himself — even though it could also put him at greater risk.

Convinced that his supervisors were punishing him unlawfully, and fearing for his reputation, he started to record his conversations. The practices that Raymond opposes began as solutions to the problems of another era. In 1994, when William Bratton started his first tour as the head of the department, the corse work of Applied Sciences department was reeling from corruption scandals, and officers were discouraged from a good paragraph essay International School of Hotel Management, spending too much time in high-crime neighborhoods, lest they succumb to bribery. In the absence of a strong police presence, drug dealers operated in the open, and residents who complained risked incurring their wrath. Crack vials littered schoolyards, and Queen School police officers were still ‘‘giving freedom of the streets to the drug dealers, the gangs, the prostitutes, the drinkers and the radio blasters,’’ Bratton later wrote with one of his advisers in the conservative quarterly City Journal. The crack trade in East Flatbush was so rampant that Raymond and his brother would fall asleep counting gunshots. Bratton’s solutions to these problems would make him famous. A self-described innovator, he embraced the ‘‘broken windows’’ theory of policing — the idea that the police could cut down on serious crimes by making it clear that even the trivial ones wouldn’t go unpunished. To hold officers accountable to this philosophy, especially in neighborhoods they had once neglected, Bratton tasked a transit lieutenant, Jack Maple, with developing a management system that kept careful track of introductory paragraph of Hotel Management arrest and crime statistics throughout the city.

The system, called CompStat, short for ‘‘compare statistics,’’ was often credited for the drop in crime that followed. By the for essay writing St Leonards time Bratton left New York in paragraph essay 1997, New York’s murder rate had fallen by half. Cities from Chicago to corse work Stenden University Sydney hired Bratton and his proteges as police chiefs and consultants. Today, most large American cities use some form of CompStat. Eli Silverman, a police-studies professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, was an early apostle. How To Write A Good Introductory Les Roches International. Silverman lauded CompStat in his 1999 book ‘‘N.Y.P.D. Battles Crime,’’ arguing that Comp­Stat did more to reduce crime than any other reform in the department’s 154-year history. The book opens with an anecdote from the in classroom of Northampton (NAVITAS) transit system: In 1996, a plainclothes officer named Anthony Downing was working in a station on how to write a good paragraph for an School Management the Lexington Avenue subway line when he arrested a fare beater whose prints were later found at a murder scene. Before the CompStat era, when no one was keeping track of rev publishing Film Academy minor offenses, Downing would have had little incentive to stop someone for jumping a turnstile, and the fare beater, it follows, might have gotten away with murder. Silverman still calls himself a CompStat supporter, but by 2001, when he published a second edition of the book, a number of police officers had written to him to say that the ‘‘revolution in write a good introductory for an essay of Hotel blue,’’ as Silverman styled it, wasn’t all it seemed.

Intrigued by their claims, Silverman and a fellow criminologist and persuassive Anne’s retired New York Police Department captain, John Eterno, set out to a good introductory essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management see if they could arrive at a more detailed understanding of how the system worked. In 2008 and again in 2012, they sent out questionnaires to retired members of the critical thinking The University (NAVITAS) department. More than 2,000 wrote back. The results were clear: Officers who had worked during the CompStat era were twice as likely as their predecessors to say that they had been under intense pressure to increase arrests, and three times as likely to say the same about the how to Les Roches of Hotel Management pressure to increase summonses. In the 2000s, as violent crime hit historic lows, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly and other city officials kept pressuring the department to drive the how to write research articles crime rate even lower, an expectation that became harder and harder to meet. In districtwide CompStat meetings, executives interrogated commanders about their violent-crime statistics. Some commanders tried to protect themselves by underreporting or reclassifying major crimes. Others tried to how to essay Les Roches of Hotel show they were being ‘‘proactive’’; invariably this meant more stops, more summonses, more arrests.

Most of this activity took place in minority neighborhoods. Anne’s. In predominantly black Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, for how to a good paragraph International Management, example, officers issued more than 2,000 summonses a year between 2008 and 2011 to people riding their bicycles on the sidewalk, according to how to a good introduction the Marijuana Arrest Research Project, a nonprofit that studies police policy. How To Write A Good Introductory Essay School Management. During the same period, officers gave out an for essay St Leonards School average of eight bike tickets a year in predominantly white and write essay Les Roches School Management notably bike-friendly Park Slope. All told, between 2001 and 2013, black and persuassive Queen Hispanic people were more than four times as likely as whites to receive summonses for minor violations, according to an analysis by the New York Civil Liberties Union. Raymond and other critics of the program don’t deny that CompStat is useful, or even that it may have helped the department save lives. The question, for them, is how to use it. In theory, high-ranking officials could use CompStat or a similar system to track and solve problems in ways that don’t always involve fines or handcuffs. But after more than three decades, the system is a good paragraph Les Roches School of Hotel, deeply entrenched. Write Adelphi. A captain who requested anonymity for fear of retaliation told me about a program he had heard of that reduced shoplifting.

But instead of praising the write a good introductory paragraph Les Roches School officer who developed it for the drop in arrests, the work Stenden chief told him to ‘‘get more numbers.’’ That kind of thing happens all the time, he said. ‘‘You don’t get recognized and rewarded for helping a homeless person get permanent housing, but you get recognized for arresting them again and again and again.’’ The first of Raymond’s tapes begins with a warning. In January 2014, Lt. Wei Long, then in his first month at write introductory essay, District 32, confronted Raymond about his relatively low ‘‘activity.’’ Like other supervisors featured in the early recordings, he expressed sympathy for Raymond, admitting that the in classroom The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) ‘‘department is all about write introductory for an Les Roches of Hotel, numbers’’ and even acknowledging that this ‘‘sucks.’’ Raymond challenged Long, as he did many of his superiors. ‘‘This is how to write a good introduction paragraph Ridley College, people’s lives,’’ he tells a captain on how to write introductory paragraph essay one of the tapes. ‘‘It’s not a game.’’ As Raymond’s posts and prospects grew worse, he became only more certain that he was in the right. Even as he handed out fewer summonses and made fewer arrests, few serious crimes were reported in the areas he patrolled, he says. He believed that if he could get out from under the lower-level supervisors, at how to paragraph for an essay College, least some officials at how to introductory for an School Management, the highest levels of the department would recognize that he was the right kind of officer for New York. Persuassive Writing Queen Anne’s School. He decided to how to a good introductory Les Roches School Management try for School, a promotion. In December 2012, he began studying for the exam given to aspiring sergeants. The results of the test, which he took in September 2013, could hardly have been more promising. Out of about 6,000 test takers, just 932 passed, and Raymond placed eighth. Changes within the department itself also bolstered his hopes.

On Dec. 5, 2013, Mayor Bill de Blasio, then newly elected, announced that he would be bringing Bratton back for a second tour as commissioner, saying, ‘‘He is going to bring police and community back together.’’ Critics questioned whether the architect of CompStat was right for how to introductory paragraph for an Les Roches, the job. But de Blasio, an writing Queen Anne’s unabashed progressive, had run on a platform that included reforming stop-and-frisk, and introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches School of Hotel Bratton had espoused his commitment to that goal, saying he would unite the police and the public ‘‘in a collaboration of critical The University of Northampton mutual respect and mutual trust.’’ In a video shown to the officers at their roll call, Bratton promised to how to write for an essay School of Hotel focus on ‘‘the quality of police actions, with less emphasis on their numbers and more emphasis on our actual impact.’’ A month into in classroom The University (NAVITAS) his term, Bratton began enlisting teams of thinkers from on and off the force to brainstorm ideas for how to write introductory paragraph for an International School Management, improving the department. Oliver Pu-Folkes, a black captain who had met Raymond through a mutual friend and had been impressed, appointed Raymond to a team focused on building relationships in black and Hispanic communities. Raymond was the research University lone rank-and-file officer asked to participate.

That fall, inspired by the work, he and a friend formed an organization of their own, PLOT (Preparing Leaders of Tomorrow), offering mentorship services to how to introductory paragraph International School black teenagers in corse work Stenden Brooklyn. That summer, two unarmed black men, Michael Brown and how to a good introductory for an essay Les Roches of Hotel Garner, died in high-profile incidents involving white police officers. A wave of protests spread through the country, and President Obama, responding to the public outcry, lamented the ‘‘simmering distrust that exists between too many police departments and too many communities of color.’’ A Justice Department official who had heard about PLOT invited Raymond and his partner to attend a conference on race and policing in Washington. After so many years of corse work Stenden being ignored or, as he saw it, punished for his ideas, Raymond was suddenly at the center of a conversation of national importance. He allowed himself to imagine that his problems at write a good paragraph for an School of Hotel Management, work would soon be over. Rev Publishing New York Academy. Three days after Raymond returned from the capital, his immediate supervisor, Martin Campbell, said he wanted to see him in his office. Raymond felt that something wasn’t right.

Raymond had previously gotten the impression that Campbell, a black sergeant from Trinidad, privately deplored the constant push for numbers, but he also believed that Campbell, who had been in his position for how to write a good paragraph Les Roches of Hotel, only a year, was under the same pressure to deliver the numbers as everyone else. Fearing another punitive assignment, Raymond waited for Campbell to step into the office. He took out his phone and turned on an audio-recording app, then slid the phone back into his pocket. In his office, Campbell gestured toward his computer screen. Raymond saw that the sergeant had given him something called an writing School interim evaluation. Officers typically receive four quarterly evaluations a year plus an write introductory paragraph Les Roches International School Management annual every January, but in critical thinking The University of Northampton exceptional circumstances, supervisors will sometimes write an additional report, usually as a way of signaling to the command that the officer was caught doing something egregious, even committing a crime. Just getting one of these reports was bad enough. Now Raymond saw that out of a maximum score of five, he had received only a 2.5, an abysmal grade.

A score that low could block his promotion or lead to his being fired. On the recording, Campbell sounds as unhappy about the evaluation as Raymond. He insists that his direct superior told him what to write, and suggests that she, in turn, did so under orders from her own supervisor, Natalie Maldonado, the district commander. Although Raymond hadn’t yet heard of the lawsuit, he knew about other officers who had sued the department or had testified against it in court, among them Adrian Schoolcraft, whose secret recordings of his commanders were detailed in a five-part series in The Village Voice in 2010. Raymond knew his recordings wouldn’t carry much weight unless he got his supervisors to write Les Roches International of Hotel call the rev publishing New York Film banned practice by name. ‘‘What is the issue with me?’’ he asked Campbell. ‘‘Just the activity, the quota?’’ Campbell laughed. ‘‘What do you think, bro?’’ ‘‘Man,’’ Raymond said. ‘‘Honestly, what do you think?’’ ‘‘But it has to be more,’’ Raymond said, ‘‘because technically, when it comes to how to paragraph numbers — ’’ ‘‘No, no, no,’’ Campbell said. Write Introduction For An Essay Ridley College. ‘‘There’s not more. That’s it .’’ And yet that wasn’t it — at least, Raymond didn’t think so. There were other officers in the district, not many, but some, whose numbers were even lower than his. ‘‘You really want me to tell you what I think it is?’’ Campbell asked. ‘‘Of course, because I need to understand this.’’ ‘‘You’re a young black man with dreads. Very smart, very intelligent, have a loud say, meaning your words is write a good introductory for an School, loud.

You understand what I’m saying by for essay writing St Leonards School, that?’’ ‘‘I never seen anything like this, bro,’’ Campbell said. Raymond filed an appeal of his evaluation right away, but before it could make its way to Maldonado’s desk, she was transferred out of the Transit Bureau to a more coveted post. It was around this time, in the summer of 2015, that Raymond heard about the lawsuit, which had just been filed. Until then, Raymond had felt alone. Now that he knew there were other officers on his side — officers who were willing to take a stand — he felt obligated to contribute his voice, and his tapes. He still wanted to believe he could rise within the department, so he signed on how to write introductory Les Roches International School Management quietly. Other than a few friends and his fellow plaintiffs, no one knew he had joined the suit, and no one, other than the write research Adelphi University lawyer, knew about his recordings. By July 2015, Constantin Tsachas had become commander of Raymond’s district. According to write paragraph for an Les Roches Management Raymond, Tsachas hadn’t even moved all his boxes into the office when he began occupying himself with the problem of what do about the uncooperative officer in his command. Thinking The University. On Aug. 3, Campbell told Raymond he had gotten a call from Tsachas at home. ‘‘I was already convinced that they didn’t want you to get promoted,’’ Campbell says on the recording. ‘‘Well, it’s clearer to me now.’’ Campbell says Tsachas told him to how to a good introductory essay Les Roches International School write yet another brutal interim evaluation, this time dropping Raymond’s grade from a 2.5 to a two.

Tsachas also told him to rewrite Raymond’s annual evaluation for 2014. Tsachas would later tell Raymond that the original version, which Campbell gave Raymond at the start of 2015, was never finalized. While the original evaluation, as Raymond remembers it, criticized him for his supposedly low ‘‘activity,’’ the write new one appeared to have been scrubbed of any language that could be recognized as code for failing to a good paragraph for an Les Roches International School of Hotel meet a quota. Anne’s. It was also harsher. Raymond was portrayed as lazy and dimwitted, incapable of carrying out even the most basic duties of an officer. It claimed he ‘‘does not demonstrate any ability to paragraph for an Les Roches of Hotel make sound conclusions,’’ does ‘‘not take any initiative’’ and ‘‘needs constant supervision.’’ (The New York Police Department declined to comment on the specifics related to Film Raymond’s case.) Raymond filed another appeal. In October, he sat down with Tsachas in his office, accompanied by how to write a good essay Les Roches Management, Campbell, a third supervisor and a union delegate, Gentry Smith. Once again, Raymond’s phone was recording.

The meeting lasted an hour. Corse Work Stenden Sciences. Raymond spoke about his work on a good introductory paragraph for an essay of Hotel Management Bratton’s brainstorming group and his visit to Washington, and he argued that the evaluation misrepresented him. In several ways, Raymond asked Tsachas to explain what he had done wrong; in several ways, Tsachas avoided saying anything explicit about Raymond’s numbers. More than once, Tsachas told Raymond he needed to be ‘‘proactive.’’ ‘‘So what’s the definition of ‘proactive’?’’ Raymond asked. How To Write A Good Paragraph For An Ridley. ‘‘You know what ‘proactive’ is,’’ Tsachas said. About halfway through the meeting, Tsachas began losing patience. How To Write A Good Introductory Paragraph Essay International Of Hotel. ‘‘I’m here for, like, half an critical thinking in classroom of Northampton (NAVITAS) hour, and you’re playing with words.’’ Raymond kept pressing him. Finally, Tsachas said something more pointed. ‘‘I’m not saying lock up anybody ,’’ Tsachas said. A Good Paragraph For An Of Hotel. ‘‘If you come in with some stuff — let’s say, female, Asian, 42, no ID, locked up for T.O.S.’’ — theft of service — ‘‘that’s not gonna fly.’’ As Raymond interpreted it, Tsachas was suggesting that he focus on arresting blacks and Latinos, as opposed to New York Film Academy Asians or whites. ‘‘The 14th Amendment says we have to a good paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School be impartial,’’ he said. Tsachas began trying to clarify his statement. ‘‘It didn’t come out the way it’s supposed to,’’ he said. He went on write a good introduction for an essay to talk about ‘‘no IDs’’ and low-level arrests. According to Raymond, Smith, who is black, screwed up his face in disgust. The room fell quiet. ‘‘I have to how to a good for an International School of Hotel say I forgive you guys,’’ Raymond said. ‘‘This is bigger than even you guys.

This is how to articles Adelphi University, coming from up there.’’ ‘‘I’m not gonna lie, man,’’ Raymond told me one fall afternoon in write a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel his apartment shortly after that meeting. ‘‘I know I’m doing what’s right, and what’s right and what’s smart have always been the write a good for an essay Ridley College same to me, but when I got that 2.5 I was no longer sure that what I’m doing is write for an Les Roches International of Hotel Management, smart. How To Write A Good Introduction For An. I was months away from being promoted. Once you’re promoted, you will never be asked to meet a quota again.’’ He paused for a moment, then said: ‘‘They expect you to pass on that pressure instead.’’ Raymond lives in a one-bedroom apartment in a new building in East Flatbush, near where he grew up. On the walls were paintings and photographs of how to write introductory for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management Malcolm X and Haile Selassie; on the shelves were books by Marcus Garvey and Ta-Nehisi Coates. On a side table sat a carved wooden sculpture of a warrior blowing into a conch shell: During Haiti’s war for independence, slaves used conch shells to warn one another of danger and for calls to battle. New York Film. Billy Joissin, his childhood friend, was sitting at how to introductory for an International School, a kitchen counter overlooking the living room. ‘‘We grew from not having nothing,’’ he said to Raymond, clearly worried about him. ‘‘Don’t slide back into critical thinking The University of Northampton poverty.’’ Raymond said he didn’t see what he was doing as a choice. His insistence on always doing what he believed to be right had allowed him to survive a precarious childhood. ‘‘If I’d done what was popular in Les Roches of Hotel Management those surroundings, I would have never been a police officer,’’ he told me. Queen Anne’s. ‘‘I was surrounded by guns and drugs — and I was surrounded by guns and drugs while I didn’t eat for a good for an, two days.’’ Despite everything, Raymond still wanted to believe he might somehow have a future in the force. He found it hard to imagine that the department’s leaders would reject him just because of his lower numbers. ‘‘Everything I do points to a job well done,’’ he said. Any week now, he expected the School administration to begin promoting officers from how to write a good paragraph essay Les Roches International, his class.

Through October and November, he waited for the call. Finally, in early December, the promotions were announced. Among those promoted was Kenneth Boss, one of the rev publishing New York four officers who fired 41 shots at Amadou Diallo, an unarmed Guinean immigrant, in 1999, hitting him 19 times and killing him. But Raymond’s name wasn’t on write paragraph for an Les Roches School the list. Instead, he was summoned to how to write introduction the hearing with the executives to explain his situation.

He brought along a sheaf of how to introductory paragraph for an essay International Management documents, including a form letter from Bratton from July 28, 2015, thanking him for his participation in the brainstorming sessions and eight letters of recommendation from people inside and outside the how to write articles department. How To A Good For An Essay School Of Hotel. Avram Bornstein, co-director of the Police Leadership Program at John Jay, where Raymond had taken courses, called him an critical in classroom of Northampton (NAVITAS) ‘‘outstanding example of leadership,’’ noting his ‘‘strong moral character and his intellectual acumen.’’ Oliver Pu-Folkes, the captain who asked him to join Bratton’s brainstorming sessions, compared him to Galileo, ‘‘who was sent to the Inquisition for how to a good for an of Hotel Management, affirming that the earth was a sphere.’’ Before stepping into the room, Raymond pressed record and found a spot for his phone in his dress blues. The officials sat at critical of Northampton (NAVITAS), the other end of the table: James Secreto, chief of housing; Thomas Galati, chief of intelligence; and Michael Julian, deputy commissioner of personnel. How To Write Introductory For An International. Julian, the first to speak, began in Queen a way Raymond didn’t quite expect. A Good Introductory For An Essay Les Roches International Of Hotel Management. ‘‘I want to hire a thousand of you,’’ he said. He hadn’t conjured that exact number out of thin air. Of Applied Sciences. Julian, who is white, had recently been assigned the a good paragraph essay Management task of coordinating the recruitment of 1,000 black officers. That summer, the 57 black men and 25 black women who graduated from the work University academy represented less than 10 percent of the graduating class — the lowest percentage of black graduates in 20 years. In an interview with The Guardian, Bratton blamed the scarcity of black recruits on the prevalence of how to write a good essay International Management criminal records in black neighborhoods. Too many of the city’s black men had ‘‘spent time in jail and, as such, we can’t hire them,’’ The Guardian quoted him as saying. (Bratton later said the newspaper took the quote out of context.) Along with the other executives at the hearing, Julian had already reviewed Raymond’s documents. He noted that Raymond had called in sick only once in seven years. ‘‘You don’t get sick,’’ he said, his voice rising with enthusiasm. ‘‘There’s a lot of good about you.’’ Then the conversation shifted.

Looking over Raymond’s arrest numbers, Julian asked if Raymond had anything against arresting dangerous suspects. Raymond assured him he didn’t. ‘‘Coming from a very tough community, high crime, being born and rev publishing New York raised in the crack era, I unfortunately witnessed horrible acts,’’ he said. ‘‘These people need to be locked up, and we need to write for an essay School use whatever resources we have to Queen Anne’s do so.’’ He continued in this vein for another two minutes before Chief Galati cut him off. ‘‘Can we back up for one second?’’ Galati asked. ‘‘Tell me why your evaluations are continually poor.’’ Raymond mentioned his direct supervisor, Sergeant Campbell. ‘‘He wasn’t comfortable with those evaluations,’’ Raymond said. Galati: ‘‘Is it a personal thing between you and him?’’ Raymond: ‘‘I have a great relationship with Sergeant Campbell.’’ Secreto: ‘‘So it’s his boss?’’ Julian: ‘‘You don’t have the numbers?’’ Raymond: ‘‘The numbers?’’ Julian: ‘‘You don’t have the how to a good paragraph for an International Management numbers?’’ After years in the department, Julian could most likely imagine what a commander might say to a lower-ranking supervisor who wasn’t getting high-enough numbers from work Sciences, one of his officers. ‘‘The commander says, ‘You gotta do it like this,’ ’’ he mused. ‘‘ ‘You gotta put him down for low initiative, low drive, passive.’ ’’ He acknowledged that Raymond didn’t fit that description. ‘‘You don’t seem like a passive person,’’ he said. How To A Good Paragraph For An Essay International Of Hotel. ‘‘You look like a guy I’d want walking through the train when I’m on the train.’’ Raymond thanked him. ‘‘I’m at service to the public at all times,’’ he said. School. ‘‘We are oathbound to how to write a good for an Les Roches International School Management serve them, and Film Academy this is what I do every day.’’ Raymond saluted, left the building and drove to a good introductory paragraph for an School of Hotel Queens to meet a friend. ‘‘I didn’t want to be alone,’’ he told me. A Good Introduction College. At some point that day, the executives would decide whether his service was good enough to warrant a promotion. Bratton himself would review their recommendation and sign off by the end of the week. How To A Good Les Roches. On Dec. Critical In Classroom The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS). 10, a sergeant from the employee-management division called Raymond: He hadn’t been promoted. According to the sergeant, the write a good introductory paragraph for an International of Hotel executives would revisit the decision in six months.

In the meantime, he would be transferred out of the rev publishing New York Film subway system to the 77th Precinct in Crown Heights, Brooklyn. He didn’t look forward to this change of write paragraph Les Roches of Hotel scenery. How To Write Research Articles. He knew two other officers in the 77th. They were fellow plaintiffs. When Raymond called me with the news, he was furious. He spoke of being disappointed in Bratton, who had talked so compellingly about changing the how to write a good introductory paragraph Les Roches International School department. ‘‘I was foolish enough to believe him,’’ he said. He also mentioned Sergeant Campbell, who he said had refused to provide him with a letter of recommendation to show the executives. When I reached Campbell at home, he said he had in fact written a letter of how to Adelphi recommendation for Raymond but decided not to send it. ‘‘I have to protect myself and essay Les Roches my job and my family,’’ he said. Campbell described Raymond as a ‘‘good person’’ and how to research Adelphi added that he thought he could be a ‘‘valuable’’ member of the department.

But he disagreed with his methods of trying to bring about reform. ‘‘There’s a lot of how to a good for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel Management guys in the department, even I and supervisors and other guys, who would like to see things change,’’ he said. ‘‘But it doesn’t change like that. It doesn’t change overnight.’’ Last month, Bratton wrote in a Daily News op-ed that the police department has managed to keep crime down even as it has ‘‘cut back hugely on enforcement encounters with citizens.’’ This would seem to suggest that the critical thinking in classroom The University of Northampton approach to policing long practiced by write a good paragraph for an essay School of Hotel Management, Raymond is both effective and, in stories for essay Bratton’s eyes, admirable. Write A Good Introductory Essay International. In January, the city’s legal department filed a motion asking a judge to dismiss the persuassive Queen plaintiffs’ charge that the department is violating the quota ban, along with several other claims. A judge is expected to rule on this in how to write a good introductory Les Roches the next two months. Corse Work Of Applied Sciences. If the case, Raymond v. City of New York, proceeds, his recordings will most likely be entered into evidence. Write Paragraph Essay Les Roches International. The whole proceeding could take years. But Raymond says that he will not stop pressing, even if it means trying to take the case all the way to the Supreme Court. He claims he will never settle unless the department changes its practices. ‘‘There’s no amount they could pay me to make me stop fighting,’’ he said. On the day he received the bad news about his promotion, we met at a health-food place in Crown Heights.

Over a tempeh B.L.T., he talked about his hopes for the lawsuit; it was clear he had lost faith in his ability to change things from inside the department. Critical Thinking In Classroom The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS). After a while, his thoughts turned to his neighbors in East Flatbush — how they had protected him as a child, how he had tried to protect and write a good introductory for an of Hotel serve them in turn. He looked away and thinking The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) gave a short, exasperated laugh. ‘‘An officer who hides in a room, peeking through a hole in a vent, is more supervisor material than me.’’ He shook his head. ‘‘This is the system,’’ he said, ‘‘and it needs to change.’’ Saki Knafo is a reporting fellow with the Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute. He has written for how to introductory paragraph essay International School Management, New York Magazine, GQ and Travel and Leisure. Sign up for our newsletter to get the best of The New York Times Magazine delivered to your inbox every week.

A version of this article appears in print on February 21, 2016, on Page MM50 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: The Education of New York Academy Edwin Raymond. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.

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copper essay Tattooing is write a good introductory paragraph for an essay International School of Hotel Management one of the oldest art forms on the planet, dating to prehistoric times and cave dwellers who often created tattoos as part of ritual practices linked to a good introduction for an Ridley College, shamanism, protection, connection with their gods, and embuing them with magica powers. Essay International Management. Early tattooing was used to symbolize the fertility of the earth and of womankind, preservation of life after death, the sacredness of chieftainship and other cultural factors. Tattooed markings on skin and incised markings in clay provide some of the earliest evidence that humans have long practiced a wide range of paragraph for an College, body art. The written accounts of early European explorers also attest to the elaborate and widespread nature of tattooing in introductory essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management various parts of the world, providing an insight into traditions that had their origins deep in the past. Marriage tattoos have been particularly popular to insure that you can find your lawful spouse or spouses in the afterlife, even if you have passed 'through the work of Applied veil,' many years apart. Ancient Ainu marriage rites state that a woman who marries without first being tattooed, in the proper manner, commits a great sin and when she dies; she will go straight to write a good introductory paragraph International of Hotel Management, God.

Tattooing as a rite of adulthood, or passage into how to write research Adelphi University puberty, was another common tattoo ritual. If a girl can't take the pain of tattooing, she is how to write paragraph Les Roches International of Hotel un-marriageable, because she will never be able to New York Academy, deal with the pain of child birth. If a boy cannot deal with the pain of his puberty tattoos, he is considered to be a bad risk as a warrior, and how to introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel could become an outcast. Since the dawn of tattooing, people have been marking themselves with the research articles signs of their totem animals. On the outer level of introductory paragraph essay School, meaning, they are trying to gain the strengths and abilities of the totem animal. On a more inner and short stories for essay St Leonards mystical level, totem animals mean that the bearer has a close and mysterious relationship with this animal spirit as his guardian. Totem animal tattoos often double as clan or group markings. Modern dragon, tiger, and eagle tattoos often subconsciously fall into this category. My snake tattoos are examples of DNA and the human biogenetic experiment.

Another common practice was tattooing for write a good introductory paragraph for an essay International School health wherein the tattooing of a god was placed on the afflicted person, to fight the illness for them. An offshoot of tattooing for health is tattooing to preserve youth. Maori girls tattooed their lips and chin, for this reason. When an old Ainu lady's eyesight is failing, she can re-tattoo her mouth and hands, for better vision. This is still practiced today. Tattoos for general good luck are found world-wide. A man in Burma who desires good luck will tattoo a parrot on his shoulder. In Thailand, a scroll representing Buddha in an attitude of meditation is considered a charm for good luck. In this charm, a right handed scroll is masculine and a left handed scroll is feminine. Writing Queen Anne’s School. Today, in the West, you can see dice, spades, and Lady Luck tattoos, which are worn to bring luck. Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice since Neolithic times.

Otzi the Iceman, dated circa 3300 BC, exhibits possible therapeutic tattoos (small parallel dashes along lumbar and on a good International of Hotel Management the legs). Tarim Basin (West China, Xinjiang) revealed several tattooed mummies of writing Anne’s, a Western (Western Asian/European) physical type. Still relatively unknown (the only current publications in how to write introductory for an International Western languages are those of J P. Mallory and V H. Mair, The Tarim Mummies, London, 2000), some of them could date from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE. The world's most spectacular tattooed mummy was discovered by Russian anthropologist Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko in 1948 during the excavation of a group of how to a good introduction paragraph for an Ridley College, Pazyryk tombs about write a good introductory paragraph School Management, 120 miles north of the border between China and Russia. These mummies were found in the High Altai Mountains of western and persuassive writing Queen School southern Siberia and how to a good introductory paragraph Les Roches date from around 2400 years ago. The tattoos on their bodies represent a variety of animals. The griffins and monsters are thought to have a magical significance but some elements are believed to corse Stenden Sciences, be purely decorative. Altogether the write a good introductory paragraph Les Roches International Management tattoos are believed to reflect the status of the individual. Three tattooed mummies (c. Write Paragraph For An Ridley College. 300 BCE) were extracted from the permafrost of Alta• in the second half of the write introductory International School 20th century (the Man of Payzyrk, during the 1940s; one female mummy and one male in Ukok plateau, during the 1990s). Their tattooing involved animal designs carried out in a curvilinear style.

The Man of Pazyryk was also tattooed with dots that lined up along. the spinal column (lumbar region) and around the right ankle. Pazyryk Mummies - Pazyryk Culture. The Pazyryks were formidable iron age horsemen and warriors who inhabited the articles Adelphi University steppes of Eastern Europe and Western Asia from the sixth through the second centuries BC. They left no written records, but Pazyryk artifacts are distinguished by how to write paragraph for an International Management, a sophisticated level of artistry and craftsmanship. The Pazyryk tombs discovered by Rudenko were in an almost perfect state of preservation.

They contained skeletons and intact bodies of horses and embalmed humans, together with a wealth of artifacts including saddles, riding gear, a carriage, rugs, clothing, jewelry, musical instruments, amulets, tools, and, interestingly, hash pipes, described by writing Queen School, Rudenko as apparatus for inhaling hemp smoke. Also found in for an Les Roches International of Hotel Management the tombs were fabrics from Persia and China, which the rev publishing Film Academy Pazyryks must have obtained on write a good Les Roches International School Management journeys covering thousands of miles. Rudenko's most remarkable discovery was the body of stories writing St Leonards, a tattooed Pazyryk chief: a thick-set, powerfully built man who had died when he was about how to introductory paragraph essay International School Management, 50. Parts of the body had deteriorated, but much of the tattooing was still clearly visible. The chief was elaborately decorated with an interlocking series of designs representing a variety of fantastic beasts. The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two highly stylized deer with long antlers and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. Two monsters resembling griffins decorate the chest, and on the left arm are three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat. On the front of the right leg a fish extends from the foot to the knee. A monster crawls over Stenden University, the right foot, and on the inside of the shin is a series of four running rams which touch each other to form a single design.

The left leg also bears tattoos, but these designs could not be clearly distinguished. In addition, the introductory paragraph for an Les Roches International Management chief's back is critical thinking (NAVITAS) tattooed with a series of write paragraph for an essay of Hotel Management, small circles in line with the vertebral column. This tattooing was probably done for therapeutic reasons. In Classroom The University. Contemporary Siberian tribesmen still practice tattooing of this kind to how to a good for an essay International, relieve back pain. No instruments specifically designed for tattooing were found, but the Pazyryks had extremely fine needles with which they did miniature embroidery, and these were undoubtedly used for tattooing In the summer of New York Film Academy, 1993 another tattooed Pazyryk mummy was discovered in Siberia's Umok plateau.

It had been buried over 2,400 years ago in a casket fashioned from the hollowed-out trunk of a larch tree. On the outside of the casket were stylized images of deer and snow leopards carved in leather. Shortly after burial the grave had apparently been flooded by freezing rain and the entire contents of the burial chamber had remained frozen in permafrost. The body was that of a young woman whose arms had been tattooed with designs representing mythical creatures like those on the previously discovered Pazyryk mummy. She was clad in a voluminous white silk dress, a long crimson woolen skirt and white felt stockings. On her head was an elaborate headdress made of hair and felt - the how to write introductory International School of Hotel Management first of its kind ever found intact. Also discovered in the burial chamber were gilded ornaments, dishes, a brush, a pot containing marijuana, and a hand mirror of thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), polished metal on the wooden back of which was a carving of a deer. Six horses wearing elaborate harnesses had been sacrificed and how to write a good paragraph International School lay on the logs which formed the roof of the burial chamber. Considering the number of Film, tattooed mummies which have been discovered, it is how to write a good paragraph for an essay Les Roches of Hotel apparent that tattooing was widely practiced throughout the corse ancient world and was associated with a high level of artistic endeavor. The imagery of ancient tattooing is in many ways similar to that of modern tattooing.

All of the known Pazyryk tattoos are images of how to write for an essay Les Roches International School Management, animals. Animals are the most frequent subject matter of tattooing in many cultures and research articles are traditionally associated with magic, totemism, and the desire of the tattooed person to become identified with the spirit of the animal. Tattoos which have survived on mummies suggest that tattooing in prehistoric times had much in common with modern tattooing, and how to a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches School that tattooing the world over has profound and universal psychic origins. Tattooing for spiritual and how to research Adelphi University decorative purposes in Japan is a good introductory paragraph for an Les Roches International School of Hotel thought to extend back to at least the Jomon or paleolithic period (approximately 10,000 BCE) and was widespread during various periods for work University of Applied Sciences both the Japanese and the native Ainu. Chinese visitors observed and remarked on the tattoos in Japan (300 BCE). In Japanese the word used for a good for an International Management traditional designs or those that are applied using traditional methods is irezumi (insertion of ink), while tattoo is used for non-Japanese designs. The earliest evidence of tattooing in Japan comes from figurines called dogu.

Most of these date to 3000 years ago and display similar markings to how to write articles, the tattooed mouths found among the how to a good paragraph essay Les Roches School of Hotel women of the Ainu (the Indigenous people of Japan). Tattoo enthusiasts may refer to tattoos as tats, ink, art or work, and to tattooists as artists. The latter usage is gaining support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of tattoo designs and photographs of write for an, tattoos. Tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sold to tattoo artists and studios and displayed in shop are known as flash. Tattooing has also been featured prominently in one of the Four Classic Novels in Chinese literature, Water Margin, in write for an essay International School which at least three of the 108 characters, Lu Zhi Chen, Shi Jin, and Yan Chen are described as having tattoos covering nearly the whole of how to a good for an essay College, their bodies. In addition, Chinese legend has it that the mother of write a good introductory paragraph for an School Management, Yue Fei, the most famous general of the Song Dynasty, tattooed the words jin zhong bao guo on Stenden his back with her sewing needle before he left to join the army, reminding him to repay his country with pure loyalty. China. Tattooing has actually been practiced since the time of the ancient Egyptians and is common throughout the world. In 1891, archaeologists discovered the mummified remains of how to write a good School of Hotel Management, Amunet - Dynasty XI, Egypt, c. 4040 - 3994 years ago. This mummy was found at Thebes.

Amunet (various spellings) was a priestess of Hathor. This female mummy displayed several lines and dots and dashes tattooed on Film her body, aligned in abstract geometrical patterns. These dot-and-dash patterns have been seen for many years throughout Egypt. How To Write A Good Paragraph For An International Of Hotel. This pattern and skill of tattoo may have been borrowed from the Nubians. The art of how to write research Adelphi University, tattoo developed during the Middle Kingdom and flourished beyond. Write A Good Paragraph For An Essay Les Roches School. The evidence to date suggests that this art form was restricted to stories writing School, women only, and usually these women were associated with ritualistic practice. How To Write A Good Introductory Paragraph Les Roches School Management. These mummies give us site into how long this art form has been practiced and how their art was displayed. From continent to continent this art form has developed and transformed. Through the Egyptian eyes to other cultures, tattoo is something that satisfies various needs and critical in classroom interest.

A second mummy also found depicted this same type of how to write a good introductory paragraph essay Les Roches of Hotel Management, line pattern (the dancer). Persuassive Writing Anne’s School. This mummy also had a cicatrix pattern over her lower pubic region. In the figure to write introductory essay International School of Hotel Management, the right you can see the various patterns as they are displayed on the body. The various design patterns also appeared on several figurines that date to persuassive writing Queen Anne’s School, the Middle Kingdom, these figurines have been labeled the Brides of Death. The figurines are also associates with the goddess Hathor. All tattooed Egyptian mummies found to date are female. The location of the tattoos on the lower abdomen are thought to be linked to fertility.

Egyptian tattooing was someitmes related to the sensual, erotic, and emotional side of life, and all these themes are found in tattooing today. An archaic practice in the Middle East involved people cutting themselves and rubbing in ash during a period of mourning after an individual had died. It was a sign of respect for the dead and paragraph essay Les Roches International a symbol of reverence and a sense of the profound loss for the newly departed; and it is persuassive writing Queen Anne’s School surmised that the how to write introductory for an essay International of Hotel ash that was rubbed into the self-inflicted wounds came from the actual funeral pyres that were used to cremate bodies. In essence, people were literally carrying with them a reminder of the recently deceased in the form of tattoos created by how to articles Adelphi, ash being rubbed into shallow wounds cut or slashed into the body, usually the forearms. Early Aussie Tattoos Match Rock Art Discovery - June 2, 2008. Body art was all the rage in early Australia, as it was in many other parts of the ancient world, and now a new study reports that elaborate and distinctive designs on the skin of indigenous Aussies repeated characters and motifs found on rock art and write a good Les Roches of Hotel all sorts of portable objects, ranging from short for essay St Leonards School, toys to write paragraph essay Les Roches International Management, pipes. The study not only illustrates the work University of Applied link between body art, such as tattoos and how to write essay International intentional scarring, with cultural identity, but it also suggests that study of this imagery may help to unravel mysteries about corse work of Applied Sciences, where certain groups traveled in the past, what their values and rituals were, and how they related to for an International School of Hotel, other cultures.

Distinctive design conventions can be considered markers of how to write articles Adelphi, social interaction so, in how to write paragraph for an essay Les Roches School a way (they are) a cultural signature of sorts that archaeologists can use to understand ways people were interacting in the past, author Liam Brady of Monash University's Center for Australian Indigenous Studies, told Discovery News. For the study, published in the latest issue of the journal Antiquity, Brady documented rock art drawings; images found on early turtle shell, stone and how to write articles Adelphi University wood objects, such as bamboo tobacco pipes and how to a good paragraph for an Les Roches drums; and images that were etched onto the human body through a process called scarification. In a way, a scarred design could be interpreted as a tattoo, Brady said. It was definitely a distinctive form of critical of Northampton, body ornamentation and it was permanent since the design was cut into the skin. Evidence for scarification is primarily via (19th century) anthropologists -- mainly A.C. How To Write A Good For An Les Roches School Of Hotel. Haddon -- who took black and white photographs of some designs, as well as drawing others into how to write a good introduction essay Ridley College his notebooks in write a good introductory paragraph Les Roches International School Management the late 1800's, he added. Both Haddon and Brady focused their attention on a region called the Torres Strait.

This is a collection of how to research articles University, islands in tropical far northeastern Queensland. The islands lie between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. How To Write Introductory Paragraph Essay Les Roches School. Although people were living in the Torres Strait as early as 9,000 years ago, when sea levels were lower and a land bridge connected Australia with New Guinea, archaeological exploration of the area only persuassive writing really began with Haddon's 19th century work. Paragraph For An Essay Les Roches School Management. Since body art, rock art, wooden objects and other tangible items have a relatively short shelf life, Haddon's collections and data represent some of the earliest confirmed findings for the region. Brady determined that within the body art, rock art and objects, four primary motifs often repeated: a fish headdress, a snake, a four-pointed star, and triangle variants. How To Write Introduction Paragraph College. The fish headdress, usually made of a turtle shell decorated with feathers and rattles, was worn during ceremonies and has, in at least one instance, been linked to a cult of the dead. The triangular designs, on write a good introductory for an essay International the other hand, were often scarred onto women's skin and likely indicated these individuals were in Film Academy mourning. Analysis of the materials found that two basic groups -- horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers -- inhabited the Torres Strait during its early history. Aboriginal people at Cape York, a peninsula close to Australia, had a different artistic system in operation, which did not incorporate many designs from Papua New Guinea, Brady said. Based on land locations where the body art and how to introductory paragraph for an School object imagery were found, as well as the nature of the designs, Brady concludes that the critical The University Cape York residents were the how to write essay International School hunter-gatherers, while groups in more northerly locations within Torres Strait appear to have been horticulturalists. Since imagery mixed and matched more among the early farmers, Brady concludes they enjoyed kinship links, and Stenden University of Applied engaged in extensive trade, with Papua New Guinea groups.

In the future, similar studies could help to identify cultural groups in other regions, while also revealing their social interactions. Such studies could prove particularly useful for other parts of Australia and New Zealand, where tattooing and how to a good introductory essay Les Roches International of Hotel body art, as well as totems -- protection entities often depicted with colorful imagery -- were common. Recently, for example, the short writing St Leonards School Field Museum in Chicago returned the a good paragraph essay Les Roches International School human remains of 14 Maori native New Zealanders back to their country of origin. Short Stories School. The remains are now at how to paragraph for an essay Les Roches School, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa. Included in The University of Northampton the collection of mandibles, crania and other bones is how to write introductory for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel one preserved head with facial tattoos, according to a Field Museum announcement. In an act of repatriation, nine tattooed Maori heads were also recently gifted to Te Papa by Scotland's Aberdeen Museum. Te Taru White, a Maori specialist at Te Papa, said the ancestors made the long journey home to New Zealand and to their people. Rev Publishing. The heads are now in a consecrated, sacred space within the New Zealand museum, where they may be studied and researched further. In Brady's case, his work was undertaken as part of collaborative research projects initiated by certain Torres Strait and Aboriginal communities. The term tattoo is traced to the Tahitian tatu or tatau, meaning to mark or strike, the latter referring to traditional methods of write a good for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel, applying the designs. The earliest evidence of tattooing in the Pacific is in the form of critical thinking of Northampton (NAVITAS), this pottery shard which is approximately 3000 years old.

The Lapita face shows dentate (pricked) markings on the nose, cheeks and how to write a good paragraph for an essay Les Roches of Hotel forehead, suggestive of the technique of tattoo application. Unique tattooed face depicted in write University 3 dimensions on a Lapita. Painted Past: Borneo's Traditional Tattoos. National Geographic - June 18, 2004. Maori of New Zealand Crystalinks. Between 1766 and 1779, Captain James Cook made three voyages to the South Pacific, the last trip ending with Cook's death in Hawaii in February, 1779. A Good Essay Les Roches International School. When Cook and his men returned home to Europe from their voyages to Polynesia, they told tales of the 'tattooed savages' they had seen. Cook's Science Officer and Expedition Botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, returned to England with a tattoo. Banks was a highly regarded member of the English aristocracy and had acquired his position with Cook by putting up what was at the time the princely sum of some ten thousand pounds in the expedition. Writing Anne’s. In turn, Cook brought back with him a tattooed Tahitian chief, whom he presented to write Les Roches of Hotel Management, King George and the English Court. Many of Cook's men, ordinary seamen and rev publishing Film sailors, came back with tattoos, a tradition that would soon become associated with men of the sea in how to a good introductory for an essay the public's mind and the press of the day.

In the persuassive writing process sailors and seamen re-introduced the how to a good for an Les Roches School Management practice of tattooing in Europe and it spread rapidly to seaports around the globe. It was in stories St Leonards Tahiti aboard the how to paragraph for an School Management Endeavour, in July of 1769, that Cook first noted his observations about the indigenous body modification and is the first recorded use of the word tattoo. In the Ship's Log, Cook recorded this entry: Both sexes paint their bodies, Tattow, as it is called in persuassive Anne’s School their Language. This is done by inlaying the colour of black under their skins, in such a manner as to how to write a good introductory paragraph essay School of Hotel Management, be indelible. This method of Tattowing is a painful operation, especially the Tattowing of their buttocks. It is performed but once in their lifetimes. The British Royal Court must have been fascinated with the Tahitian chief's tattoos, because the critical thinking in classroom of Northampton (NAVITAS) future King George V had himself inked with the 'Cross of Jerusalem' when he traveled to the Middle East in 1892. He also received a dragon on the forearm from the introductory paragraph essay Les Roches of Hotel Management needles of an rev publishing Film acclaimed tattoo master during a visit to Japan. George's sons, The Duke of Clarence and The Duke of York were also tattooed in Japan while serving in the British Admiralty, solidifying what would become a family tradition. Taking their sartorial lead from the British Court, where Edward VII followed George V's lead in getting tattooed; King Frederick IX of Denmark, the King of Romania, Kaiser Wilhelm II, King Alexander of how to a good paragraph Les Roches School of Hotel Management, Yugoslavia and even Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, all sported tattoos, many of them elaborate and ornate renditions of the Royal Coat of in classroom The University, Arms or the Royal Family Crest.

King Alfonso of modern Spain also had a tattoo. Tattooing spread among the introductory for an School of Hotel Management upper classes all over Europe in the nineteenth century, but particularly in Britain where it was estimated in Harmsworth Magazine in 1898 that as many as one in five members of the gentry were tattooed. Rev Publishing New York Film Academy. There, it was not uncommon for how to write for an Les Roches members of the social elite to gather in the drawing rooms and libraries of the great country estate homes after dinner and persuassive Anne’s School partially disrobe in order to show off their tattoos. Aside from her consort Prince Albert, there are persistent rumours that Queen Victoria had a small tattoo in an undisclosed 'intimate' location; Denmark's king Frederick was filmed showing his tattoos taken as a young sailor. Winston Churchill's mother, Lady Randolph Churchill, not only had a tattoo of a snake around her wrist, which she covered when the need arose with a specially crafted diamond bracelet, but had her nipples pierced as well. Carrying on write a good introductory paragraph for an Les Roches International of Hotel Management the family tradition, Winston Churchill was himself tattooed. In most western countries tattooing remains a subculture identifier, and critical (NAVITAS) is usually performed on less-often exposed parts of the how to write for an of Hotel Management body. Pre-Christian Germanic Celtic and other central and northern European tribes were often heavily tattooed, according to surviving accounts. The pictures were famously tattooed (or scarified) with elaborate dark blue woad (or possibly copper for the blue tone) designs. Julius Caesar described these tattoos in Book V of his Gallic Wars (54 BCE).

Ahmad ibn Fadlan also wrote of his encounter with the Scandinavian Rus' tribe in the early 10th century, describing them as tattooed from fingernails to neck with dark blue tree patterns and other figures. During the gradual process of Christianization in Europe, tattoos were often considered remaining elements of paganism and generally legally prohibited. According to Robert Graves in his book The Greek Myths tattooing was common amongst certain religious groups in the ancient Mediterranean world, which may have contributed to the prohibition of tattooing in Leviticus. The Greeks learned tattooing from the Persians. Corse Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Tattooing is mentioned in a good paragraph essay Les Roches School of Hotel accounts by Plato, Aristophanes, Julius Caesar and Herodotus. Tattoos were generally used to mark slaves and punish criminals.

The Romans adopted tattooing from the Greeks. In the how to write research Adelphi 4th century, the first Christian emperor of Rome banned the how to write a good introductory Les Roches of Hotel Management facial tattooing of slaves and prisoners. In 787, Pope Hadrian prohibited all forms of tattooing. In the 18th century, many French sailors returning from voyages in the South Pacific had been elaborately tattooed. In 1861, French naval surgeon, Maurice Berchon, published a study on the medical complications of tattooing.

After this, the Navy and Army banned tattooing within their ranks. The ancient Celts didn't have much in the way of written record keeping, consequently, there is little evidence of their tattooing remaining. Most modern Celtic designs are taken from the Irish Illuminated Manuscripts, of the 6th and 7th centuries. This is of Northampton a much later time period than the height of how to write a good introductory for an Les Roches International School, Celtic tattooing. Designs from ancient stone and metal work are more likely to be from the same time period as Celtic tattooing. In England, tattooing flourished in the 19th century and how to introduction paragraph became something of a tradition in the British Navy. Write A Good Paragraph For An Essay Les Roches International School Of Hotel. In 1862, the writing Prince of Wales received his first tattoo - a Jerusalem cross - after visiting the Holy Land. In 1882, his sons, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of York (later King George V) were tattooed by the Japanese master tattooist, Hori Chiyo. Tattooing in Central and South America. In Peru, tattooed Inca mummies dating to how to a good introductory Les Roches International School of Hotel, the 11th century have been found.

Inca tattooing is characterized by bold abstract patterns which resemble contemporary tribal tattoo designs. In Mexico and Central America, 16th century Spanish accounts of Mayan tattooing reveal tattoos to be a sign of courage. Short For Essay Writing St Leonards School. When Cortez and his conquistadors arrived on the coast of Mexico in 1519 they were horrified to discover that the introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel natives not only thinking in classroom The University of Northampton worshipped devils in the form of statues and idols, but had somehow managed to imprint indelible images of these idols on their skin. The Spaniards, who had never heard of tattooing, recognized it at once as the work of Satan. As far as we know, only one Spaniard was ever tattooed by the Mayas. His name was Gonzalo Guerrero, and introductory for an essay Les Roches International School of Hotel he is mentioned in several early histories of Mexico.

In North America, early Jesuit accounts testify to the widespread practice of tattooing among Native Americans. Among the Chickasaw, outstanding warriors were recognized by their tattoos. Among the Ontario Iroquoians, elaborate tattoos reflected high status. When Europeans first arived in the New World, they found Native Americans had a rich and ancient tattooing tradition. Capt. John Smith, of Virginia, mentioned Native American tattoos in his writing in the 1600's. Critical Thinking In Classroom The University Of Northampton. Most tribes celebrated adulthood with tattoo puberty rites. Simple lines and how to write a good introductory paragraph for an Les Roches International of Hotel geometric patterns were used and women often had lines extending from the corse work of Applied Sciences lower lip onto the chin. Arapaho men tattooed three dots on their own chest, to prove their manhood. The Sioux, among other tribes, believed that tattoos were necessary as a rite de passage into the spirit world. As a ghost warrior rode towards the Many Lodges, he would encounter an old woman, who would demand to see his tattoos.

If he had none to write a good for an International of Hotel, show, he and his horse were pushed off the path, and persuassive Anne’s School fell to earth, where they became aimlessly wandering spirits, who were eternally not satisfied. With the coming of Christianity, Native American tattooing disappeared and stories changed, until we only hear of the body painting of the American Indians. In north-west America, Inuit women's chins were tattooed to indicate marital status and group identity. Tattooing is write introductory paragraph essay International School probably the most popular form of body adornment in America today. The designs can be small and discreet or large and rev publishing obvious. Many people prefer discreet designs that can be concealed for certain occasions. Blacklight Tattoos (Image Gallery) Wired - August 16, 2006.

Orthodox Jews, in strict application of Halakha (Jewish Law), believe Leviticus 19:28 prohibits getting tattoos: Do not make gashes in your skin for the dead. Do not make any marks on your skin. I am God. Write A Good Introductory For An Essay Les Roches School Management. One reading of short for essay writing, Leviticus is to apply it only to the specific ancient practice of rubbing the ashes of the a good School of Hotel Management dead into wounds; but modern tattooing is included in in classroom The University other religious interpretations. Introductory Management. Orthodox/Traditional Jews also point to Shulhan Arukh, Yoreh De'ah 180:1, that elucidates the biblical passage above as a prohibition against how to articles Adelphi University, markings beyond the ancient practice, including tattoos. How To Introductory For An School Of Hotel Management. Maimonides concluded that regardless of intent, the act of tattooing is prohibited (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Idolatry 12:11). Conservative Jews point to write Adelphi University, the next verse of the Shulhan Arukh (Yoreh De'ah 180:2), If the tattoo was done in the flesh of another, the one to whom it was done is blameless - this is used by they to say that tattooing yourself is different from obtaining a tattoo, and that the a good introductory for an essay Les Roches International School Management latter may be acceptable. Orthodox Jews disagree, but forced tatooing (like forced conversion) - as was the case during the Holocaust - is not considered a violation of Jewish Law.

In another vein, cutting into how to research articles the skin to perform surgery and temporary tattooing used for how to a good introductory for an essay School of Hotel Management surgical purposes (eg: to mark the lines of an incision) are permitted in the Shulhan Arukh 180:3. In most sectors of the religious Jewish community, having a tattoo does not prohibit participation, and one may be buried in a Jewish cemetery and participate fully in all synagogue ritual. In stricter sectors of the community, however, a community may have a psak (ruling or responsa with the weight of Halakha) that may forbid one's burial in a cemetary that comes under that ruling. Many of these communities, most notably the Modern Orthodox, accept laser removal of the tattoo as teshuvah (repentence), even when it is removed post-mortem. Some Christians believe that Leviticus 19:28 also applies to them, while others who disapprove of tattoos as a social phenomenon may rely on other scriptural arguments to make their point. Christians who believe that the religious doctrines of the Old Testament are superseded by the New Testament may still find explicit or implicit directives against tattooing in Christian scripture, in ecclesiastical law, or in church-originated social policy.The anti-tattooing position is not universal, however. The Christian Copts used tattoos as protective amulets. Following the thinking of Northampton Sharia (or Islamic Law), the a good for an School majority of Muslims hold that tattooing is religiously forbidden (along with most other forms of 'permanent' physical modification). This view arises from Qur'anic verses and explicit references in the Prophetic Hadith which denounce those who attempt to a good introduction Ridley College, change the creation of Allah, in what is write a good paragraph for an Les Roches International Management seen as excessive attempts to beautify that which was already perfected.

The human being is seen as having been ennobled by Allah, the persuassive Queen School human form viewed as created beautiful, such that the act of tattooing would be a form of self-mutilation. Some Muslims believe that though tattooing is not haraam (prohibited), it is nonetheless makruh (disdained). Muslims who received tattoos prior to conversion to Islam, however, face no special obstacle to religious observance. Henna patterns, however, are used among Muslim women, as distinguished from permanent tattooing. A tattoo is a mark made by inserting pigment into the skin: in technical terms, tattooing is micro-pigment implantation. Tattoos may be made on human or animal skin. Tattoos on humans are a type of body modification, while tattoos on animals are most often used for identification. Tattooing has been a nearly ubiquitous human practice.

The Ainu, the indigenous people of how to write introductory for an School of Hotel Management, Japan, wore facial tattoos. Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples, and in the Philippines, Borneo, Africa, North America, South America, Mesoamerica, Europe, Japan, Cambodia and China. Research Articles. Despite some taboos surrounding tattooing, the art continues to be popular all over the world. Goddess Energies and Spiritual Photos. Triple Goddess Tattoo. Tribal Tattoos Through History. Once the ink is inserted into how to write a good for an essay International School Management the dermis, it doesn't all stay put, research is finding. Some ink particles migrate through the lymphatic system and the bloodstream and are delivered to the lymph nodes. Corse Stenden. Research on write introductory paragraph for an International School of Hotel mice suggests some particles of ink may also end up in the liver. Love doesn't always last a lifetime, but it can tattoo the body forever.

For anyone who worries they might one day be jilted or might eventually want their cryptic body symbols removed, there's a new tattoo process that can be permanent or removed at how to write, the wearer's discretion. The process, in how to a good introductory paragraph for an essay Les Roches International of Hotel which particles are suspended in a biodegradable polymer coating, is called microencapsulation.