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Critical thinking religion Louisiana State University

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Religion vs Critical Thinking

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Critical thinking religion Louisiana State University

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apostle paul resume THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS. 1. Louisiana University! Who wrote the Letter to writing service Florida International the Romans? 1.1. What does Rom 1:1 indicate about the critical thinking religion State University author of the Letter to the Romans? It indicates that the author of the Letter to how to Istituto Paris the Romans was Paul. 1.2. Unlike his other letters, Paul includes a lengthy introduction of religion Louisiana State, himself as an apostle. Writing Service Florida University! After the University typical identification of himself as Paul. Opinion University Of Gloucestershire! called to be an apostle (1:1), he sets forth in nuce the contents of the gospel that he is called to proclaim (1:2-4). He then adds that it was through Christ that we received grace and apostleship for the purpose of the obedience of critical religion Louisiana State, faith among all the gentiles. (The use of the first person plural [we] no doubt refers to Paul and his associates.) By the phrase grace and apostleship, Paul probably means the grace of apostleship, so that he understands his call to be an apostle as a bestowal of grace, insofar as it is an interesting persuasive Lancing undeserved privilege.

He says that his particular call as an apostle is to the gentiles, and his ultimate goal in critical Louisiana State, relation to them is their obedience of faith. This phrase may mean faith's obedience, the implication being that obedience belongs to faith as its natural and expected possession or correlation, or it may mean the obedience originating in faith, so that obedience is inseparably tied to write opinion University faith as its basis and faith inevitably produces obedience. As will become evident, most likely, Paul goes into such detail about his understanding of his apostleship because his intended readers are not personally acquainted with him. 1.3. According to Rom 16:22, who was Paul's amanuensis for the Letter to the Romans? Teritus identifies himself as the one who wrote the Letter to the Romans. The identity of critical thinking religion University, this Tertius is otherwise unknown, for this is the only time his name occurs in the New Testament. His exact contribution to guidelines an argumentative F. Kennedy International the letter is critical religion University also unknown. It is possible that Paul dictated the how to write Istituto Paris entire letter to him, but it also possible that Tertius had a more creative role in its composition. Tertius wrote a personal greeting to thinking State the readers, so that presumably he knew some of them at least.

1.4. Since Paul indicates that she is traveling to Rome and University (INTO) he provides her with an introduction in the Letter to thinking State University the Romans (Rom 16:1-2), it is possible that Phoebe carried the letter to its intended destination. 2. To whom was the Letter to the Romans written? 2.1 What does Rom 1:7 indicate about the intended readers of the Letter to the Romans? It indicates that the intended readers of the writing analysis essay Institut Montana Zugerberg Letter to the Romans were all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints.

In other words, they were the members of the church in State, Rome. 2.2. What Paul says in article service Florida International University, Rom 1:13 Many times I have wanted to come to you but was prevented implies that he has never been to Rome as an apostle at least. (The first time that Paul went to Rome as an apostle was as a prisoner.) If he has not been to Rome at the time of thinking religion Louisiana University, writing of his letter, Paul obviously could not have founded the church in Rome. This means that the church in Rome has come into existence independently of his apostolic work, so that he is not its founder. In later tradition, Peter is write (INTO) associated with the Roman church, but there is no evidence that Peter founded the church. How the Roman church began is a historical mystery. What evidence does exist, however, suggests that it did not have an apostolic founder. 2.2.1. What might Paul's statement of his apostolic policy in thinking State University, Rom 15:20 and how to Marangoni 2 Cor 10:15-16 imply about the origin of the Roman church? Paul states in critical religion, Rom 15:20 that he does not desire to persuasive essays Lancing build on another foundation in his evangelism, by which he means that he does not desire to continue the thinking religion work of another apostle. Similarly, in academic Ruskin (Navitas), 2 Cor 10:15-16, Paul criticizes the false apostles, who infiltrated the church at Corinth after his departure, for infringing on his area of apostolic jurisdiction.

He says that he and his associates have a policy of never doing evangelistic work in areas where another apostle has preceded them; rather they go only to unevangelized regions. Louisiana University! Paul's apostolic policy may imply that the Roman church had no such apostolic foundation, or else Paul would not be seeking to go to Rome to minister there, for this would be a violation of that policy (Rom 1:11-12; see 15:22-23). It is possible that Paul sees the church in Rome as needing an apostolic foundation. 2.2.2. That the church in Rome had no apostolic foundation is Ruskin (Navitas) implied by critical thinking religion Louisiana the fact that Paul says nothing in article writing International University, his Letter to the Romans about the thinking religion State University founder of the church. It would be expected that he would say something if the church had a founder. Writing Essay Institut Montana! Rather, what Paul says in Louisiana State, Rom 1:6, 14-15 implies that he sees the church in Rome as following under his apostolic jurisdiction insofar as he is the apostle to the gentiles. 2.2.3. What relevance may the fact that there were Jews and proselytes from Rome present on interesting essays, the Day of Pentecost have in explaining the origin of the thinking State Roman church (Acts 2:10)? Acts 2:10 mentions that there were Romans (Jews from Rome or Roman proselytes) present at Pentecost.

It is possible that these were only visiting Jerusalem for the festival Pentecost (Shavuot) and then returned to Rome where they founded the church. Article Ruskin (Navitas)! 2.3. There was a sizable population of Jews living in Rome in the first century. A little more than a century earlier, Pompey took many Jewish prisoners to Rome and resettled them there (Josephus, Ant. 14.74-79; War 1.153-58; Appian, Syr . 51; Mithr . 117; see Philo, Leg. ad. Gaium 152-61); no doubt, many of critical thinking religion State University, their descendants formed the nucleus of the Jewish population of the city in Paul's day. Not surprisingly, there were several synagogues in Rome. Cicero indicates that by the middle of the first century BCE, there were many Jews ( multitudo Iudaeorum ) in Rome, some of whom were citizens and elected to the popular assemblies ( Pro Flacc . 28/66-69); Cicero himself saw the great number of Jews in writing a film essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, Rome as a potential threat to Roman interests. (In that speech, he refers to critical thinking University the Jews' barbarian superstition [ barbara superstitio ].) Suetonius comments that Jews in Rome were over-represented among the foreign inhabitants of the city as those who mourned over Julius Caesar's funeral pyre ( Iulii vita 84). In the year 4, more than 8,000 Jews in article Florida, Rome joined a delegation of fifty from Jerusalem sent to oppose the installation of Archaleus, Herod's son ( Ant . 17.299-303); later, the emperor Tiberius drafted some 4,000 Jews from religion Louisiana State, Rome into military service ( Ant . 18.81-84). These two large numbers indicate that the Jewish population of Rome must have been significant. Dio Cassius explains that Jews in Rome, in Ruskin University (Navitas), spite of official actions taken against them, were able to gain enough influence among the ruling class as to thinking find protection for for writing an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy International their religious beliefs and practices (37.17).

He also reports that Claudius in Louisiana State, 41, noticing that their number had grown to a dangerous level, did not expel them the Jews, but did forbid them from meeting together (Dio Cassius, 60.6.6). Philo claims that in the time of Augustus that Jews is for writing an argumentative John International Rome were so numerous that they inhabited the great section of Rome accross the Tiber ( Leg. ad. Gaium 155-56). From funerary inscriptions found in thinking State University, the catacombs of Rome, it is a film essay clear that Jews in the city were divided into Louisiana State University, thirteen synagogues, by which is meant thirteen groups or congregations; each of these was governed by a council of elders ( gerousia ), the leader of which was called the ruler of the council of elders ( gerousiarchês ) ( CII l.lvi-ci). It seems that some of the many Jews in Rome came to believe in academic, Jesus as the Louisiana State University Christ. Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! There is indirect evidence of critical Louisiana University, this from Suetonius, the Roman historian. He records that the emperor Claudius (41-54) expelled all Jews from Rome.

According to write Istituto Marangoni the fifth-century Christian historian Orosius, who quotes from critical thinking State, Suetonius' text, the expulsion took place in Claudius' ninth regnal year (Jan. 25, 49 to Jan 24, 50) ( Hist. adv. pag . Interesting Persuasive Lancing! 7.6.15-16). Critical Religion Louisiana State University! (Orosius claims Josephus as his source, but Josephus nowhere mentions the expulsion.) What is interesting is the reason that Suetonius provides for this extreme official action. He writes, He expelled the Jews at Rome because they caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus ( impulsore Chresto ) ( Claudius , 25.4). (This expulsion of the Jews from Rome is persuasive College referred to in Acts 18:1-3.) It is probable that by Chrestus is meant Christus, so that what Suetonius describes is a very public dispute among the Jews in Rome over whether Jesus was the Christ. (Chrêstos was a common Greek name used of slaves and freedmen in the Roman world; it seems that Suetonius thought that this Chrestus was alive and living in Rome [Tertullian, Apol . 3.5; Ad. nat . State University! 1.3; Lactantius, Inst . 4.7.5].) If so, then this incident in the reign of for writing an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy School, Claudius implies that there were Jewish Christians in Rome as early as the mid-40's, since it would take some time for the dispute to escalate to the point where it was necessary for Claudius to expel the Jews from the city. State! (It is arguable that Claudius did not expel every Jew from Rome; rather, it may only interesting College have been those Jews directly involved in University, the dispute over Christ, which would have included many believing Jews.) Moreover, the fact that this religious dispute among the how to Istituto Jews must have been considerable in order for Claudius to critical religion Louisiana take notice of it and take such a drastic action as expelling all Jews from guidelines for writing an argumentative F. Kennedy International School, Rome implies that there must have a significant number of Jews who believed that Jesus was the Christ in Rome at that time. (See Acts 13:50; 14:19; 17:5 for other examples of Jewish resistance to State University the good news spilling over into the pubic domain). Guidelines For Writing An Argumentative F. Kennedy International! 2.4. From what Paul says in various places in his letter, it is clear from the Letter to the Romans that the church at Rome was composed of both Jews and gentiles; many of the gentile converts may have had a previous association with one the many Jewish synagogues in Rome. In Rom 9-11, Paul instructs the thinking religion gentiles not to become arrogant towards the writing a film analysis essay Zugerberg Jews because of their acceptance by religion Louisiana State University God and the temporary rejection of Israel; Paul's intention is to promote good relations between Jewish and gentile believers by discouraging undue conceit (see Rom 11:13: I am talking to you gentiles). Similarly, in article writing, Rom 14, in the matter of thinking religion University, eating ritually unclean meat, he warns the strong, which includes all gentile believers, though not exclusively, not to despise the weak, which includes some Jews. He then exhorts both groups in Rom 15:7 to accept one another, and guidelines for writing an argumentative essay John International explains that Christ became a servant of the State University circumcised in order that gentiles may glorify God because of his mercy (Rom 15:8-9). The realization of this truth will serve to write opinion University of Gloucestershire unify Jews and gentiles.

Furthermore, of those in the list to whom Paul sends greetings in religion University, Rom 16, Aquila is academic writing article Ruskin University (Navitas) a Jew (Acts 18:2), as well as Andronicus, Junias and Herodion, whom Paul calls his kinsmen ( suggeneis ). In addition, the Maria mentioned in 16:6 is probably a Jew since her name is Jewish. The rest of the people listed, however, are probably gentiles. (Nevertheless, others in the list could also be Jews, because Jews often had Greek and Roman names.) Doubtless, the first believers in Rome were Jews, who somehow heard the gospel and thinking University believed; later gentiles believed and were assimilated into writing Florida International University, the church at Rome in great numbers. What needs to be determined in order to understand Paul's purpose in writing is whether, at thinking University, the time that he writes his letter, the church in Rome had a majority of Jews or gentiles. The expulsion of all Jews from Rome by Claudius, including Jewish Christians, certainly would have had a negative impact on the relative number of Jews relative to gentiles in the Roman church, but his death in 54 probably resulted in writing a film analysis essay Montana, the rescinding of this edict, so that Roman Jews were free to return to the city. (Priscilla and Aquila, it seems, took advantage of this change of policy towards Jews and returned to Rome [see Rom 16:3].) What can be inferred about the composition of the church in Rome from the following passages? In Rom 1:5-6, Paul classifies his readers as gentiles, insofar as he says that his task as an thinking apostle is to call gentiles to the obedience of faith among whom also his Roman readers are included. Paul could only say such a thing if the majority of the church in Rome was composed of gentiles.

Paul states his purpose in wanting to come to Rome as follows: In order that I might have a harvest among you, just as I have also had among other gentiles. The inclusion of the word other as a modifier of gentiles implies that his readers are also gentiles, and academic writing Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Paul could only write this if the majority of church at Rome consisted of gentiles. Paul says about his readers that, You used to offer your members in slavery to impurity and ever-increasing lawlessness. This description of his readers seems to imply that they have come from a pagan background, because it would be inappropriate to refer to most Jews as being in critical religion State University, slavery to impurity and ever-increasing lawlessness. This is writing article Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) not how one would describe the life of a Jew living under the Law. This sounds more like the debachery characteristic of many gentiles. Thinking Religion Louisiana! The implication is that the preponderance of the members of the church at write opinion essay University, Rome was gentile. 2.4.4. Rom 9:3-4; 10:1-2; 11:28, 31. In each of these passages, Paul seems to be speaking to critical religion State gentile believers about his own people, the Jews. Writing Service Florida International University! In Rom 9:3-4, he says that he wishes himself accursed on behalf of my brothers.

He could only say such a thing to gentiles, because, if he were speaking to critical thinking religion Louisiana Jews, he would say something like our brothers or our people. Likewise, in Rom 10:1-2, Paul seems to distinguish his readers, whom he calls brothers, from the Israelites, for whom he prays; the implication is service Florida International that the readers are not included in this latter group. Finally, Paul makes a distinction between his readers and Israel, who are the enemies of the readers with respect to the gospel, but are still beloved by God on account of the patriarchs (Rom 11:28). It seems that Paul would not speak to Jews about unbelieving Jews in this way. Along the critical University same lines, he distinguishes his readers, who have benefited from Israel's temporary hardening, from Israel (Rom 11:31).

2.4.5. Taking all the evidence into consideration, what do you conclude about the writing Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) ethnic composition of the church in Rome? The church in Rome was a mixed congregation of Jews and gentiles, but with a good majority being gentiles. 2.5. It may seem strange that Paul used Greek to write a letter to the Roman church, since its membership no doubt consisted of Latin-speaking gentiles and Jews. Critical Religion Louisiana University! This is evidence, however, of write, how widespread Greek was as the thinking religion State lingua franca of the Mediterranean world (see Cicero, Pro Archia 23; Juvenal, Satire 3.60-65). 3. When was the Letter to the Romans written? 3.1. It is possible to assign a relative date to the Letter to the Romans from data available from the letter itself. Guidelines For Writing An Argumentative John International School! There are clues in the letter concerning when, relative to his apostolic career, Paul wrote his letter. 3.1.1.

Rom 15:19, 23-24. Thinking Louisiana State! In Rom 15:19, Paul says that he has preached the gospel from Jerusalem to Illyricum, a Roman province northwest of Macedonia. Since we have no record of his going to Illyricum, Paul could be referring to the regions in Macedonia inhabited by people of the Illyricum race. In any case, Paul must be writing during the second or third missionary journey, not the first, since he did not visit Macedonia during his first missionary journey. What Paul writes in Rom 15:23-24, however, allows one to delimit further the date of the composition of the letter. Paul says that it is his intention soon to go to Spain because he sees his evangelistic work in the eastern Mediterranean as complete: Now there is no more place for an argumentative John me to work in these regions, and critical thinking religion Louisiana University since I have been desirous for many years of coming to you, I plan to come when I go to Spain.

The fact that Paul plans to move his base of operation from guidelines an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy School, Antioch to the west, presumably Rome, implies that he is writing after or near the end of his third missionary journey, because he apparently did not consider shifting his evangelistic focus to the western Mediterranean any sooner than that. Paul must also have written before his arrest in Jerusalem and subsequent imprisonment, which compelled Paul to change his plans about going to Spain immediately after his visit to critical thinking Louisiana University Jerusalem to deliver the gift of money collected from the churches that he founded. 3.1.2. Rom 15:25-26 (1 Cor 16:1-4; 2 Cor 8-9) The relative date of Paul's composition of Florida, his Letter to the Romans can be further narrowed down based on what Paul writes about his collection project. He writes that he is on his way to Jerusalem with a collection for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem from the churches in Macedonia and Achaia (Rom 15:26). The collection that Paul describes in State University, his letter as having been completed, but not yet delivered, is interesting essays College probably the same one described as not yet completed in 1 Cor 16:1-4 and 2 Cor 8-9. If so, then the church in Corinth must be included among the churches from Macedonia and Achaia. It should also be noted that in 1 Cor 16:3-4, Paul has not yet decided to accompany those chosen from the Corinthian church to transport the money collected to Jerusalem (and if it is fitting for me to go also, they will go with me). By contrast, in Rom 15:25 he says that he plans to lead the thinking Louisiana State University delegation that goes to Jerusalem with the money. What is implied about article writing Florida International, when Paul wrote his letter based on what he says about the collection project in Rom 15:25-26 and his planned visit to Jerusalem to deliver the thinking money? Whereas in 1 Cor 16:2-4 Paul has not yet decided whether he will go to how to essay Paris Jerusalem with those chosen from the Corinthian church, in thinking religion Louisiana State, Rom 16:25 he has determined to go.

This implies that the letter was written after 1 Corinthians. In addition, since the collection is described as having been completed, Paul could not be writing to the Romans before his third visit to Corinth, for otherwise he would still be lacking the contribution of the church in Corinth. So the earliest that Paul could have written the Letter to International University the Romans is at the time of his third visit to Corinth. Moreover, Paul implies in Rom 15:25-26 that, although it is imminent, his journey to Jerusalem is not yet underway. So it follows that Paul wrote the Letter to the Romans just before his departure for Jerusalem, but after the completion of his collection project.

3.2. From all the above data and a knowledge of Pauline chronology, assign an absolute date or a range of dates for the composition of the Letter to critical State the Romans. (Remember that the dating the letter must fall between the two known dates proximate to this event: the founding of the church at Corinth between 50 and 52 and Paul's arrest in Jerusalem between 55 and 58 .) Paul wrote the persuasive essays Lancing Letter to the Romans at the end of his third missionary journey after he had visited Corinth for the third time but before setting out for Jerusalem to deliver the money collected from his churches. This period time in Paul's career as an apostle can be dated to between 54 and 58. 3.3.

Paul wrote his letter during what is known as the five-year period of Nero ( Neronis quinquennium ), the thinking religion State first five years of Nero's reign as emperor, between 54 and 59 (Aurelius, Caesares 5, epit. 12). This period in how to an empathy essay Istituto, Roman history was considered the critical religion State University best period of the Roman Empire since the time of Augustus, unlike the persuasive Lancing College latter part of Nero's reign (when the church was persecuted). This may explain why Paul makes no reference to any problems between the Roman believers and the civil authorities. If fact, he enthusiastically recommends that they submit themselves fully to every ruling authority (13:1). 4. Where was the Letter to the Romans written? 4.1. From Acts 20:1-6, 1 Cor 16:6; Rom 16:1 determine the likely place of the composition of the critical thinking Louisiana State Letter to writing service Florida University the Romans. (Acts 20:1-6 describes events during the last part of Paul's third missionary journey, after he left Ephesus.) It seems that Paul was in Achaia when he wrote the Letter to the Romans, since Luke implies that, having travelled through Macedonia, Paul spent three months in Achaia. More specically, Paul probably it in Corinth, since he told the Corinthians earier that he hoped to spend the winter with them (1 Cor 16:6). The reference to Phoebe from Cenchraea also suggests that Paul was in Corinth, for Cenchraea was the eastern port of Corinth (Rom 16:1).

4.2. That Paul was in Corinth when he wrote his Letter to the Romans is confirmed by two of the people from whom he sends greeting to the church in Rome. In Rom 16:23, Paul sends a greeting from Gaius, identified as the one who shows hospitality to critical thinking religion me and the whole church. An Empathy Marangoni! This Gaius is no doubt the same man mentioned in 1 Cor 1:14, whom Paul baptized on his first visit to Corinth. In addition, Paul sends a greeting from Erastus, identified as the critical thinking religion Louisiana University director of public works ( oikonomos ) of the city. He is connected to Corinth in 2 Tim 4:20: Erastus remained at Corinth.

This man may be the same Erastus of the so-called Erastus inscription found at writing Anglia (Navitas), Corinth. 4.3. Paul was not alone in Corinth when he wrote his letter, but was in the company of Timothy, Lucius, Jason and Sosipater (Sopater), not to mention his amanuensis, Tertius, who sent their greetings to the Romans (Rom 16:21-22; see Acts 20:4; 17:6). 5. What is the religion Louisiana Letter to the Romans? 5.1. The Letter to the Romans more than any of Paul's other letters was intended as a compendium of Paul's teaching; although he does not touch upon every possible topic, it seems that Paul attempts to set out his understanding of Jesus' death and resurrection and the implications of these. In so doing, he dealt with topics such as the nature of sin (Jew and Gentile), the means of being made righteous, the essay University of Gloucestershire Law, election, and eschatology. 5.2. Outline of the Letter to the Romans. This represents the introduction of the letter.

This is the salutation of the letter. Paul offers a thanksgiving to God on behalf of the Roman Christians, and tells them that he wants to visit them in order to impart some spiritual gift. Paul also takes the opportunity to thinking State University comment on the nature of the gospel and his role as a preacher of the gospel. Persuasive Essays! This represents the main body of the letter. In this section, Paul establishes the universal need of critical Louisiana, a means of being made righteous apart from the Law, by grace through faith. Paul says that gentiles know God from what God has made, but have suppressed the truth in unrighteousness, having chosen to be unrighteous. Paul speaks in general terms about the coming judgment of an argumentative essay F. Kennedy International, all human beings on the basis of works. Thinking Louisiana! Jews will be judged by the Law, whereas Gentiles will be judged by the law written on the heart. For Writing Essay F. Kennedy International! Paul concedes that the Jews have been privileged by being given the Law, but says that Jews who break the law will be condemned along with Gentiles.

The true Jew is the one circumcised of heart, not of the thinking religion flesh. Essay Of Gloucestershire! Paul rebuts the charge that he advocates sin, since supposedly the more sin there is when God judges, the more glory God receives. State! Paul concludes by saying that both Jew and Gentile stand condemned before God. In so doing he cites a catena of Old Testament texts to article service International prove his point. In this section, Paul explains the thinking Louisiana State University nature of guidelines for writing an argumentative essay John, God's saving work and critical University humanity's appropriation of it. Write Essay! Paul says that God has provided a means of being righteous that comes apart from the law, the sacrificial death of critical thinking Louisiana State, Jesus, which is appropriated by opinion (INTO) faith.

Thus, there are no grounds for boasting in works. Critical Thinking Religion Louisiana State University! Paul proves that being made righteous is by grace through faith by citing the example of Abraham, who believed, was pronounced righteous because of his faith and only then was given the command to circumcise. Interesting Persuasive Essays Lancing! Abraham is intended to serve as a paradigm for believers. Paul explains that the result of the sacrificial death of Christ is peace with God and salvation from the coming wrath. Paul contrasts Adam and Christ as two representatives of humanity: whereas sin and death entered the religion Louisiana State University world through Adam resulting in condemnation of all human beings, justification, the gift of God's grace, came through the how to write Paris second Adam, Christ, and passes to all who believe. Thinking Louisiana! In this section, Paul writes about the new life in Christ, the implications of being made righteous by grace for opinion living. In answering to the charge that his teaching on being made righteous by grace will encourage believers to sin, Paul explains that those who are baptized into Jesus Christ, into his death, have died to sin.

Believers are no longer slaves to sin, but now slaves to righteousness. Paul draws the conclusion that the believer is released from the Law, having died to thinking Louisiana State it. To this end, he uses the analogy of marriage: in the same way that a woman is legally free from her marriage vow when her husband dies, so the believer is free from the Law, having died to it. The believer is free now to serve God in the new way by the Spirit and not in the old way of the letter. Write An Empathy Istituto Marangoni Paris! Paul discusses the nature of Israel's life under the Law. The person under the thinking religion Louisiana State law agrees that the write University Law is good and thinking religion State is intended to bring life, but has no power to do what the Law requires. Deliverance from this comes through Jesus Christ. Paul explains that those in the Spirit do not live according to the flesh, the sinful nature. For Writing F. Kennedy! The Spirit and the flesh are two mutually exclusive modes of being. In this section, Paul discusses the place of Israel in the working out of God's plan of salvation. Paul takes up the problem and Israel's unbelief and consequent rejection.

He explains that not all Israel is true Israel and that true Israel has not been rejected at all. Louisiana! He also affirms God's prerogative to choose or reject whomever he will. Paul says that the cause of Israel's rejection was its lack of recognition of the possibility of righteousness that comes apart from the Law. They stumbled over the stone of stumbling. Interpreting Deut 30:12-13, Paul says that the righteousness by write an empathy Istituto faith is available to all who will believe the critical thinking religion Christian proclamation. Israel, however, has refused to believe. Paul says that God has engrafted believing Gentiles into the remnant of believing Jews. He warns his Gentiles readers not to become arrogant about essay University, this, because God can just as easily remove the engrafted branches. Paul says that the critical Louisiana State rejection of Israel is only temporary, and holds out the promise of future restoration for the nation, citing Isa 59:20-21 and Isa 27:9 as scriptural proof of this. Based on a film analysis Institut, what he has said previously, Paul exhorts his readers morally, drawing out thinking Louisiana State practical implications.

Paul gives miscellaneous exhortations, including to present bodies as living sacrifices and to make use of spiritual gifts. Paul explains that it is the believer’s duty to submit to write an empathy Istituto Paris all civil authorities, for God has established these. Paul deals with the problem of the conflict between Jews and Gentiles in critical thinking University, the Roman church over the observance and food laws and the festival calendar. Paul advocates that the strong act out of love and not pressure the weak to sin by write an empathy Marangoni acting in unbelief. University! He warns that all believers must stand before the judgment seat of God. Paul discusses his present situation and article service his future plans. He hopes to come to Rome and from there go to Spain in order to preach the gospel.

This represents the conclusion of the letter. Paul commends Phoebe to the church, sends greetings, warns them against critical religion Louisiana State, certain false teachers and concludes with a doxology. 5.3. Some scholars hold that Rom 16 is not original to the letter, which they claim ended at Rom 15:33. The evidence marshalled for this position, however, is not conclusive.

5.3.1. The doxology found in Rom 16:25-27 is article writing service International University suspected of not being original to critical religion State Paul's Letter to the Romans. Not only article writing Florida University does it appear in thinking Louisiana State, different positions in different manuscripts, but it is non-Pauline in writing Anglia University, its vocabulary and style. Yet it is quite possible that Paul appended a doxology to his letter and that in the transmission of the religion State text of the Letter to the Romans it was displaced from its original position. 5.3.2. Many scholars hold that Rom 16:1-23, which for the most part is a list of greeting sent to and greeting sent from, is not original to the Letter to the Romans, but is a detached note originally sent to the church at Ephesus that later came to be appended to the wrong letter.

A. It is pointed out that, if Paul has not visited the Roman church at the time of the composition of the essay University (INTO) Letter to the Romans, he should not have known so many of the Roman believers, those to whom he sends greeting in Rom 16. Until Rom 16, Paul betrays no personal, firsthand knowledge of the Romans, except perhaps for the issue over eating ritually unclean meat (Rom 14-15), but is writing as a stranger to strangers. But for Paul to religion know so many of his readers would make sense if Rom 16 were actually the write opinion essay University of Gloucestershire ending of a lost letter to critical thinking the Ephesians, because, at the time of writing, Paul had twice visited Ephesus, spending three years in the city during his second sojourn there. Yet it is possible that Paul knew individual members of the Roman church, having met them on their travels outside of Italy; this is certainly the case with Priscilla (Prisca) and how to write essay Istituto Marangoni Paris Aquila. B. Thinking Louisiana State University! Paul sends greetings to Priscilla (Prisca) and Aquila (Rom 16:3), and refers to the church that meets in their house (Rom 16:5). Paul lived and worked with this couple while in Ephesus (Acts 18:3; 1 Cor 16:19). There is article International University such a short interval of time between Paul's departure from Ephesus, at which time, it seems, Priscilla and Aquila are still in the city (1 Cor 16:19), and his sending of his Letter to the Romans that its seems improbable that Priscilla and Aquila could have left Ephesus, gone to Rome and have a church meeting in their house in the city, as they had in Ephesus. But if Rom 16 is from a lost letter to the Ephesians then there is no problem. It is religion State University not impossible, however, that, after their exile in Ephesus, Priscilla and essay Aquila did, in religion Louisiana, fact, return to essay of Gloucestershire Rome, where they resumed their lives. Louisiana University! C. Paul sends a greeting to a certain Epaenetus, who is how to write Istituto Paris said to be the first convert in Asia (16:5). This could be taken to mean that Epaenetus was in the Roman province of Asia, where Ephesus was situated.

Yet Paul could easily have identified Epaenetus as the first convert in Asia for the benefit of the Roman believers among whom Epaenetus now lived. D. Paul includes a commendation of thinking Louisiana State, Phoebe in Rom 16:1-2. It seems more probable that he would send such a commendation to a church that he knew and over which he exercised authority, such as the church at Ephesus, rather than the academic Anglia University (Navitas) Roman church, with which Paul had no contact and with which he had little influence at the time of writing. Nevertheless, Paul could have used whatever influence he did have among the critical University Roman believers as the apostle to the gentiles for the benefit of Phoebe, as opposed to saying nothing on her behalf. E. The warning included in Rom 16:17-19 seems out of place in light of the rest of the letter, because Paul has said nothing of the potential danger of academic writing article (Navitas), false teachers previously. Until Rom 16:17-19, the religion State only potential source of disunity concerns the issue of eating meat that may have been sacrificed to idols (Rom 14-15). Yet such a warning would fit an Ephesian destination for the letter, because false teachers were lurking in the shadows there (see 1 Cor 16:8-9; Acts 20:29-30; Rev 2:2-3). There is no reason, however, that Paul could not have included a general warning against false teachers at the end of the letter, as a precautionary measure. F. Rom 15 ends with what could be construed as a concluding benediction: May the God of peace be with you all, Amen. This suggests that Rom 16 may have been later appended to an already-completed letter.

If so, however, Rom 15:23 would be an untypical ending of a Pauline letter, for persuasive essays Lancing Paul usually includes a longer conclusion to his letters. Critical Religion Louisiana University! 6. Why was the Letter to the Romans written? In Rom 15:15-16, he makes his only explicit statement about why he wrote his letter: But I have written very boldly to you on essay of Gloucestershire, some points so as to remind you of them again, because of the grace that was given me from God, to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, in order that my offering of the gentiles may become acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. This statement is, however, somewhat vague; all that one can conclude is that Paul's general purpose in writing was to instruct the Roman believers on some points of doctrine that he thought that they already knew. He did so presumably because he believed that he had a responsibility for the church in critical religion Louisiana State, Rome since it was predominantly gentile and he was the apostle to the gentiles.

I t is probably impossible to know with certainty the particular reasons that Paul wrote his letter to the church in writing Institut Montana Zugerberg, Rome, a church that he did not establish. There are, however, a few clues in the letter itself. What may the following passages indicate about Paul's purposes in writing his Letter to the Romans? Paul writes to inform the Roman church of his desire to come to Rome in order to impart some spiritual gift to the Romans to strengthen them (1:11). It is not clear exactly what Paul means by critical religion State University this, but he could be referring to the imparting of the spiritual gifts listed in Rom 12:6-8 (see 1 Cor 12:8-10) by the laying on of hands or some other means.

He also tells them he plans to come to the city in order to preach the good news to gentiles there. Perhaps, he hopes for their cooperation. Paul intends to go to write essay University Spain, after having traveled to critical religion Louisiana University Rome. It seems that he wants the Florida International Romans to assist him in his missionary ventures into Spain. It appears that the letter is written to critical thinking State University present to the Roman Christians Paul's theological views, in order that they may give him their approval and their financial support. He is especially concerned to state his views on topics on which he has been misunderstood, which may explain why he says little on topics such as the church, the Lord's supper and eschatology. This makes sense, if the Roman church is not one of Paul's churches, and have no obligation to how to him.

The phrase in Rom 15:24 “to send on one’s way” ( propemphthênai ) is thinking religion Louisiana State a euphemism for the supplying the needs of the traveler, such as transportation, money, food, letters of introduction, and traveling companions (see Acts 20:38; 21:5; 3 John 6). 6.3. Rom 1:16; 3:8, 31; 6:1, 15; 7:7, 13; 9:1-4. In each of the these passages, Paul seems to be taking up actual accusations leveled against him by for writing an argumentative essay International his Judaizing opponents and refuting them. The fact that he says that he is critical thinking religion Louisiana State not ashamed of the good news may imply that his opponents think that he should be ashamed of his version of it (1:16). In particular, his opponents have been saying that Paul's views on the Law and opinion essay (INTO) its relation to being made righteous leads to all sorts of ridiculous theological views and undesirable behavior. They make a caricature of Paul's theology by saying that Paul ought to teach Let us do evil in order that good may result (Rom 3:8). This seems to be a parody of Paul's view of universal sinfulness, because his opponents seem to be claiming that Paul is logically committed to the ridiculous view that sin is Louisiana State actually good because the more that a person sins the more that God is gloried because of his truthfulness, that is, because he judges sin (Rom 3:7).

Paul's opponents also say that he nullifies the Law in the sense of declaring it to be void and useless (Rom 3:31) and even that the Law is sin because of Lancing, Paul's teaching about the role that the critical thinking religion State University Law assumes in bring sin to actuality (Rom 7:7, 13). Similarly, they also accuse him of promoting sin because the believer has no obligation to obey the Law as a condition of being declared eschatologically righteous (Rom 6:1, 15). A Film! Perhaps also Paul's Judaizing opponents are saying that Paul does not care about his own people and teaches that God has completely abandoned the Jews in favor of the gentiles, contrary to the promises made to Israel in scripture. In response, Paul explains his view of the temporary hardening of Israel. It is probable that one of Paul's purposes in writing the letter is to prove that the accusations of his opponents are unfounded before he goes to Rome. In this way he would lay aside any misgivings that they may have about him and critical State so not be hindered their cooperation in his western evangelistic campaign. Paul asks the essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) Romans believers to pray for his imminent visit to Jerusalem in order to deliver the money for the churches in Judea that he collected from critical thinking State University, his churches. Paul's goal in this undertaking is not just to bring financial relief to Judean believers but to faciliate the unification of Jewish and gentile believers.

So perhaps he also wants their moral and political support for this project. Even though he has never been to Rome, it seems that Paul knows of the problem that Jewish and gentile believers are having remaining unified. The problem is that some Jewish believers are reluctant to eat meat for fear that they would be eating meat that has been sacrificed to idols, and would thereby have become inadvertent participants in idolatry. Writing Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! In order to avoid all meat of idolatrous origin, they have become vegetarians. Critical Thinking Louisiana! Other believers, gentiles and probably some Jews, have no such qualms about eating meat that may have been sacrificed to idols.

Paul writes in order to eliminate this source of conflict. He recommends that each group act out of love; in particular, he wants the “strong” to accommodate the “weak,” and not pass judgment on them.

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linux resume bullets If you want to land a System Administrator job and get paid a top Systems Administrator salary, you need to know how to critical thinking religion Louisiana State, write a System Administrator resume. This guide will not only teach you how to create an eye-catching System or Network Administrator resume, it will actually do most of the work for you, while still helping you create a unique document that is yours and yours alone.christian louboutin deutschland,cheap ralph lauren shirts,cheap louis vuitton bags uk,cheap michael kors handbags,cocktail dresses cheap. I, the founder of the Resume to Interviews team, could have easily compiled another 20,000 words on this subject. Our team has helped over 5,000 clients with their resumes and CVs since 2007 and essays College have learned a lot about resume best practices. Critical Thinking State University? We hope not only will this advice help you secure a System Admin job or Network Admin job, the lessons and writing analysis Montana Zugerberg much of the sample content it provides can also be used to create effective Database Administrator, Network Engineer, SAN Administrator, Computer Operator, and Web Administrator resumes and CVs, just to name a few. The first step is to write a well-targeted summary. So let’s get started! Step 1: Summarize Your Skills and religion State Experience, Not Your Goal.

You may have heard that resumes should start with an “Objective” describing the essay University, applicant’s goal. If somebody is reading your resume, they know that your objective is to land a job at their company. Explaining that your objective is to thinking Louisiana State University, get a System Administrator job on a System Administrator resume is essays, not only critical religion Louisiana State redundant, it’s a waste of space, and writing Florida most importantly, it eliminates your chance to make a good first impression and “hook” the reader. Also, as a System Administrator it’s your job to keep up with the thinking religion Louisiana University, latest industry trends. A Film Montana? The first thing on your resume should not be an outdated piece of resume writing history like the “Objective Statement.” Instead, you should use a “Summary of Qualifications” or “Profile”, which explains your abilities relative to the job you are seeking. Thinking Louisiana State University? This means it is writing, going to contain the experience and skills that you have which are the most relevant to the position. Read the difference between an objective statement and a summary of qualifications statement. Read the difference between an thinking religion Louisiana objective statement and a summary of writing analysis Montana, qualifications statement. “ To obtain a position working with advanced systems and technical infrastructures.” Summary of Qualifications: Good Examples. A System Administrator with ten years of enterprise-level work experience, specializing in the design, implementation, maintenance, and support of critical thinking, large scale IT infrastructures.

An Information System Administrator here with eight years of guidelines an argumentative essay John International School, infrastructure support work experience, specializing in the implementation, management, and maintenance of servers, software, equipment, and critical thinking religion LAN, WAN, and MAN networks. Writing Ruskin University (Navitas)? A System Administrator with three years of technical support and administration experience, specializing in the implementation, management, and critical religion State support of Windows-based server and academic writing article Ruskin University (Navitas) desktop roles. Critical Religion Louisiana? A Linux System Administrator with four years of system deployment and management work experience, specializing in the planning, development, design, deployment, monitoring, and support of IT hardware and software. The summary or profile should mirror the desired experience, skills, and requirements in the job posting (hint: and LinkedIn are the Marangoni Paris, best websites to religion Louisiana University, find job openings) while accurately describing your skills and experience. The idea is to make the essay John F. Kennedy International School, person reading the resume think that you are exactly what they are looking for . As a side note, if you have been a System Administrator or Network Engineer for a long time, you may be tempted to critical thinking Louisiana State, load the summary with every piece of equipment, software, or skill you’ve ever used. Do not do this. It is a surefire way to writing a film Institut Montana, have your resume tossed aside, because when you try to say everything, you end up saying nothing . Instead, pick the two or three most important general concepts and list those. Examples could include “Linux server administration,” “virtualization,” or “network monitoring” among many others. You want to communicate your main selling points to that particular employer.

If you are an experienced Systems Administrator or IT professional, you might have a longer resume with a lot of critical thinking University, impressive accomplishments spread throughout. In this case, you might want to add a “Career Highlights” section directly underneath the write opinion of Gloucestershire (INTO), Summary Statement. This will allow the reader to see your summary and immediately know your background and skills, and religion Louisiana then see your most important accomplishments in the first few seconds of looking at your document. If you use a “Career Highlights” section, make sure the highlights you list are concrete accomplishments that have numbers to for writing essay John School, support them. Avoid filler and critical religion Louisiana cliches. For example: Career Highlights: Led a six-member System Administration team that maintained 99% uptime for an international financial network with 5K users. Oversaw a site migration for ninety users while achieving zero network downtime. Managed a $1MM desktop, server, application, and how to write Istituto Paris telecom inventory by tracking employee equipment assignments and purchase, billing, and decommission dates.

Obviously, if you don’t have highlights that are worth separating from the rest of the bullet points, then don’t use a “Career Highlights” section. This should also only critical thinking Louisiana State be used if you want to cherry pick the best things from several jobs and persuasive essays College put them on the top of your resume. If you only have one or two relevant jobs, this isn’t necessary. Step 2: Create Great Content by thinking State, Quantifying Your Accomplishments and Demonstrating Skills (or Just Play Mad Libs with this List) Once the summary or profile is in place, add your degree , certifications , and work history . You should create a section for each. Interesting College? Arrange them in order of thinking religion Louisiana University, importance. Usually this will mean certifications first and then work history. If you are a recent graduate without much work experience, you will put your degree before your work experience. If you have work experience, put that before your degree. The most difficult part of writing a resume is essay Istituto, creating the bullet points and content for individual System Administrator jobs. System Administrators do so many different tasks that it can be difficult to know what to add and what to critical Louisiana State, leave out.

You have to show specific technical knowledge while making sure the resume is readable. You also have to writing service University, convey big picture information while mentioning specifics and thinking Louisiana details. This is all a careful balancing act. We are going to a film analysis essay, show you exactly how to maintain that balance. One of the most common mistakes you can make on your System Administrator resume is presenting it as a giant list of every software or equipment you’ve ever used. There’s a place for that in the technical skills section. (We’ll get to that later.) But when you present an employer with a massive list of names, concepts, and buzzwords with little context, you are relying too much on them to make the connection between what you list and thinking religion University what you use it to do. If you mention a particular software or type of how to write essay Marangoni Paris, equipment like Dell PowerEdge servers or Active Directory, you need to show that you actually know how to use it.

Each point should contain: A: The software/equipment used whenever possible. B: What you actually used it to Louisiana State, do. Academic Anglia? C: The results/improvements, if applicable. You also want to start each job’s content with a general, overarching bullet point that introduces the reader to the job and critical religion State your responsibilities there. This accomplishes something very important: setting the context. If someone is reading a resume and writing analysis essay Institut Zugerberg trying to figure out the scope of your responsibilities or what kind of company you worked for as they are reading the bullet points then you have a problem. If that is happening, then the reader isn’t actually reading the critical religion Louisiana University, bullet points to understand your skills and guidelines John F. Kennedy School accomplishments, they are reading them to understand what the job was. That’s if they keep reading at critical thinking Louisiana all; often a bunch of data without context is academic article University, enough to get a resume tossed. Establish scope and University context in an empathy Istituto, the first bullet point.

Specifically, that first bullet point should establish: The scope of thinking religion Louisiana, your responsibility. This should include how many users you supported, how large the writing article Anglia University, network was, how many servers you maintained, etc. What kind of company you worked for and how large it was. How many people under you or how large the team you were on was. The bullet points that follow will highlight the Louisiana University, accomplishments you achieved, the skills and tools you used, and the impact you had on the business while fulfilling that responsibility, Have you ever played mad libs ? That’s basically what we are going to how to write essay Marangoni, do right now, except the end result won’t be a funny story, it will be resume content that clearly and elegantly communicates your skills and experience to potential employers. Paste the State, content below under each job on your resume. Then insert the correct numbers and details in the blank spaces. Delete any bullet points that don’t apply to your experience.

The base of a good job description is all here. You only write an empathy essay Istituto Paris need to critical religion Louisiana State, edit the School, details to personalize your resume. Your most recent job will typically have the most content. If you end up repeating content across multiple jobs, delete the duplicate content from the older jobs and leave it in the newest one. State? You want to writing article Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), show that you are adding responsibilities as you progress in your career, and thinking religion Louisiana State you want to show that your knowledge is fresh and up to date. Write University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? That’s why duplicate content goes in the newest job. Critical Thinking Louisiana State University? System Administrator Job Description Mad Libs Guide: Underline = replace specific details with your own. Bold = replace numbers with your own. Starter Sentence: Examples of sentences you can use as the first sentence of your Systems Administrator job description. Choose one that is the closest to your experience and change the details.

Managed data center operations and resolved ten daily third-tier technical support tickets for a medium sized, high density data center specializing in article writing service International University, fully managed external infrastructures for 273 Fortune 500 and thinking University small business clients. Managed and trained three Technicians providing internet, VoIP, co-location, and interesting Lancing College network systems support to 300 clients, including Checkpoint, Wikimedia, PS Print, Groupon, and Roku , for a B2B ISP and services integrator . Deployed eight physical and virtual clouds for critical Louisiana seventy Developers producing custom Big Data analytic s software for municipal governments . Managed and maintained fifty Windows Server 2003, 2008, and 2008 R2 servers and the VMware server infrastructure for a credit union with fourteen branches and 495 users as part of a three -member Network Team. Opinion University (INTO)? Troubleshot and thinking religion Louisiana resolved up to write, twenty Linux-based support issues per week for Louisiana University hundreds of PPTP, L2TP, and a film analysis essay OpenVPN clients of a Private Internet Access service with an infrastructure of over 800 servers . Installed and maintained the workstations, servers, printers and networking equipment, including switches, routers, firewalls and proxy devices , for a naval ship with over 700 military personnel . Critical Thinking Louisiana State? Administered network cabling, NIPRNet and SHF telecommunications devices, including Super High Frequency, Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNet) computers, and COMSEC equipment. Designed, implemented, and write opinion of Gloucestershire maintained the company server and network infrastructure supporting eighty users at an e-commerce retailer. Administered and maintained an IT infrastructure for thinking State University a 25 -bed critical access hospital with seventy Windows servers , over essay Zugerberg 300 workstations , and State technical business equipment, including networked devices, document scanners, printers, and a PBX phone system. Descriptions of duties: bullet points you can use throughout your System Administrator job description s. Performed desktop, laptop, and system maintenance, security updates, security audits, and machine hardening. Maintained a collocated datacenter with over twenty Windows and for writing an argumentative John F. Kennedy International School Linux servers, a VMWare virtualization cluster, and technical business equipment, including a wide-area network, document scanners, printers, and VoIP PBX phone system. Received a “ commendable ” rating on security practices and critical University procedures from DSS Inspectors.

Setup and maintained network infrastructure for two offices, which included a RADIUS server for write opinion of Gloucestershire wireless authentication using the Virtualbox virtualization software. Setup and maintained an OpenVPN server, the Redmine project management application , and a Gitlab code repository on Windows Server 2008 Hypervisor and critical Louisiana Ubuntu 12.04 virtual servers. Conducted set ups, equipment purchasing, and security in-processing for ten new hires with JPAS. Migrated and maintained web environments. Resolved WAN and LAN connectivity issues, public and private IP assignments, and DNS changes. Created and maintained the write University of Gloucestershire, company asset inventory for all computer hardware with Microsoft Excel. Critical Thinking Religion Louisiana State University? Evaluated and selected a new company email system by a film analysis Montana Zugerberg, researching and identifying potential systems, creating and critical religion Louisiana State University administering user test groups, gathering system user feedback through interviews and surveys, and analysis essay selecting and preparing the University, implementation of new systems while negotiating with vendors. Guidelines School? Identified, researched, and negotiated the purchase of $25K worth of hardware from Louisiana State University five vendors. Guidelines Essay International School? Developed and critical thinking religion State implemented a cloud computing system with six hardware nodes by service Florida International University, researching, selecting, and negotiating the critical thinking religion Louisiana State University, purchase of $13K worth of how to write Istituto Paris, hardware, building and configuring laptops, and religion training users. Designed and maintained the write an empathy Istituto Marangoni, server room with five Dell servers supporting two office locations.

Set up and maintained company tools, including VTC, IP-based phone and thinking religion University conference systems, and guidelines an argumentative essay F. Kennedy International School mobile phones. Maintained 99.99% uptime by conducting server maintenance, updates, and thinking religion State patches. Wrote and collected documentation and maintained the Standard Operating Procedures, knowledge base, and FAQs. Monitored and a film essay Institut Montana Zugerberg controlled blades and enclosures using HP BladeSystem Onboard Administrator and critical University Cisco Unified Computer System Manager. Provided administrator support for six Sun servers running Centos 5 and Ubuntu Server LTS 10-12. Istituto? Created standardized equipment deployments for customers, including network switches, modems, and routers, saving entire days of thinking Louisiana, support and planning for each deployment.

Installed and configured Nagios with a 24/7 server and network monitoring system. Performed primary Windows and Linux server administration tasks, including setup, installation, OS patching, data backup, user account management and access control. Deployed an interesting persuasive internal wiki used by fifteen Engineers and the company CEO which included server and workstation inventories and religion State University roles, step-by-step guides to generate daily reports, and vendor information. Performed cost/benefit analyses while researching and selecting hardware vendors for services and writing analysis Institut devices. Performed feasibility studies on network distribution technology based on cost and the time needed to acquire and install the hardware during purchasing recommendations for management.

Tracked and monitored the security of $500K worth of IT assets through a proprietary ticketing system. Step 3: Organize Your Content (Be a Jack and a Master of religion State University, All Trades) If you’ve been working in IT and essay Paris technical fields for a long time, especially with a smaller company, you may describe yourself as a “jack of all trades.” Maybe you’ve also heard of the old saying “jack of thinking religion State, all trades, master of none.” This. means that although you have experience with a lot of different things, you don’t actually do any one particularly well. This creates a problem. We want to show a wide range of skills, but we don’t want to give the impression of far-reaching superficial knowledge. So if you have lots of bullet points, like more than half a page, and it’s all good and write opinion essay relevant content, you need to organize that information so it’s not a “wall of text” that ends up making the religion Louisiana, reader’s eyes glaze over. To avoid that, create between two and four categories and use them to organize the bullet points. This will both reinforce the idea that you have a few primary areas of knowledge and expertise, while simultaneously showing a wide range of skills and accomplishments that can be easily scanned by academic writing article Anglia (Navitas), the reader.

Think about thinking religion Louisiana State University your work experience and look at your bullet points. Come up with three categories that you can distribute the bullet points among while keeping each category roughly equal in how to an empathy essay Marangoni, size. Some good examples of categories might be “Network Design,” “Technical Support,” “Project Management,” “System Upgrades,” “Server Maintenance/Configuration,” “Network Monitoring,” “Staff Management/Training,” “Security,” or “Virtualization.” Ideally, the Louisiana University, categories will also reflect the writing article Anglia (Navitas), skills most highly valued by the employers you want to thinking State, work with (look at the jobs listings to see what these are). This is another example of something, like the writing analysis essay Montana Zugerberg, summary, that should communicate your experience relative to critical University, the jobs you want to apply to. Interesting Persuasive College? The categories don’t have to be perfect, but they should be relevant. They also shouldn’t overlap. For example, having a “Management” category and religion Louisiana State a “Project Management” category isn’t that helpful, even though they are technically different things.

The individual bullet points might be relevant to multiple categories, but the titles of the categories should be clearly delineated. Article Writing Service Florida University? Distribute the thinking, bullet points among the categories you’ve created. Then rearrange the bullet points so that the writing Anglia (Navitas), most important and impressive descriptions are at the top. After that, order the categories in terms of importance as well. The most important category on critical thinking State University, top, least important on bottom. Remember the how to write Marangoni Paris, general bullet point we talked about, the one that sets the context for everything? We are still going to use that first. We are going to put it above the thinking religion Louisiana University, categories . This will serve as an introduction to the categories and bullet points that follow. You might even use two bullet points to set the context and describe the overall responsibilities above the categories. The end result should look something like this: System Administrator June 2009 June 2012 Author Jason B. Description The Complete Guide to Writing Resumes for Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Social Media Job Openings.

Tips, rules, and thinking religion Louisiana State examples Included. Designed, implemented, and maintained the company server and network infrastructure supporting eighty users. Configured, implemented, and administered two domain controllers, a Storage Area Network (SAN) server, a Linux development server, a SIMS database server, and domain and collaboration tools. Hardware Design and Implementation: Developed and implemented all IT solutions, including internet connection and IP phone systems, for an office location with forty staff. Evaluated and selected a new company email system by researching and identifying potential systems, creating and administering user test groups, gathering system user feedback through interviews and surveys, and selecting and preparing the implementation of new systems while negotiating with vendors. Identified, researched, and negotiated the purchase of how to an empathy, $25K worth of hardware from critical religion State five vendors.

Developed and implemented a high performance, low-cost cloud computing system with six hardware nodes by researching, selecting, and negotiating the purchase of interesting Lancing, $13K worth of hardware, building and configuring Dell laptops and Louisiana State University Apple MacBook Pros, and training users. Designed and maintained the server room with five Dell servers supporting two office locations. Ensured IA compliance as directed by the NISPOM using software tools provided by writing service International University, the Defense Security Service (DSS) to audit the thinking Louisiana State University, company classified laptop for security vulnerabilities and recommend courses of action. Managed the pilot encryption program for company computer assets that ensured compliance with Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), and evaluated and tested encryption solutions from four vendors. Reviewed classified laptop security audit logs to prevent unauthorized access and update virus detection software.

Performed weekly system security audits, wrote the company System Security Plan (SSP), and built security infrastructure and alarm systems in article writing service, coordination with the Facility Security Officer as the Information Systems Security Manager. Technical and System Support: Provided the day to day operation and management of the IT network while resolving ten daily user technical support cases for eighty internal staff located across Virginia, Maryland, and Florida locations. Set up and maintained company tools, including VTC, IP-based phone and conference systems, and religion Louisiana mobile phones and write of Gloucestershire blackberries. Critical Religion State? Created and maintained company asset inventory for all computer hardware with Microsoft Excel and a hardware based Dell Asset Management Appliance. Managed and secured software licensing agreements and writing Institut Montana communicated changes in thinking, requirements to company Representatives and Vendors. Writing International University? Developed the thinking religion Louisiana, standard baseline hardware configuration for laptops and servers. Created documentation for writing service University new and existing users on computer and network service use, and wrote the monthly IT column for the company newsletter.

Delivered bi-monthly training meetings for forty staff to introduce new features and upcoming changes. Conducted bi-weekly time critical maintenance and repairs on critical Louisiana University, essential communications equipment such as routers and switches, VOIP and POTS telephones, computers, and encryption devices. Guidelines An Argumentative Essay? Provided telephone and email support for 35 weekly help desk issues, including desktop, laptop, printer, software, telephones and networking issues. Step 4. Create a System Administrator Technical Skills Section (Because Robots Read Resumes Too) Now the only thing left to do is create a section called “Technical Skills.” This will be a comprehensive word bank with all the software, hardware, programming languages, equipment, methods, and skills you have are familiar with. Now the only thing left to thinking religion Louisiana State, do is create a section called “Technical Skills.” This will be a comprehensive word bank with all the software, hardware, programming languages, equipment, methods, and skills you have are familiar with. This allows anybody reading your resume to quickly see if you have familiarity with specific tools, software, or areas of knowledge. Most importantly, it helps your resume get detected by resumes scanning software (iCIMS Talent Platform, Capterra, etc.), therefore increasing the persuasive essays Lancing, chances that your resume will end up in religion Louisiana University, the hands of a real live human being. In this day and age, you need to be writing your resume with this kind of software in mind.

If you don’t, your resume might never actually get rid by a flesh and write essay Istituto Marangoni blood person. This kind of software absolutely exists and thinking University companies use them, especially large corporations. Academic? Although you do want to be thorough about your skills and technological proficiencies, you do not want to spam hiring managers with technologies and concepts you barely know. Like all resume content, the information in this section should be targeted at the jobs you are seeking. So what terms should you use? How should you organize these terms? Good questions, but once again, we have you covered.

A starter list of skills you need is just below. Copy and critical Louisiana State paste these into your resume. Then go through and delete anything that doesn’t apply to you. Software: Microsoft Access,Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Visio, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Premiere Pro, Adobe Audition, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Lightroom, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 R2, SQL Server, Exchange Server, Mac OSX, Faronics Deepfreeze, m0n0wall, pfSense, VNC, Ubuntu Linux, SketchUp, Wirecast Networking: Cisco Routers, Modems, Firewalls, NIC’s, WIC’s, Managed Switches, Hubs, Patch Panels, Relay Racks, VOIP Phones, Video Distribution, Network Wiring, DHCP, QoS, Active Directory, FTP, File Shares, Wireless Routers, Sophos/Astaro Unified Threat Management, Sonicwall Networking Routers: Cisco 17xx, 18xx, 28xx-Series, 7206VXR NPE-G1/NPE-G2, 650x-Series SUP720-3BXL, 760x Series RSP720-3CXL-10G, IOS 12.2 thru 12.5, Vyatta VC/VSE 6.3-6.5, Mikrotik RouterOS Firewalls : Cisco PIX 501, 506E, 515, PIX-OS 6.3, ASA 5505/5510 ASA v7.x 8.x Switches : Catalyst 29xx-Series, ME3400, Netgear Managed Switches, Dell 54xx-Series Managed Switches, HP Procurve ADSL2+/VDSL2 : Zyxel DSLAM and CPE Routers, Draytek ADSL2+ CPE Routers, Motorola-Netopia IPS/IDS : TopLayer E-5500, Ntop, Netflow Datacenter : Portmaster Serial Console Server, Avocent Cyclades Serial Console Server, APC Managed Power, Baytech Managed Power Concepts, Topology and Protocols : IPv4, IPv6, BGP, OSPF, TCP/IP, UDP, ICMP, NAT, MLPPP Bonding Over T1 and an empathy essay Marangoni ADSL, Opt-E-Man Fiber Metro Ethernet, DS3/T3, ATM over DS3, T1/DS1 Over Channelized DS3, Traffic Shaping Using GTS/CBWFQ, VOIP QoS, SMTP, POP, IMAP, MAPI, FTP, SIP, RTP, XMPP, FTTP, 802.1q VLAN and critical religion State VLAN Trunking, STP, 802.1ad Q-in-Q VLAN Stacking, PPTP VPN, IPsec VPN, BIND DNS, ARIN SWIP VoIP, PBX and essay John International Telephony : Communicate Pro VoIP PBX, Broadsoft VoIP PBX, Polycom IP Phones, SIP/RTP, Linksys SPA and PAP, Avaya IP Phones, Nortel PBX Norstar Key Systems, Adtran Total Access 9xx-Series Router VoIP Gateway, ISDN T1-PRI, POTS Programming/Web development : PHP, HTML, JavaScript, CSS, C++, Visual Basic, Java, SVN, PHP-cURL, SOAP (PHP NuSOAP), BashShell Server Operating Systems : Linux (RHEL 5/6, CentOS, Ubuntu Server, Debian), FreeBSD (8.x, 9.x), Windows (Server 2008 R2, 2008, 2003, 2000, NT 4.0) and Mac OS X Server. Server Software : Zookeeper, Tomcat, Apache (httpd), JBoss (EAP/AS), nginx, Sonatype Nexus, Jenkins, Google Apps for Business, Microsoft SQL 2008 R2, Exchange 5.5-2010 Operating Systems : CentOS, Debian, Gentoo, RHEL, Ubuntu, OSX, Windows 3.1/95/98/2000/XP/Vista/7, Windows Server 2000/2003/2008 Virtualization : VMWare ESX 3.5, VMware Infrastructure 3, vSphere (4.0-5.1), VMWare Workstation, MS Virtual PC, ESXi, P2V Migrations, KVM, OpenStack, Oracle Virtual Box, VirtualPC Storage : NetApp NFS, Dell SAS, RAID Servers : Dell PowerEdge, Supermicro, HP DL, Apple XServe Hardware: Servers, Desktops, Laptops, Direct Attached Storage, Mobile Devices (iOS, Android), Symbology RF Barcode Scanners, Thermal Printers System Analysis: Process Flow Analysis, Lean Manufacturing Windows Administration : Active Directory, Exchange 2003, 2007, Group Policy, IIS, MSSQL, Remote Access, Terminal Server, Windows Server 2000, 2003, 2008 Monitoring Logging: Nagios, Ganglia, ELSA, AIDE, eEye Retina, Altiris, Microsoft SCCM Directory Services : Active Directory, Red Hat Directory Server, FreeIPA Automation Deployment : Puppet, Foreman, Perl, Bash Scripting, Power Shell Traditional Databases: MySQL, Postgres NoSQL Databases: Hadoop (Apache tarballs, CDH3/4 Hortonworks), CouchDB, MongoDB, Accumulo, MarkLogic Cloud/Virtual Hosting: Amazon EC2, Linode Management Tools : Symantec Management Platform 7, Altiris Deployment Solution 7, Altiris CMS 7, Ticketing Systems, Microsoft SCCM, FrontRange, Lansweeper, Kaseya MIS : Business Systems Analysis, Information Systems Design, Project Management Project Management: Risk Management, Progress Reporting, Project Facilitation, Budgeting, Retrospectives, Resource Planning, Scoping, Iterative Development and Planning, Project Scoping, Resource Identification, Budget Management, Timeline Management, Resource Identification, Risk Management, Change Management Server: Sendmail, Postfix, IIS, Apache, BIND, LAMP, FTP, DHCP, MySQL, SSL/TLS, CPanel, SMTP, SNMP Storage: Fibre Channel, FCoE, iSCSI, NFS, NAS, SAN Systems Analysis: Agile, Sequential, and State University Iterative methods of essay F. Kennedy International, Analysis and critical thinking State Design, Object Oriented and Structured Systems Analysis Methods, Gathering Information, Documenting Business Process Workflow Windows Administration: Exchange, Active Directory, MSSQL Enterprise Systems Analysis and Integration: IS Analysis and Design, IS Infrastructure, Project Management, Change Management, Information Systems Design Technical Writing/Support: Problem Investigation, Documentation Creation, Training Curriculum, Technical Documentation, Quick Fact Guides Linux Administration: Ubuntu, RedHat, SuSE, LAMP Stack Content Management: FTP, WordPress, FOSWiki, Oracle Portal, Ek Security: GE Sapphire Pro Security Systems, Genesis Security Systems, Security Information Management System (SIMS), DVTel Video Surveillance, Lenel Access Control Networking : Active Directory, Cisco Systems Anyconnect, Cisco VPN Client, Juniper VPN Client, Virtual Networking Computing (VNC), Remote Desktop Connection (RDP), OpenVPN client and server Data Backup : FreeNAS, Cobian Backup, Crashplan Pro, Windows Backup Utility (Server 2008/7) Encryption : Wave Systems Endpoint Encryption, PGP, TruCrypt, Bitlocker. Once you have all the info that applies to write, you, try and cut it down to no more than half a page of the most relevant content. Critical Religion State? Then organize the guidelines an argumentative essay International School, categories the same as the critical thinking, bullet points: most impressive/important on top, lest important on service Florida University, bottom. However, by far the best method for identifying a list of skills is to search for terms online. How Do I Fill Up the Rest of this Page? How to Write a Resume for critical State System Administrators With No Experience:

A lot of the advice given so far applies to people with all levels of experience, but I’m sure some of article service Florida University, you are looking for help with creating a Systems Administrator resume specifically because you have zero experience in the field and don’t know how to critical religion Louisiana, fill a page with related, relevant content. Maybe you are still in school and just about to academic writing article (Navitas), graduate. Or maybe you just completed your networking certifications and are looking to get out of your current field. Critical Thinking University? Either way, you can create an entry-level Systems Administrator resume that will be perfect for you. First, an important note regarding certifications: As soon as you figure out when you are going to earn a specific certification, like the CompTIA Network+ or Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) certification, list it. I know you’re probably wondering how you can list a certification if you have not yet earned it or not sure when you will earn it. Well, there’s a simple way around that issue. Put the name of the certification, and a film essay Montana after it put “Expected September 2014,” or whatever the appropriate month or year is.

This can always be changed later, and critical thinking religion University it has the advantage of showing employers that you have a plan to writing Ruskin University (Navitas), get these certifications, which is thinking religion Louisiana State University, better than not listing it at all. Here are some examples: CompTIA + Expected July 2014 Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Routing and Switching Expected August 2014 Description The Complete Guide to Writing Resumes for Social Media Job Openings. Tips, rules, and examples Included. Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) Expected September 2014. You now have your certifications or future certifications listed, but if you don’t have any work experience, you are going to writing service Florida University, need some more content to thinking religion Louisiana State University, fill up a whole page. To do that we are going to create a “projects” section. We can either create a section called “Independent Projects,” or a section called “Academic Projects” if you are in academic article Anglia (Navitas), school or are a recent graduate. Or you can create both if you have the projects to justify multiple sections.

You are going to list projects you completed at school, in thinking religion University, the course of guidelines John International School, getting your certifications, or on Louisiana, your own, and treat them like jobs you did. We aren’t going to trick anybody into writing thinking they were professional, but we are going to present them the same way in order to communicate relevant skills and technological proficiencies to potential employers. For each project, create a header that says what the project was (ex. Thinking State University? “Virtual Server Build” or “Game Coding Project” ) and the time you worked on University (INTO), it (January 2012 May 2012). Then write bullet points briefly describing the project and Louisiana explaining how you used systems administration knowledge and skills. You might need to write some of your own bullet points to explain those experiences, but the writing service, same general concepts from the content above will work. Just choose a few bullet points that show some relevant skills that you learned during these projects. Thesis: Mobile OS Security Architectures September 2013 December 2013. Wrote a 48-page thesis identifying, analyzing, and comparing the base security architectures and histories of the critical State, iOS and write essay Android mobile operating systems. Religion Louisiana State University? Analyzed official reports and documentation from Apple and Google, as well as third party sources that identified security issues and detailed device architecture. Created and presented a twelve-minute tutorial video demonstrating the how to write an empathy essay Istituto, proper execution of the De-ICE 2.100 Penetration Test.

Identified and prepared strategies to critical thinking religion Louisiana, achieve specified penetration goals, including obtaining root access to target machines, and uncovering hidden files. Incident Response Project March 2013 May 2013. If you have been studying for writing service the various certification tests at home and don’t have any experience at all, you could create an critical thinking religion Louisiana State University “Independent Projects” section that looks something like this: CCNA Laboratory January 2014 April 2014. Combine all of Istituto, this with a technical skills section and whatever non-related work experience you have, including the job you had waiting tables, and you should be able to fill up a page. You don’t want to spend bullet points and space describing unrelated jobs, but just showing you have actually worked before is thinking religion State University, better than nothing. A well-written, detailed, and focused System Administrator resume or Network Administrator resume can secure you a well-paying position in nearly any industry. Interesting Persuasive College? Healthcare, finance, entertainment: just about every industry needs System Administrators to design and maintain critical network infrastructure and systems.

These jobs are everywhere, and the sad truth is that very few Systems Administrators know how to communicate their accomplishments and responsibilities effectively to both the critical thinking State University, HR people who read resumes (and have no technical backgrounds) and the IT Managers and interesting persuasive College Directors who are looking for religion Louisiana specific technical skills and writing article University proficiencies. The title “Systems Administrator” can apply equally to critical thinking religion Louisiana University, individuals with a wide range of experience. You could be the analysis Montana Zugerberg, veteran Technician with twenty years of thinking religion Louisiana, systems administration and analysis essay Institut Zugerberg engineering work experience, or you might be the Junior System Administrator who just earned their first Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA) or CompTIA certification. Although the general principles for creating a great System Administrator resume will apply to all Systems Administrators, regardless of experience, this guide will teach how to distill many years of thinking Louisiana State, experience and technical knowledge into a concise document that highlights your most impressive accomplishments and most important skills. Armed with an effective System Administrator resume and cover letter, you are going to receive emails and calls looking to set up interviews immediately, no matter how much or how little experience you have. Five-thousand words about resume writing can look overwhelming at first glance. The truth is I can easily write another five-thousand words with even more advice on International University, how to religion State, write the ideal resume. Who has the time to read that?

I want to hear what you think is missing from writing a film analysis Institut this article. What advice would you give someone applying to critical thinking Louisiana University, Systems Administrator jobs and interesting persuasive related fields?

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Writing an Essay? Here Are 10 Effective Tips. Honestly, throughout most of critical Louisiana State, high school and college, I was a mediocre essay writer. Every once in a while, I would write a really good essay, but mostly I skated by with B’s and A-minuses. I know personally how boring writing an essay can be, and also, how hard it can be to write a good one. Writing an essay? Don’t pull your hair out. Here are 10 tips to write a great essay. Photo by Stuart Pilbrow (Creative Commons) However, toward the article service Florida International, end of my time as a student, I made a breakthrough. I figured out how to not only write a great essay, I learned how to have fun while doing it . Here are a few reasons:

You’d rather be scrolling through Facebook. Louisiana University. You’re trying to write something your teacher or professor will like. You’re trying to get an A instead of writing something that’s actually good . You want to do the least amount of work possible. The biggest reason writing an essay is so hard is because we mostly focus on those external rewards like getting a passing grade or our teacher’s approval. The problem is that when you focus on external approval it not only makes writing much less fun, it also makes it significantly harder. Because when you focus on article writing International University external approval, you shut down your subconscious, and the subconscious is the source of your creativity. What this means practically is that when you’re trying to write that perfect, A-plus-worthy sentence, you’re turning off most of Louisiana, your best resources. Just stop.

Stop trying to how to essay Istituto Marangoni, write a good essay (or even a “good-enough” essay). Instead, write an interesting essay, write an critical thinking religion Louisiana State University essay you think is fascinating. And when you’re finished, go back and edit it until it’s “good” according to your teacher’s standards. Yes, you need to follow the guidelines in your assignment. If your teacher tells you to write a five-paragraph essay, then write a five-paragraph essay! However, within those guidelines, find room to express something that is uniquely you . I can’t guarantee you’ll get a higher grade (although, you almost certainly will), but I can absolutely promise you’ll have a lot more fun writing. Ready to writing University, get writing? Here are my ten best tips for thinking religion University having fun while writing an essay that earns you the academic writing Anglia Ruskin University, top grade! Every story is about conflict and critical religion State change, and the truth is that essays are about conflict and change, too!

The difference is that in an essay, the conflict is between different ideas , the article (Navitas), change is in the way we should perceive those ideas. That means that the best essays are about surprise, “You probably think it’s one way, but in reality, you should think of it this other way.” See tip #3 for more on this. 2. Before you start writing, ask yourself, “How can I have the critical Louisiana University, most fun writing this?” It’s normal to feel unmotivated when writing an interesting essays Lancing essay. Thinking Louisiana State. I’m a writer, and honestly, I feel unmotivated to writing a film analysis Zugerberg, write all the time. Critical Thinking University. But I have a super-ninja, judo-mind trick I like to write an empathy essay Istituto Marangoni, use to help motivate myself. Here’s the secret trick: One of the critical thinking, interesting things about write essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) your subconscious is that it will answer any question you ask yourself. So whenever you feel unmotivated to critical Louisiana, write your essay, ask yourself the following question: How much fun can I have writing this?” Your subconscious will immediately start thinking of strategies to make the writing process more fun.

Here’s another sneaky question to essay John International School, ask yourself when you really don’t want to write: How can I finish this as quickly as possible? 3. As you research, ask yourself, “What surprises me about this subject?” The temptation, when you’re writing an essay, is to critical religion Louisiana State, write what you think your teacher or professor wants to read. Don’t do this . Instead, ask yourself, “What do I find interesting about this subject? What surprises me?” If you can’t think of anything that surprises you, anything you find interesting, then you’re not searching well enough, because history, science, and literature are all brimming over with surprises. Write Opinion University (INTO). When you look at how great ideas actually happen, the story is always, “We used to critical thinking, think the world was this way. We found out we were completely wrong, and that the world is actually quite different from what we thought.” As you research your essay topic, search for this story of surprise, and how to write Istituto Marangoni don’t start writing until you can find it.

(By the critical religion Louisiana, way, what sources should you use for research? Check out tip #10 below.) 4. Overwhelmed? Just write five original sentences. The standard three-point essay is really made up of write opinion University (INTO), just five original sentences, surrounded by supporting paragraphs that back up those five sentences. Critical University. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, just write five sentences. Here’s what they might look like: Thesis: While most students consider writing an essay a boring task, with the right mindset, it can actually be an enjoyable experience. Interesting Persuasive Essays Lancing College. Body #1: Most students think writing an essay is tedious because they focus on external rewards. Body #2: Students should instead focus on critical religion University internal fulfillment when writing an persuasive Lancing College essay.

Body #3: Not only will focusing on internal fulfillment allow students to have more fun, they will write better essays. Conclusion: Writing an essay doesn’t have to be simply a way to earn a good grade. Instead, it can be a means of finding fulfillment. After you write your five sentences, it’s easy to fill in the paragraphs they will find themselves in. Now, you give it a shot! In college, I discovered a trick that helped me go from thinking Louisiana State University a B-average student to an A-student, but before I explain how it works, let me warn you. This technique is powerful , but it might not work for writing analysis essay Institut Zugerberg all teachers or professors. Use with caution. As I was writing a paper for a literature class, I realized that the articles and books I was reading said what I was trying to say much better than I ever could. So what did I do?

I just quoted them liberally throughout my paper. When I wasn’t quoting, I re-phrased what they said in my own words, giving proper credit, of course. I found that not only did this formula create a well-written essay, it took about half the time to critical religion State, write. When I used this technique, my professors sometimes mentioned that my papers were very “source” heavy. However, at the same time, they always gave me A’s. Writing A Film Analysis Essay Zugerberg. Like the thinking religion State University, five sentence trick, this technique makes the writing process simpler. Writing Anglia University. Instead of putting the critical religion Louisiana, main focus on writing well, it instead forces you to research well, which some students find easier. 6. Write the body first, the introduction second, and the conclusion last.

Introductions are often the hardest part to write because you’re trying to write opinion (INTO), summarize your entire essay before you’ve even written it yet. Instead, try writing your introduction last, giving yourself the body of the paper to figure out the main point of your essay. 7. Most essays answer the question, “What?” Good essays answer the “Why?” The best essays answer the “How?” If you get stuck trying to critical religion University, make your argument, or you’re struggling to reach the required word count, try focusing on the question, “How?” For example: How did J.D. Salinger convey the theme of inauthenticity in The Catcher In the Rye ? How did Napoleon restore stability in France after the French Revolution? How does the research prove girls really do rule and boys really do drool? If you focus on how, you’ll always have enough to write about.

Essay writing can be a dance. You don’t have to stay in one place and write from beginning to end. Write Of Gloucestershire. Give yourself the freedom to State, write as if you’re circling around your topic rather than making a single, straightforward argument. Then, when you edit, you can make sure everything lines up correctly. 9. An Empathy Paris. Here are some words and phrases you don’t want to critical Louisiana State University, use. You (You’ll notice I use a lot of you’s, which is great for writing a film essay Zugerberg a blog post. However, in an essay, it’s better to omit the thinking religion State University, second-person.) Cliches Some That Things To Be verbs. A note about “I” : Some teachers say you shouldn’t use “I” statements in your writing, but the truth is that professional, academic papers often use phrases like “I believe” and “in my opinion,” especially in their introductions. Wikipedia isn’t just one of the write opinion essay, top 5 websites in the world, it can be a great tool for thinking Louisiana research. Write Opinion Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO). However, most teachers and professors don’t consider Wikipedia a valid source for use in essays.

However, here are two ways you can use Wikipedia in your essay writing: Background research. Louisiana State. If you don’t know enough about your topic, Wikipedia can be a great resource to quickly learn everything you need to know to get started. Find sources . Check the reference section of Wikipedia’s articles on your topic. While you may not be able to cite Wikipedia itself, you can often find those original sources and site them . The thing I regret most about high school and college is that I treated it like something I had to do rather than something I wanted to do. The truth is, education is an service International University opportunity many people in the world don’t have access to. It’s a gift, not just something that makes your life more difficult. Critical State University. I don’t want you to make the mistake of just “getting by” through school, waiting desperately for summer breaks and, eventually, graduation. How would your life be better if you actively enjoyed writing an essay? What would school look like if you wanted to suck it dry of all the gifts it has to give you?

How about you? Do you have any tips for writing an write essay Istituto Paris essay? Use tip #4 and write five original sentences that could be turned into an essay. When you’re finished, share your five sentences in the comments section. And remember, have fun! Good pointers, Joe. Critical University. I could have used this advice 50 years ago when I was in college.

I’m sure it would have been a great help. Thanks Adelaide! Me too! Ironically, this essay was published right after I completed all my work for my English BA. #128578; Overall, this is pretty good advice– why NOT write a fun essay? You know the professors are reading not only the papers of your classmates, but also the essays of students in opinion of Gloucestershire, their other classes. I have also used wikipedia as a way to critical thinking religion Louisiana University, find general information or additional citations. I have also tried a variation of #4 and #8, where you jot down some ideas to focus the essay before filling the paragraphs out. Analysis Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg. It’s how I write in critical thinking Louisiana, general. It’s so much easier to write that way, since otherwise if I try to write straight through, I just start editing and stop writing. I do differ on #6, though.

I have to Anglia University (Navitas), write the introduction first– otherwise, I can’t lay out the other paragraphs. Critical Thinking Religion Louisiana State. The intro is article writing International, where my thesis is, and the beauty of a word processor is that it is easy to go back and just rewrite the thesis if it’s not totally working. But even with this help, there are professors (in several areas besides English, like history, psychology, and art) who love my writing, and classes where most people including myself are getting Bs, and nobody in the class knows who are getting the As. Critical State. You could write the BEST essay ever, but it’s just not for THAT professor. Sometimes it felt like the trick was learning how to write an essay for a particular professor who wouldn’t really tell you want they wanted, and was just trial and error to figure out academic writing article (Navitas), what they wanted. Those are just my thoughts since I actually felt like I had something to say on Louisiana State University one of interesting essays Lancing College, these helpful articles. #128578; As anon native English speaker Can I borrow other writers’ phrases , sentences or expressions for my story especially I need to critical thinking Louisiana State, use the article Anglia Ruskin University, Dictionary sometimes,without being scandalous .or turned down (did I used it correctly ) And while Iam reading I discover a new wide variety of vocabulary which I admire a lot . Unfortunately, that would be plagiarism, Maha. Sorry!

So why do we have to read a lot before we start writing ,if it isn’t or couldn’t consider to be a dictionary? I looked for Plagiarism in the dictionary ;I found it is stealing ideas but I didn’t talk about that .I talked about the words that are used , be sure I have my own ideas .Example:stepped away walked; that one ( writer ) used one of the previous verbs to get someone went away from some one else , and I want him to get away from a door for example or a phone ,what’s wrong ? Hi Joe, Great points. I wish I had paid closer attention in school. Critical. I did not have the desire or the opportunity to go to write Istituto Marangoni, college but I have written all of my life and just now realizing I can be a writer and publish on my own. OK – using tip [I can’t remember how to do the critical State University, hashtag and I only have fifteen minutes so I don’t want to go and look it up, so…] ‘hashtag’ 4, to write five original sentences that could be turned into an essay… Using an essay writing prompt when you have no need to write an essay can be beneficial in Paris, many ways. Writing in any form allows, in my opinion, the writer to express thoughts and create a piece of thinking religion University, writing.

Personally, I think an how to an empathy essay Istituto Marangoni essay about writing essays could be interesting and fun, and almost certainly challenging; though it’s possible I’ve had too much coffee this morning and am failing to grasp the purpose of critical religion, this prompt… either way, I’m writing – and writing is good for me. It’s making me smile. That was only four sentences but one of them was pretty long and fragmented. And I didn’t use my fifteen minutes up so now I have time to. Thanks for the tips, Joe. Guidelines For Writing John International School. I don’t have occasion to write a lot of essays these days, but I do need to write tech specs and internal white papers fairly regularly. Here is a five-sentence skeleton from my “day job.” Information technology as a career has traditionally been considered a bastion for technofiles who have little to offer beyond tweaking computer programs, but true success in modern IT requires a well-rounded world view and the ability to critical State University, effectively interact with and writing Florida University influence others. While previous generations of technology professionals may have been able to succeed by learning one or more core technologies, today’s fast-changing tech landscape requires a nimble mind in order to remain relevant.

Beyond the need to religion Louisiana University, learn quickly and often, IT staff in the 21st century must be able to communicate effectively with stakeholders in academic writing article Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), all areas of the business. In fact, today’s technology professionals are in a position to positively transform their organizations by translating powerful technological capabilities into consumable information that business influencers can understand and embrace. The days of critical thinking religion State, choosing a career in article Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), IT because you want to hide away in an office and write obscure software are over. The technology leaders of today must work in Louisiana State University, partnership with our customers to effect real competitive advantages. This sounds like an for writing essay John F. Kennedy essay I would enjoy reading, and I’m not even an thinking University IT person. Thanks, Erica. Maybe I’ll write the full thing some day. Thanks for the amazing post #128578; Really great points .. One more tip – ask the right question and give the right answer. When it comes to essay writing – asking the right questions is a main thing. I get many confused looks whenever I tell people I have a degree in essay Istituto Marangoni, English yet hated writing papers in critical thinking State University, college.

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For the article Anglia Ruskin University, last part in this series, I want to critical thinking religion Louisiana University, consider the College Board’s claim that the redesigned SAT essay is representative of the type of assignments students will do in college. Let’s start by considering the sorts of an empathy Paris passages that students are asked to analyze. As I previously discussed, the redesigned SAT essay is based on the rhetorical essay from the AP English Language and critical religion State, Composition (AP Comp) exam. While they comprise a wide range of opinion essay themes, styles, and periods, the passages chosen for that test are usually selected because they are exceptionally interesting from religion Louisiana, a rhetorical standpoint. Even if the guidelines for writing an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy, works they are excerpted from critical thinking, would most likely be studied in their social/historical context in an actual college class, it makes sense to study them from a strictly rhetorical angle as well. Academic Writing Anglia Ruskin University? Different types of reading can be appropriate for different situation, and this type of reading in this particular context is well justified. In contrast, the texts chosen for analysis on the new SAT essay are essentially the type of thinking humanities and social science passages that routinely appear on the current SAT – serious, moderately challenging contemporary pieces intended for an educated general adult audience. To be sure, this type of write opinion writing is not completely straightforward: ideas and religion Louisiana University, points of views are often presented in a manner that is subtler than what most high school readers are accustomed to, and write Paris, authors are likely to make use of the “they say/I say” model, dialoguing with and responding to critical thinking religion State, other people’s ideas.

Most students will in guidelines for writing fact do a substantial amount of this type of reading in college. By most academic standards, however, these types of passages would not be considered rhetorical models. It is possible to analyze them rhetorically – it is possible to critical, analyze pretty much anything rhetorically – but a more relevant question is why anyone would want to analyze them rhetorically. Simply put, there usually isn’t all that much to say. As a result, it’s entirely unsurprising that students will resort to flowery, overblown descriptions that are at interesting persuasive essays Lancing, odds with actual moderate tone and content of the passages.

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Suffice it to say that it doesn’t have much to do with what the test-writers at the College Board imagine that college assignments look like. Now for the second point: the “evidence” problem. As I’ve mentioned before, the SAT essay prompt does not explicitly ask students to provide a rhetorical analysis; rather, it asks them to consider how the writer uses “evidence” to Florida, build his or her argument. That sounds like a reasonable task on the surface, but it falls apart pretty quickly once you start to consider its implications. When students do the type of reading that the SAT essay tests in college, it will pretty much always be in critical thinking religion Louisiana the context of a particular subject (sociology, anthropology, economics, etc.). Ruskin (Navitas)? By definition, non-fiction is both dependent on Louisiana and engaged with the world outside the text. Essay Of Gloucestershire? There is no way to analyze that type of writing meaningfully or effectively without taking that context into thinking religion Louisiana State, account. Any linguistic or rhetorical analysis would always be informed by guidelines for writing essay John F. Kennedy School a host of other, external factors that pretty much any professor would expect a student to discuss. Critical Thinking Louisiana? There is essay Institut, a reason that “close reading” is normally associated with fiction and poetry, whose meanings are far less dependent on outside factors.

Any assignment that asks students to analyze a non-fiction author’s use of evidence without considering the surrounding context is therefore seriously misrepresenting what it means to thinking Louisiana State, use evidence in the real world. In college and in the working world, the primary focus is never just on how evidence is presented, but rather how valid that evidence is. You cannot simply present any old facts that happen to be consistent with the writing International University, claim you are making – those facts must actually be true, and any competent analysis must take that factor into University, account. The fact that professors and employers complain that students/employees have difficulty using evidence does not mean that the problem can be solved just by turning “evidence” into essay, a formal skill. Rather, I would argue that the difficulties students and critical religion State University, employees have in using evidence effectively is academic writing University (Navitas), actually a symptom of a deeper problem, namely a lack of thinking Louisiana State knowledge and essay University, perhaps a lack of exposure to (or an unwillingness to consider) a variety of perspectives.

If you are writing a Sociology paper, for thinking Louisiana State University example, you cannot simply state that the author of a particular study used statistics to support her conclusion, or worse, claim that an author’s position is “convincing” or “effective,” or that it constitutes a “rich analysis” because the author uses lots of write opinion University of Gloucestershire (INTO) statistics as evidence. Rather, you are responsible for evaluating the conditions under which those statistics were gathered; for understanding the characteristics of the groups used to obtain those statistics; and for determining what factors may not have been taken into account in the gathering of those statistics. You are also expected to draw on socio-cultural, demographic, and economic information about the population being studied, about previous studies in critical thinking University which that population was involved, and about the conclusions drawn from those studies. I could go on how to essay Marangoni Paris like this for a while, but I think you probably get the picture. As I discussed in my last post, some of the sample essays posted by the College Board show a default position commonly adopted by many students who aren’t fully sure how to critical, navigate the type of analysis the new SAT essay requires – something I called “praising the author.” Because the SAT is such an important test, they assume that any author whose work appears on interesting Lancing College it must be a pretty big. As a result, they figure that they can score some easy points by cranking up the flattery. Thus, authors are described as “brilliant” and “passionate” and “renowned,” even if they are none of those things.

As a result, the thinking Louisiana State, entire point of the assignment is lost. Ideally, the goal of close reading is to understand how an author’s argument works as precisely as possible in order to formulate a cogent and how to write essay Istituto Paris, well-reasoned response. Thinking State? The goal is to comprehend, not to judge or praise. Otherwise, the writer risks setting up straw men and arguing in relation to positions that they author does not actually take. The sample essay scoring, however, implies something different and potentially quite problematic. When students are rewarded for offering up unfounded praise and judgments, they can easily acquire the illusion that they are genuinely qualified to evaluate professional writers and scholars, even if their own composition skills are at write essay, best middling and they lack any substantial knowledge about a subject. As a result, they can end up confused about critical religion Louisiana State University what academic writing entails, and about what is and is not appropriate/conventional (which again brings us back to They Say/I Say ). These are not theoretical concerns for me; I have actually tutored college students who used these techniques in their writing. My guess is that a fair number of colleges will recognize just how problematic an writing article Anglia University assignment the new essay is and deem it optional. But that in turn creates an State even larger problem.

Colleges cannot very well go essay-optional on article writing service Florida International the SAT and not the ACT. So what will happen, I suspect, is that many colleges that currently require the ACT with Writing will drop that requirement as well – and that means highly selective colleges will be considering applications without a single example of a student’s authentic, unedited writing. Bill Fitzsimmons at Harvard came out so early and so strongly in critical thinking religion Louisiana favor of the writing Anglia Ruskin University, SAT redesign that it would likely be too much of an embarrassment to critical religion State University, renege later, and Princeton, Yale, and Stanford will presumably continue to go along with whatever Harvard does. Aside from those four schools, however, all bets are probably off. If that shift does in fact occur, then no longer will schools be able to flag applicants whose standardized-test essays are strikingly different from their personal essays. There will be even less of a way to analysis Institut Montana Zugerberg, tell what is the result of a stubborn 17 year-old locking herself in her room and critical thinking religion, refusing to show her essays to anyone, and what is the work of academic writing article Anglia University (Navitas) a parent or an English teacher… or a $500/hr. consultant. On the critical religion Louisiana State, new SAT essay, pt. Interesting Lancing? 3: what is thinking Louisiana State, actually expected…and can you still make things up? In response to College, my previous post on the equity issues surrounding the redesigned SAT essay, one reader had this to say: I read a few of the essay prompts and honestly they seem like a joke.

Essentially, each prompt asked for the exact same thing, it’s almost like CB is just screaming “MAKE A TEMPLATE” because all students need to do is plug in the author’s name, cite an example, and put a quote here and there and if it’s surrounded by prepared fancy sentences, they’ve got an easy 12. (or whatever it is now) That’s a fair point. I didn’t actually mean to thinking religion Louisiana University, imply in my earlier post that students would actually need to be experts in rhetoric in order to score well – my goal was primarily to point out the a film essay Montana, mismatch between the background a student would need to seriously be able to complete the assignment, and the sort of background the most students will actually bring to critical religion, the assignment. For a good gauge of what is likely to happen, consider the French AP exam, which was revised a couple of years ago to guidelines an argumentative John F. Kennedy International, be more holistic and “relevant.” It now includes a synthesis essay that is well beyond what most AP French students can write. The result? Score inflation. Critical Thinking State? A similar phenomenon is inevitable here: when there is guidelines for writing essay School, such a big mismatch between ideal and reality, the only way for the College Boart to avoid embarrassment and promote the illusion that students are actually doing college-level work is assign high scores to critical religion Louisiana State University, reasonably competent work that does not actually demonstrate mastery but that throws in (INTO) a few fancy flourishes, and solid passing scores to critical thinking religion Louisiana, work that is academic article Anglia, only semi-component. So I agree halfway. Something like what the reader describes is thinking religion University, probably going to be a pretty reliable formula, albeit one that many students will need tutoring to figure out. But that said, I suspect that it will be one for churning out solid, mid-range essays, not top-scoring ones.

Here’s why: While looking through the examples provided by the College Board, I noticed something interesting: out of all the essays, exactly one made extensive use of academic writing article Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) “fancy” rhetorical terminology (anecdote, allusion, pathos, dichotomy). Would you like to religion Louisiana State University, guess which one? If you said the only essay to earn top scores in each of the three rubric categories, you’d be right. What this suggests to me is persuasive essays Lancing College, that the redesigned essay will in fact be vulnerable to many of the same “inflation” techniques that many high-scoring students already employ. As Katherine Beals and religion Louisiana State, Barry Garelick’s recent Atlantic article discussed, the only way to assess learning is to look for “markers” typically associated with comprehension/mastery. A problem arises, however, when the goal becomes solely to exhibit the markers of mastery without actually mastering anything – and standardized test- essays are nothing if not famous for essay Montana being judged on markers of mastery rather than on substance. The current SAT essay, of course, has been criticized for encouraging fake “fancy” writing – bombastic, flowery prose stuffed full of ten-dollar words, and there is absolutely nothing to suggest that this will change. In fact, the thinking Louisiana State University, new essay is likely to encourage that type of writing just as much, if not more, than the old one. Indeed, the top-scoring examples include some truly cringe-worthy turns of phrase.

For example, consider one student’s statement that “This dual utilization of claims from how to write an empathy essay Istituto Paris, two separate sources conveys to Gioia’s audience the sense that the skills built through immersion in thinking State the arts are vital to succeeding in the modern workplace which aids in logically leading his audience to the conclusion that a loss of experience with the arts may foreshadow troubling results.” Not to mention this: “In paragraph 5, Gioia utilizes a synergistic reference to two separate sources of information that serves to provide a stronger compilation of article writing Florida University support for his main topic” (, last example). And this: “In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts must reside in religion University passage.” This is the sort of prose that makes freshman (college) composition instructors tear their hair out. For Writing Essay John F. Kennedy? Is this what the College Board means by “college readiness?” Furthermore, if the use of fancy terminology correlates with high scores, why not exploit that correspondence and simply pump out essays stuffed to critical religion Louisiana, the gills with exotic terms, with little regard for whether they describe what is actually occurring in the text? As long as the academic writing article Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), description is sufficiently flowery, those sorts of details are likely to University, slip by unnoticed. In fact, why not go a step further and simply make up some Greek-sounding literary terms? Essay graders are unlikely to spend more than the current two minutes scoring essays; they don’t have the opinion University, time or the liberty to check whether obscure rhetorical terms actually exist. Some really smart kids with a slightly twisted sense of humor will undoubtedly decide to have some fun at critical State, the College Board’s expense. Heck, if I could force myself to wake up at 6 a.m. on academic writing article Anglia University (Navitas) a Saturday morning, I’d be tempted to thinking State University, go and do it myself.

Another observation: as discussed in an earlier post, one of the service Florida International, key goals of the SAT essay redesign was to stop students from making up information. But even that seems to have failed: lacking sufficient background information about the work they are analyzing, students will simply resort to thinking State University, conjecture. For example, the writer of the essay scoring 4/3/4 states that Bogard (the author of the first sample passage) is “respected,” and that “he has done his research.” Exactly how would the student know that Bogard is “respected?” Or that he even did research? (Maybe he just found the figures in a magazine somewhere.) Or that the figures he cites are even accurate? It is of course reasonable to how to an empathy Istituto Paris, assume those things are true, but strictly speaking, the student is “stepping outside the four corners of the text” and making inferences that he or she cannot “prove” objectively. Critical Louisiana State University? So despite the College Board’s adamant insistence that essays rely strictly on the information provided in the passages, the inclusion of service Florida International these sorts of statements in a high-scoring sample essay certainly suggests that the critical thinking University, boundary between “inside” and “outside” the text is somewhat more flexible than it would appear. The point, of course, is that it is extraordinarily difficult, if not downright impossible, to remain 100% within the “four corners” of an argumentative essay John School a non-fiction text and still write an analysis that makes any sense at all – particularly if one lacks the ability to critical religion Louisiana State, identify a wide range of rhetorical figures. Of course students will resort to making up plausible-sounding information to pad their arguments. Writing A Film Analysis Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg? And based on the sample essays, it certainly seems that they will continue to be rewarded for doing so. In my previous post, I introduced some of background issues surrounding the new SAT essay. Here, I’d like to examine to examine how the religion State University, redesigned essay, rather than make the SAT a fairer test as the College Board claims, will likely provide further advantages to a small, already privileged segment of the write an empathy Paris, test-taking population. Let’s start with the fact that the new essay was adapted from the rhetorical essay on critical thinking Louisiana University the AP English Language and an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy International School, Composition (AP Comp) exam.

To be sure, the colleges that require the essay are likely to draw many applicants enrolled in critical thinking Louisiana State University AP Comp as juniors, but there will still undoubtedly be tens of thousands of students sitting for the SAT essay who are not enrolled in write an empathy Marangoni Paris AP Comp, or whose schools do not even offer that class. Many other students whose schools do offer AP Comp may not take it until senior year, well after they’ve taken their first SAT. And then there will be students who are enrolled in critical University AP Comp as juniors but who spend class talking in small groups with their classmates and interesting College, not ever being taught about rhetorical analysis. Critical Thinking Louisiana? (Based on my own experience tutoring AP Comp, I suspect that many students fall into that last category.) What sort of value is there in asking so many students to write an essay that they are totally unprepared to write? The College Board, of course, has attempted to make the essay appear more egalitarian by insisting that no particular terminology or background knowledge is academic Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), required, and that students can find all the information they need in the passage. Whereas the AP Comp prompt explicitly asks students to analyze the rhetorical choices…an author makes in order to develop her/her argument , the College Board deliberately avoids use of the term “rhetoric” for the SAT essay, opting for the more neutral “evidence and reasoning” and thinking religion State, stylistic or persuasive elements,” and giving the impression that the persuasive essays Lancing College, assignment is wide open by thinking religion Louisiana State asserting that students may also analyze features of [their] own choice . The problem is that this type of formal, written textual analysis is a highly artificial task. An Argumentative Essay John F. Kennedy International? It involves a very particular type of abstract thought, one that really only critical religion University, exists in school. (I suspect that the how to write an empathy essay Paris, only American students seriously studying rhetoric at a high level are budding classicists at critical thinking religion Louisiana University, a handful of very, very elite mostly private schools – a minuscule percentage of a film essay Montana Zugerberg test-takers.) Learning to notice, to divide, to label, to thinking Louisiana, categorize, to enter into a text and describe the order and article, logic by which it functions… These are not instinctive ways of reading; learning to do these things well takes considerable practice. If students don’t acquire this particular skill set in school, and more particularly in English class, they almost certainly won’t acquire it anywhere else.

Of all the things tested on the new SAT, this is the one Khan Academy is least equipped to handle. It also strikes me as naive and more than a little bit misleading to critical thinking University, insist that this type of analysis can be performed by any old student if the technical aspect is removed – that is, if students write “appeal to emotion” rather than pathos . Yes, it is writing a film analysis Institut, possible to religion State University, write a top-scoring essay that employs nothing but plain old Anglo-Saxon words, but in most cases, the persuasive essays College, students most capable of even faking their way through a rhetorical analysis will be precisely the ones who have learned the formal terms. State? Students don’t somehow acquire skills simply from being allowed to express themselves in non-technical language. The choice to adopt this particular template for the SAT essay was, I imagine, based on the presumption that Common Core would sweep through classrooms across the United States, with all students spending their English periods diligently practicing for college and career readiness by combing through non-fiction passages, finding “evidence” (the text means what it means because it says what it says) and identifying “appeals to emotion and authority.” Needless to say, that reality has not materialized; however, the SAT is based on the assumption that it would. So whereas smart, solid writers who didn’t do much of anything in English class had as good a chance as anyone else at doing well on writing analysis the pre-2016 essay, smart, solid writers who have not been given practice in University this particular type of writing in English class will now be at a much larger disadvantage.

There will of course be the extreme outliers who can sit themselves down with a prep book, read over interesting Lancing College, a few examples, and start churning out flawless expository prose, but they will be the exceptions that prove the rule. As for the rest, well… let’s just say the new essay is basically the critical thinking Louisiana State, College Board’s gift to the tutoring industry. On the new SAT essay, part I: background. In the past, I haven’t posted much about the SAT essay. Even though my students always did well, teaching the article writing service, SAT essay was never my favorite part of tutoring, in critical thinking Louisiana large part because I’m what most people would consider a natural writer (thanks in large part to the 5,000 or so books I consumed over the course of interesting essays College my childhood), and critical thinking religion Louisiana University, “naturals” don’t usually make the best teachers. Besides, teaching someone to write is essentially a question of teaching them to think, and that’s probably the only thing harder than teaching someone to read. The redesigned essay is a little different, first because it directly concerns the type of rhetorical analysis that so much of my work focuses on. In theory, I should like it a lot. At the same time, though, it embodies some of the most problematic aspects of the new SAT for analysis essay Institut me. Some of these issues recur throughout the critical thinking State University, test but seem particularly thorny here. I’ve been trying to elucidate my thoughts about the essay for a long time; for some reason, I’m finding it exceptionally difficult to disentangle them.

Every point seems mixed up with a dozen other points, and every time I start to go in one direction, I inevitably get tugged off in a different one. For that reason, I’ve decided to devote multiple posts to this topic. That way, I can keep myself focused on writing International a limited number of Louisiana University ideas at a time and avoid writing a post so long that no one can get more than halfway through! Before launching into an examination of the essay itself, some background. First, it is necessary to understand that the major driving force behind the essay change is the utter lack of correlation between factual accuracy and scores – that is, the University of Gloucestershire, rather embarrassing fact that students are free to invent examples (personal experiences, historical figures/battles/act, novels, etc.) without penalty. In particular, personal examples have been a particular target of David Coleman’s ire because they cannot be assessed “objectively.” The College Board simply could not withstand any more bad publicity for that particular shortcoming. As a result, it was necessary to devise a structure that would simultaneously require students to use “evidence” yet not require – or rather appear not to require – any outside knowledge whatsoever.

As I’ve pointed out critical thinking religion Louisiana State University before, students have been – and guidelines an argumentative John International, still are – perfectly free to thinking religion University, make up examples on write essay the ACT essay, but for critical Louisiana University some mysterious reason, the ACT never seems to take the kind of guidelines for writing an argumentative John F. Kennedy International flack that the SAT does. Again, marketing. My feelings on this issue have evolved somewhat over the years; they’re sufficiently complex to merit an critical Louisiana University entire post, if not more, so for now I’ll leave my opinion out of this particular aspect of the discussion. Let’s start with the pre-2016 essay. Despite its very considerable shortcomings, the writing Florida International University, current SAT essay is as close as possible to a pure exercise in “using evidence” – or at least in supporting a claim with information consistent with that claim (information that may or may not be factually accurate), which is essentially the critical Louisiana University, meaning of “evidence” that the essay Institut Montana, College Board itself has chosen to adopt. For all its pseudo-philosophical hokeyness, the critical thinking religion Louisiana State University, current SAT essay does at least represents an attempt to be fair. Academic Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)? The questions are deliberately constructed to be so broad that anyone, regardless of background, can potentially find something to say about them. ( Are people’s lives the result of the choices they make? Can knowledge be a burden rather than a benefit? ). Furthermore, students are free to support their arguments with examples from any area they choose – contrary to popular belief, there is ample room for religion creativity. While students may, if they so choose, use personal examples, the how to write essay Istituto Marangoni, top-scoring essays tend to critical Louisiana State University, use examples from writing Institut Zugerberg, literature, history, science, and current events. The example of a top-scoring essay in the Official Guide, if memory serves me correctly, is an analysis of the factors leading up to the stock market crash of 1929 – not exactly a personal narrative.

In contrast, essays that rely on personal examples, particularly invented ones, tend to thinking religion Louisiana, be vague, unconvincing, and immature. Yes, there are some students who can pull that type of fabrication off with aplomb, but in essay Institut Montana most cases, “can” does not mean “should.” Furthermore, students who make up facts to support other types of examples are rarely able to do so convincingly. The ones who can are, by definition, strong writers who understand how to thinking religion State University, bullshit effectively – a highly useful real-world skill, it should be pointed out. But in general, the a film analysis Montana Zugerberg, best writers tend to have strong knowledge bases (both being the result of a good education) and thus the least need to make up facts. That is why the essay, formerly part of the Writing SAT II test, was relatively uncontroversial for most of its existence: only thinking Louisiana State, selective colleges required it, and so only the students who took it were students applying to selective college – a far, far smaller number than apply today. As prospective applicants to selective colleges, those-test takers were generally taking very rigorous classes and thus had very a solid academic base from which to draw. Remember that this was also in the days before work could be copied and pasted from a film analysis Montana Zugerberg, Wikipedia, and when AP classes were still mostly restricted to very top students. Critical Thinking Religion State University? While plenty of smart-alecks (including, I should confess, me) did of course invent examples, the phenomenon was considerably more limited than it became in 2005, when the essay was tacked on to the SAT-I. Based on how to Paris what I’ve witnessed, I suspect that the questionable veracity of many current essays is critical thinking religion State, also a result of the reality that many students who attempt to write about books, historical events, scientific examples, etc. simply do not know enough facts to support their arguments effectively, either because they are not required to persuasive Lancing College, learn them at all in school (the acquisition of factual knowledge being dismissed as “rote memorization” or “mere facts”), or because information is presented in such a fragmentary, disorganized manner that they lack the sort of mental framework that would allow them to critical thinking, retain the facts they do learn. One of the interesting persuasive, unfortunate consequences of doing away with lectures, I would argue, is that students are not given the sort of coherent narratives that tend to facilitate the retention of factual information. (Yes, they can read or watch online lectures, but there’s no substitute for sitting in a room with a real, live person who can sense when a class is confused and back up or adjust an explanation accordingly.)

At any rate, when word got out about just how ridiculous some of critical thinking religion State those top-scoring essays were… Well, the College Board had a public relations problem on academic writing Anglia Ruskin its hands. University? The essay redesign was thus also prompted by the need to remove the factual knowledge component. Now, here it gets interesting. As I forgot until recently, the GRE “analyze an argument” essay actually solves the College Board’s problem quite effectively. (The GMAT and for writing an argumentative essay John F. Kennedy International School, LSAT also have similar essays.) Test-takers are presented with a brief argument, either in the form of a letter to an editor, a summary of research in a magazine or journal, or a pitch for a new business. While the exact prompt can vary slightly, it is critical religion Louisiana, usually something along the lines of this: Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the write Marangoni, evidence would weaken or strengthen the thinking, argument. The beauty of the assignment is that it has clearly defined parameters – there is effectively no way for essay Paris students to go outside the bounds of the religion State University, situation described – yet allows for considerable flexibility. The situations are also general and neutral enough that no specific outside knowledge, terminology, or coursework is necessary to evaluate arguments concerning them.

In short, it is a solid, fair, well-designed task that reveals a considerable amount about students’ ability to think logically, present and organize their ideas in writing, evaluate claims/evidence, and writing University, “dialogue” with differing points of view while still maintaining a clear focus on their own argument. There is absolutely no reason this assignment could not have been adapted for critical thinking Louisiana State University younger students. It would have eliminated any temptation for essay students to invent (personal) examples while providing an excellent snapshot of analytical writing ability and remaining more or less universally accessible. Critical Religion University? It also would have been perfectly consistent with the redesigned exam’s focus on “evidence.” Instead, the College Board essentially created a diluted rhetorical strategy essay, taken from the AP English Composition exam — a very specific, subject-based essay that many students will lack prior experience writing. Students are given 50 minutes (double the current 25) to John F. Kennedy International, read a passage of about 750 words in response to thinking religion State, the following prompt: As you read the passage below, consider how the author uses. evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims. Guidelines For Writing An Argumentative Essay John F. Kennedy? reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to thinking Louisiana State, the ideas expressed. Write an essay in which you explain how the how to an empathy essay Istituto Marangoni, author builds an argument to persuade his/her audience that xxx. In your essay, analyze how the author uses one or more of the features in the directions that precede the passage (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the critical thinking religion Louisiana State, logic and persuasiveness of his/her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.

Your essay should not explain whether you agree with the author’s claims, but rather explain how the how to essay Istituto, author builds an argument to religion, persuade his/her audience. Before I go any further, I want to essays, make something clear: I am not in any way opposed to asking students to critical, engage closely with texts, or to writing article (Navitas), analyzing how authors construct their arguments, or to requiring the use of textual evidence to support one’s arguments. Thinking Religion State? Most of how to essay Marangoni my work is devoted to teaching people to do these very things. What I am opposed to is an assignment that directly contradicts claims of increased equity by testing skills only Louisiana, a small percentage of essays Lancing test-takers have been given the opportunity to acquire; that misrepresents the amount and type of knowledge needed to complete the assignment effectively; and that purports to reflect the type of work that students will do in college but that is actually very far removed from what the vast majority of actual college work entails. In my next post, I’ll start to look at these issues more closely.

How the SAT essay could really test “career-readiness” I’ve been saying half-jokingly for a while that the AP English Language test should take a cue from the AP language tests and include an essay that requires students to thinking religion Louisiana, compose a formal email. Granted, this type of assignment might seem a tad simplistic for write essay Istituto Marangoni Paris the AP exam; however, given the redesigned SAT’s purported emphasis on critical religion Louisiana State University “the skills that matter most,” why not test one of the skills that does incontrovertibly matter most in the hyper-competitive knowledge-based twenty first century economy? As I wrote about the other day, in light of some of the emails I’ve received, I actually think that this would be a rather challenging assignment for many high school students. Academic Article Ruskin University? Among other things, it would not only require correct grammar and diction (points off for all lower-case!) but also use of a formal register. And come on, how often in Louisiana University the real world do people really get asked to write an empathy Marangoni Paris, write an thinking State University essay analyzing how an author builds an argument? Not very often, I should think — especially if they’re busy inventing the next great app for article Florida International University something that will truly benefit society, like faster pizza delivery. And since liberal arts education is critical State University, being dismantled anyway, why not simply do away with the pretense that it matters and test students on a skill that might actually help them land a job? The assignment would go something like this (adapted from the School, French AP): You will reply to an email message. You have 15 minutes to read the thinking State, prompt and write your response.

Your response should include a greeting and a closing and essays, should respond to all the questions and requests in critical thinking State University the message. Article (Navitas)? In your reply, you should also ask for critical thinking religion State more details about something mentioned in the message. A Film Analysis Institut Zugerberg? Also, you should use a formal form of address. (Apparently, the people who write the directions for the AP exams never learned that you’re not supposed to start a sentence with “also.”) This is a message from Jane Smith, who directs a program that places high school students in internships with local businesses. Religion Louisiana University? You are receiving this message because you have indicated your interest in this program. The message is for writing, being sent to religion, find out more about your interests and qualifications. From: Jane Smith. To: Internship applicants. We are excited to learn of your interest in participating in our program! For the writing University, last 10 years, we have offered high school students the chance to hone their career readiness skills for success in the twenty-first century economy.

In order to determine whether you are a good fit for our program, we ask you to provide some additional information. What attracts you to our program, how do you believe you will benefit from Louisiana University, it, and what sorts of skills could you bring to a twenty-first century workplace? What is your schedule: are you available on weekdays and/or weekends? How many hours can you work each day, and do you have any flexibility? Which sectors appeal to you most, and why do they appeal to you?

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