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Economics Lesson at Abbey College Cambridge


Sit in on a lesson at Abbey College Cambridge with our Head of Economics Michael Oswell.

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Ataturk - Turkish Soldier and Statesman. An Essay In High School? Autor: reviewessays • November 14, 2010 • Essay • 1,690 Words (7 Pages) • 840 Views. Mustafa Kemal Atat?N?rk (March 12, 1881 - November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Kensington School, Turkey. He was born in the Ottoman city of Sel?Nznik (now Thessaloniki in in high Greece), where his birthplace is the Turkish Consulate and is also preserved as a museum. In accordance with the then prevalent Turkish custom, he was given the define Kendall single name Mustafa. His father, Ali Riza (Efendi) was a customs officer who died when Mustafa was a child, his mother was Z?N?beyde (Hanim). Ataturk's Early career. Mustafa studied at how to an essay school Abbey the military secondary school in how to write a self evaluation St. Michael's School Sel?Nznik, where he was given the additional name Kemal (perfection) by his math teacher in recognition of his academic brilliance. As Mustafa Kemal he entered the military academy at Monastir (now Bitola) in 1895.

He graduated as a lieutenant in 1904 and how to school Abbey College was posted to essay Kensington School, Damascus. He soon joined a secret society of reform-minded officers called Vatan (Fatherland) and became an active opponent of the Ottoman regime. In 1907 he was posted to Sel?Nznik and joined the Committee of Union and Progress commonly known as the Young Turks. The Young Turks seized power from the Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908, and Kemal, became a senior military figure. In 1911 he went to the province of Libya to take part in the defence against the Italian invasion. How To Write School Abbey College? During the first part of the Balkan Wars Kemal was stranded in a self essay Libya and unable to take part, but in July 1913 he returned to Constantinople and was appointed commander of the Ottoman defences of the Gallipoli area on the coast of Thrace. In 1914 he was appointed military attache in Sofia, partly to write school Abbey, remove him from the capital and its political intrigues. Ataturk as War Commander.

When the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of Germany, Kemal was posted to Rodosto (now Tekirdag) on the Sea of Marmara. His area of command again included the Gallipoli area, and he was thus the Ottoman commander against the invading allied forces during the Gallipoli landings by British, French and ANZAC forces in April 1915. Here he made his name as a brilliant military commander, although he was extremely wasteful of the critical thinking Chelsea College lives of his troops, who died in large numbers in human wave attacks. Nevertheless he was the first Ottoman military commander to defeat a western army in living memory, and became a national hero, awarded the title Pasha (commander). How To Write In High School Abbey College? During 1917 and 1918 Kemal Pasha was posted to St. Michael's, the Caucasus front fighting the Russian forces with some success, and then to the Hejaz, where the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule was in progress. He became increasingly critical of the incompetent conduct of the war by the Sultan's government, and also of German domination of the Empire. He resigned his command, but eventually agreed to return to command Ottoman forces in Palestine. In October 1918 the Ottomans capitulated to the Allies, and Kemal became one of the leaders of the party which favoured a policy of defending the Turkish-speaking heartlands of the Empire, while agreeing to withdraw from all the non-Turkish territories. Turkish nationalist sentiment was aroused by the Greek occupation of Izmir (Smyrna) in May 1919, in accordance with the Treaty of Sevres (this Treaty was signed by the Sultan under Allied duress but never ratified by the Ottoman parliament.) Ataturk as Nationalist leader. The government sent Kemal to eastern Anatolia to suppress a so-called riot which turned out to be a false claim, but he seized this opportunity to leave the capital and how to an essay school Abbey College found a Turkish nationalist movement based at Ankara.

In April 1920 a provisional Parliament at Ankara offered Kemal the title President of the National Assembly. This body repudiated the government and the Treaty of TASIS American in Switzerland), Sevres. The Greeks understood the threat posed to their position in how to in high College western Anatolia by Kemal's forces and advanced inland to meet them. Articles About Brighton College? After advancing most of the an essay way to Ankara, the define think Greeks were defeated by Kemal and his lieutenant Ismet Pasha (later Ismet In?¶n?N?) at the battles of Sakarya (August 1921) and Dumlupinar (August 1922). In September Kemal's forces took Izmir. Kemal's victory in the War of Independence saved Turkey's sovereignty. Write An Essay College Cambridge? The Treaty of Lausanne superceded the Treaty of Sevres and Turkey recovered all of a persuasive paper International Business School, Anatolia and eastern Thrace from the Greeks. School College? President of Turkey - Ataturk.

The Republic of Turkey was founded on October 29, 1923, and Kemal was elected the republic's first president. Although the outward forms of democracy were established, Kemal was in practice a dictator, although a relatively moderate one. In any case his prestige was so high that for most of the 1920s there was little opposition to his government. Kemal admired some aspects of the Soviet Union and of Fascist Italy, but he was neither a communist nor a fascist. Private property was protected and encouraged, and political opponents usually suffered no worse fate than banishment to the provinces. On the other hand Kemal was an ardent Turkish nationalist, determined to create a homogenous Turkish state.

By agreement with the Greek government, the critical & creative great majority of the large Greek minority was expelled from the country, and an influx of write in high College Cambridge, Turks from Greece and Bulgaria was accepted in their place. The Kurds were not persecuted, but Kemal insisted that they were really just a variety of Turk, and their language and culture was discouraged. Kemal's most lasting legacy was the evaluation St. Michael's School campaign of secularization, modernization and how to an essay Abbey purification which he imposed on a sometimes reluctant Turkish nation. Articles To Write Brighton College? The Caliphate (the position of nominal head of the Islamic faith, held by how to write school College Cambridge the Ottoman Sultans), was abolished in March 1924. The title of Pasha was abolished, so Kemal Pasha became once again simple Mustafa Kemal. The theological schools madrassas were closed, the critical College Sharia law of Islam was replaced by write school Abbey College a law code based on that of Switzerland. The Italian Penal Code and the German Commerce Code were also adopted.

The emancipation of about Brighton College, women was encouraged by how to an essay in high Mustafa Kemal's marriage in good Brighton College 1923 to a Western-educated woman, Latife Hanim (they were divorced in 1925), and was set in motion by a number of laws. In December 1934, women were given the how to in high Abbey vote for parliamentary members and were made eligible to hold.

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nus law essay ARTICLES, TALKS, and the like. On this page you will find a variety of essays spoken and written, in whole or in excerpt or summary, devoted to the topic of women's topfreedom. TERA does not necessarily agree with everything expressed here. We will post more material as time allows.

The topfreedom dilemma (by the girl who wrote One small step for topfreedom, Adelle Shea; posted 2006 Septermber 10) Baring our breasts (by Oquawka, posted 2004 September 27) One small step for topfreedom (by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta, posted 2004 May 20) Buffaloed (by John Aaron, posted 2004 March 16) Wal-Mart is how to write an essay school Abbey College Cambridge wrong (by Julia Goforth, posted 2002 December 28)

Discriminatoire! (by Isabelle, posted 2002 December 14) [in French] Key West's Fantasy Fest: (by Bruce Frendahl, posted 2002 November 03) John, John, John: a poem about the boob in the Hall of Justice (by Claire Braz Valentine, posted 2002 April 30) The Judge (by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25) Canadian Tire attire (by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07) Beauty and the Breast: An Art Exhibition (by Allison Roberts, 2001 June 01) The KAYLA SOSNOW interview (by Peri, 2000 March 30 and April 10) I am not a sex object. I own my own body (by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10) You can think for yourself (by Whitney R. McCleskey, 2001 May 9) Topfree as you wanna be! (by Peri, 1999 September 7) A taste of freedom (by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14) My breasts reclaimed (by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27) Articles by Paul Rapoport: Burn this page . . . Write St. Michael's School! (2005 November 28) Barebreasted women: Exposing indecency?

Outline and Summary (2001 June 1) 'Topfreedom' gaining ground (2000 March 01, a response to Topless advocates ignore differences between genders, by Lydia Lovric, 2000 February 23) Breastfeeding frenzy: Two views (1999 February 25, with update note 2001 August 27) Women's bare breasts: Equal rights or double standard? Summary (1998 March 11) Women take back their breasts: Canadian topfree struggles in 1997 (1997 October, excerpts and web link) Are barebreasted women monsters from space? (1997 August) THE TOPFREEDOM DILEMMA. The person who wrote the how to write an essay in high Abbey next item has drawn a telling cartoon on the subject in articles about Brighton, three frames: She concluded with this: The only way people will get used to seeing the write Abbey naked female breast is by s eeing the naked female breast. Can't get any simpler, can it!

UNCOVERED: CELEBRATING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY. by Jordan Matter. The author is to write about Brighton College a noted New York photographer. Four of his photos are below; two more are here. Jordan Matter is looking for women above 40 (especially 60 and over) to participate in an ongoing photography project titled Uncovered: Celebrating Women in New York City. This project has recently been featured several times in the New York Daily News, as well as WOL radio. It involves photographs of women casually going about their daily routine in public while topfree.

The project is a reaction to the public madness that followed Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction. Public topfreedom for women and men in New York State is completely legal. If you're interested, please contact Jordan Matter. After Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed during the Super Bowl halftime show in 2004, the Federal Communications Commission launched an how to in high Abbey College Cambridge, investigation as a reaction to the public outrage. Meanwhile, advertisements showing scantily clad models hawking beer received no such attention. The message to women across America was clear: your body is something to be used but not shown. Kendall! Conceal your breasts behind 150 grams of fabric and you're an write an essay school Abbey, attractive, desirable woman; but remove that fabric and you're at Kendall College best an aggressive opportunist. This double standard leads many women towards an extremely negative self-image. They are measured by the highest physical standards, unmatchable by in high school Cambridge, even the standard bearers themselves. Heidi Klum doesn't even look like Heidi Klum in person.

So women rely on smoke and mirrors, spending a small fortune on pushup bras, body slimmers, and stiletto heels. To reveal what's beneath the packaging renders it in effect useless. Articles! This project reveals what's beneath the packaging. And it does so very publicly. Men are free to rip off their shirts with absolute impunity. I am encouraging women to do the same. The purpose is to demystify the female body.

To accomplish this, I have chosen to photograph women topless in how to write in high College, the most public venue in how to a memoir Kensington Park, the world---New York City. When I photographed Alicia, she was lying down on a curb in Soho. A van with two men was parked three metres away. How To An Essay In High Cambridge! They were very excited when they saw the TASIS School in Switzerland) purpose of the photograph. First they sat in stunned silence, then they hooted and write College hollered.

But after five minutes they lost interest, and left before the shoot was finished. Her body was no longer mysterious. The women I have photographed all mention the liberation they feel while posing topless in public. Having covered themselves up for College, a lifetime, they found it exhilarating to how to an essay College Cambridge shatter the walls that society had placed around them. I hope that when people view this work, they get a sense of that exhilaration---because it can be intoxicating, and inspiring. I want to have a national conversation about beauty.

I'd like to sponsor a Pants Only parade, where men and women march in topfree solidarity down Fifth Avenue. I want Americans to see so many bodies that they move beyond the mindless, petty titillation of cleavage and physical beauty and into a more meaningful conversation about humanity and individuality. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. by Julia Goforth. The following letter was written in the winter of 2004, in Brighton College, response to the move by California public defender Liana Johnsson to school College permit women more topfreedom in how to write a memoir Park School, that state. I am having a difficult time finding out your position on the proposed bill for how to write an essay Abbey, female breast equality. I would think that your background would cause you to have a more enlightened view than that of the write a self evaluation essay School more gymnophobic westerner. From what I've read, the arguments against the proposed bill are based in fear rather than fact.

Statistics related to sex crimes against write in high Abbey, women indicate that countries/cultures that allow female breast freedom have a lower incidence of such crimes. Article Reviews (The American School! In North America, states and provinces which do not criminalize the how to write in high Abbey female breast have not suddenly become states of indecency. In fact, very few women choose to exercise their right to be topfree, due to the shame they still carry from the ongoing sexualization of the female breast by College, those who can profit by such measures. Randy Thomasson, president of Campaign for Children and Families, insinuates that allowing women to how to an essay school Abbey choose to & creative Chelsea wear tops or not will increase sex crimes against women. This is in direct opposition to studies concerning predators, as sexual assault is not a crime of sex but one of power. When a woman has the courage to choose freedom and comfort, she projects power and is unlikely to school become a victim.

Predators prey on I'm weak body language. Publicly reclaiming ownership of one's breasts is articles about Brighton not an how to write in high school College, act of a weak woman. His claim is not based in articles to write College, fact and is propaganda meant to induce fear and perpetuate body shame. A side note: body shame is the root of eating disorders, body-altering surgeries, and related societal diseases which are damaging our families in far greater numbers than even the current rate of sex crimes. How To College! Breast shame also prevents some women from how to a self evaluation performing breast exams and getting mammograms.

It was you who proclaimed October to be Breast Cancer Awareness Month. As a victim of sexual assault, rape, and sexual abuse, having the opportunity to reclaim my breasts has helped heal my formerly devastated body image and self concept. While I do not encourage other women to go without tops, I do encourage them to make a conscious choice rather than allow others to how to in high school Abbey College Cambridge make the choice for them. Without choice, one is oppressed and enslaved. To Write About Brighton! And although I have the right to choose, I rarely choose to be topfree. Thomasson goes on to say, The average man views a woman's exposed breasts as fascinating and sexually stimulating. That view is a result of this culture's teaching that breasts are taboo and how to write an essay school Abbey College intended for male sexual gratification only. Evaluation St. Michael's School! Only 12% of the world's cultures view the female breast as sexual. Biologically speaking, female breast development is a secondary sex trait, the same as male facial hair is. The female breast's primary function is not one of a sexual nature.

The biased laws perpetuate the myth that the female breast is inherently sexual. Sexuality of the breasts ought to how to write an essay Cambridge be at the discretion of the define College owners, not the lawmakers. US case law has already determined that the female breast isn't genitals, and that mere breast exposure doesn't constitute indecency or lewd and how to an essay in high College lascivious behaviour. Punishing women for having the misfortune of being women by critical thinking Chelsea, denying the how to an essay in high school College right to & creative thinking Independent College choose whether or not to write an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge wear a top is akin to punishing African-Americans for being African-Americans by denying them the right to sit where they want on writing paper Hult International School a bus, attend a school with Caucasians, and vote. The opinion of individuals doesn't supersede the Constitution of the write Abbey USA. To deny women the choice of wearing a top or not is about Brighton a violation of the 14th Amendment, as this is imposed on the basis of one's sex. Children are not harmed by the sight of female breasts. They are harmed by prejudices and bigotry. Write An Essay In High Abbey! Numerous studies indicate it is the parents' attitudes toward exposed breasts that determine how the child will be affected.

It is the critical & creative thinking Chelsea College gymnophobic parental response that traumatizes the child, not the breast itself. The occasional exposure to the bare breast (pardon the pun), if managed in a respectful manner, would provide an opportunity to educate and enlighten children (and adults) of the intended function of the female breast. Protecting the female breast from criminalization would help support breastfeeding mothers and help desensitize society. It would also make nursing mothers feel more at how to an essay school Cambridge ease giving their child the best nutrition and nurturing, because they wouldn't have to be concerned about define College, being harassed for using their breasts in a non-sexual manner. An Essay College Cambridge! (Breastfeeding is the best way to protect the health of the children in your state. It prevents numerous illnesses and helps relieve the burden of state-covered medical care.)

Thomasson also says, There are good reasons for modesty laws---to protect the innocence of women and girls and to a memoir essay Park School promote a decent society supportive of children and families. How To Write In High Abbey College Cambridge! Modesty is a culturally relative term. The laws he speaks of aren't modesty laws; they are shame and oppression laws. They don't promote decency; they ensure the livelihood of strip clubs and other exploitive industries. They don't protect innocence; they perpetuate ignorance. They aren't supportive of & creative thinking Chelsea children or families; they induce fear and shame. TOPFREEDOM: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATE WITH A BUST. by Robin Jensen. This essay was written for presentation at how to an essay in high school Abbey College the annual conference of the Organization for the Study of Communication, Language, and Kendall College Gender on October 10, 2003 in Ft.

Mitchell, Kentucky (hosted by the University of Cincinnati). One of my biggest fantasies is just to ride down the highway bare-breasted on my motorcycle. I resent the write an essay in high school Abbey Cambridge fact that men do not have to thinking Chelsea wear shirts and women do, especially in the summer when it's so hot. Cambridge! (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 122) It was probably a good thing for those children at the pool to see women's breasts as much as they wanted to and to be done with all the mystique, this hide-and-seek with women's breasts is obviously unnatural and everybody suffers in some way, especially women. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. A Self Evaluation School! 128) On the smoldering summer evening of June 21, 1934, everything seemed normal at Coney Island in write in high school Abbey Cambridge, New York City. The beach was crowded with men, women, and children dipping into the water after a long day at work.

Somewhere in this scene, a group of men decided to remove their bathing tops and perform calisthenics on the beach. The next day, The New York Times reported the scandalous incident. This was the writing paper Hult Business School second day in a row that men had refused to cover their chests in public (Heat, 1934, p. 3). The men were arrested and rushed to the county courthouse. Fortunately, Magistrate William O'Dwyer saw nothing wrong with shirtless men in how to an essay, the public sphere and released them without penalty (p. 3). To this day, the ease with which these men earned the right to go topless stands in stark contrast to critical thinking College the efforts put forth by members of the opposite sex. How To In High Abbey College! For instance, sixty years later a woman went to jail for going bare-breasted in the Osceola National Forest (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). To Write About Brighton College! On an equally scorching day, Kayla Sosnow, a graduate student, was hiking in the mountains with a male friend when they both decided to remove their shirts. Two forest rangers spotted the pair and demanded that Sosnow cover her chest. She refused to an essay College Cambridge do so.

Later, she said, 'I knew it was ridiculous that men had the right to go without a shirt and women didn't, so I was going to do something about it, which was just take my shirt off and be comfortable' (p. 161). Revealing her breasts in 1996 cost her four days in a Florida jail before she was allowed out on bail. Then, she: was found guilty of essay School disorderly conduct and sentenced to thirty days in how to write an essay College Cambridge, jail to be suspended after successfully serving five months probation, fifty hours of community service, payment of $600 in fines and fees, and a promise not to appear nude or partially nude in public for the next six months. How To Write A Memoir Essay Park School! (Latteier, 1998, p. 162) [At the time of Latteier's book publication in how to write an essay school Abbey Cambridge, 1998, Sosnow was still facing appeals that were expected to last three to Hult International School five years (p. 162). According to how to write in high school Abbey Cambridge www.bodyobjective.com in a story by Peri Escarda accessed on a persuasive paper Business April 7, 2003, Florida's 8th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Kayla Sosnow's disorderly conduct conviction three years and eight months after her initial arrest.] Even before Sosnow's absurd experience in 1996, people had been fighting to how to in high College eliminate the gender discrimination involved in her case. These feminists are proponents of topfreedom, which is the notion that women have the how to write a memoir School right to not wear a top in any situation that men also have that option (Topfree! 2003). The same website explains, The word 'topfree' is used because it does not have the negative connotations of Abbey 'topless' in regard to commercial sex work. Although equality between the & creative thinking Chelsea Independent College sexes has long been an ideal throughout most of western society, very little attention has been paid to this area of how to write an essay Abbey College striking discrimination.

In order to delve into the gap between current topless laws and the fight against gender discrimination, it is important that the arguments on define Kendall both sides of the issue are elucidated so as to encourage understanding and change. How To Write In High College Cambridge! Therefore, this essay explores the main arguments for and against topfreedom circulating in the public sphere and thinking groups them into rhetorical categories for future analysis. To begin, this essay first reviews the write College female breast's historical role and the emergence of the topfree movement. Second, it identifies and article reviews TASIS (The American analyzes arguments for and against topfreedom using Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation as a guide. Ultimately, this work creates an initial, and long overdue, theoretical basis for future research concerning this important social protest movement. The Female Breast's Historical Role. In western culture, the write in high school Abbey College female breast is overladen with contrasting and paradoxical meanings. The breast has consistently played a central role in the perception of women as divine idols, sexual deviants, consumers, mothers, citizens, employees, and how to St. Michael's medical patients.

In A History of the Breast , Yalom (1997) traces the ambiguous nature of the female breast throughout history. On one hand, the breast has long been a symbol of spirituality and the sacred role of an essay Abbey College Cambridge motherhood that is modeled after the journal article reviews (The American School Virgin Mary nursing the baby Jesus (p. 31). How To Write An Essay Abbey Cambridge! It has been said that as Mary provided nourishment for the divine child and write Kensington School is worthy of how to write an essay in high school Abbey College Cambridge veneration, so are the nursing mothers who follow in her footsteps. & Creative Independent College! This view is evident in how to write an essay in high College Cambridge, the numerous paintings, sculptures, and other ancient and to write about Brighton modern art works that feature the sacred act of a woman nursing her baby (p. 40). On the in high school College other hand, the breast has also worked for ages as a symbol of the erotic. Separated from the innocent divinity of the Virgin Mary, the display of the breast is Hult School associated with sexuality and carnal lust (p. 49).

The erotic breast was, and continues to be, dominated by men. In this light, breasts are offered up for the pleasure of a male . . . An Essay In High Cambridge! with the intent of how to essay School arousing him, not her (p. 90). Latteier (1998) tackles the how to Abbey College breast's sacred and erotic role from a modern perspective. She identifies the ambiguity surrounding the female breast and the issue that brings this ambiguity to define Kendall the forefront: breastfeeding. Latteier claims that with the modern day commercialization of the breast as a sexual object, breastfeeding has become a taboo:

First, we do not trust the female body, and we feel squeamish about bodily secretions in general. Then, we value breasts for their erotic appeal. We believe that breasts should be attractive and that nursing wrecks them. Many people feel uncomfortable seeing a baby suckle, an act they view as sexual. (p. An Essay School Abbey! 89) With this outlook, the Western world has adopted numerous alternatives to define Kendall College breastfeeding. Before formula and bottles, many upper class women hired wet nurses to nurse their children for how to write in high school College Cambridge, them. By the write a self essay St. Michael's School late 18th century, wet nurses fed 90 percent of babies born in Paris, and other European urban areas boasted similarly high statistics (p.

106). How To Write An Essay Abbey! In an effort to thinking Chelsea reverse this phenomenon, numerous governmental campaigns began equating nursing one's own child with civic responsibility. Yalom (1997) explains, The nursing mother was seen as fulfilling her duty first to write an essay College Cambridge her family and then to the commonwealth as she nourished its future citizens (p. 107). Today, Nadesan and how to write School Sotirin (1998) argue that the act of breastfeeding is still rich with ambiguous symbolism and that a new slant is brought to write school Abbey College Cambridge the mother/sexual-object dichotomy in the science of breast feeding (p.

227). Science and medicine collapse the act into how to essay Park, a normalized procedure that values the chemistry of the product, breast milk (p. 227). Modern campaigns encourage breastfeeding by using slogans such as Breast is best, which frame the female breast as an an essay school Abbey College Cambridge, object of health, prosperity, and monetary profit (women who decide to breast feed are often encouraged by essay School, the medical community to school Abbey Cambridge purchase nursing pumps, specialized bras, and expensive nutritional supplements). In this light, the breast is paper International School not a symbol of motherhood or sexuality, but rather, simply a producer of a medically endorsed item for consumption, equivalent to a faucet or perhaps an assembly line part (p. 229). As both Yalom and Latteier point out, the medical establishment has also become involved with the fight against breast cancer.

Breast cancer has recently reached epic proportions with one in how to College Cambridge, eight women in International Business School, the United States contracting the disease in their lifetimes (American Cancer Society, 2002, p. 7). Treatment for breast cancer can include a harsh dose of chemotherapy, radiation, and a lumpectomy or mastectomy (Accad, 2001, p. 231). These methods have proven to be extremely effective in ridding the write an essay in high school College Cambridge body of cancer and extending breast cancer patients' lives. Despite this reality, some people, including Accad (2001) in The Wounded Breast , hold that the removal of the breast is often an unnecessary procedure that contributes to the objectification and mistreatment of the female body (pp. 229-230). Journal Reviews (The School In Switzerland)! For this reason, increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are turning to how to an essay College Cambridge alternative medicines in International Business, order to escape the sometimes harsh world of how to write an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge medical technology (Yalom, 1997, p. Critical & Creative Chelsea Independent! 276). Write An Essay College! On the other side, there are some women who seek standard medical treatment for augmentation or reduction surgery. Maine (2000) reports, Between 1997 and 1998, nearly a quarter million American women risked general anesthesia, routine surgical complications, and known long-term side effects to [alter] their bust size (p. Park School! 132).

While those who get breast reduction surgery usually do so to in high Abbey Cambridge take weight off of articles to write about Brighton their backs and in high school College increase their mobility, women who risk the many side effects of breast implantation often have purely aesthetic aims (Yalom, 1997, p. 239). Clearly, the good articles about College female breast has a long and many-sided history grounded in unrealistic expectations, symbolic power, and patriarchal control. The Emergence of the how to Abbey College Topfree Movement. The many historical and contemporary issues surrounding the journal article reviews (The American School in Switzerland) female breast have framed the an essay in high school College Cambridge emergence of what Latteier (1998) labels breast activism, where individuals and how to evaluation essay St. Michael's School groups encourage women to take the possession of how to school Abbey Cambridge their breasts away from the market economy (p. 153). Article Reviews In Switzerland)! Men were fighting for an essay in high Abbey, the right to journal (The American School in Switzerland) go topfree in the United States until at least the mid-1930s (Heat, 1934, p. 3). [According to the Topfree Equal Rights Association webpage, accessed on March 20, 2003, men continued to be arrested for going topless in other parts of the world such as South Africa.] The day on Coney Island in 1934 with which I opened this essay was one of the last instances where men had to fight for the right to go topfree in the western world, but it was just the write school Cambridge beginning of women's battle to earn the same right. For instance, La Leche League was founded in 1956 and not only encouraged women to breast feed their children, an action that was frowned upon in the sexually repressed, sterile environment of the write a memoir Kensington School mid-20th century, but eventually defended women who nursed their babies and toddlers in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 154). To this day, La Leche League continues to play an active role in changing state obscenity laws that do not make exceptions for the exposure of nursing mothers.

While the write in high College Cambridge League was one of the earliest groups to support breast exposure, they have done so exclusively for the benefit of a self evaluation St. Michael's School nursing mothers. In High School! In the early 1970s, other groups began to fight against anti-topfree laws in general. During this time, some women removed their shirts and bras as a statement against patriarchy and the objectification of the female breast (Yalom, 1997, p. Article Reviews TASIS American School! 276; Latteier, 1998, p. 39). These women challenged anti-nudity clauses that include the female breast in how to in high school Cambridge, the list of genitalia that must be covered in public (Hyde, 1997, p. 133). [Although the ordinances vary from journal reviews TASIS (The American School state to write an essay Abbey College Cambridge state, most of articles to write Brighton them resemble one cited in a California case from 1975. Nudity is in high Cambridge defined as displaying 'the genitals, vulva, pubis, pubic, symphysis, pubic hair, buttocks, natal cleft, perineum, anus, anal region, or public hair region of any person, or any portion of the journal (The School breast at write an essay in high school Cambridge or below the upper edge of the areola thereof the female person' (p. 133).] For the most part, such efforts were shot down in the courts. For instance, in think, 1975 a California judge ruled that because men and school Abbey women's chests are biologically different, laws that limit only the exposure of women's breasts do not constitute sexual discrimination (p. 144).

Similarly, in 1977 a Florida judge charged women with disorderly conduct for showing their breasts in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). Yet, the tides began to how to essay shift in favor of the topfree movement in 1992 with the case of People v. Santorelli . Write An Essay Abbey! This case centered around seven women who had been arrested for how to write evaluation St. Michael's School, exposing their breasts in a public park. The judge decided that there was no governmental interest at stake in school, requiring women to cover their breasts and that the breasts of critical & creative Chelsea Independent both men and women are legally the school Abbey College same (Hyde, 1997, p. 144). Anti-topfree laws were thus eliminated in the state of New York, supporting the argument that power, not nature, tells us when and whether a breast is think Kendall a sexual organ (p. 148). Similar decisions have since been made in places as diverse as the province of Ontario, Canada, the District of Columbia, and how to Abbey Cambridge the state of Ohio. In addition, between 1995 and journal in Switzerland) 1997, 12 states enacted laws that allow nursing mothers to Cambridge feed their children in public (Latteier, 1998, p. A Persuasive Paper Hult! 155). While these recent successes in the effort to liberate the breast are encouraging, there are even more instances of governmental resistance to the topfree movement. Sosnow's experience is an essay in high Abbey neither isolated nor exceptional. For instance, Evangeline Godron. was arrested in August 1998 for swimming topfree in a city pool in Canada.

This 64-year-old woman was literally carried out of the critical thinking Chelsea Independent College pool and an essay in high school Cambridge charged with two counts of assault and one of mischief. A Persuasive Paper International Business School! She was then jailed for two days as a 'threat to society.' (Woman's Choice, 2003) Similarly, in New Jersey v. How To An Essay In High School Abbey College Cambridge! Vogt (2001) Arlene Vogt was charged $500 dollars for appearing topfree in a New Jersey public beach (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Define Kendall College! In 1997, the Topfree Equal Rights Association, TERA, was created to help women who encounter legal difficulty going without tops in public places in Canada and to inform the public on how to an essay school College Cambridge the issue. It also helps women in the USA (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Other groups including Women's Choice, Topfreedom USA, Right2Bare, Topfree Equality for Women, and Topfree! have followed suit by setting up websites, organizing local and national topfree rallies to create media attention and show support for the movement, and raising money to support the cause. Yet, as of & creative thinking 2003, no published works have focused exclusively on the topfree movement. Thus, the following analysis of the primary arguments for how to in high Abbey College Cambridge, topfreedom will be based on websites, newspaper coverage, and court records in the hopes of providing a starting point for research in this area. Writing School! Before moving into the analysis, the next section of this essay introduces the analytical tools that will serve as a guide for this work. The New Rhetoric. In 1969, an in high school Abbey College Cambridge, English translation of Perelman and journal reviews TASIS American School Olbrechts-Tyteca's work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation introduced a compendium of methods of securing adherence, both argumentative schemes and stylistic resources to how to in high school Abbey a rhetorical tradition consumed by Cartesian logic (Conley, 1990, p. 298).

Rather than limit their study of argumentative schemes to self-evident facts and logic, the good about authors developed a new rhetoric that is audience-centric, relying on logic as much as it does presumptions, values, and hierarchies (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 2). Their goal was to characterize the how to an essay school Abbey College different argumentative structures, the analysis of which must precede all experimental tests of their effectiveness (p. 9). Thus, their argumentative schema serves as a theoretical starting point in the search for the most efficacious way of affecting minds (p. 8).

These aims are appropriate in light of their definition of argumentation as the discursive means by which an audience is how to write Kensington School led to school Abbey College adhere to a given thesis, or by which its adherence is reinforced (Conley, 1990, p. 297). Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work serves as an appropriate guide for how to write a self essay School, the following categorization and how to write analysis of the critical & creative thinking Independent College topfree movement for several reasons. First, the new rhetoric deals specifically with written texts rather than speeches (p. 6). Until the how to an essay topfree movement gains more credibility in the western world, written texts will be the primary vehicle for making its points. Most arguments surrounding topfreedom are currently transmitted via internet, newspaper coverage, and legal documents. Second, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca wrote The New Rhetoric to serve as a theoretical starting point for future work in the arena of argumentation (p. 9). Similarly, groundwork needs to be laid for the debate surrounding the topfree movement in reviews (The in Switzerland), the way of categorizing argumentative schemes before other work on this topic can be accomplished. Third, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca sought to uncover the entire range of discursive means of argumentation, not just the logical forms (Conley, 1990, p. 297).

In other words, they recognized the school College Cambridge important role that arguments from value play in many areas of debate. The arguments surrounding the issue of topfreedom are heavily value-laden, making this debate a case-in-point of what the new rhetoric aimed to include in its analysis of argumentation. Ultimately, this project does not seek to force The New Rhetoric's categories onto the arguments surrounding topfreedom but, rather, aims to follow in evaluation essay, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's footsteps by write College Cambridge, identifying key argumentative schema and pointing out where similarities exist between the & creative thinking Chelsea new rhetoric's categories and the arguments at hand. With any luck, this work will serve as a building block toward future experimental tests that will distinguish the most effective arguments for topfreedom. The Rhetoric Surrounding the write school Abbey Topfreedom Debat e. After analyzing topfree websites, newspaper articles covering media events surrounding topfreedom, and court documents obtained by using the search engines Lexis-Nexis and Google, I have divided the primary arguments for topfreedom into the following categories: rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of articles to write about College commerce, and rhetoric of how to write College health. How To A Self Essay St. Michael's! I will look at each category by identifying arguments on both sides of the debate, giving a specific example for each side, and examining some of the write theoretical assumptions underlying these arguments using The New Rhetoric as a guide. Rhetoric of Equality. First, the primary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate deal with the rhetoric of writing Hult Business School equality.

In most western societies, anti-topfree ordinances and court decisions tend to be grounded in Abbey College, the argument that men and women are inherently different and, therefore, laws must account for write a memoir Park, these differences. For instance, a few years after a group now called The Rochester Seven began to protest for topless rights in how to write College Cambridge, New York, a guest columnist for USA Today criticized their goals, arguing, Bare-chested and bare-breasted are not the same, and define shouldn't be treated as if they are the same (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). On the other side, proponents of topfreedom make use of the tenets of liberal feminism and operate under the assumption that allowing men to go topless in the public sphere, but not women, is an example of inequality. Topfree advocates argue that the following two claims are incompatible: 1) women and men have equal rights; 2) women are required to cover their chests in areas where men are allowed to go topfree. How To An Essay College! Specifically, the Right2bare website explains, Despite a Constitution that espouses equal right for all Americans, laws defining nudity reflect a severe breach in gender equity. A topless woman is a criminal, while a topless man in the same situation is functioning within his constitutional rights (2003).

This argument from incompatibility leads into the claim that anti-topfree laws are discriminatory. The Topfreedom USA website offers a case-in-point; it argues that laws against topfreedom are comparable to other practices that have been deemed discriminatory in critical thinking, the past: To those who disagree, or feel that topfree equal rights are unimportant, consider how you would feel if our laws made it illegal for people of your race, or religion to remove your shirts in public, while people of other races, and religions remained free to do so. An Essay In High Abbey Cambridge! Imagine the evaluation essay police rushing in to a crowd to stop an African American from dressing like a white person. An Essay College! Imagine a Jew being fined, and forced to put on his shirt for journal article (The, trying to sunbathe like a Gentile. Imagine a woman being arrested for in high Abbey Cambridge, swimming in shorts like her husband. (2003) Obviously, forcing a person of a certain race or religious belief to wear a shirt when other people are given the choice to do otherwise would be an act of discrimination. Define Think! In this light, the write an essay in high College Cambridge word discrimination is deemed an appropriate label for the application of anti-topfree ordinances that apply to only one gender. The rhetoric of equality involves arguments from definition, the journal article TASIS School rule of justice, and in high school arguments from incompatibility. First, both sides of this debate make use of arguments from definition, a quasi-logical argument (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 210).

Those arguing against thinking Independent College, topfreedom define men and women as biologically different and, therefore, conclude that the genders' equal treatment under the school Cambridge law will also have to be different as well. Advocates of topfreedom, on the other hand, begin their argument by write essay Kensington, defining anti-topfree laws as discriminatory. This argument from definition is College based on what the how to write a self essay School new rhetoric calls the rule of justice that requires giving identical treatment to beings or situations of the same kind (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 218). Here, the rule of how to write school Abbey Cambridge justice fits into what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca label the rhetoric of incompatibility, another quasi-logical argument in critical Independent, which the theses one is how to write an essay school College disputing lead to an incompatibility, which resembles a contradiction in that it consists of two assertions between which a choice must be made, unless one rejects one or the a persuasive paper Business other (p. 196). In the case at hand, one must reject either the claim that women and men should be treated equally or the claim that women should be required to cover their chests in how to an essay Cambridge, situations where men are not similarly restricted. Rhetoric of Sexuality.

The rhetoric of & creative thinking sexuality is school Abbey Cambridge another category central to the topfreedom debate and involves two assumptions underlying anti-topfree ordinances and laws: women's breasts are inherently sexual and, therefore, allowing women to be topfree in the public sphere will lead to increased cases of sexual assault. To Write College! Carol Faraone, the founder of how to write an essay in high school Cambridge Keep Tops On, an anti-topfreedom group, claims that topfreedom is how to write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's School 'walking pornography' and a practice that is how to an essay in high Abbey 'degrading to women and would harm children' (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Kendall! Another Canadian group, Keep It Kovered, also labels topfree women public pornography (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). On the other side, topfreedom advocates claim that women, like men, can choose when a certain body part is or is not sexual. Women's breasts are not part of the Abbey College human genitalia and, thus, are sexual only in the way that a woman's legs or arms are sexual.

In other words: Different body parts arouse different people. Essay Park! Some are aroused by a beautiful face, yet women are not required to wear masks. Some are aroused by feet, yet women can wear sandals. Some aroused by how to in high school Abbey Cambridge, legs, yet women can wear dresses or shorts. Many women are aroused by men's chests, yet men can go top-free in most places. (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001)

Similarly, children, it is a self evaluation School argued, only how to in high school College get upset or bothered by thinking Independent, something if they're taught to do so, and write an essay in high school College given the fact that babies are nourished by journal article reviews TASIS American School in Switzerland), breasts, it is ridiculous to an essay Abbey College claim that the sight of those same breasts are in any way harmful to children (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001). In response to the argument that allowing women to article TASIS (The American in Switzerland) exercise topfreedom will lead to an increase in sexual assault cases, topfree advocates argue that men must take responsibility for their own actions. Write In High Cambridge! Ultimately, they assert, It's not a woman's task to prevent a man from harassing her#130; by journal reviews TASIS American, wearing clothes men deem suitable on her! Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not 'asking for it' (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In High School Abbey Cambridge! The Topfreedom USA website contributes to this argument by explaining: Statistics show that Chinese women are raped more often than American women. It certainly isn't because they dress more provocatively than American women. It's because they aren't valued as equals by their society.

Their value is disregarded, and their rights are denied. Think! (2003) Ultimately, topfreedom advocates claim that a woman's clothing choices do not automatically instigate men to an essay school College Cambridge violate them. Several categories of College argumentation underlie the rhetoric of sexuality: argument from definition, pragmatic argument, and the separation of the person from the act. Like the rhetoric of equality, both sides of the topfreedom debate utilizing the rhetoric of school College Cambridge sexuality are guided by definition. Writing Hult School! The definitions of words such as breast, genitalia, pornography, and indecency serve both as starting points for the rhetoric of sexuality as well as points of how to Cambridge contention. Arguments from definition often lead into pragmatic arguments, which allow a thing to be judged in write essay Kensington Park, terms of an essay College its present or its future consequences . . . (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 267). A Memoir Essay Park School! For instance, those against topfreedom first define exposed breasts as pornography, then they deem the consequences of how to write Abbey College Cambridge topfreedom, exposed breasts in the public sphere, to write essay Park be unacceptable. How To School Abbey Cambridge! Topfreedom advocates often use a similar argumentative pattern by first defining the female breast as a sexually neutral body part and article reviews then deeming topfreedom appropriate given the consequences of not doing so: the criminalization of a non-sexual act. By claiming that topfree women will create an increase in sexual assault, those against how to an essay Abbey College Cambridge, topfreedom use an argument based on how to a memoir Kensington the separation of the school Abbey Cambridge person from the act where an act is articles about Brighton interpreted as a function of the how to write an essay school Abbey College person, and it is failure to good about Brighton College respect this stability which is deplored when someone is reproached for incoherent or unjustified change (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. How To An Essay School! 294). In this case, the Kensington School person himself is separated from the how to an essay in high school act of sexual assault because it is, supposedly, part of his nature to International Business School commit this act at the sight of topfree women. In response, topfree advocates have chosen an existentialist argument by putting the accent on the freedom of the person, which places him in clear opposition to things (p.

295). In other words, it is how to write in high Abbey College argued that men can choose to control themselves in situations where they are exposed to write a self essay topfree women. Rhetoric of Time. Both sides of this debate make use of how to school Cambridge arguments dealing with elements of time. On one side, the define think supporters of an essay in high school Abbey anti-topfree laws claim that because women are showing more skin than they ever have before, modern society is on a moral decline; the write evaluation essay St. Michael's School standards of the past are deemed superior to write in high school Abbey Cambridge the standards of the present and the future.

Howard Relin, a New York District Attorney, opposes topfreedom in an effort to maintain community standards (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). A Persuasive Paper Hult International Business School! Similarly, an how to College, Ottawa deputy mayor, Allan Higdon, contends that keeping female breasts covered is a common courtesy and to define Kendall do otherwise is thoughtless of the how to school Cambridge sensibilities of others (Gillis, 1998, p. Write Evaluation St. Michael's! 05). Superior Court of New Jersey judge Wells in New Jersey v. Wells (2001) argues for the necessity of anti-topfree laws by noting that traditionally female breasts are unpalatable for the eyes of the an essay school general public (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Contrarily, advocates of topfreedom claim that women are finally on the verge of a liberation that has never been available to journal article reviews American School in Switzerland) them in the past. Over time, the covering of how to write an essay College female body parts such as legs and journal reviews American in Switzerland) arms has, for the most part, been deemed unnecessary and repressive. How To An Essay School Abbey College! The Women's Choice website argues: Let`s go to recent history for a moment: until 70 or so years ago, women couldn't even show their ankles---for the same reason, that they are different. For centuries and write evaluation centuries women had to how to an essay school College wear skirts that were ankle length (just imagine walking in journal article TASIS School, that your whole life!). Today, women in western culture can wear miniskirts showing even their knees---unimaginable for women before some 70 years ago. How To Write In High School College Cambridge! And, what happened?

NOTHING. (2003, emphasis in original) This website also claims that if our decisions were always based on what has been the norm in the past, nothing would ever change. Slavery and a memoir Kensington other discriminatory activities would still be legal. Clearly, the rhetoric of topfreedom is appealing to the future, while the rhetoric of anti-topfreedom is appealing to the past. The latter is making use of write an essay Abbey what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) label the loci of order, which affirms the superiority of that which is earlier over how to essay Park School that which is later (p. 93).

This argument can also be understood in light of the device of how to write an essay in high Cambridge stages, commonly referred to as the slippery slope argument, where the reasoning is described as follows: if you give in this time, you will have to write essay Kensington School give in write Abbey Cambridge, a little more next time, and heaven knows where you will stop (p. 282). In other words, as society has accepted women wearing less clothing over time, debauchery triumphs over morality. Topfreedom is yet another step in the wrong direction. Good Articles To Write! Topfree proponents see things the other way around and how to write in high College appeal to arguments with unlimited development that: insist on the possibility of College always going further in a certain direction without being able to foresee a limit to this direction, and this progress is accompanied by a continuous increase of value (p. How To In High Abbey College Cambridge! 287). In this light, the define think Kendall more freedom that women have when it comes to their bodies, the better. Topfreedom is how to write an essay another sign of progress. Rhetoric of Commerce and Health. These two categories are discussed together because, as this essay will discuss shortly, their argumentative structures are very similar. First, the marketplace is another point of contention in think Kendall, the topfreedom debate creating a rhetoric of how to College commerce.

Generally, the conventions of business and capitalism require that exposed female breasts be strictly regulated and restricted to certain areas. A guest columnist for Kensington, USA Today makes this claim by explaining, In all of life, rules and an essay school Cambridge discipline are necessary (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). However, topfreedom proponents argue that current nudity laws go too far when prohibiting the exposure of female breasts. Define Think! Breasts are treated like a commodity, they say, and, as a result, women do not have control over their own breasts (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In the spirit of Marxist feminism, or what Donovan (1992) labels socialist feminism and describes as the belief that women are oppressed by the combination of modern economic concerns and patriarchy, they identify a hypocrisy in the regulation of female breasts when topless bars, the pornography industry, and Abbey College Cambridge the world of advertising profit from the breast's exploitation. The Right2bare website claims that topfreedom is about women owning their own bodies rather than having them rented out by how to write a memoir Kensington School, corporations as highly valuable marketing tools (2003). The Right2bare website also reports: They tell us to flaunt all the skin we possibly can---but not too much. What would happen to how to write an essay College the pornography industry---magazines, clubs, internet---if women were free to walk around topless in & creative Chelsea Independent, a park or down the street?

Our breasts would lose their magical marketability. Write An Essay In High School College! They would run the risk of becoming just another mundane anatomical structure. Corporations would lose our bodies as tools to sell us everything from cars to cigarettes. (2003) Second, in define, light of the rhetoric of health, while those who support anti-topfree laws generally do not recognize a correlation between women's health and the regulation of how to an essay in high school Abbey College their breasts, topfreedom supporters draw several conclusions about how these rules are detrimental to women's wellbeing. Some argue that requiring women to cover their breasts in situations where men are not required to do so teaches women that their bodies are unacceptable and objects of which they should be ashamed. This effect is only exacerbated when the breasts that are highlighted in the media belong primarily to young, extremely toned models. Women's feelings of embarrassment concerning their breasts can result in low self-esteem, leading to eating disorders, depression, and other harmful conditions. For instance, the Topfree Equality for Women website explains:

A grandmother of the author of this page had such a poor self-image and was afraid to have someone look at her body that she delayed going to a doctor until the cancer that she was suffering from critical thinking Independent College had gone too far to how to in high school Abbey be treated, and how to a self evaluation St. Michael's she died as a result. (2001) Correspondingly, it is argued that when women are ashamed of their breasts, they are less likely to breastfeed their children, possibly compromising the how to an essay school College Cambridge health of their offspring as well as their own health. In these final two categories, both the rhetoric of commerce and critical & creative thinking College the rhetoric of health, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) concept of presence is especially pronounced. Presence relies on the fact that all argumentation is selective (p. 119). Thus, by the very fact of selecting certain elements and presenting them to the audience, their importance and write an essay in high school Abbey College Cambridge pertinency to the discussion is implied (p. 116). The concept of presence is easy to spot in these two categories of to write argumentation because they discuss elements of the topfreedom debate that might not be immediately apparent to an uninitiated individual: the commercialization of the write school College breast and the health consequences of thinking Independent College anti-topfree laws. How To Write An Essay In High College! These arguments illustrate a specific structure of reality highlighting aspects of that reality that the authors wish to promote (p. 261). In the case of the write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's School rhetoric of commerce and the rhetoric of health, topfreedom advocates are drawing causal links (i.e., that anti-topfreedom laws result in women's commercial exploitation and poor health) that their opponents deny.

They know that the same event will be interpreted, and differently evaluated, according to the idea formed of the how to write in high Abbey Cambridge nature---intended or involuntary---of its consequences (p. 270-271). Therefore, they have put forth arguments that feature consequences the critical & creative thinking College public might not explore by itself. Although topfreedom has a fairly long history in Abbey College, the western world, it continues to be an issue that receives little thoughtful consideration or attention from the thinking Independent general public. School College Cambridge! In fact, while discussing the project at hand with others, I found that upon hearing a brief synopsis of the topfreedom movement's goals, most people dismiss the idea that women should be allowed to how to essay Park go topfree whenever men are given the choice to do so as ludicrous. At this point in an essay in high Cambridge, time, even people that consider themselves to be feminists often have a difficult time understanding the important issues that underlie the topfreedom debate. About College! In this light, it is apparent that arguments for topfreedom must be thoughtful, purposive, and audience-centered in order to gain the consideration of an uninitiated public. While it might be easy to create a media event featuring bare breasted ladies, the how to write in high school Abbey College title itself reminiscent of a circus act, it is American not so easy to get the public to how to write in high College take those same ladies' concerns seriously. This essay seeks to begin the process of crafting argumentation that will bring the topfreedom movement forward by providing a theoretical starting point for the discovery of, as Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) put it, the most efficacious way of affecting minds to the issues surrounding topfreedom (p. 8). Paper Hult! Yet there are several limitations in this study that must be acknowledged.

First, I have identified the five primary categories of argumentation surrounding topfreedom as the rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of an essay in high time, rhetoric of commerce, and rhetoric of write Park School health. However, there are also many secondary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate that have yet to be addressed but are beyond the scope of this essay. Similarly, there are many complementary issues such as naturism and exhibitionism that need to be analyzed in light of the fight for topfreedom but are, again, beyond the scope of this work. How To In High Abbey! Second, more emphasis has been placed on the arguments for topfreedom than the arguments against topfreedom in this essay. However, this is less of a biased oversight than a response to the number of anti-topfreedom arguments circulating in the public sphere. Currently, because the critical Independent status quo has not been in in high school College Cambridge, danger, arguments supporting these laws are few and far between. However, as more people join the topfree movement, anti-topfree arguments will, in response, become more prominent.

Clearly, the topfreedom movement is ripe with research opportunities. Beyond the ideas mentioned above, future research must also continue to organize these arguments as the conditions surrounding this issue change. Perhaps most importantly, scholars will need to build from write evaluation St. Michael's these theoretical categories to decide which arguments best interact with and inform audiences in various situations. How To School! Equal attention must be paid to the arguments that uphold anti-topfree laws and ordinances so that we can both understand them and essay Kensington Park School respond to them. Ultimately, topfreedom as an idea is making its way into how to Abbey College Cambridge, the agenda of public discourse and must continue on that path in order to Kendall College achieve the important goals that it upholds. Accad, E. (2001). The wounded breast . An Essay In High School Abbey College Cambridge! Chicago: University of Illinois. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer: facts figures 2001-2002 . (2002).

Atlanta, Georgia: ACS. Ayalah, D., Weinstock, I.J. (1979). Breasts: Women speak about their breasts and how to write a self evaluation essay their lives . New York: Summit Books. Conley, T. An Essay School Abbey Cambridge! (1990). Rhetoric in write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's, the European tradition . Chicago: University of Chicago. Donovan, J. (1992). Feminist theory: the intellectual traditions of American feminism , 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. Ellis, T. (1989, July 6).

Face-off: Going bare-chested; Good taste is not discrimination. USA Today , p. How To Write An Essay School Cambridge! A8. Gillis, M. (1998, July 5). Tempest in a d-cup: Topless debate chills as novelty of baring it all wears thin. How To School! The Ottawa Sun , p. 05. Heat of 89.3 Degrees Ushers in Summer (1934, June 22). The New York Times , p. 3. Hyde, A. (1997). Bodies of law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts: The woman's perspective on an American obsession . New York: Harrington Park Press. Maine, M. (2000). How To Write An Essay! Body wars: making peace with women's bodies . Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books. Nolan, M.K. (1997, August 11). Topless women?

Not in conservative Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator , p. A1. Perelman, C., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation (J. Wilkinson P. Weaver, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame. (Original work published 1958) Topfree Equal Rights Association. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.tera.ca/index.html . Topfree Equality for Women. (2001). & Creative Chelsea College! Retrieved March 22, 2003, from how to write in high Abbey College http://www.ohnuderec.org/Topfree/tf.html . Yalom, M. (1997). The history of the breast . Journal Article Reviews (The In Switzerland)! New York: Knopf. Copyright 2003 by Robin E. Jensen.

BARING OUR BREASTS. by Oquawka (Janie Rezner) This article was written in September 2004. The author lives in California. I recently stood with a small group of barebreasted women holding aloft signs that read, Letting Children Starve is Indecent and other like messages, on a Sunday afternoon in downtown Mendocino. How To Write In High Abbey Cambridge! I was responding to critical Chelsea the outrageous reaction to the bare breast by an essay in high school College, the high and mighty of this country: John Ashcroft ordering the covering of a statue of good Brighton College a bare-breasted woman, the how to an essay in high College Cambridge big to-do because someone's breast was seen for a moment on TV. I was responding to the efforts of the patriarchal powers to diminish and write a self evaluation School vilify this very wonderful attribute of women which allows them to feed their children from write an essay in high their own body. The folks in power strive to wipe out any honouring of the maternal, and have been doing so for TASIS (The American, almost 5000 years.

Nothing new there, of course. In High Abbey! Ammachi, the how to Indian saint, speaks at length about this loss. The maternal breast is very political. It's about how to in high Cambridge, women taking back their own bodies---making birthing and nursing and feeding the norm, rather than war and articles about Brighton death, whose images are an everyday occurrence for our growing children. Rather than honouring scenes of violence and the taking of life, how about honouring the scenes of the giving of life? Nurturing rather than warring! I sent some of my photos and recent writings to Christopher Titmuss, international Buddhist meditation teacher in England, who leads meditation retreats around the world. He is also an activist. School Abbey College! His response was: I loved the think Kendall article and an essay school Abbey College Cambridge the photos. To wake up consciousness, we have to how to write essay Kensington Park School be bold.

We live in a society which has an write an essay in high school Abbey College, obsessive fetish about women's breasts---particularly around size, shape, and age. A huge money-making industry feeds the fetish from how to essay St. Michael's School porn to the operating table. It's big business. Abbey College Cambridge! All credit to you and your women friends for baring the truth. Love and longing for the breast are quite a natural instinct, since our first and primary life experience is being nursed at our mother's breast. How To Write A Self Evaluation Essay School! Profound comfort, stimulation, satisfaction, a sense of security like none other while being held in our mother's arms---and most of all nourishment, without which we would have died.

These deep, primal feelings all spring from the write in high College baby's connection to the breast. We can see how this natural expression of how to a self St. Michael's seeking comfort that lives on in a man's intimate relationship with a woman has been perverted, like most primal feelings in this current patriarchal world. Riane Eisler says, We have to change the conversation. I'm hoping this issue and the deeper truth and reality that surround it will be brought more into the public eye. That's what we are all about, as conscious human beings on earth, aren't we?

Not only doing our best to change the an essay school Abbey College bigger conversation to the real concerns that are facing us, but for some of a persuasive International Business us, bringing awareness of what our history as humans has been, and how we must come back into balance, if we are to survive. As we now live, with one half of school Abbey humanity controlling and having ultimate power over the other half, with the Sacred Feminine dominated, her voice silenced, her wisdom scoffed at, a huge gap exists in our inner and critical & creative Chelsea Independent College outer life. How To An Essay In High Abbey! The anxiety and about Brighton violence increase, life moving faster and faster, stimulation coming in at us from all directions. All to dull the write an essay College Cambridge pain of journal reviews in Switzerland) a world gone awry, a world without love and compassion. ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM. by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta.

This article was written in May 2004. In the summer of 2003, at the age of 14, I struck my first blow for topfreedom by wearing only a bikini bottom at a beach at Gull Lake, Alberta. Though small in scope, it was a large personal move because I had dared to exercise my right and go barebreasted in public. I say dared because, though legal, this is in high Abbey College not yet socially acceptable, and I could have caused a disturbance and been subjected to ridicule and harassment, as so many women have in other places. I dropped my top on our beach blanket next to critical Chelsea my father and ran for write an essay Cambridge, the water with my girlfriend (her top still on) beside me for moral support. How To Write Essay St. Michael's School! What would happen now? Was I ready for this? Regardless of in high school Abbey College age, other girls seemed to express shock or envy; the boys expressed surprise and interest. Paper Hult International Business! No one said anything to me, and how to an essay in high Cambridge no one called the police. One couple nearby smiled and define Kendall gave me a thumbs up.

There was only how to write school Abbey College Cambridge one dissenting voice, a friend of article (The School in Switzerland) my mother#130; who thought I was breaking the an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge law. Critical & Creative Independent College! It was my father who told her that it was legal in Canada for a woman to go topfree anywhere a man could, and how to write an essay school Abbey Cambridge offered to thinking Chelsea Independent College show her the an essay in high proof when we got home. She didn't seem impressed; but I remained topfree for good articles about, the rest of our stay. So I got away with it and how to write an essay school Abbey am still getting away with it on a regular basis. & Creative Independent College! Perhaps Albertans are not the rednecks we are portrayed as in the media; perhaps we are more open and how to write an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge progressive than people give us credit for.

Of course, these are the write Kensington School same media that pilloried Janet Jackson when she flashed her semi-nude breast for how to write in high College, a split second during a show that also presented with impunity scantily clad and suggestive dancers, half-dressed gladiatrixes, and erotic or demeaning song lyrics. Women's breasts are sexual and men's are not because men say so, hetero men anyways. But anyone familiar with the gay community will know that men's breasts may be just as sexual as women's. So why the writing paper Business controversy? I think women have not achieved topfreedom, some 75 years after men have done so, because their breasts and an essay school College Cambridge bodies have been a moneymaking commodity for journal TASIS (The, so long. If you don't believe this, take a closer look the next time you pass a magazine stand. Women's sexualization is used to sell everything from how to in high school Cambridge cars to candy bars. A financial resource of this magnitude must be protected. Perhaps Janet should have surrounded herself with topfree male dancers and suddenly exposed both breasts---and then have the FCC explain the how to a memoir Kensington Park double standard. In High Abbey College! That would have been one giant leap! Note: the legality as mentioned above is probably correct for all of Canada but has not been specifically established in how to essay School, some provinces, including Alberta.

Note: Topfreedom has been legal for women throughout New York State since July 7, 1992. I have included a photo of my significant other (Linda Marszalkowski) at Lawson Park, Cheektowaga, New York, enjoying the warm and sunny weather last summer. The newspaper never did a story on an essay in high school Abbey Linda because the police department finally found that she was acting within her legal rights removing her shirt in the town park. But they weren't happy about telling me this. I talked to the police department after we got home.

Apparently, they told complainers that Linda wasn't doing anything wrong. But it didn't begin so easily. That day we took a short walk through the park and stopped for a picnic. Paper Business School! Two park maintenance guys approached and an essay in high school Abbey told us that Linda had to a persuasive Business put her shirt back on or she was going to be arrested. I explained that she wasn't doing anything wrong and showed them the documentation to support that.

They said they were going to write an essay College call the cops. I decided because the thinking newspaper wasn't going to do the how to write an essay Abbey College Cambridge story that I was going to find out myself how many police departments in article TASIS (The American School, the towns around the area knew the law. Buffalo said that if she was spotted, she would be arrested. Tonawanda said that they knew it was legal---but gave me an attitude. Lancaster said that even if it wasn't legal, they wouldn't mind. West Seneca said that they knew that it was legal but they thought that there was some restriction about school yards. Kenmore gave me a hard time and finally said that if I knew the answer ahead of time then why did I call, and why would I want my girlfriend running around without a top on anyways. Orchard Park said that they didn't know but took the name of the in high school Abbey College police chief in Cheektowaga to verify what I was telling them. Amherst said that they didn't know but also took the a memoir essay School police chief's name to how to write College verify.

They thanked me for good to write about Brighton College, informing them. Other towns around Buffalo either said that they were going to check or never got back to me. It really disturbs me that the Buffalo police department, the largest in the area, initially didn't know the law and, even after hearing what I had to an essay College say, said that Linda would be arrested anyways. WAL-MART IS WRONG. by Julia Goforth. This letter was sent to Wal-Mart's American head office in December 2002. I have decided that I will no longer be shopping at any Wal-Mart or Sam's Club store.

I am greatly disturbed by writing a persuasive Business, the positions that Wal-Mart has taken recently. I am appalled that Tamie Dragone of Lincoln, Kansas had to face horror and humiliation because of photos of how to write an essay Abbey College her child that she entrusted to Wal-Mart. Article American In Switzerland)! There is how to write in high College case law that outlines what is considered child pornography---it must meet four qualifications. Across the US and Canada, woman are fighting for and winning the right to be topfree in public as men are because the female breast is not a sexual organ and is not indecent or sexual by nature. Many states recognize that to deprive a woman the right to be topfree in public while men are allowed to be is discrimination based on journal reviews TASIS (The American School sex, and have laws protecting women's rights, including the right to how to write an essay in high school College be topfree. States that haven't moved into that still don't require a girl younger than the age of 10 to wear a top in public, e. g. at thinking Chelsea Independent a public swimming pool. The corporation's support of its over-zealous employees is absurd. I question the mindset of this employee if he/she found the photos of an essay in high school Abbey a three-year-old old to be erotic. Write Essay Kensington Park! (Incidentally, some counties in Arkansas refuse to respond to a call about write in high, a woman being merely topfree in public.) To assume that nudity is automatically sexual ought to be an insult to us all.

We are all nude. Most of us have been indoctrinated into believing our bodies are shameful and dirty and need to be covered, and that uncovering them is Chelsea Independent College sexual, regardless of one's age. But now, pulling pregnant Midge off the shelves because some customers feel it is sending the wrong message to an essay in high school children---this is utter nonsense. A Self St. Michael's! It's Barbie herself that sends the wrong message to how to an essay school Abbey College children. If Barbie were real, due to journal article (The American her proportions she would not be able to walk upright. She would be skeletally malformed and obviously nutritionally deprived. However, her friend Midge, waiting until marriage to how to an essay Abbey College Cambridge become pregnant and still having her husband and son, is how to write being pulled from the shelves. As a mother of six, I agree that this doll would be an asset to how to write my children. In child play-therapy, it could help a child work through issues regarding the pending arrival of a new sibling or the a persuasive paper Hult International Business School abuse witnessed of an essay Abbey Cambridge its pregnant mother. Writing Hult Business School! There are so many benefits to having this doll that I can't believe that it is being pulled from the how to an essay in high school Abbey College Cambridge shelves. The irony to me is that the toy, magazine, and electronics sections of Wal-Mart and Sam's Club are filled with things that promote violence, including destruction and murder, and titillate by showing the peek-a-boo cleavage of women in order to sell a product.

And I won't even begin to discuss the bathing suit section. How To Write Essay Kensington School! Please. Wal-Mart purports to be family-centered and of high morals, which is the supposed reason behind the photo policy, but this is how to write in high Abbey College just a marketing ploy. Journal Article Reviews TASIS In Switzerland)! I would rather drive farther and write an essay school College Cambridge pay higher prices to a corporation that carries whatever in order to blatantly make a profit but doesn't lie to me by pretending to be moral and to have integrity. I remember how Sam would do spot checks in the stores to make sure customers were receiving good service. It was about the customers, balanced with the profit motive. Writing Paper Hult! I doubt Sam would have handled either of these incidents the way they were handled. Wal-Mart will no longer be getting any of an essay in high school Abbey my money.

And as an advocate for women and children recovering from abuse, I will advise my colleagues of my decision and the reasons behind it, and encourage them to follow suit. As a leader in female equality, I will advise my associates similarly. As an activist against child pornography, I will also advise all those I come into contact with in this realm. I am committed to my decision, as it directly and indirectly affects my children as well as the society in which they grow up in. Cette lettre était écrite par Isabelle, étudiante québécoise de 22 ans qui terminait sa deuxième année de baccalauréat. La cause des femmes que vous défendez m'intéresse beaucoup car, été après été, j'en souffre énormément. J'ai crié ma colère et ma révolte publiquement au sein des différents organismes, mais ils n'ont pas voulu m'écouter. À présent, je dois dire que je n'attends plus rien de cette société qui est, de toute évidence, très réfractaire aux changements. Mon but, pour l'instant, est de terminer mes études et m'en aller vers des lieux plus cléments et compréhensifs, où j'aurai enfin droit d'exprimer mes goûts et mes désirs librement, sans contrainte m'interdisant d'être ce que je suis, en me culpabilisant et me traitant comme une criminelle si je fais ce que les hommes ont toujours fait, tout ceci simplement parce que je suis une femme. Je dois toujours être sur mes gardes, ne jamais provoquer les pauvres hommes qui ne pensent qu'à saliver sur notre corps (si on se comporte de la même façon qu'eux); et agir de façon toujours conforme, sans jamais réprimander. Autrement on se fait pointer du doigt mais sans, pour autant, se faire entendre . . . L'an dernier [2001], mon conjoint et moi avons écrit un texte qui, à notre avis, était complet et expliquait bien le droit que devraient avoir les femmes de se promener torse nu et ceci, aux mêmes endroits autorisés pour les hommes. Nous avons posté notre lettre aux ministères de la justice (Québec et Canada), à la charte des droits et libertés de la personne ainsi qu'à la condition féminine Canada.

Mon conjoint a également fait de nombreux téléphones pour savoir où en était rendu le dossier mais malheureusement, personne ne le savait et rien n'a avancé. Voilà la lettre écrite par Isabelle et son conjoint: Nous vous écrivons pour vous dire à quel point nous trouvons injuste de voir qu'encore aujourd'hui, au Québec, dans notre société, les femmes n'ont pas le droit de se promener le torse nu, aux mêmes endroits que les hommes. Après tout, l'été, lorsqu'il fait chaud, n'est-ce pas la même chaleur pour les femmes alors pourquoi ces dernières se voient refuser le droit de sentir l'air frais sur leur peau et de se faire bronzer uniformément, au même titre que les hommes? Vous ne pensez pas que si une femme est mieux dans sa peau le torse nu et qu'elle se sent plus confortable, elle devrait obtenir ce droit fondamental qu'ont toujours eu les hommes, c'est-à-dire le droit d'être enfin libre elle aussi? Ce n'est pas évident de toujours sentir un haut de bikini qui nous serre constamment la poitrine et vous ne pouvez pas vous imaginer jusqu'à quel point une femme peut être déprimée lorsqu'elle voit des hommes faire ce dont elle a toujours rêvé et que elle, vu qu'elle est née femme, elle se voit refuser ce droit.

Pourquoi est-ce légal pour un et illégal pour l'autre? Pourquoi est-ce naturel pour un et indécent pour l'autre? Bref, pourquoi considérons-nous une femme qui est bien dans sa peau avec le corps qu'elle a comme une criminelle, ni plus, ni moins? Tout ça est complètement illogique et représente une énorme injustice sociale car n'oublions pas que 100% des humains ont des seins, les femmes les ayant toutefois quelque peu plus développés. Quoi de plus normal qu'une femme qui allaite son enfant? Le sein est une source de vie et non un objet sexuel dédié à faire seulement plaisir aux hommes. Quand est-ce que les femmes pourront enfin cesser d'être dominées par les hommes et avoir une fois pour toute leur place dans cette société malade et discriminatoire à l'extrême? Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi cette situation est permis aux hommes et interdit aux femmes étant donné qu'en Europe, en République Dominicaine, dans les Antilles Françaises et beaucoup d'autres endroits, les femmes qui veulent se promener le torse nu peuvent le faire sans avoir de compte à rendre à personne ni obtenir de billet d'infraction. Nous pensons que c'est de la discrimination pure et simple vis-à-vis le droit des femmes. On brime leur liberté en ne les mettant pas égales aux hommes.

Il faudrait que la justice se fasse aussi au Québec puisqu'il y a un jugement basé sur la charte des droits et libertés de la personne qui interdit de faire une telle discrimination par rapport au sexe et que si une femme ne fait qu'avoir le torse nu comme un homme, aux mêmes endroits que celui-ci, en n'incitant pas les autres à avoir des contacts physiques ou sexuels avec elle, elle devrait avoir les mêmes droits que cet homme. La charte des droits et liberté est valide dans tout le Canada et mentionne clairement qu'en autorisant de faire une chose à quelqu'un qu'on interdit à une autre et ceci, à cause de son sexe, il s'agit là d'une situation très discriminatoire! Pour beaucoup de personnes, c'est totalement inacceptable de permettre quelque chose à un sexe et de l'interdire à l'autre. TASIS (The American In Switzerland)! Pensez à nouveau aux endroits où toutes les femmes ont le droit de se promener les seins nus. Ces femmes sont bien dans leur peau et les hommes s'y sont habitués et ne les remarquent même plus.

N'oublions pas que ce qui est érotique est ce qui est caché et que si toutes les femmes avaient le droit de se promener le torse nu, les seins ne seraient pas plus érotiques que le torse des hommes et, de ce fait, il y aurait sans doute beaucoup moins d'agressions sexuelles car les seins cesseraient enfin d'être considérés comme des objets sexuels, n'ayant toujours servis qu'à amuser les hommes. Au début, les gens regarderaient mais ça ne prendrait pas beaucoup de temps et les gens s'y habitueraient. How To Write In High! Les hommes ne demandent pas aux femmes si leur torse nu les dérange alors pourquoi les femmes devraient-elles demander la permission aux hommes pour le faire? Ce n'est pas logique tout ça et pour ce qui est des enfants, n'oublions pas que ceux-ci adoptent le système de valeurs propre aux adultes, à la société, et que si les adultes informeraient et éduqueraient sainement leurs enfants par rapport à l'anatomie féminine et masculine au lieu de faire une aliénante phobie collective du torse nu des femmes, les enfants grandiraient dans tout cela et ne seraient pas plus dérangés de voir une femme torse nu qu'un homme actuellement. C'est sûr que tout changement comporte son lot de dérangements. à la première femme qui a porté un pantalon. Elle faisait scandale à cette époque et maintenant, toutes les femmes en portent. Dans un même ordre d'idées, la première femme qui a porté un bikini a fait tourner bien des têtes elle aussi et aujourd'hui, quoi de plus normal pour une femme qui a chaud que d'en porter un? Nous pensons que tout est une question de mentalité et de société et que cette vieille mentalité désuète doit changer au plus vite. Ce n'est vraiment pas juste pour les femmes que de voir pleins d'hommes le torse nu sans avoir droit à ce privilège. Comme mentionné plus haut, il y aurait sûrement moins de viols si les femmes se promenaient les seins nus sans être gênées car les seins deviendraient vite fait une partie du corps comme une autre, au même titre que le torse masculin et donc, beaucoup moins excitante pour les hommes qu'à l'heure actuelle. Alors, il va de soit qu'en 2002, il est grand temps que ces lois et règlements changent et permettent enfin aux femmes de se promener torse nu comme bon leur semble, du moins, aux même endroits autorisés pour les hommes.

Si les hommes ont le droit d'avoir le torse nu dans un endroit public, les femmes devraient avoir ce droit aussi ou si ce n'est pas le cas, les responsables de cet endroit devraient interdire le torse nu à tout le monde, ceci pour ne pas traiter les femmes de façon inférieure et discriminatoire. Sur ce, nous aimerions grandement avoir de vos nouvelles pour savoir ce que vous en pensez et ce que vous comptez faire afin de remédier à cette situation tout à fait pathétique. KEY WEST'S FANTASY FEST. by Bruce Frendahl. Bruce Frendahl is a member of the (The School Board of Governors of the B.E.A.C.H.E.S. Foundation, located in school Cambridge, Miami Shores, Florida. Critical Thinking Independent College! He and his wife Judy visited the October 2002 Fantasy Fest, known for some years for its topfree women, or at least for women attempting to be topfree, in a variety of situations. I felt that a barrier had come down. Not that a woman could now feel free to be topfree on Duval Street at high noon on write an essay in high Abbey an average day, but at least the enforcement of discriminatory laws against females typical of the writing paper International Business School state of Florida would magically be suspended for one brief if wild and crazy evening in school, the streets of Key West.

Whether the reason be Key West's finest finally giving in to how to write a memoir essay Kensington the commercial demands of the school College residential artist community---or the lack of sufficient vocal protest from the local religious extremists---or the townwide revelation that women should be treated equally to men, especially if it could somehow be rationalized that there was an writing paper International Business, artsy side to the end result---or a realization that most of the arrests or citations or police enforcement encounters were a result of forcing reluctant women to keep a fabric covering across their chests (both on floats and in the massive costumed crowd, admittedly inebriated to varying degrees)---or a combination of all these factors, and others of which we know not . . An Essay In High Abbey College! . it happened. It will likely continue to happen, as long as women express their collective preference to do so, artists continue to make money from how to write essay School it, and law enforcement personnel realize that an arbitrary dress code (at least this aspect of how to College Cambridge it, on this particular night) is archaic and silly. Such a code is how to write a self essay St. Michael's School better left to peer pressure and natural community standards. Key West has a wild and woolly history of pirates, bootleggers, drug smugglers, societal outcasts, eccentric artists and writers, ne'er-do-wells, and others outside the mainstream. How To In High College! Considering the town's seedy history, to deny this simple and innocuous pleasure on the craziest night of the year in Key West would be foolhardy to critical thinking Independent most independent observers. Not that the act of how to in high school a woman being artfully topfree falls anywhere near those other activities. But it is critical Chelsea Independent College consistent with the traditionally independent attitude of the write an essay school Conch Republic. For women, it represents a little progress in gaining more control over their own bodies. And that's a good thing for everyone. by Claire Braz Valentine. This piece of work began circulating on the Internet in the spring of 2002 after US Attorney General John Ashcroft spent more than US$8000 to hide a breast on a statue in the Hall of how to write a memoir School Justice in Washington, DC.

Hear the author read this work (recording from Santa Cruz, California, March 2002) by going here. John, John, John, you've got your priorities all wrong. While men fly airplanes into skyscrapers, dive bomb the pentagon, while they stick explosives into their shoes, and then book a seat right next to us, while they hide knives in their luggage, steal kids on school buses, take little girls from their beds at night, drive trucks into our state capital buildings, while our president calls dangerous men all over the world evildoers and how to write school Abbey devils, while we live in the threat of biological warfare, nuclear destruction, annihilation, you are out buying yardage to save Americans from the appalling, alarming, abominable aluminum alloy of evil, that terrible ten foot tin tittie. You might not be able to find Bin Laden, but you sure as heck found the hooter in the hall of justice. It's not that we aren't grateful, But while we were begging the women of Afghanistan To not cover up their faces, You are begging your staff members to Just cover up that nipple, to save the write a self essay St. Michael's American people from how to an essay in high school College that monstrous metal mammary. How can we ever thank you? So, in your office every morning in your secret prayer meeting, while an American woman is sexually assaulted every six seconds, while anthrax floats around the post office and settles in the chest of paper International Business senior citizens, you've got another chest on your mind. While American sons arrive home in body bags, and heat seeking missiles fly around a foreign country looking for any warm body, you think of another body.

And you pray for how to write an essay in high school, the biggest bra in the world, John, because you see that breast on the Spirit of Justice in a self evaluation essay St. Michael's, the spirit of your own inhibited sexuality. And when we women see our grandmothers, our mothers, our daughters, our granddaughters, our sisters, ourselves, when we women see that statue, the write school Abbey Spirit of Justice, we see the spirit of how to Park strength, the spirit of survival. While every day we view innocent bodies dragged out of rubble, and women and write in high College Cambridge children laid out like thin limp dolls and baptized into journal reviews TASIS (The School in Switzerland), death as collateral damage, and the hollow eyed Afghani mother's milk has dried up underneath her burqa in famine, in shame, and her children are dead at her breast. While you look at that breast, John, that jug on the Spirit of Justice, and write an essay in high College Cambridge deal with your thoughts of lust and sex and about nakedness, we see it as a testimony to motherhood. How To Write In High School! And you see it as a tit.

It's not the money it cost. Journal TASIS (The American School In Switzerland)! It's the message you send. We've got the right to live in freedom. We've got the right to cheat Americans out of millions of dollars and an essay in high then just not want to tell congress about it. We've got the right to drop bombs night and day on a small country that has no army, no navy, no military at all, because we've got the right to bear arms, but we just better not even think about the right to & creative Independent bare breasts.

So now, John, you can be photographed while you stand there and how to an essay Cambridge talk about bombs and guns and poisons without the breast appearing over your right shoulder, without that bodacious bosom bothering you. And we just wanted to tell you in the Spirit of Justice, in the Spirit of Truth: John, there is & creative thinking Chelsea Independent College still one very big boob left standing there in how to write, that picture. YORK, MAINE: CAN WE SAY AVOIDANCE? by Julia Goforth. Julia Goforth is a former Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. She wrote this article in early September 2001. In late July 2001, I visited York, Maine.

It is a busy, tourist-filled town, quaint and friendly, with miles of beach on the Atlantic Ocean. What a beautiful place to a self evaluation essay St. Michael's School be! I sought to find out what to expect from law enforcement officials in the area should I decide to enjoy the beach in my usual manner. While walking across a parking lot near Short Sands Beach, I saw a man officer and a woman lifeguard speaking with each other. I approached them and explained that I was visiting from Ontario and write an essay Abbey Cambridge planned to spend time on the beach in a persuasive paper International School, my monokini bathing suit (bottom only). I asked if I would encounter any problems from the police department.

Seeming to how to write Abbey Cambridge be surprised by my question, they both answered Yes. The police officer stated that not wearing a top could get me charged with disorderly conduct. The lifeguard said there was no dressing or undressing allowed on the beach, and that the city had an ordinance against being without a top on the beach, with a fine of $50. I asked where I could get the exact wording of these statutes and Hult ordinances. Again, they seemed surprised at an essay in high College Cambridge my question, but directed me to the police station just down the road. So I paid a visit to the Town of York police department. Officer Scott Cogger offered to assist me. When I stated what I was looking for, he said that he was terribly busy and suggested I come back the next day. I smiled and said I didn't mind waiting for him to finish what he was doing. After a few minutes, a dispatcher offered to help me. I made my request known to journal article reviews TASIS (The School in Switzerland) him.

Then he politely declined to help. About 15 minutes later, Cogger returned with some photocopied papers for how to Abbey College Cambridge, me, representing things that I could be charged with. He requested that if I planned to critical thinking Independent be on write in high College Cambridge the beach without a top, I do so on a weekend so that the officers on duty on weekdays would not have to handle the Kendall College call. He also suggested that I go to Kittery Point Beach because it would look better on the front page of the paper than York Beach. Back at my campsite, located directly behind the police department, I read the applicable laws.

Here are the relevant parts: Maine Law Section 17A. 854. Indecent conduct. 1. A person is guilty of indent conduct if: A. In a public place, 1. How To Write In High Abbey College Cambridge! The actor engages in journal reviews, a sexual act, as defined in write school Abbey College, section 251; or. 2. The actor knowingly exposes the actor's genitals under circumstances that, in fact, are likely to cause affront or alarm. 501.

Disorderly conduct. A person is guilty of how to write a memoir essay Kensington Park disorderly conduct if: 1. In a public place, he intentionally or recklessly causes annoyance to how to an essay in high College others by intentionally [sic]: A. Making loud and unreasonable noises; B. Activating a device, or exposing a substance, which releases noxious and writing paper Hult School offensive odors. C. Engaging in fighting . An Essay In High College! . . 2. In a public or private place, he knowingly accosts, insults, taunts, or challenges any person with offensive, derisive or annoying words, or by gestures or other physical conduct . . Write A Self Evaluation St. Michael's School! . The city ordinance spoken of is the ordinance prohibiting obscenity for commercial gain. Article 1 of the ordinance states its purpose as to prohibit any commercial enterprise from write an essay school presenting or engaging in think College, any obscene exhibitions for profit.

It is not intended to suppress or inhibit the free exchange of ideas of artistic expression. The Town of York has enacted this ordinance for write Abbey College Cambridge, the purpose of promoting and protecting the general welfare, public safety, public order, and morals. Article 2, Section 5 of how to write a memoir this ordinance defines obscene as any conduct of how to an essay in high school Abbey College a sexual nature and continues to outline what would be considered of a sexual nature: anything. A. which, to the average individual applying contemporary community standards, considered as a whole appeals to the prurient interest; B. which presents in how to essay Park, a patently offensive manner actual or simulated ultimate sexual acts, sodomy, beastiality, excretory functions, masturbation, direct physical stimulation of the unclothed genitals, flagellation or torture in an essay school, context of ultimate sexual acts, lewd exhibition of the human male or female genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or the female breast below the Kensington School top of the nipple; and. C. In High School Abbey! which considered as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

Article 3 outlines what is reviews (The prohibited: any commercial enterprise is prohibited to present or engage in an obscene exhibition for profit; or to solicit, permit, promote, or assist any commercial enterprise or person to present or engage in any obscene exhibition within the Town of York. Violating this order, incidentally, carries a fine of $500 for each offense. The lifeguard was off a bit in her figures. Come to how to an essay Abbey think of it, she was off a bit in a lot of how to write a self essay School this ordinance. In my interpretation, if I'm sunbathing or frolicking with my children in the surf, none of the how to write an essay school above material applies. Even if I'm selling promotional materials for TERA on the beach, Article 2, Section 5, part C seems to address, and protect, my activity. Unfortunately, I left York at sunrise the following day and was unable to test my theory. But there is always next summer.

Stay tuned! by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25. Kayla Sosnow wrote this about Judge Joe Williams while she spent 20 days in jail for not wearing a shirt in a forest in Florida. For a photo of her singing/chanting this poem, go here. With a country twang. Chorus: (But) (still) Well I'm just sittin' here in reviews TASIS, jail Wondrin' how did I fail Why am I held without bail All I did was be female and how to in high College Cambridge wondrin' Why is it that the judge Is refusing to budge If I could just give him a nudge: See, it's only about pudge! But in court you can't speak free You got to pay a lawyer's fee For the priv'lege of giving up your voice There really ain't much choice So I made me a plan To get access to this man He'll let me out write Park School, of the joint Once he understands my point And in this fantasy I invite him for herb tea And far from the halls of justice I ask what all the fuss is Well, thoughtfully he sat Then said . Write In High College Cambridge! . . Mine are flat, yours fat . . . And I think it's really shitty That you showed the world your titties. Define Think Kendall College! But then I explained to him our quest To gain freedom of the breast You see judge they aren't dirty You'll get used to that they're purty And who was it to decide That by law females must abide Our bodies in an essay in high school Abbey Cambridge, shame we must hide That seems most undignified! But if you are a man You're exempt from this ban And in freedom you can Enjoy a tan and land and sand. Good About Brighton College! Then I asked what next will be If they find our face sexy And he finally came to see With new eyes he looked at me and said, I must loosen up these ties That kept me hypnotized by an essay in high school Abbey Cambridge, lies I admit I've been unwise Now my consciousness must rise.

With that he handed me the key And said, You're out of how to write a self St. Michael's jail free! A week later he wrote And from his note I quote You have changed how I feel This prejudice must heal Good luck on your appeal I support your cause with zeal! Copyright 2001 by Kayla Sosnow. WHAT'S WRONG WITH MY BREASTS? by Ann-Marie, 2001 August 07. Ann-Marie lives in Texas. The following is taken from a longer essay.

I see breasts every day. Mine. So does my husband. Every woman has them. So why is an essay Cambridge it such a horrible thing when they are seen on television? We see men and boys taking off their shirts every day, in the movies and on television, but as soon as a woman takes off hers, parts of the picture become mosaic, or she pulls a bed sheet over her chest. Why? The funniest part is the controversial nipple. That's pretty much what's being hidden here. About Brighton! In Pennsylvania, at a strip bar, the how to an essay school Abbey College dancers have to wear pasties over their nipples.

Doesn't matter how large her breasts are, as long as the nipples are covered. Now, I don't know about you, but I think it's the curve and fullness of the breast that is so pleasing to the eye. Nipples be damned! To cover nipples with pasties, especially glittery pasties, simply draws more attention to the whole breast. Obviously, this does nothing for the equality of men and Hult International women. Write An Essay In High Abbey College! Quite frankly, to be told that I have to cover my nipples simply because I do not have a penis is insulting. Yeah, we're different . . . Good About College! but we're equal.

If a man can take off his shirt and not have his nipples blurred out on how to an essay in high Cambridge television, a woman should be able to do the same. So ours look a little different . A Persuasive Paper Hult International Business! . . they're a little bigger . . . SO WHAT?! All women have them. All husbands and boyfriends see them. All children still nursing see them. All other women see them in changing and locker rooms. Do you honestly think that we all try to write in high school College cover up in the locker room? And don't get me started on the whole breastfeeding in public issue. Anyone with a problem with that should try eating his or her dinner in the toilet and see how they like it. A woman has two reasons to bare her breasts: the same reason any man would and to feed her child!

Through this censorship, we are sending very mixed signals to our women and girls: that they should be ashamed of and hide their breasts at the same time they are taught by fashion magazines that they should enlarge and how to a memoir essay Kensington Park display them. What hypocrisy! We're also sending a signal to how to write an essay school Cambridge men and boys that they cannot control themselves at the sight of a breast. Do men commit assault as a result of define Kendall College seeing bare female breasts on school College Cambridge PBS or in a movie? Yeesh! I'm not saying that I want to walk around everywhere topfree. It's someone telling me that I cannot do something because I am a female that I question it at all---especially when female breasts serve a distinct purpose that requires occasional exposure.

Restrictions like this are ridiculous, illogical, and define Kendall College unfair. They need to be tested, pushed, and broken. If you are going to blur a woman's breasts on television, you might as well come into my home and digitize my breasts while I shower and change my clothes. CANADIAN TIRE ATTIRE. How I used a non-policy to begin educating the police and others. by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07. This is write College a report of an incident on June 30, 2001 at about 11:00 in a small city north of think Kendall Toronto, Ontario. An Essay In High School Abbey College! The dry approach reflects the author's calm, cool control. I went into a Canadian Tire store on Yonge Street in Newmarket with one female and two male friends. One of the men and I were topfree, while the other two chose to wear shirts. After a half hour of browsing and a self evaluation St. Michael's School purchasing, Mr.

Allen Dodds, Retail Manager, approached me with Ms. Tanis Pottage, Manager, and another store employee. Mr. Dodds told me I was going to have to put my shirt on. An Essay In High School Cambridge! I informed him that there was no sign indicating that I had to wear a shirt while in the store. He stated that Canadian Tire is private property and writing International School I had to how to an essay school College put a shirt on or leave the store. I asked if this was a store policy. He said it was. I requested to see the policy in writing.

He said that it was not written anywhere. As I put on my shirt, I said I found it curious that the store would have unwritten policies. Define College! I asked him to please put this one in an essay in high Abbey Cambridge, writing for think, me, and that a hand-written copy would be acceptable. He then accused me of creating a disturbance with his customers. I pointed out that I was merely shopping and was not creating a disturbance of any kind. He said that other customers were bothered by my being without a shirt. How To In High Abbey College Cambridge! I told him that I was not responsible for other peoples' behaviour, only my own. He excused himself and went outside to talk to the police. When he returned, he informed me that the journal article TASIS American in Switzerland) police said that he didn't have to give me anything in writing.

I understood that he didn't have to, but I was requesting that he do so as a courtesy. He refused. The topfree man with me was never told to put his shirt on by any of the Canadian Tire employees. How To Write School College Cambridge! Taking note of this, I asked Mr. Dodds, Is this a gender issue?

He said, Yes. For confirmation, I asked, So, because I am a woman, I have to wear a shirt in your store? He paused a moment, then said, I don't want to get into this. I don't want to argue about it. I stated that I didn't want to argue either, but that I wanted clarification. Then he informed me that there was a police officer outside and that he would come in and charge me.

I asked what I would be charged with, since I wasn't doing anything illegal. He said he didn't know---whatever the officer wanted to how to write essay St. Michael's School charge me with. I replied that I would be charged if he pressed charges, so I would like to know what he was planning to write Abbey Cambridge have me charged with. He threatened once again to bring in the police. Writing A Persuasive Paper International! I encouraged him to include the write Abbey College officer in our discussion.

Stunned, he excused himself to speak with the define Kendall officer. Upon his return, he informed me that the officer would be in to an essay in high Cambridge talk with me shortly. Then Mr. Dodds left, not to be seen again during the articles about College rest of the how to school Abbey College incident. After about 15 minutes, York Regional Officer Goddard, badge #1030, appeared. Write A Self St. Michael's! The officer, the other woman and the topfree man in how to an essay Abbey Cambridge, my party, and I all joined Ms. Pottage in the office in the customer service area. Officer Goddard clarified, The manager told you to put your shirt on. I said, Yes.

After a pause, he asked, So what is the think Kendall problem? I said there was no problem, merely that I had put on my shirt when I was told to, but that I was asking for their store policy in writing regarding the write an essay school Abbey Cambridge wearing of shirts, since it was not posted. I suggested that to require me to & creative wear a shirt while allowing men to be without one was illegal. Officer Goddard informed me that my being without a shirt was drawing attention from the write an essay in high Abbey Cambridge other customers; that was the reason I was confronted. Write A Memoir Essay Kensington Park! I pointed out how to write an essay in high Cambridge, that if my son had a gross deformity that drew attention, I would not be asked to cover him or leave the store. The officer agreed. I then pointed out that this was basically the same kind of thing. He said he understood, but that this was a cultural thing. A Persuasive Hult International Business School! I compared it to the cultural act of discrimination based on race or religion. He offered, Well, it's going to take some time for society to change.

I explained that that's exactly why I exercise my right to be topfree, that I want to how to school Abbey reclaim our breasts and have them viewed as something other than mere sexual playthings. I am helping not just women but men as well, by changing how they view women in general. Officer Goddard said that the journal article reviews (The School in Switzerland) store did not understand the laws about women being able to go without a shirt, and that because the law was so new, even the police were unsure how to handle this type of situation. [Ed. note: the law was only 4.5 years old at school College this point!] I recalled that I had once encountered an think, officer who was so unsure what to school Abbey College Cambridge do that he begged me to put my shirt on long enough for him to a self evaluation get into his cruiser and leave. That sort of action weakened the how to an essay in high Abbey Cambridge police's position and effectiveness in the public eye. I informed Officer Goddard that as Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association, I would like the opportunity to help the police deal with the public when they receive a call regarding a topfree woman. I asked whom he would recommend that I get in paper Hult International School, touch with to arrange an how to write an essay in high Abbey, informative presentation.

I didn't want to tell anyone how to do their job, just offer more viable options on ways to deal with the issue that keep everyone happy without violating anyone's rights. He suggested that I speak with the Chief at York Regional Headquarters. As the discussion came to an end, Ms. Pottage stated that they would contact Canadian Tire's corporate office and institute a shirts required policy in Chelsea College, all Canadian Tire stores. I thanked Officer Goddard and how to write school Ms. Pottage for article reviews School in Switzerland), their professional attitudes, then asked the officer for directions to how to school Abbey another store. He gave me the directions and then asked, Am I going to be getting a call from essay Kensington that store in how to write College Cambridge, a little bit? BEAUTY AND THE BREAST: AN ART EXHIBITION.

by Allison Roberts. Allison Roberts, a student at Bellevue Community College, Washington, coordinated its art show Beauty and the Breast on journal article reviews June 1, 2001. For more on that day's presentations, go here . Although I do not consider myself an activist, I felt compelled to how to write school College Cambridge work on this project from the moment I heard about it. Maybe my perspective will inspire people a little, or at least inspire some thought about how to write a memoir, topfreedom, sexualization, and body image. In the US today, the average 7-year-old girl has been on at least two diets. Write In High School Cambridge! Younger and how to evaluation younger girls are influenced by an essay in high school, our culture's constant pressure to write a self evaluation St. Michael's conform to an unrealistic body expectation.

I have heard teenagers talking about write Abbey College, TV movies that chronicle women's battles with eating disorders; and instead of being sickened, saddened, or moved by these stories, they look to them for more tips on article reviews American School in Switzerland) how to starve themselves. A recent documentary on bulimia stated that the write Abbey College no. Writing A Persuasive Hult! 1 inspiration for girls with eating disorders is the movies and books intended to stop them. They think they're glamorous. Virtually every woman I know has resorted to drastic measures to obtain what our culture teaches is the ideal body. What we consider that body to be is probably a very sick one. Eating disorders and serious negative body image are destroying tomorrow's women. Now, how does this tie into school, topfreedom? Even at the age of 27, I have probably seen only 10 or 15 pairs of & creative thinking Chelsea Independent real breasts. Write An Essay In High College! Most of my knowledge about breasts comes from movies and magazines.

But actresses use body doubles to give the critical thinking Chelsea Independent illusion of how to in high school College a more perfect body, and photographs of models have been airbrushed to remove any unsightly bumps or discoloration. These women, whom we consider ideal, represent a mere 1% of society. When girls as young as 12 talk about getting breast implants based on this standard, I say we have a serious problem. Three 14-year-old girls have told me separately that they need breast enlargement surgery, with nothing to base their body hatred on but a stolen copy of Playboy. How can a girl who has little to no idea what real breasts look like be expected to accept her own body as normal and natural? How can we teach our children that our bodies belong to us and are perfect as they are, if we are also teaching them that their breasts are merely dangerous sexual objects to be hidden? How can we say that to view a woman's breasts will damage children, when it is so clear what not seeing them is doing? Allison Roberts and her painting American Woman. We pulled this show together in just under two weeks. I was overwhelmed by & creative College, the response from the artists I contacted---by their support, enthusiasm, creativity, and an essay in high school College inspiration. A Persuasive Hult International School! It was both a gift and a pleasure to work on an essay in high Abbey the show, to spend even two weeks on something I believe in passionately.

THE KAYLA SOSNOW INTERVIEW. by Peri, 2000 March 30. In 1996, Kayla Sosnow was taking part in a Rainbow Gathering at Osceola National Forest in Florida. Define Kendall! There were many topfree women at this gathering, and Kayla felt perfectly comfortable in her surroundings. But when she and a male friend left the festivities to fill up their water jugs, she was jolted back into the reality of life here in The United States---where every person is write in high school Abbey Cambridge supposedly created equal. Even though there were several topfree men in the area (including her male companion), a passing forest ranger singled her out for harassment. He told her that her bare chest was illegal, and that she would have to put on a top. Really? Kayla responded. Do you have a local law about this?

Her question flustered the define Kendall ranger, and he went back to his radio. How To In High School College! Soon after, three Sheriff cars pulled up. The Sheriffs were not interested in discussing the articles College situation. Kayla was told that she must cover up or go to an essay school Cambridge jail. At this point, her male companion suggested that maybe she had just better put on her top. Now, let's all pause for a moment and put ourselves in this situation. You are enjoying time with friends in critical College, a beautiful national forest.

Suddenly, you find yourself facing jail time. There is only one way to escape the situation: you must agree to abide by a law that is write school Abbey College Cambridge obviously discriminating against you simply because of your sex. What would you do? What's wrong with this photo? Kayla Sosnow chose to go to jail. She was handcuffed and driven to paper Hult International Business School a county jail. She was to spend four days there, and because she refused to write an essay Abbey plead guilty, she ended up serving another sixteen days after conviction. When speaking about Topfreedom, people often shrug and say that it isn't really a big issue; there are, after all, more important issues to paper School worry about. But if topfreedom is such a small, unimportant issue, why in the world are we sending topfree women like Kayla Sosnow to jail?

Taking away a person's freedom by how to write in high Abbey, incarceration is good to write Brighton never a small issue. Inequality between the two halves of humanity (the male and the female) is never a small issue. State-sanctioned sexual discrimination and police-enforced sexual harassment is never a small issue. Kayla's actions were not premeditated: she simply found herself in an intolerable situation and felt compelled to how to an essay Abbey stand up for what she believed in. Kayla was not raised in how to write evaluation School, an atmosphere that specifically encouraged topfreedom, but she was raised in surroundings that respected social activism. Social activism is actually prescribed in Judaism, says Kayla, who has been involved with many different civil rights movements, because our people were once slaves in Egypt. Criminalized for being a woman! Kayla Sosnow in handcuffs. Kayla also considers the topfreedom movement to be a women's health movement. Women are not getting screened for breast cancer because of how to write an essay in high our attitudes about TASIS American School in Switzerland), breasts.

Women are not doing their breast self exams because of our negative attitudes about breasts. And women are dying because of this. Also, women are not breastfeeding their babies---I can't believe that our society is still making women feel uncomfortable about such a natural process! I asked Kayla how she responds when people tell her that men will not be able to control themselves if women walk around topfree. It always surprises me when I talk about how to write school College Cambridge, this issue, she answered, that the discussion always turns to men, how men will feel, what men will do. That is not the issue here. Good To Write Brighton! This is about women choosing for themselves.

Kayla believes that the general public could handle the situation just fine if the government would get out of the way. An Essay School Abbey College! She has tested this theory by being topfree around her house. Define Kendall! She has answered the door topfree to letter carriers, courier drivers, and even a clergyman. All of these men were able to control themselves just fine. In fact, she said with calm assurance, people are a lot more ready for this than we give them credit for.

Kayla came to this conclusion in how to write Abbey, the years after her arrest, when she received widespread support for her appeal. She actually won this appeal last year [1999], and College is now involved in a suit against write Cambridge, the state of Florida. The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida has filed this lawsuit on behalf of Kayla and nine other females---including a nine-year-old girl. It is very encouraging to see that a reputable organization like the ACLU is offering support on this issue! Because of her leadership in a persuasive paper International, the topfreedom movement, Kayla has a unique perspective on the progress that has been made in recent years.

The more I talk about this issue, the more I hear about women who have been arrested for write an essay in high Abbey, being topfree. Define Kendall! This has not been organized: it is a grassroots movement! Many, many different women are starting to get fed up and how to Abbey are saying that they don't want to take it any more. I want women to how to a self evaluation essay know that they can choose to challenge these laws. We don't have to in high Abbey College Cambridge take it anymore! Throughout my interview with Kayla, I was struck by think, her calm but fearless attitude about topfreedom. Obviously, they picked the wrong woman to harass at that Rainbow Gathering.

Or perhaps this was the right woman! Although we are sorry that Kayla had to write an essay in high school Abbey College go through her horrendous legal battle, we are eternally grateful that she chose to stand up and articles to write Brighton College fight for all women's equal rights under the law. Write Cambridge! She will continue to inspire other women to question the unfair laws that keep women from reclaiming ownership of a self evaluation essay St. Michael's their own breasts. Read on write an essay Abbey Cambridge for more topfree inspiration! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is not safe for women? A: The evidence does not bear this out. When was the last time you heard of a topfree woman being attacked on a nude beach, topfree beach, or nudist park?

Concert or festival, even? Any topfree woman anywhere? Never! I have never heard of one! And I've heard of lots of topfree women! Not only does the how to write Kensington School evidence not bear this out, but neither does my personal experience. I have gone topfree plenty, and have never been attacked. There is an in high school Cambridge, element of strength to how to a memoir essay School going topfree, while at the same time exposing the world to the soft and nourishing parts of women that for too long have been devalued in write an essay school Abbey Cambridge, favour of the tough competitive ideal of our society.

There is also an element of openness to Kendall College going topfree which seems to inspire people to treat me with the utmost respect and dignity, even admiration. People have thanked me for acting on behalf of equal rights. Speaking of equal rights, statements about men misbehaving show a profound lack of respect for them. Believe it or not, men really can control themselves in the presence of a topfree woman! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is how to write Cambridge inappropriate for children to witness?

A: Silly rabbit, breasts are for kids! It is so unfortunate that in our society the media have fetishized breasts so much that they have been co-opted away from their owners and away from children. Do you realize how many children miss out on Kensington the nourishing benefits of breastfeeding? All because of the view that this statement represents, that breasts are sex objects, meaning that they are for men, not women and children. Q: Do you have any advice for how to write in high school College Cambridge, women who might want to try being topfree in public but haven't quite got up the courage? A: Pick a place you think is mellow and define think Kendall College free of legal hassles---a natural spot, maybe---and use your judgement. Then, you know how you take off your shirt at night to how to school Abbey Cambridge go to bed? It's just like that. Really. Just like you've been doing since you were a kid.

You just take it off. Once it's off, it's off. People can handle it, and critical & creative thinking Chelsea College noticing that, you'll be able to how to school Cambridge handle it too. I'll bet there'll be a surprising lack of article reviews fanfare. Once you've tried it, and felt the sun and wind on your body, you'll never want to be encased in a hot, sweaty garment again. Why do you think men go topfree? It feels better. How To Write An Essay In High Abbey College Cambridge! Let's not be denied! I AM NOT A SEX OBJECT.

I OWN MY OWN BODY. by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10. In April 2001, Allison Ezell began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Indiana. Her website operated for a couple of years. I can't tell you how great it feels to be doing what I am doing. It is almost cathartic, like I am purging myself of article reviews American School years and Abbey College years of bullshit and body propaganda that I internalized. And I am trying to help other women.

I have been involved in School, several activist endeavors. There are an infinite number of how to school Abbey College Cambridge worthy causes to & creative thinking promote in this world. But I have found one that gives me peace. This issue is so personal to me. I don't have to how to an essay in high adjust or apologize or explain or be ashamed. To Write About College! I am not a sex object. I own my body. It is not government property.

The fact that I have to wear a shirt to cover my breasts because they are obscene or because they might entice men to violence is beyond me (even though the overwhelming evidence does not support this notion). It is they who have the problem but I am the write College one whom they legislate. Women will never be able to accept their bodies as long as we are expected to keep covering up and concealing and hiding from the world with makeup and bras and and control top pantyhose and articles Brighton College $60-a-jar wrinkle cream. How To School! If we all walked around naked and unadorned for a little while and turned off our TVs, would we still believe that everyone has to look like a Barbie (or a Ken for that matter)? Would women still force themselves to puke? Would we still spend over $80 million a year on diet bullshit? How in the world will women be able to love and accept their very bodies if every other part is writing a persuasive paper International School either flawed or criminal? YOU CAN THINK FOR YOURSELF. In April 2001, Whitney McCleskey began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Alabama.

Her website is under construction. On January 24, 2002, she gave birth to Victoria Eve, whose photo from how to write an essay in high Abbey Winter 2002 this is: Out of my own curiosity, I've been investigating the social problems surrounding topfreedom for critical & creative thinking Chelsea, almost two years now. I have learned that it is write in high College Cambridge difficult for most people to improve their perspectives on good about Brighton something which their culture has taught them to school Abbey College view with contempt. & Creative Thinking Independent! But it can be done. Most of us grow up in write in high Abbey College, societies which place restrictions on women's breasts, saying that the mere exposure of one is morally threatening to the welfare of the public. We adapt to evaluation St. Michael's this belief without question. Our media reinforce it through ads, movies, and TV programs. Basically, people believe women's breasts are indecent, obscene, and immoral, because that's what their culture's mainstream has trained them to believe.

In all of my questioning, I've found no one who has ever been able to tell me what it is about the human female breast that is so immoral, obscene, or indecent. Nor has anyone ever been able to produce anatomical facts supporting the how to write an essay Abbey College general concept that women's breasts are primarily for sex. I've concluded that the female breast is the how to a self essay St. Michael's most misunderstood part of the human anatomy. Write In High School College! The sight of one (that's not being used for sexual or commercial purposes) is only detrimental if you want it to Hult International Business be. Immorality, indecency, and obscenity, like beauty, are all in the eye of the beholder. Basically, you can think for yourself. You can purge yourself of the misleading impression promulgated by write in high school Abbey College Cambridge, the state and mainstream media.

Personal opinion is think College one thing the state can't outlaw, the media can't censor. School! Instead they induce the general population into seeing women's breasts perniciously. Article (The American School! Women's topfreedom is in itself harmless. Our freedom to choose our standpoint is precious. For many people topfreedom is an essay school College Cambridge also precious, a freedom that men have but women do not.

Ask yourself (not your government or the media), Are women's breasts really nocuous to reviews American School in Switzerland) society? TOPFREE AS YOU WANNA BE! by Peri, 1999 September 7. When I was 16, I spent a summer in Mexico. One of the girls I met there had just returned from write an essay in high Abbey Cambridge Spain. A hundred percent of the women who had frequented the beach outside her hotel were topfree.

My friend felt very conspicuous with her top on because people were constantly staring at her. Still, she was uncomfortable taking off her top because she came from a different culture. But after a few days, she became weary of being the a memoir Kensington Park object of so much attention. So she took off her top. She noticed the difference immediately; there were no more stares directed her way. This story demonstrates that people stare at what they consider to how to write in high school Abbey College be different or odd. In a culture where topfreedom is a persuasive paper Hult Business accepted and write an essay in high school College even expected, people will stare at the unusual sight of a woman wearing a top. In a culture (such as ours) where topfreedom is neither accepted nor expected, people will stare at a woman who is not wearing a top. The deciding factor is not the woman's breasts, but the context in which they are seen. Unfortunately, our society does more than simply stare: we also harass, ticket, and even arrest women who are simply trying to exercise the same topfreedom that men enjoy.

This can be seen in define think, the case of The Moscow Three, a trio of women who dared remove their shirts last year during the 32° degree heat of a summer day in Moscow, Idaho. For this crime, the three women (Lori Graves, Natalie Shapiro, and Stacy Temple) were hauled off to the local jail in handcuffs--while their topfree, male companions stood by, barechested and unharassed. If this is an essay in high Cambridge not a blatant example of discrimination, I don't know what is! The prejudice against topfree women is due in part to the sexualization of the female breasts. Since women are not allowed to bare their breasts in article reviews in Switzerland), nonsexual situations, our society immediately associates bare breasts with sexuality. How To Write An Essay In High Abbey College Cambridge! Now, I am not saying that men would cease to be aroused by breasts if we all walked around topfree. Writing International Business School! Of course some would! Just as some men are aroused by long hair, or bare legs, or blue eyes. Should we respond to this potential arousal by shrouding ourselves in shoulder to floor garments? Should we cover our hair and faces, leaving only a small opening to see the world?

This has been the solution in some cultures, but it's not a solution I much like! Instead, we can demand that our society grow up and learn to deal with the existence of our physical bodies. We must teach society that bare breasts are not an in high school Abbey College, invitation to be touched, just as we teach that short skirts are not an invitation to be raped. When we look at the larger picture, we see that sexual violence against women is perpetuated by our present system: a system that legally sanctions women to be topfree only when they are performing striptease acts or serving men drinks in a topless bar. In my town, a woman cannot walk down the street topfree, but she can take off her shirt in essay St. Michael's, a bar for paying customers. This hypocrisy encourages men to think of how to an essay school Abbey College breasts as sexual objects: mere sexual commodities to a persuasive Business School be bought and how to write in high sold! Modern society often has a short memory, so people do not remember that men gained their topfree rights fairly recently.

If you look at those old black and white photos of turn-of-the-century bathing suits, you will notice that the men's nipples were also covered. It wasn't until Clark Gable bared his chest in thinking Independent College, a film in how to an essay school Abbey, the thirties that men began to go topfree in great numbers. A few old timers probably fainted, but I'm sure they eventually revived and a memoir essay Kensington Park got on with life. Now male topfreedom is so commonplace that few men would consider putting on write an essay in high school Abbey College Cambridge a top to article reviews TASIS (The in Switzerland) go swimming. Write School Abbey! If we want women to enjoy the same rights, some of us are going to have to how to evaluation essay St. Michael's School be brave and just do it! This is easier said than done. Each woman needs to how to write school choose the critical & creative thinking Chelsea Independent time and place that feels safe and how to write an essay in high school College appropriate. Believe it or not, I do not enjoy making myself a public spectacle! Neither do I like making other people feel uncomfortable when they are trying to enjoy the outdoors with their families. But the write a self solution is how to school Abbey not to segregate topfree women onto certain beaches or sections of town.

We have to remember that some people are uncomfortable sharing space with African Americans or Mexicans or Jews. The old adage Separate but Equal did not fly with the ethnic minorities in this country, and to write about Brighton it doesn't apply any better to topfree women! In fact, segregation encouraged bigotry because it kept people ignorant of their common humanity. The same applies to topfreedom. Until people experience topfree women around them, they will continue to believe that topfree women are dangerous sluts--out to steal husbands and corrupt children!

It's important to provide the information that will help end this ignorance: to know cases where women have challenged unfair laws in court, to discuss how topfreedom affects breastfeeding, motherhood, and how to an essay in high College Cambridge body esteem. Whenever there's temperate weather, pluck up that courage and get yourself as topfree as you wanna be! A TASTE OF FREEDOM. by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14. I remember the day the photos below were taken. Write Park! It was a very gray, January day . . . long before I really got involved in topfreedom. My husband, our children, and another family member had gone out to how to an essay in high Abbey Cambridge the beach for photos of the children and for the opportunity of fresh air during the long, cold winter. The wind was fierce. Stronger than I could ever remember.

I was in write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's, a different place then. It was not the normal thing for me to shed my top on write an essay in high school Abbey a public beach, but somehow the wind beckoned me. First, I stripped down to my bra. But when I felt the cool sting of the wind whipping my skin, I had to be completely free. Free I was. Without any real thought, I slid my bra off and held up my shirt like it was a cape for a superhero. It was, without a doubt, one of the journal article reviews TASIS (The American School in Switzerland) most liberating feelings I have ever had in my life. The coolness of the how to write in high College Cambridge air. The wind whisking away my breath. My breasts standing in think Kendall College, the wind and shouting, I am free!

I am beautiful! I am decent! I haven't looked over these photos in quite some time. Looking at them today, I realize that this was my first real taste of how to an essay College (top)freedom! MY BREASTS RECLAIMED. by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27. This story makes the how to write a self evaluation connection between women's topfreedom and write in high school breastfeeding, in to write Brighton, the context of life-giving well-being . I'm certain that any small-breasted woman (as I am considered) remembers the an essay Abbey agony of the first comparisons to other girls. In high school, changing for paper School, gym class made me self-conscious. I was the how to write an essay school Abbey College Cambridge only girl in Grade 9 not wearing a bra. After school, I asked my (similarly small-breasted) mother if I could pleeeease have a bra. A training bra? she asked.

Any bra, I answered, wondering what a training bra was---and more importantly, if it could train my breasts to grow bigger! Some time around puberty, my next older brother had mock-inducted me into the itty bitty titty club. His teasing was the how to write a memoir essay Kensington Park School beginning of nearly 20 years of shame, embarrassment, and feelings of inadequacy regarding my breasts. Did I ever toy with the idea of breast surgery to incease my cup size? You bet. After the write in high school Cambridge birth of my first daughter, I was committed to breastfeeding her for article (The, as long as possible. In High School Cambridge! With the journal American School in Switzerland) books The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding and BestFeeding as my guides, I suffered through six weeks of write Cambridge painful cracking, bleeding, and screaming nipples---but finally drifted into six additional months of how to a self evaluation essay School comfortable breastfeeding. Ah, relief. And confidence. WOW, the confidence!

I finally realized that I measured perfectly. When did this new woman emerge? Exactly the moment that everyone's focus (most importantly one's own) shifted from the how to write an essay in high school size of the breasts to their true purpose. It was exhilarating. I read an article in a breastfeeding newsletter about the bond between mother and nursing child entitled My Breasts Adored. I beamed with recognition. After the powerful experience of successful breastfeeding, I decided that the only changes to my breasts that I was willing to undergo were natural ones, associated with nourishing my children. Shortly thereafter, the topfree equal rights issue came to the fore in our local paper. I felt a spark, a confirmation. How dare anyone limit the purpose or visibility of thinking Chelsea College my breasts?

How dare anyone put labels of in high school Abbey indecency on them, my new-found, perfectly functioning and perfectly proportioned, life-nourishing breasts? I was not in high school any more and refused to be patronized and pigeon-holed yet again. When my breast size diminished after my daughter was weaned, my confidence remained. Now, after the birth of my second daughter (only three weeks of screaming nipples this time), I'm at it again. We're into how to write a self essay, our 13th month, and nursing anywhere and everywhere. People hardly notice my exposed areolas and nipples. When I'm feeding my child, I don't care what they see. by Paul Rapoport. Hamilton [Ontario, Canada] Spectator , November 28, 2005. This article relates topfreedom, nudity, and sexuality to increase understanding in a few areas. . . . there's innocence at how to an essay College Cambridge risk.

But are we really kidding ourselves about children, nudity and sexuality? Are we sending them a harmful message in Chelsea Independent College, the process? Actress Kim Cattrall posed in the altogether for the cover of her newest book, Sexual Intelligence. What does it---or people's reaction to how to an essay school Abbey College Cambridge it---say about society's attitudes towards nudity and sexuality? From Sexual Intelligence, Published by Greystone Books. [the photo was printed 23 cm high in critical thinking Independent College, the newspaper article] A few weeks ago, on a Go section cover, The Spectator printed a large photo of actor Kim Cattrall in connection with a new book of hers.

Some readers complained about the write in high school Abbey College photo because Cattrall was naked. The main argument against the photo was that it does not belong in a family newspaper. Family means a few things, chiefly the how to write a self essay School presence of children, also a certain parental attitude: young minds should not be polluted by nudity in a newspaper that arrives for write in high school Cambridge, breakfast. Behind this lie two major assumptions: that children are innocent and their innocence needs protection. Although in some ways children are innocent, many parents narrow that to evaluation essay St. Michael's mean ignorant and try to keep them so, especially in sexual matters. Protection via ignorance then easily backfires as a method of upbringing.

It also loads burdens onto write in high, minors of all ages that adults fail socially to deal with. Bodies are one of those failures, in their unclothed state and sexual potential. We act in imaginative ways to keep even the topics of nudity and define think sexuality from minors. It doesn't matter that young children in all cultures prefer to how to in high Abbey College Cambridge be naked, that at define think Kendall very early ages they masturbate, if non-erotically, and that in adolescence they know well what erotic experience is. North Americans may be very unsettled at children's developing sexuality. Write An Essay School Abbey Cambridge! Our culture deals with this inevitability, writes the social critic James Kincaid, by issuing orders to deny it. Journal Article Reviews (The American School In Switzerland)! Ideological and in high Abbey College commercial interests help to articles Brighton maintain that unsettled denial. Ideologically, we falsely believe that teens learning sexual facts will use them indiscriminately. Commercially, advertising blasts us with sexual messages that we try to prevent many of their intended targets from how to an essay in high school heeding. Many deny reality constantly to maintain the myth that we can enforce minors' distancing from how to essay School sex. The United States, for example, officially promotes and exorbitantly funds abstinence-only sex education.

Five of the best American professional organizations have shown scientifically that it doesn't work, that vows of abstinence break far more easily than a good condom. The result: the an essay in high school Abbey College U.S. government says that's not science. That kind of reaction reached its nadir a few years ago. In 1998, a scientific analysis by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman claimed that not all sexual experiences of minors presumed harmful are actually so. What did the U.S.

Congress do? It didn't say, We'd better study this or We think your stats are wrong. As soon as it could, in a fit of political hysteria, it denounced the School analysis in unanimous votes in both House and Senate. It lynched the Abbey College messenger because it didn't want to understand the message. Promoting baseless fear reaps far more political benefits. Don't sneer at our southern neighbours, however. Canada, while better, is hardly free from write essay St. Michael's School criticism. Its government has tried hard to make some thoughts about sex a crime. Its pornography laws are based on discredited theories.

Its police often wrongly claim that child sexual abuse is an epidemic. Ontario's Children's Aid societies threaten nudist families, who refuse to buy into body shame and phobia. And its sex-ed curriculum for write an essay school College Cambridge, elementary schools is warped by writing a persuasive School, omission of important concepts. Obsession with sexuality may become absurd. Often, it results in those most afraid of it inducing plenty of harm where none existed. Write An Essay In High School College Cambridge! In Florida in 2004, a 22-year-old female babysitter undressed in good articles to write, front of Abbey College Cambridge her four-year-old male charge because he asked her to persistently, in writing a persuasive Hult, his innocent way. How To Write! The boy was declared psychologically damaged and sent to counselling. The babysitter faced 30 years in prison, much more than for about Brighton College, murder.

That unhappy tale reminds me of an old joke about a four-year-old boy who spotted a totally naked woman standing up in a convertible. Mommy, he blurted out, clearly disturbed, that woman's not wearing a seat-belt! The crusade for children's innocence takes other forms. Just this month, two women protested in California bare-breasted -- by no means a new tactic. Sacramento police arrested them for indecency and disorder, claiming their act could corrupt children . and cause sex offenders to run amok. There is no evidence whatever to support such claims. Nonetheless, the women face permanent listing as sex offenders, right next to real child abusers.

That sort of thing happens in Canada, too. In the an essay school Cambridge past 10 years, arrests of bare-breasted women in several provinces have been major news. In 2001, when the magnificent Breast of essay Kensington Park School Canada calendar from Guelph showed women's complete breasts, it was labelled pornographic. Even our original problem, Kim Cattrall's photo, hides what are often called naughty bits. How To Write An Essay In High College! What message does that send to children? So we, too, can pin major harm on think Kendall College a tiny part of women's bodies.

This nipplemania is the ultimate fetish. It blames women's nipples for disorder subsequently caused by police and calls them indecent to support false claims of protecting misconstrued innocence. How To Write An Essay In High School Abbey College! We do not help children by teaching them intolerance, disgust, and unjust discrimination towards women's bodies or by hiding from how to a memoir them as much information as possible about bodies and sexuality. Cattrall's new book is called Sexual Intelligence. In North America, we could use some of that to move towards a sex positive culture. Currently we convey mostly body negativity, in write an essay Abbey, sexual politics of fear and hypocrisy.

As protective measures for children, nothing could be worse. 'TOPFREEDOM' GAINING GROUND. Society is coming to accept that bare breasts are not threatening. by Paul Rapoport. [Dr. Rapoport's article is below. It is from journal reviews TASIS (The School The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, March 1, 2000. It was written in response to an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge the article at the right by Lydia Lovric, which appeared in the same newspaper on February 23, 2000.

Her article is posted with her kind permission. At the time, as the article says at its end, she was an article reviews TASIS School, undergraduate student at McMaster University in Hamilton, the same place where Dr. Rapoport is a professor. The two authors met for the first time on how to write an essay College Cambridge July 25, 2001, and found each other excellent company.] Last week Lydia Lovric wrote a Forum article criticizing topless women [above and to the right]. I prefer the term topfree. It's closer to what these women feel when they throw off their tops on a hot day as men do.

Topless also suggests strippers, but there's no connection here. Indeed, it's insulting to topfree women to writing a persuasive paper International School tell them to head to the nearest strip joint. Many make that suggestion in exasperation. It reveals confusion between bare breasts and write in high Abbey College Cambridge sexual activity. So does the notion that any topfree woman is parading about. Good Articles To Write Brighton! Such words also imply puzzlement at why women would expose their breasts. Many women have explained topfreedom.

To them it's about being comfortable, gaining confidence, expressing body acceptance, aiding breastfeeding, or protesting men's authority over their bodies. Lovric claimed that society won't accept topfree women. Let's see what's happened recently to some of them in write in high school College, North America. Gwen Jacob in Ontario: acquitted of indecency. Linda Meyer in BC: public nudity charge dropped.

Kathleen Rice and Evangeline Godron in Saskatchewan: acquitted of indecent exhibition. Three women in journal TASIS American, Idaho: acquitted of how to Abbey indecent exposure. Kayla Sosnow in Florida: acquitted of disorderly conduct. Despite a few cases pending or on article reviews in Switzerland) appeal, the trend is clear. Laws used to convict topfree women are failing. Most often, topfree women are not arrested and not news. What about those great markers of popular culture---television and film? These days, many mainstream films have scenes with bare female breasts.

TV programs too. Importantly, such scenes may be in how to write an essay school College Cambridge, nonsexual contexts. On February 8th, CBS showed a lot of to write Brighton College topfree women on a beach in prime time, with hardly a bleep from viewers. On the 21st, CBC news showed a tape of Linda Meyer topfree without censoring her nipples. The sun still rises daily, and the moral collapse of North America will have to be blamed on something else.

North America does have an an essay, obsession with women's breasts. It's closely connected to women's lack of self-esteem, often manifested in debilitating eating disorders and dangerous surgeries. Breast banning also restricts breast feeding and define think Kendall College makes women less likely to examine their breasts for disease. Men's obsessive fantasies of women's breasts demand those breasts be hidden except when men permit them to be uncovered. Those demands control, exploit, and degrade women. They are the real perversion, said anthropologist Ashley Montagu--not some women wishing to go without tops. Discomfort or embarrassment may accompany the sight of women's or men's bare breasts, understandably. An Essay School Abbey! But that alone is not a sound basis for criminal law.

It's also easier to relieve than most people think. Fear, panic, and disgust really can be avoided too. Regardless, like men, women don't go barebreasted everywhere. Ms. Lovric and I may agree on that. Nor do women walk fully clothed alone on certain streets after dark. Should we criminalize them if they do and blame them for men's assaults? May every hot and bothered male harass a woman because of what she's wearing---or not wearing? Lovric concluded that requiring breasts to be covered is a reasonable limit on women's freedom. Twenty years ago, lawyer Carol Agate explained how the imposition on women is great, the inconvenience real, the stigma pernicious---and the banning of bare breasts unjust.

It applies to writing International School girls with childhood breasts, women with two, one, or no breasts, but never to men with any size of an essay breasts. Article Reviews TASIS (The! Females are therefore restricted solely because they are female. That contravenes Article 15 of the Canadian Charter of an essay in high school Abbey Rights and Freedoms, which forbids discrimination in law based on sex. It's hard to imagine a court upholding these restrictions on women only, as a reasonable and justifiable exception to Article 15 and how to a memoir Park others in how to an essay in high school Cambridge, the Charter. Yes, men and paper Hult International Business women are different.

That difference has been used to in high school deny women property ownership, education, civil rights, jobs, and money. It's no argument in & creative Chelsea, this case either. Remember when pregnant school teachers were assumed to how to write in high Abbey College damage children? When bikinis would cause complete social breakdown? In a few years we may laugh too at the notion that women's bare breasts are weapons of St. Michael's destruction. Aren't women's breasts sexual?

If that still needs an how to Cambridge, answer, how's this: They may be, in some situations determined by their owner. Why are women's breasts so frightful when nipples are visible but OK when they're not? To ban women's bare breasts fosters a prejudicial, harmful notion that men own them. Gwen Jacob said it well in 1992, long before she was acquitted for her topfree walk in Guelph: My breasts are for everyone else's pleasure and my own oppression. A Persuasive Paper International Business School! Whose breasts are they anyway? If women made the laws, would they denigrate and criminalize their breasts but not men's? We are undergoing a revolution in body culture, and write in high Abbey women's topfree equality is a big part of it. BREASTFEEDING FRENZY: TWO VIEWS.

People's reaction to breastfeeding and bare breasts reflects revulsion at the body. Such harmful attitudes shouldn't override the define Kendall College law. by Paul Rapoport. [from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, February 25, 1999. The other view referred to how to in high school Abbey College Cambridge in the define Kendall College title argued that women should not breastfeed in public if their nipples might be seen.] Even though it's not yet summer, there have already been incidents where women with exposed breasts have encountered trouble. Recently, Julia Goforth was removed from a Niagara Falls YMCA, and how to in high Abbey College Shannon Wray was told to leave an indoor pool in evaluation essay St. Michael's, Hamilton. Both were breastfeeding. The minor public health issue in the latter case is swamped by how to write an essay in high College, the major public sensitivity issue. Letters in this newspaper said that Ms. Wray was insensitive to breastfeed in view of others.

Since breastfeeding is natural and beneficial, the act itself isn't the problem. Write A Memoir Kensington Park School! It's the actual or threatened public exposure of those breasts, or more accurately, areolas and nipples. Many assume that women who expose breasts engage in or invite sexual acts. This assumption is write Abbey College created and articles about Brighton College maintained by heterosexual men. An Essay In High Abbey College Cambridge! They act as if women's breasts belong to essay Kensington them--an act of corporeal misappropriation and emotional thievery.

No wonder many women won't breastfeed in public! A corollary is that men seeing women's breasts can't control themselves. It's false. It also sounds like the old and discredited notion that women are asking for it in dressing or not dressing a certain way. Several letters also implied, I wouldn't breastfeed in public, so she shouldn't. Aside from the defective logic, this represents the kind of write coercion our laws are designed to prevent. At the heart of the matter is the writing paper Hult International Business issue of offense. People have the right to be offended. They do not have the right to remove their offense by removing others who are causing no harm. It would help if people unsettled at the thought of women breastfeeding or uncovering their breasts in public would recognize the source of how to in high Abbey Cambridge what is mostly their own problem.

That source is often revulsion at the body. It helps produce calamities---mostly for how to, women---such as bulimia/anorexia, low self-esteem, mutilating surgery, reduced breastfeeding, and sexual dysfunction. Not least is the debilitating body shame and guilt adults lay on how to write an essay in high school Abbey Cambridge children, based on peculiar and damaging adult phobias. But where does all that come from? Two major places: misapplication of a memoir Park Freudian ideas---some of them untenable in the first place---and misunderstanding of religion, often manifested in inappropriate use of Christian scripture.

Not least is the precept that the mind is pure and the body is filthy. That attitude doesn't do much for the temple of the soul, or human beings created in God's image. Disgust at women's breasts causes women to live their entire socially conscious lives as if there is something bad or wrong about the upper parts of their bodies but not men's. An Essay School Abbey Cambridge! Why? Because men say so. Women are forced to treat their breasts publicly as hidden sex objects for men, even though their breasts have other functions. An Ontario Court of Appeal ruling in 1996 made much of this clear, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forbids discrimination on the basis of sex.

Still we have Shannon Wray being criticized and insulted, and a specific policy of Hamilton Culture and Recreation that promotes such harassment. Policies and municipal bylaws banning women's bare breasts are unconstitutional, whether breastfeeding is involved or not. Legal arguments aside, such regulations are unfair, unnecessary, and to write about Brighton College unwise. Abbey Cambridge! Women have brains. They can decide whether to uncover their breasts or not without others telling them and treating them like outcasts or criminals. Many jurisdictions in North America have decided they have better things to do than prosecute barebreasted women who are innocent of any crime. Of Canadian provinces, three out of three that have dealt with this issue judicially have essentially agreed.

Should women choosing to doff their tops be sensitive to those around them? Of course. So should everyone else. But you can't legislate sensitivity. & Creative Thinking Independent College! What happens when sensitivities collide?

Perhaps Shannon Wray could have explained nicely what her rights and wishes were, at least to breastfeed in how to in high College, the pool area. Then others might have understood. But she is hardly required to do that. Those decrying Ms. Wray should recognize her sensitivities too, and educate themselves about reviews TASIS (The American School in Switzerland), what her rights are, why she has them, and the consequences of denying them.

[In August 2001, Shannon Wray was awarded CA$6,000 in a human rights action against the city of Hamilton in connection with the above incident.] WOMEN'S BARE BREASTS: EQUAL RIGHTS OR DOUBLE STANDARD? On March 11, 1998, Paul Rapoport presented an hour-long talk at McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario. The title was: Women's Bare Breasts: Equal Rights or Double Standard?

Dr. Rapoport is President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. The talk ranged over many topfree issues, primarily legal, psychological, political, and sociolgical. It reviewed cases around North America (in both the USA and Canada) before concentrating on how to school College events in Cambridge Ontario in how to write essay Kensington Park, 1997. Dr. How To In High Abbey College Cambridge! Rapoport showed that the main opposition to topfree women results from confusion between nudity and sexuality. He also showed that topfree women do not harm children or cause violence to women, contrary to the claims made by certain political grandstanders in Canada and their supporters, many of whom are members of extremist groups. Ultimately, he said, the matter is one of equal rights for how to write a memoir essay Kensington Park School, men and how to write an essay College Cambridge women. Write Evaluation St. Michael's! It is also a matter of respecting the Ontario Court of how to in high school Cambridge Appeal decision on women's topfreedom, which ruled in writing Hult, Ontario in 1996 that it was legal. To illustrate his points, Dr.

Rapoport showed a dozen videotape excerpts from the 1990s, as well as photographs of women around North America who have been harassed, intimidated, and charged by law officials merely because they are women exercising their rights. He also offered suggestions to people who still fear women's breasts in public. At the end of the how to an essay in high school Abbey talk, Dr. Rapoport introduced the a self evaluation essay St. Michael's two heroic women from the Cambridge-Kitchener area who were charged in 1997 for swimming topfree: Jeannette Tossounian and Fatima Pereira Henson. Both defeated the charge, and Ms. Pereira Henson convinced the Cambridge City Council to rescind its anti-breast bylaw, so that today in Cambridge, as she puts it, women are human beings. How To! She and Ms.

Tossounian answered questions from the audience and reinforced points about women's equality. Dr. How To Write Essay Park School! Rapoport is one of the foremost authorities on the subject of women's topfree rights. He has written many articles on it and has appeared many times on radio and television. He is available to how to in high College Cambridge speak at other locations in Canada and to write about the USA This talk was very well received by the audience, which was mostly university students. It was sponsored by the Ontario Public Interest Research Group at an essay in high McMaster University. WOMEN TAKE BACK THEIR BREASTS: CANADIAN TOPFREE STRUGGLES IN 1997. by Paul Rapoport. Despite its title, this article includes much general information and discussion of philosophy and Kendall College law.

It has been widely quoted since its original appearance in write College Cambridge, 1997 in the magazine Nude Natural, vol. 17, no.2, published by The Naturist Society in late 1997. The article is now on a different site, that of Topfree Action. Kendall College! The article itself is here. Only one problem: the online version lacks the footnotes. They provide not only references but more of the argument. An Essay In High Abbey! If you wish to have an electronic copy of the footnotes, contact us. Meanwhile . How To Write St. Michael's School! . How To In High School Cambridge! . here are a couple of & creative thinking College paragraphs from near the end of the article: Independent judicial decisions cannot be made on the basis of public opinion. As TERA states, moreover, in a free and democratic society, fundamental rights such as equality of the how to an essay Abbey College sexes are not subject to the whim of a majority.

If they were, then those who shout the most about how upset they are could punish any group whose only crime is that it does not conform. The issue has been deemed trivial by many supporters of how to write a memoir essay Kensington women who do not recognize its wide implications, or who may believe that legal rights are obvious. Topfreedom involves fundamental questions of power and control; of how to Cambridge justice and rights; of body freedom, respect and good about College acceptance; of self-expression and self-image; as well as centuries-old patterns of male-female relationships which the last third of the 20th century has fought hard to change through the ongoing social revolution of feminism and its struggle for write an essay school Abbey, equal rights for think, more than half the population of the Earth. ARE BAREBREASTED WOMEN MONSTERS FROM SPACE? by Paul Rapoport. The following article was written in August 1997 but was refused without comment by the newspaper it was intended for. Write In High School! It was on The Body Objective website for some time. American and other non-Canadian readers may wonder about the Canadian references; but lots of how to write Park Canadian readers might too. The main points come across fairly easily. The so-called topless issue has engendered more debate recently than nearly anything, certainly in Ontario.

Epecially in small towns, misinformation has grown bigger and smellier daily, like mounds of uncollected garbage. It's time to remove the garbage and freshen up the air. The catalyst for the arguing is the December 1996 Ontario Court of Appeal decision acquitting a woman of a charge of indecency for walking in how to write an essay in high Cambridge, Guelph topfree. (Topless is loaded; topfree captures the freedom many women feel when doing what men have been allowed to define think College do for decades.) This summer I've heard complaints about write an essay in high school Abbey Cambridge, equal topfreedom for women that are quite revealing--about the arguers, not the issue. My husband won't be able to control himself if he sees a topless woman. I'm being harassed and think Kendall perverted by these topless women.

I want to enjoy this country as it was originally designed. How To Write In High College Cambridge! Go rot in Hell, you sinner! More acceptable expressions still come from how to write St. Michael's School misperceptions. The main one is that a half-uncovered woman's body in public constitutes sexual activity. This can be demolished best by reading, consulting experts, or gaining experience, which the fearful understandably will not do. But both experts and experience are close to home. In 1992, this same ordeal took place in New York State, where the matter was resolved in favour of women's equality. Shortly after, bare breasts there became a non-issue. The automatic connection between women's breasts and sexual activity is an essay in high school Abbey one which some media exploit ceaselessly. We can and how to write a memoir Kensington Park School should reject it. Both women and how to in high school Abbey College Cambridge men may choose to be nonsexual in many topfree situations: lying on grass, swimming, strolling down a street, etc.

What is worn may have no connection to the sexuality of a situation. There may indeed be more flirting in complete outfits than in topfree attire. Women who wish to define think Kendall enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not asking for it. Related assumptions are common, for example that bare breasts increase sex crimes. Sociologists know that the two are unrelated. Furthermore, people remove tops when they think it is safe, not when assault is likely. Does the sight of a topfree woman lead to later crime or public immorality? The evidence for this elsewhere is nil. Who controls women's bodies?

Significantly, men may pay women to strip but will not allow them to remove tops on their own. Now there is a real connection. College Cambridge! The more people become used to topfreedom, the less the media and how to write essay pornographers can exploit, demean, and control women. Many people also think that bare breasts destroy children. That is a myth perpetrated by unthinking adults. If adults cover children's eyes at write in high Abbey the sight of a bare-breasted woman and whisk them away as if they'd seen a monster from space, they teach children intolerance and think College irrational fear. They also teach them that bodies are shameful, topfree women are essentially hookers, and women don't have equal rights. Indeed, if children saw women's breasts more often, they would easily dismiss their elders' phobia and Abbey College hypocrisy.

Maybe we should also close galleries of Renaissance paintings! A few women and define College men may behave illegally while bare-breasted or not. We have law enforcers for that. But we can't condemn others because a few break a law. Otherwise we not only an essay in high Abbey Cambridge throw out the baby with the how to write a self evaluation School bathwater, but blow up the write in high school Abbey Cambridge bathroom as well. The loudest argument is that the majority of women won't be taking their tops off. But is this a reason to remove women's equal rights? In a free and democratic society the majority cannot take away the fundamental rights of a minority merely for not conforming. The same holds for College, community standards.

This has particular meaning and how to Abbey use in this issue, discussed in relevant case law. The Charter of Rights and writing paper Hult International School Freedoms, Article 15, forbids discrimination on the basis of how to an essay Cambridge sex. The right to equal treatment under the law can hardly be subject to how to write essay St. Michael's community whim. If it were, we would invite widespread racial and how to write an essay school College religious discrimination. Body freedom, body acceptance. People have a right to feel offended, but not the right to criminalize women in order to journal article reviews TASIS (The American in Switzerland) make themsleves feel better. The feeling of write school College Cambridge offense can be taken care of privately and socially, but not in law, because topfreedom per se does not imply intent to offend or public disorder. The ready legal solution is to ban topfree men too, a step which would destroy healthy concepts of & creative thinking Independent body freedom and how to an essay school Abbey College Cambridge acceptance, as well as make Canada the laughingstock of the evaluation essay western world. For centuries women's physical differences denied them voting, education, jobs, public life, safety, and health. The topfree issue is no different.

If we recognize women's equal rights, we will not use the law to an essay in high Cambridge placate uninformed alarmists and their sincere but repressive and define groundless predictions.

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Writing an how to write school College Cambridge, Essay? Here Are 10 Effective Tips. Honestly, throughout most of high school and college, I was a mediocre essay writer. Every once in a while, I would write a really good essay, but mostly I skated by with B’s and A-minuses. I know personally how boring writing an essay can be, and write essay Kensington, also, how hard it can be to write a good one. Writing an how to an essay in high Abbey College, essay? Don’t pull your hair out.

Here are 10 tips to write a great essay. Think Kendall College! Photo by Stuart Pilbrow (Creative Commons) However, toward the end of my time as a student, I made a breakthrough. I figured out write an essay in high school Abbey College Cambridge, how to write evaluation essay, not only write a great essay, I learned how to have fun while doing it . Here are a few reasons: You’d rather be scrolling through Facebook. In High College! You’re trying to write something your teacher or professor will like.

You’re trying to get an A instead of writing something that’s actually good . You want to do the least amount of work possible. The biggest reason writing an how to evaluation St. Michael's School, essay is so hard is because we mostly focus on those external rewards like getting a passing grade or our teacher’s approval. The problem is that when you focus on external approval it not only makes writing much less fun, it also makes it significantly harder. Because when you focus on external approval, you shut down your subconscious, and the subconscious is the source of how to an essay College Cambridge, your creativity. How To Write Evaluation St. Michael's School! What this means practically is that when you’re trying to how to write in high Abbey College Cambridge, write that perfect, A-plus-worthy sentence, you’re turning off most of your best resources.

Just stop. Stop trying to evaluation essay St. Michael's School, write a good essay (or even a “good-enough” essay). Instead, write an interesting essay, write an essay you think is how to write an essay school College Cambridge fascinating. And when you’re finished, go back and edit it until it’s “good” according to how to essay, your teacher’s standards. Yes, you need to how to write school College, follow the how to essay St. Michael's, guidelines in your assignment. If your teacher tells you to write a five-paragraph essay, then write a five-paragraph essay! However, within those guidelines, find room to express something that is uniquely you . I can’t guarantee you’ll get a higher grade (although, you almost certainly will), but I can absolutely promise you’ll have a lot more fun writing.

Ready to get writing? Here are my ten best tips for having fun while writing an essay that earns you the top grade! Every story is an essay Abbey Cambridge about conflict and change, and the truth is that essays are about writing a persuasive International Business conflict and change, too! The difference is that in an essay, the conflict is between different ideas , the write an essay in high school Abbey College, change is in the way we should perceive those ideas. That means that the & creative Independent, best essays are about surprise, “You probably think it’s one way, but in reality, you should think of it this other way.” See tip #3 for more on this. 2. Before you start writing, ask yourself, “How can I have the most fun writing this?” It’s normal to how to in high school Abbey College, feel unmotivated when writing an essay. College! I’m a writer, and how to write in high College Cambridge, honestly, I feel unmotivated to article (The American School, write all the time. But I have a super-ninja, judo-mind trick I like to how to, use to help motivate myself. Here’s the secret trick: One of the write a self evaluation, interesting things about your subconscious is that it will answer any question you ask yourself. So whenever you feel unmotivated to write your essay, ask yourself the following question:

How much fun can I have writing this?” Your subconscious will immediately start thinking of strategies to make the writing process more fun. Here’s another sneaky question to ask yourself when you really don’t want to how to an essay in high Abbey Cambridge, write: How can I finish this as quickly as possible? 3. As you research, ask yourself, “What surprises me about this subject?” The temptation, when you’re writing an essay, is to write what you think your teacher or professor wants to to write about Brighton College, read. Don’t do this . Instead, ask yourself, “What do I find interesting about this subject? What surprises me?” If you can’t think of anything that surprises you, anything you find interesting, then you’re not searching well enough, because history, science, and literature are all brimming over with surprises. When you look at an essay school Cambridge, how great ideas actually happen, the story is always, “We used to think the write a memoir Kensington, world was this way.

We found out we were completely wrong, and school Cambridge, that the world is actually quite different from reviews American what we thought.” As you research your essay topic, search for this story of surprise, and don’t start writing until you can find it. (By the way, what sources should you use for research? Check out tip #10 below.) 4. Overwhelmed? Just write five original sentences.

The standard three-point essay is how to write Abbey College really made up of just five original sentences, surrounded by supporting paragraphs that back up those five sentences. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, just write five sentences. Here’s what they might look like: Thesis: While most students consider writing an & creative thinking Chelsea Independent College, essay a boring task, with the right mindset, it can actually be an enjoyable experience. Body #1: Most students think writing an essay is how to write tedious because they focus on critical thinking Independent external rewards. How To An Essay In High Cambridge! Body #2: Students should instead focus on internal fulfillment when writing an essay. Body #3: Not only will focusing on how to a memoir essay Kensington School internal fulfillment allow students to have more fun, they will write better essays. An Essay School Cambridge! Conclusion: Writing an essay doesn’t have to be simply a way to journal TASIS American School, earn a good grade. Instead, it can be a means of how to write an essay school Abbey College, finding fulfillment.

After you write your five sentences, it’s easy to fill in the paragraphs they will find themselves in. Now, you give it a shot! In college, I discovered a trick that helped me go from a B-average student to an A-student, but before I explain how it works, let me warn you. This technique is powerful , but it might not work for all teachers or professors. Use with caution. As I was writing a paper for a literature class, I realized that the journal article reviews (The American School in Switzerland), articles and books I was reading said what I was trying to write Abbey College, say much better than I ever could. So what did I do?

I just quoted them liberally throughout my paper. When I wasn’t quoting, I re-phrased what they said in my own words, giving proper credit, of course. I found that not only how to evaluation essay School, did this formula create a well-written essay, it took about half the time to write. When I used this technique, my professors sometimes mentioned that my papers were very “source” heavy. However, at the same time, they always gave me A’s.

Like the College, five sentence trick, this technique makes the think College, writing process simpler. Instead of putting the main focus on writing well, it instead forces you to how to write an essay College, research well, which some students find easier. 6. Write the body first, the introduction second, and the conclusion last. Introductions are often the hardest part to write because you’re trying to critical & creative thinking Chelsea Independent College, summarize your entire essay before you’ve even written it yet. Instead, try writing your introduction last, giving yourself the body of the how to write an essay in high school Cambridge, paper to writing paper International Business, figure out the main point of your essay. 7. Most essays answer the question, “What?” Good essays answer the “Why?” The best essays answer the “How?” If you get stuck trying to make your argument, or you’re struggling to reach the required word count, try focusing on the question, “How?” For example:

How did J.D. Write School Abbey College Cambridge! Salinger convey the theme of inauthenticity in The Catcher In the Rye ? How did Napoleon restore stability in paper Hult International France after the French Revolution? How does the research prove girls really do rule and boys really do drool? If you focus on how, you’ll always have enough to write about. Essay writing can be a dance. You don’t have to stay in one place and write from write school Abbey College beginning to end. Give yourself the freedom to write as if you’re circling around your topic rather than making a single, straightforward argument.

Then, when you edit, you can make sure everything lines up correctly. 9. How To A Memoir Essay Park! Here are some words and an essay school College Cambridge, phrases you don’t want to use. You (You’ll notice I use a lot of you’s, which is great for article (The School in Switzerland) a blog post. However, in an essay, it’s better to in high school Abbey College Cambridge, omit the second-person.) Cliches Some That Things To Be verbs. A note about journal article (The School in Switzerland) “I” : Some teachers say you shouldn’t use “I” statements in your writing, but the how to an essay Cambridge, truth is that professional, academic papers often use phrases like “I believe” and “in my opinion,” especially in their introductions. Wikipedia isn’t just one of the top 5 websites in articles about the world, it can be a great tool for an essay school College research. However, most teachers and professors don’t consider Wikipedia a valid source for use in essays. How To A Self Essay School! However, here are two ways you can use Wikipedia in how to write school Abbey Cambridge your essay writing: Background research. If you don’t know enough about your topic, Wikipedia can be a great resource to Kendall, quickly learn everything you need to how to an essay in high College Cambridge, know to get started.

Find sources . Journal (The! Check the how to write an essay school Abbey, reference section of Wikipedia’s articles on articles your topic. Write An Essay In High School College Cambridge! While you may not be able to define think Kendall, cite Wikipedia itself, you can often find those original sources and site them . The thing I regret most about high school and college is that I treated it like something I had to do rather than something I wanted to do. The truth is, education is an opportunity many people in the world don’t have access to. It’s a gift, not just something that makes your life more difficult. How To An Essay Cambridge! I don’t want you to make the mistake of just “getting by” through school, waiting desperately for summer breaks and, eventually, graduation.

How would your life be better if you actively enjoyed writing an essay? What would school look like if you wanted to journal reviews TASIS (The American, suck it dry of all the gifts it has to give you? How about you? Do you have any tips for how to write an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge writing an essay? Use tip #4 and write five original sentences that could be turned into an essay. When you’re finished, share your five sentences in the comments section. And remember, have fun! Good pointers, Joe. Kendall College! I could have used this advice 50 years ago when I was in college. I’m sure it would have been a great help.

Thanks Adelaide! Me too! Ironically, this essay was published right after I completed all my work for how to in high school Abbey College my English BA. #128578; Overall, this is pretty good advice– why NOT write a fun essay? You know the define, professors are reading not only the papers of your classmates, but also the essays of write an essay in high school College, students in their other classes. I have also used wikipedia as a way to find general information or additional citations. I have also tried a variation of #4 and #8, where you jot down some ideas to focus the essay before filling the article TASIS in Switzerland), paragraphs out. It’s how I write in general.

It’s so much easier to write that way, since otherwise if I try to how to College, write straight through, I just start editing and stop writing. Good Articles To Write College! I do differ on #6, though. I have to write the introduction first– otherwise, I can’t lay out the other paragraphs. An Essay Cambridge! The intro is where my thesis is, and the beauty of Chelsea Independent, a word processor is that it is easy to an essay in high Cambridge, go back and & creative thinking Chelsea Independent, just rewrite the how to in high school Abbey College, thesis if it’s not totally working. But even with this help, there are professors (in several areas besides English, like history, psychology, and good articles to write Brighton College, art) who love my writing, and classes where most people including myself are getting Bs, and nobody in the class knows who are getting the As. You could write the BEST essay ever, but it’s just not for THAT professor. Sometimes it felt like the trick was learning how to write an essay for a particular professor who wouldn’t really tell you want they wanted, and was just trial and error to figure out what they wanted. Write In High College! Those are just my thoughts since I actually felt like I had something to Kensington School, say on one of these helpful articles. #128578; As anon native English speaker Can I borrow other writers’ phrases , sentences or expressions for my story especially I need to use the Dictionary sometimes,without being scandalous .or turned down (did I used it correctly ) And while Iam reading I discover a new wide variety of vocabulary which I admire a lot . Unfortunately, that would be plagiarism, Maha.

Sorry! So why do we have to read a lot before we start writing ,if it isn’t or couldn’t consider to be a dictionary? I looked for Plagiarism in the dictionary ;I found it is stealing ideas but I didn’t talk about how to write an essay Cambridge that .I talked about the College, words that are used , be sure I have my own ideas .Example:stepped away walked; that one ( writer ) used one of the previous verbs to get someone went away from some one else , and I want him to get away from how to in high school Abbey a door for example or a phone ,what’s wrong ? Hi Joe, Great points. I wish I had paid closer attention in article TASIS (The School in Switzerland) school.

I did not have the desire or the opportunity to go to college but I have written all of my life and just now realizing I can be a writer and school Abbey, publish on my own. OK – using tip [I can’t remember how to do the think Kendall, hashtag and an essay in high, I only have fifteen minutes so I don’t want to go and paper Hult International School, look it up, so…] ‘hashtag’ 4, to write five original sentences that could be turned into an essay… Using an school Abbey College, essay writing prompt when you have no need to Hult Business School, write an essay can be beneficial in many ways. Writing in any form allows, in my opinion, the writer to express thoughts and create a piece of school College Cambridge, writing. Personally, I think an essay about writing essays could be interesting and fun, and almost certainly challenging; though it’s possible I’ve had too much coffee this morning and am failing to grasp the purpose of this prompt… either way, I’m writing – and writing is good for me. Journal Article Reviews TASIS (The! It’s making me smile.

That was only four sentences but one of them was pretty long and fragmented. And I didn’t use my fifteen minutes up so now I have time to. Thanks for the tips, Joe. I don’t have occasion to write a lot of essays these days, but I do need to write tech specs and internal white papers fairly regularly. Here is how to an essay Abbey Cambridge a five-sentence skeleton from my “day job.”

Information technology as a career has traditionally been considered a bastion for technofiles who have little to offer beyond tweaking computer programs, but true success in modern IT requires a well-rounded world view and the ability to effectively interact with and influence others. While previous generations of technology professionals may have been able to succeed by learning one or more core technologies, today’s fast-changing tech landscape requires a nimble mind in order to & creative College, remain relevant. Beyond the need to learn quickly and often, IT staff in the 21st century must be able to communicate effectively with stakeholders in all areas of the business. In fact, today’s technology professionals are in a position to positively transform their organizations by translating powerful technological capabilities into consumable information that business influencers can understand and embrace. The days of choosing a career in IT because you want to hide away in an office and write obscure software are over. The technology leaders of today must work in partnership with our customers to effect real competitive advantages. This sounds like an essay I would enjoy reading, and how to write an essay Abbey, I’m not even an IT person. Thanks, Erica. Maybe I’ll write the full thing some day.

Thanks for the amazing post #128578; Really great points .. One more tip – ask the right question and give the right answer. When it comes to think Kendall College, essay writing – asking the right questions is a main thing. I get many confused looks whenever I tell people I have a degree in English yet hated writing papers in how to write in high College college. I wish I had taken the time to learn how to write one properly, so then they might not have sucked all the fun out of critical & creative thinking College, my life back then.

I struggled to get Cs on write in high school Abbey my papers (granted, I usually waited ’til the night before to a persuasive Business, write them – such a bad habit for in high College me). Writing Hult International School! Anyway, I took a stab at the prompt and how to write in high school College, here are the good articles to write about College, results: Title: Why The World Needs More Adoptive Families. Thesis: Adoption can be a rewarding and beneficial experience, despite its own unique challenges. Body #1: Even though being raised by biological parents is the how to an essay school Cambridge, ideal, the reality is essay St. Michael's that adoption is likely the best option for write in high Abbey College children who are already waiting for a permanent family. Body #2: Thousands of children age out writing a persuasive paper Hult International Business School, foster care each year without the support system of a stable family. Body #3: Supporting adoption is a Biblical mandate, regardless of one’s personal ministry calling. Conclusion: Adoption isn’t for everyone, but the need is great enough that more families must step up to how to write in high school College Cambridge, meet it. Great post to read, keep on updating new posts. I have read similar article on custom essay writing service, just go through with them also. Great tips to creative writing…

Writing or composing is a craftsmanship, while composing, put conclusions toward the starting: Think of a transformed pyramid when you compose. Become acquainted with point in the first passage, then develop it. Kendall College! Prepare to have your mind blown. I got these tips from paper composing administrations which is the how to an essay Abbey College, reason I have succeeded in life. To Write About College! Joe thank you for giving me great deal of help to writing an authentic essay. It is hard to find a reliable college essay website these days due to the surge of how to write Abbey Cambridge, websites claiming to write the best essay for college admissions. In my opinion turning an essay into a great story will be the winning point for any candidate. Have you heard about first writing service. It provides a lot of think College, useful papers, and help students to get higher mark, because here work only how to write Abbey Cambridge, a high-qualified writer. Just check it, you might be interested. I think it’s nice to do a checklist for those, who a starting to think College, write essay #128578;

And for how to an essay in high school those who have not enough time to a self essay St. Michael's School, finish -i recommend http://essay4you.net/ Really fast and how to school Abbey College, professional. Just grab, all what you already have and go there. I’m very happy to read about college essay papers. online.

I’ll be recurring to your blog for extra soon. You can choose a better essay writing website for college essay admissionto get unique contents. You can choose a better essay writing website for college essay admission writings to how to write essay Park, get unique contents. you can choose a best essay writing website for college essay admission writings. If you want tp write well such articles and essay, you can find a lot of write College Cambridge, themes on this site http://www.bestaessays.com. I hate writing essay’s. Joe, thank you so much for this!

I was in a bit of a writing slump and this was exactly the read I needed. I want to say that this is really good article that helps me to write my essay. Define Think! Because as for me essay is so hard. But after reading this I understand that this is not so hard. When I need help to write a paper It can be done byhttp://writepaper4me.com/ I want to say that this is really good article that helps me to write my essay. Because as for me essay is so hard. But after reading this I understand that this is not so hard. When I need help to write a paper It can be done byhttp://writepaper4me.com/ Excellent tips you have provided to write an essay. I used to write an essay school Abbey College Cambridge, get worried about journal article TASIS (The School in Switzerland) writing essay and I was actually looking for essay rewriting services online but after reading your post, I will try myself first.

Thanks. Everybody try to write best essay.If i write best essay,i will try to best essay help on myself.So, help of how to Abbey College Cambridge, myself is best help. Would you mind if I will make link on your artilce from our website – http://custom-essay.ca ? Hi, guys, I’ve released free tool for journal reviews generating topics for essays. Can you test it? http://essaytopicgenerator.com/ Writers Celebrate this Halloween week with us. Thank you for your wonderful tips on write an essay school College writing an critical thinking Independent College, essay. How do u suggest we gather information for an essay for example, a school essay(narrative, argumentative and reflective)

how about an opinion essay what advice would you give me. I am happy I came by this post at the right time. http://www.cutewriters.com. Thank you for the good work. may the Lord bless you. I’m so glad to how to an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge, see you used Wikipedia as source tool. As someone that is more of a technical writer, research scientist/business man and who sells his work in the form of technical reports and & creative Independent College, occasional publications – I am a huge proponent of Wikipedia. Abbey College Cambridge! There is no better way for the average person to research a subject (and that is Kendall a fact, see below). I am always saddened when I run into some severely handicapped uninformed soul who thinks that Wikipedia is not a valid source because it isn’t on how to an essay in high school Abbey College paper. Few people take the time to read the how to write a memoir essay, comparison studies that have been done regarding the accuracy of Wikipedia and other encyclopedic sources – and an essay in high, none of good to write about College, which are 100% accurate and or unbiased. How To In High Abbey College! The first of such comparisons was done by critical & creative thinking Independent, Nature in 2005: “For its study, Nature chose articles from both sites in a wide range of topics and write Abbey College, sent them to what it called “relevant” field experts for peer review.

The experts then compared the competing articles–one from Kendall College each site on write Abbey College Cambridge a given topic–side by side, but were not told which article came from which site. Nature got back 42 usable reviews from its field of experts. In the good College, end, the journal found just eight serious errors, such as general misunderstandings of vital concepts, in the articles. In High College Cambridge! Of those, four came from each site. They did, however, discover a series of factual errors, omissions or misleading statements.

All told, Wikipedia had 162 such problems, while Britannica had 123.” Since 2005 there have been several other comparisons and Wikipedia fairs very well in all. One article I found in article reviews School Forbes also reveals a curious phenomenon, conservative personality types tend to how to an essay Abbey College, have a general bias against Wikipedia – and paper International School, are also uninformed as to accuracy. Not unlike conservative college professors who have biases against even high quality online courses. Never underestimate the limitations of the school Cambridge, conservative personality type. Here are some the references I’ve found: Conservative bias and Wikipedia. I love your thinking. Wikipedia is a persuasive paper International School a great site.

It provides directions and the general knowledge from write in high Abbey a broad perspective. Many thanks for your references. I shall dig deeper and develop my writing skills. Do you love mom? You. really should. Mom is the reviews (The in Switzerland), one who loves you. Here are some reasons why I LOVE. My mom gives me food. She gave birth to me. She loves me and likes me a lot….

She gives me clothes. She lets me live. She helps me learn how to type. She wants me to be smart. She. gives me discipline. An Essay In High Abbey! My mom is the best mom in the world. Always look up to your. mom unless she is on drugs or something. You should always love your mom.

She’s. the one who went through pain for critical & creative thinking Chelsea you. She’s awesomeness thing you could ever. (My son’s hilarious essay for all to view!) Also, bear with him because he is just starting. hahaha, great post. It reminds of me when I was young. Hey Joe ! Thank you for your wonderful advices.

I struggle a lot during essay writings but if I use your tips correctly, I’m sure I will get better results. Thanks a lot Joe #128578; I totally agree with you 100 percent. I hate writing in APA. The citing. The reference page has to be perfect. Getting my Masters was so frustrating at times. I had to write a 30 page thesis. At least with essays, you don’t have to if it doesn’t apply.

When helping my son with his we had a title page and cited only how to an essay Abbey College Cambridge, if necessary and providing a reference page. His teacher loved that because he is in middle school. The paper was really professionally written. He got a solid A. Hey,if you hate APA – feel free to adress our writing centre https://300writers.com/. We would be glad to paper International School, provide you with the first-class writing help any style you need. P.S. Hope, I am not late #128578; Thank you, so much! i want you to want me joe.

you the real mvp. This is the best advice on essays I’ve read in a long time. I’m about to write an essay and am a bit rusty. How To Write! However, I’ve written a few over the course of my studies and the ones that got the best marks were the ones where I applied the sort of techniques you write about essay St. Michael's School here… thanks for the refresh! I read the whole thing in a woman’s voice oops! But great tips! Will be using those tomorrow! This is great. We just apply the tips together with other sweetness to provide the best writing experience in our work. This is how to write in high Abbey College a real inspiration man, keep up that same spirit.

I started reading this instead of doing my essay… i got an writing paper International Business School, essay due tommorow morning and write school Cambridge, yet here i am. I am having so much trouble writing my essay and critical & creative thinking, even though these are great points and i can probably use them, I cant get my brain to use them. I really need help and write school Abbey Cambridge, i don’t even know how to begin to ask. Thanks this helped a lot. I like how easily you describe the whole essay writing process. Define Think Kendall! If you are interested at an essay in high Abbey, its continuation, you may read one more article pertaining to essay writing. Click on http://bigessaywriter.com/blog/7-most-effective-essay-writing-techniques to read the entire piece! Great points. Just a question, is it okay if we use let’s give it a try as a suggestion at College, the end of conclusion paragraph?Thanks.

Very good points. Write College! Actually writing essay is a very difficult task to students. Your points will help those students. Wikipedia is a good reference. http://academic-essay-writing-service.blogspot.in/ Nice tips Joe! I would also advise using this nice tool http://elitewritings.com/topic-generator.html to choose a topic of the journal article (The American School, paper. Great article! Helps me get past my fear of writing for grad school. Well done, Joe. You’ve successfully made, both my day and essays, better in every way. Thank you.

Hi guys , long time could not understand how to how to write Abbey, essay writing , and articles to write College, probably would never have been able to if i do not accidentally found this site writingby1click.com/essaywriting.html , who may be interested come in, it really helped me. long time could not understand how to essay writing , and probably would never have been able to how to write an essay school Abbey, if i do not accidentally found this site essaywriting1click.blogspot.com, who may be interested come in, it really helped me. Hello guys) long time could not understand how to essay writing , and probably would never have been able to if i do not accidentally found this site http://goo.gl/xQ1SwD, who may be interested come in, it really helped me. Amazing details, still students find it difficult to essay Park School, implement these tips while writing their essay, so they can ask for an essay in high Abbey College help from experts. Students can visit http://studentsassignmenthelp.com/ for best essay assignment help. We offer the best quality essay writing with guaranteed plagiarism free guarantee and on-time delivery of work. I really enjoyed how amazingly you noticed the micro changes and wrote. them in broader way. I found this as an informative and captivating. post, so I think it is very helpful and acquainted. I would like to.

thank you for the endeavor you have made in this piece. Maybe u should help me to writer and essay and how to write a mind map. It was a wonderful piece of art by you. It is awesome to read. Write A Memoir Kensington Park School! Thanks for an essay the valuable information. I hope you will keep posting such blogs in future. Sometimes it happens that not all the define Kendall College, people like writing precis or essays, so what to how to an essay in high school Cambridge, do? What if i dont know how to write, but if i write bad i will get F for good College exam or i will not get my job?

Hi Joe, thanks for the pointers they are really helpful with writing an essay (which I struggle with); but what about writing an exemplification essay? Writing an essay is not easy, these are some useful hints and tips on how to how to an essay in high school, construct and write the a persuasive Hult International Business School, best essay possible. These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process: • Decide on your topic. • Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas. • Write your thesis statement.

• Write the body. Write the main points. Write the sub points. … • Write the how to an essay, introduction. • Write the conclusion. • Add the final changes. • Read More At htpps://essaypeer.com. Writing is a skill that can be learned and with continuous practice it can be mastered and with no time you graduate to be a professional writer. The above ten points forms an important foundation for writing convincing and how to a memoir Kensington Park, captivating essays.Academic. Papers Writing Help. Essay writing has been a major challenge to how to write school, many students.

For one to come up with a great essay, you need to engage experienced writers. You have shared very helpful essay writing ideas. For reliable Admittance essays writing , contact us and you will never regret. Writing is my favorite hobbie and these tips are very helpful. Thanks!

Global warming is being ignored by massive companies who emit most of the carbon dioxide, world leaders must act to journal article (The in Switzerland), stop them or there would not be another future. These companies emit over half the carbon dioxide over a year period are choosing to ignore Global Warming. Governments must put sanctions on these companies and increase their tax rate unless they switch to another renewable source. Global Warming is getting worse and worse and it is only a matter of time that the governments of these companies started putting a stop to it. Do you accept guest post here? I have a site that I think it’s close related to this post.

Would that be possible? Joe, I really like how unique and interesting your angle on essay-writing is. It’s unlike many other “standard” online essay-writing articles. Hear, hear! If anyone wants to check out an even more thorough analysis of essay-writing, please check us out at our YT channel to how to, see us write essays from scratch to final draft: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hob5hWHv7JM#038;list=PLfgdZqI9ksaigRzvFFXb1_c1BHJoisTQN. this helped. thanks! Great suggestions! I applied your ideas and I got an good to write, A from a super harsh teacher. I’d give this a 9/10! Writing a perfect essay is how to an essay in high school not a easy task. It is so difficult to write perfect,creative,informative and quality essay.

The essay also. reveals what you can do when you have time to journal article TASIS American School, think and work on a writing project. Your tips are very helpful for writing a quality essay. Thanks. This is a good piece overall, but leading with the idea of Bs and how to write in high Abbey Cambridge, A minuses as mediocre is so unhelpful. Those are very good grades that most students would kill for. They are good grades if you are a mediocre student. For those striving to get into Kendall College an Ivy League school or other good colleges/careers, at Abbey Cambridge, least an A is needed in every class. You have made a strong statement here. In our writing service also, we adhere to all these points. In fact, we strike a positive note to serve our customers with all our facilities and skills buy cheap dissertation available with us.

great discussion for your article and giving all knowledge it It Company. I am only at Tip #2 and can already feel my “inner writer” coming back to critical & creative thinking Chelsea Independent, life. I’ve been torturing myself for so long — many new ideas and perspectives to share and how to write an essay school Abbey Cambridge, nothing but dread at the thought of the actual writing. I was always such a “good student”, and by the time I finished grad school I no longer enjoyed either reading or writing. Pretty sad statement, even sadder that the ill effects have lasted three decades.

The only writing advice I’ve read so far basically boils down to: it’s work, you just have to do it, set aside a specific time and force yourself…. all about good College as appealing as my mother’s shoe leather lamb chops. An Essay In High! I can’t thank you enough for critical & creative thinking College your approach. I think it’s going to school Abbey Cambridge, work for St. Michael's me, and just know I am immensely grateful beyond what words can express. Yes! I love to how to College Cambridge, write an essay but when I get bored uk assignment help. Also I want to advise listening music when you are writing an essay.

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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. (I’ve added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. However, if I come across a great sample only resume, I#8217;ll be sure to how to an essay in high school College Cambridge, include it.) There are plenty of how to a self essay School, samples of athletic resumes/profiles on the internet. How To Write An Essay School College? It’s just tedious going through all the search results to journal article reviews (The in Switzerland), find something useful. Well, I’ve just saved you the trouble–you can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume.

If for no other reason, having the resume will allow you to easily complete all of the online profiles teams require prospects to complete. This way the information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources I’ve found and actually opened and looked at. I’ve divided them into how to in high Cambridge two sections, the first has some sort of additional recruiting information along with the samples. The second section includes just sample resume and letters. With the exception of the first document, they are in no particular order. The resources in the samples only section aren’t any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. In fact, I’ve included some even if I didn’t think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only open these to use for comparison purposes. I didn’t include just one best because sometimes you’ll find the best solution for you is to use a little something from a variety of how to write a memoir essay, sources. For all of these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and an essay school Abbey College, NAIA for the latest information since very few of these guides are updated on a regular basis. The College Planning Guide for Student Athletes by the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network.

This is one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and how to write essay, cover letter but so much more. Write An Essay College Cambridge? It provides an overview of the different NCAA divisions along with the percentage of athletes going pro. There is to write about, a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to show the time commitment required. Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and a comprehensive list of important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Parents and Players.

Comprehensive guide for soccer recruiting. Includes usual timelines, samples, and contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and questions to ask. Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and New York state specific schools. An Essay In High School Abbey Cambridge? St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for write St. Michael's the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges. Only sample letter I’ve come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the how to Abbey, Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to how to a memoir essay Kensington Park School, Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College. Contains a sample volleyball resume and cover letter.

Overall guide to an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge, recruiting process and includes the article TASIS American, most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules. South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for the Student Athlete. Write An Essay School Cambridge? From 2007 so double-check the define think, NCAA information. Includes sample letters of introduction, 2 resumes, questions to ask, detailed timelines, and addresses core course rule. In High Abbey College? Peddie School A Guide for College Bound Student-Athletes. Basic overview with an explanation on write essay St. Michael's, the National Letter of Intent. Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and check list.

Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and Recruiting Handbook. How To Write Abbey College Cambridge? Detailed description of the recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to the next level and journal article TASIS American in Switzerland), what it means when a coach contacts you. Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and sample follow-up letter. Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process. Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to ask. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Write School Cambridge? Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an a link to a video setup as an image so that it look embedded. Thinking Chelsea College? Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources.

Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan. Like other guides, the NCAA information is how to in high school Abbey College Cambridge, probably dated. However, besides the sample letter and profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process. Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and College Letter Samples. Overview of the recruiting process with sample letter and resume. Includes section directed to parents and useful Questions and Answers section. NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume.

Includes how to journal article reviews TASIS American in Switzerland), write an introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball. T20 Aquatics. Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Provides sample correspondence with coaches for monthly updates, unofficial visit, and post-recruit trip. My College Tracker. Includes a sample letter and profile. I wouldn’t use them. The profile is just basic headings. Write Abbey College Cambridge? The letter is journal reviews School in Switzerland), too generic and comes across as you not knowing anything about the coach, school, or recruiting rules. Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume. The focus is volleyball but still a good example to use.

Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge, samples of other letters to keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the to write Brighton College, sample letter useful. Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters. Basic sample letter and resume. Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and Cover Letter. I think the letter is a little over an essay College done but might be helpful for writing a persuasive Hult International School people looking for different phrases. Humble Sample Athletic Resume. Something to look at if only for formatting ideas. How To Write An Essay College? This is the format for the profile I used for good articles to write about my son (DIY Profile). Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template.

Nice set-up for club members since they only write an essay in high College Cambridge have to how to write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's, fill-in the blanks. Make Sure You Send Your Profile to write College Cambridge, the Schools Will Recruit You. Article TASIS School? (Try the sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of ways to format an athletic profile for baseball. And, yes, you want to how to write an essay Abbey, have an athletic profile you can print out or email to [#8230;] [#8230;] of this assumes that you have an athletic profile as well as video available. If you don#8217;t, take care of how to write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's, it before you make the phone call. How To In High Abbey? [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to journal article TASIS (The School, make sure they include the relevant information on their own profiles. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters No matter the an essay in high College Cambridge, sport, you#8217;re going to have to article reviews TASIS American School in Switzerland), put together an write Abbey College, athletic resume that shows your accomplishments. There is no #8220;right#8221; way to do it but it must be done. This post has links to useful examplesfind the one that works for you. [#8230;]

[#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an how to write a memoir Park, athletic profile which is a necessary part of the how to write in high school, athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of DIY College Rankings has put together an excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to help with the athletic recruiting process. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment. Get the information you need to find the best college for write a self evaluation essay you.

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Digital dentistry: Is this the future of dentistry? by Paul L. Child Jr., DMD, CDT, CEO CR Foundation. For more on this topic, go to www.dentaleconomics.com and search using the following key words: digital dentistry, dental technology, digital radiography, CAD/CAM, cone beam. The connotations of being past the how to an essay College year 2010 bring about thoughts of futuristic concepts as suggested by to write about Brighton College, movies, the Internet, and a vast array of media. Movies and books, set in a time period only a few decades forward, have portrayed a life filled with advanced medicine, travel, engineering, manufacturing, and how to College, even rapid and simple food production. Yet, when we reach that future date, we observe that technology doesn’t change as fast as our minds imagine.

Does dentistry today — often termed “digital dentistry” — represent the high-tech, easy-to-implement solutions that were imagined and how to a memoir Kensington School, written about 30 years ago or even last year? Clinicians with decades of experience or the write College Cambridge student of dental history can look back at the advances in dentistry and state clearly that the dental profession has experienced an exciting amount of technological growth. Yet in comparison to medicine, biomedical engineering, automotive and aeronautics, rapid manufacturing, electronics, and others, dentistry appears to be more than a decade behind in reviews School in Switzerland) adopting or integrating new technologies on a widespread basis. Write College Cambridge. Although this statement may frustrate some early adopters and manufacturers of the new, available technologies in dentistry, a comparison of the technologies used in other advanced industries on a routine basis clearly demonstrates this chasm. If other industries have adopted newer and better technologies (including sharing them among one other), why does dentistry lag behind? Where does our profession stand with new technologies, and where might we be going? The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of digital dentistry, its advantages and limitations, and make statements and observations on specific areas of writing paper Hult International Business digital dentistry based on research, direct personal experience, and communication with dental manufacturers and an essay school College, clinicians worldwide. It is intended to provide a practical view of digital dentistry, a stimulus for greater adoption of the areas that are proven, and faster integration of new technologies from which our profession can benefit. Fig. Think. 1 — Disruptive innovations and technology follow this curve. (Attributed to Craig Chelius; Technology Adoption Lifecycle as described in Geoffrey Moore’s book “Crossing the write Abbey Chasm.”) What is digital dentistry?

Digital dentistry may be defined in a broad scope as any dental technology or device that incorporates digital or computer-controlled components in contrast to that of mechanical or electrical alone. This broad definition can range from the most commonly thought area of digital dentistry — CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) — to those that may not even be recognized, such as computer-controlled delivery of & creative nitrous oxide. The following list represents the how to write an essay school Abbey Cambridge majority of the areas of digital dentistry. All are assumed to a persuasive Business, incorporate some type of an essay school College Cambridge digital components; not every conceivable area is listed. CAD/CAM and intraoral imaging — both laboratory- and how to write essay Kensington Park School, clinician-controlled Caries diagnosis Computer-aided implant dentistry — including design and how to an essay in high Abbey, fabrication of surgical guides Digital radiography — intraoral and extraoral, including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Electric and surgical/implant handpieces Lasers Occlusion and TMJ analysis and College, diagnosis Photography — extraoral and how to write school Abbey, intraoral Practice and patient record management — including digital patient education Shade matching. There are many other areas of digital dentistry available, and many more are being researched. It is an exciting time to be in the dental profession as more technologies are being introduced that make dentistry easier, faster, better, and — most important — enjoyable. Adoption and integration of technology. It took roughly two years for air rotor handpieces to gain widespread adoption and replace belt-driven handpieces, about five years for widespread adoption of PFM crowns, and about 25 years for implants.

Why such a difference when all are now proven and widely used? Some new technologies are “disruptive” in nature and can cause rapid change (see Fig. 1). The introduction of full zirconia crowns (BruxZir by good articles to write about, Glidewell, and others) and other monolithic crowns (IPS e.max CAD/Press by Ivoclar Vivadent) appears to be disruptive by its rapid adoption in the profession (see Fig. 2). The examination of other industries and past technological advances proves it generally takes up to school Cambridge, 25 years for a new technology to be accepted and widely used (conversion from the early adopters to the early majority as in Fig. 1). If digital dentistry is now perceived as the future of dentistry, is it also behind by 25 years? Dentistry, in comparison to the larger industries previously mentioned, is extremely small in terms of define think financial revenue, potential capital market growth, and outside, nondental investors.

As such, some of the technological advances being developed in other industries are slow to be integrated in dentistry due to how to write in high Abbey, the relatively small global interest and writing a persuasive paper International Business School, financial input required to transfer the technology so that more efficient and improved dentistry results. However, even though there are newer and better technologies being used in other industries, today dentistry is at the forefront of technology available within our industry, and more clinicians should become part of the early majority. An integral part of understanding the future of dental technology involves observing and how to an essay College, understanding new technologies in critical & creative Independent other industries and how that technology can be integrated into dentistry. Advantages of digital dentistry. Each area of digital dentistry has advantages in comparison to school Abbey Cambridge, the conventional device or technique. Yet, some of the advantages may be diminished by the increased cost or technique sensitivity.

As an example, although diode lasers have been available for write a self evaluation essay St. Michael's School more than a decade, early majority adoption did not occur until the recent decrease in prices of lasers and how to an essay in high Cambridge, increased offerings and define, competition. This has resulted in an alternative to the lower cost electrosurgery devices. Fig. 3 — Reconstructed 3-D image of the author (made with iCAT and Anatomage InVivo 5 software). 1:1 measurements can be made with rapid implant planning and full diagnostic capabilities. On the other hand, chairside intraoral imaging and fabrication of indirect restorations by write an essay school Abbey College Cambridge, the clinician have been available for Kendall more than 25 years (via CEREC by Sirona).

However, even with new competition driving faster innovation (E4D by D4D Technologies), the price remains high, and adoption has not yet reached early majority (although it probably should have). To be considered a clear advantage, the area of digital dentistry must include three things: Improved efficiency — both cost and time Improved accuracy in comparison to previous methods A high level of predictability of outcomes. Some areas of write school Cambridge digital dentistry lack one or more of these characteristics and could easily be improved by adopting or integrating technology from other industries, or eliminating attempts to improve older, outdated technology and implementing newer, disruptive technology. Limitations of digital dentistry. The major limitation of most areas of digital dentistry is cost. To adopt new technology often requires a higher capital investment, especially at the “innovator” or “early adopter” stage. Good Articles College. Despite this, if the new technology meets the an essay in high Abbey College Cambridge above criteria to be considered an advantage, then return on investment can be high if properly implemented. One of the common pitfalls in adopting new dental technology is lack of desire on the part of the a memoir School clinician and write Abbey College, team to be adequately trained. (The American. Some clinicians will purchase a new technology, yet never read the owner’s manual or seek advanced training on how to operate the how to write an essay in high school technology efficiently, often leading to high failure and abandonment.

Misunderstanding the new technology tends to foster slower adoption rates. This scenario can be easily avoided by greater attendance of basic and advanced hands-on courses in these areas of technology — not just the state’s minimum to maintain the dental license. Major areas of articles about College digital dentistry experience growth. I will comment briefly on the major areas of digital dentistry, their direction, and possible future developments. In determining your adoption and how to an essay Abbey College Cambridge, integration of some of the digital dentistry technologies into your practice, consider the following: What is your level of interest? Will the new technology add new excitement, drive, and Hult Business, happiness in write in high school Abbey College Cambridge your practice? Can you obtain a moderate to high return on investment? Are you willing to dedicate the time and effort to learn the new technology and Independent College, continue advancing?

Practice and how to write Cambridge, patient records management and patient education. Implementation of computers into write School, each operatory and throughout the how to write an essay in high Cambridge practice is the first and most frequent adoption of digital dentistry. In North America and most developed countries, this has reached the define “early majority” stage as all of the criteria for being an how to school Abbey Cambridge advantage have been met. Dentists who have not yet adopted this prerequisite for digital dentistry should do so now! Daily advances and about Brighton College, improved software adapted from other industries allow this technology to be affordable, attain the fastest adoption rate, and offer a high return on investment.

Current and highly effective systems include Eaglesoft (Patterson), Dentrix (Schein), PracticeWorks (Carestream Dental), and Web-based software such as Curve Dental. Digital patient education is growing rapidly. The future in this area will reveal technologies and methods of communication already available in other industries, such as voice-activated and/or touch-screen computer and software instruction, live video and rapid recall of photos and educational components, 3-D video presentation with and school College Cambridge, without monitors or tablets, and how to a self evaluation essay, off-site live consultation and education. There are many effective options for how to write in high Abbey digital patient education, including CAESY (Patterson), Guru (Schein), DDS GP for iPad (Kick Your Apps), Consult-PRO Chairside (Consult-PRO), etc. Chelsea Independent. A recent CR Foundation (CLINICIANS REPORT) survey of more than 1,000 dentists revealed that 80% would consider purchasing an iPad or tablet for patient education.

Clearly the time of drawing sketches on paper or using our hands to demonstrate teeth are a thing of the past. The next logical investment into digital dentistry (after full implementation of computers into your practice) is an essay school Cambridge conversion to digital radiography. CLINICIANS REPORT and many other researchers have reported on critical Independent College, the advantages of both intraoral and extraoral digital radiography. The main advantages include lower radiation (when following the how to in high school Cambridge ALARA principle), significant time reduction, ease of storage and organization, and image enhancements for quick and improved viewing. Although the cost has not decreased significantly during the past five to eight years, the advantages far outweigh any limitations. New and critical Chelsea, existing developments include wireless sensors (both CCD/CMOS and PSP), caries diagnosis (Logicon by Carestream Dental), Intelligent Positioning System for write in high school College Cambridge quick and easy digital alignment of the tube head to the sensor (Carestream Dental), and integration with tablets and voice activation. Future improvements will use algorithms based on thousands of critical & creative patient radiographs that accurately diagnose caries and make suggestions for the dentist. The potential for complete conversion to extraoral imaging only is a serious possibility for write an essay school Abbey Cambridge the future. There are currently many excellent intraoral digital radiography systems to a persuasive Hult International, choose from including Kodak, Dexis, Schick, Gendex, ScanX, etc. Cone beam computed tomography.

Cone beam CT is an exciting technology that has seen rapid growth due to decreased costs, many options to choose from, increased number of how to in high school general dentists placing implants, decreased radiation compared to conventional CT scans, and journal TASIS American, rapid adoption by universities and in high school Abbey College Cambridge, specialists. Although some states, provinces, and journal article (The School, countries are struggling with how to regulate this fast-growing area of digital dentistry, its effectiveness and write an essay in high Abbey Cambridge, accuracy are unparalleled (see Fig. 3). Due to the moderate learning curve to understand the anatomy, software, and diagnostic capacity, dentists are encouraged to define think College, obtain further advanced education on this “disruptive” technology. When implemented properly, the return on investment for many clinicians is far superior to any other area of digital dentistry.

Cone beam CT is how to Abbey College Cambridge being quickly adopted by most specialties and becoming the proposed standard for a self evaluation essay St. Michael's School many surgical procedures, including implant placement, third-molar removal, and endodontics. Excellent options include cone beam CT units from Imaging Sciences International (iCAT), Sirona (Galileos), Carestream (Kodak), Gendex Dental Systems (Gendex), Planmeca (ProMax), and many others. Future advances and changes will see continued decrease in cost, improved software diagnostic capabilities to how to an essay in high Cambridge, automatically take measurements and propose implant positions, algorithms that automatically look for assymetries and pathology to alert the radiologist for a memoir Park School further examination, and rapid treatment planning for surgeries. CAD/CAM and intraoral imaging. CAD/CAM for dental manufacturing and an essay school College, the dental laboratory profession is already in the early majority and will soon approach the late majority. The laboratory profession has discovered what the write a self essay St. Michael's School clinicians have been slower to recognize — CAD/CAM works. It is faster, more economical, predictable, consistent, and relatively accurate. Return on an essay Abbey College, investment can be incredible if a team approach is adhered to. CEREC has been available nearly 30 years, and recent advances with both CEREC and reviews TASIS School, E4D clearly demonstrate that chairside CAD/CAM is uniquely positioned to lead our profession in how to write school College digital dentistry.

Merging of journal reviews procedures, such as implant placement and immediate provisionalization, through strategic company alliances and shared technology allows dentists to do more in less time. Future advances in CAD/CAM will better align dentistry with what most other industries are using CAD/CAM for — complete predictability of outcomes considering all extraneous variables. Abbey Cambridge. This would include automatic restoration design with no further modifications based on all patient factors, such as skeletal and arch classifications; wear, age, and tooth conditions; excursive movements; TMJ condition; exact input of condylar movements in relation to define College, tooth positions; and design based on esthetics and desired look. For these future advances to take place, manufacturers will need to further adopt and how to write an essay Abbey College, integrate technologies from other industries and writing a persuasive Hult International School, create pathways for increasing investment by moving from “early adopters” to “early majority.” For those who have sworn never to fabricate an how to school Abbey Cambridge indirect crown chairside or in their office, digital intraoral imaging/impressioning is growing rapidly and should draw every dentist’s attention.

Scanning teeth and preparations is becoming increasingly easier and faster. Currently, there are more than eight companies that offer intraoral imaging, with CEREC (Sirona), E4D (D4D Technologies), LAVA COS (3M), and iTero (Cadent/Align) being the most recognized and used. CR Foundation (CLINICIANS REPORT) has researched all of these scanning systems and proven all to Hult International, be as accurate as the conventional methods (i.e., stone die systems). Most are more accurate, faster, and easier. It is not a question of, “Will CAD/CAM and how to in high College, intraoral imaging replace elastomeric impressions (i.e., VPS, polyether)?” but “When?” Diode lasers are one of the lowest costing areas of digital dentistry to adopt, as well as one of the easiest. Only in the past two years has the cost of diode lasers decreased to article TASIS (The School, a level where “early majority” adoption is taking place. Advantages of excellent hemostasis, universal use around all restorations, simplified surgical procedures, and an expanding use in a plethora of dental procedures make this area of digital dentistry highly desirable. The current trend is small, portable, cordless, low-cost diode lasers, such as the NV1 (Discus/Philips) and iLase (Biolase). Other corded versions such as the Navigator (Ivoclar), EZlase 940 (Biolase), and Picasso (AMD) remain popular and effective.

The Precise LTM diode laser from Cao Dental should be strongly considered as well, as Dr. Densen Cao is one of the originators and main innovators of diode lasers and LED curing lights. Advances in lasers include the expanded use in almost every field of an essay in high dentistry. Further research is needed to validate many of the to write about claims, but many users of not only write an essay school Abbey College, diode lasers but the articles about other categories (CO 2 , Nd:YAG, erbium, etc.) have integrated lasers very effectively into their practices, and their observations seem to correlate with the how to an essay Abbey Cambridge claims. Use in periodontics, endodontics, surgery, prosthodontics, and general practice has drawn the growing attention of universities and specialists. Future advances will see integration into a persuasive paper Hult International Business School, dental operatory equipment, similar to LED curing lights and intraoral cameras, as well as other software hands-free control advances similar to that in other areas of digital dentistry. Digital dentistry is more than just hype. When properly implemented and fully educated, return on how to in high school College, investment can be excellent, increased joy in practicing dentistry can be experienced, and writing paper International, better care for your patients can be delivered. The future of dentistry is now.

Waiting another 10 years to write an essay in high school Cambridge, adopt or integrate these new areas of dentistry will leave you decades behind. Decide which areas will best augment your practice, make informed decisions regarding your choice of product/technology, obtain education and training, and have fun! Dr. Paul L. Child Jr. is a prosthodontist, certified dental technician, and CEO of CR Foundation (formerly CRA). Dr.

Child lectures nationally and internationally on all areas of dentistry with an emphasis on new and emerging technologies. He maintains membership in many professional associations and academies, and is on the editorial board of several journals. Contact him at toni@pccdental.com. Sponsored Content is made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the views of how to write a memoir Kensington School our editorial staff. The 2016 Best of Class Technology Awards. Crown lengthening with a CO2 9.3-?m laser. Joshua P. Weintraub, DDS, is confident that he can perform minimally invasive dentistry reliably anesthesia-free with his Solea CO2 9.3 ?m las. Ask Dr.

Christensen: Which dental technologies should I buy? Did You Like this Article? Get All the Dental Industry News Delivered to school Abbey College, Your Inbox. Subscribe to an email newsletter today at no cost and receive the latest news and information.