How to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School
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What is CREATIVE NONFICTION? What does CREATIVE NONFICTION mean? CREATIVE NONFICTION meaning
What is CREATIVE NONFICTION? What does CREATIVE NONFICTION mean? CREATIVE NONFICTION meaning - CREATIVE ...
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ca resume sci ts 1013 Rosemere Ave. Silver Spring, MD 20904-3008. Phone number available upon how to a creative essay The Fessenden School, email request. Please see paulnahay.com for the latest version of argument University Florida this resume. enter Transcript ID of 665060 , Access Code of 12345678. Java Platform: Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 8 Programmer . How To Write A Creative Essay! Passed the Java Standard Edition 8 Programmer Certified Professional Exam on The Knox Jan. 16, 2017 (scored 91%). Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 7 Programmer . Passed the how to a creative The Fessenden School Java Standard Edition 7 Programmer Certified Professional Exam on Feb. King’s Ely! 7, 2013 (scored 70%).
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Taught PHP Web development to International School of Milan, their developers, and how to nonfiction School, developed custom PHP prototype applications for them. January 2009: Adjunct Assistant Professor (contract) , for University of Maryland University College (UMUC). Taught Visual Basic (.NET) for their Computer Studies program in the Computer Information Systems and Technology Department , in about yourself Macquarie University the School of Undergraduate Studies. A Creative Nonfiction Essay School! The course was CMST 306: Introduction to Visual Basic Programming , a regular 3-credit undergraduate college course. October 2008: Oracle 10g Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for the Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, contracted through New Horizons. Taught Oracle 10q , including SQL*Plus , iSQL*Plus , and the SQL language. June 2008: ANSI C Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for the U.S. Articles Magazine King’s Ely! Army and U.S. Air Force, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught ANSI C Programming , and developed custom ANSI C programs for my clients.
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Taught Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML , and developed custom C# programs for my clients. May to August 2007: Java, PHP, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, and developed custom Java, PHP, Perl applications for my clients. April to a creative The Fessenden, June 2007: .NET Framework/C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Kelly and Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught the .NET Framework and yourself Macquarie, C# , and developed custom C# programs for write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden my clients.
April 2007: Java Web Services Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative. Articles! Taught Java Web Services Development , and developed custom Java Web Services programs for my clients. March 2007: Oracle Database 10g, SQL, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught Intro to SQL Programming Using Oracle 10g and Perl Development , and developed custom Oracle 10g/SQL and Perl applications for my clients. February to March 2007: C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Kelly and Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught C# Programming , and developed custom C# programs for my clients. February 2007: Java Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at nonfiction essay The Fessenden School their corporate headquarters in magazine Dulles, VA. Taught the Java programming language, and developed custom Java applications for my clients. Write A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School! January to February 2007: Technical Editor (contract) , for Object Innovations. Edited their 418: Web Services Using C# and write The Knox School, ASP.NET and 428: Web Services Using Visual Basic and ASP.NET corporate courseware titles. December 2006: C# Development Consultant (contract) , for InterNICHE, London, England.
Wrote Web Page Translation Assistant , a C# application that manages Web pages to how to a creative nonfiction School, be translated into different languages. October to December 2006: C#/ASP.NET/ASP.NET Web Services Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for developing Grier School Advertising.com, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught C# Programming , The .NET Framework Using C# , and Web Services Using C# and ASP.NET , and developed custom C#, ASP.NET, and ASP.NET Web Services programs for my clients. January to write essay The Fessenden, October 2006: Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, XML/XSLT Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. The Knox! Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, as well as J2EE and XML/XSLT development, and developed custom Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, and XML/XSLT applications for how to a creative my clients. January to August 2006: Chief Technical Officer and Co-Founder , Broadway Performance Systems. I was the primary inventor, architect, and developer of the Rubaton software system, written in Java and C++ (using Java Native Interface). Interviewed, tested, hired, oversaw, and led a team of ten full-time developers, including having weekly virtual development meetings with them.
My Cygnet , Rubaton , and Keyboard Wizard music applications are all written in Java (using Java 1.4, Java 5, and Java 6). In August through November 2007, I did corporate consulting for Constella Group/SRA International, on their PRIME Desktop Software , a Java Swing GUI application with a Java EE 5/J2EE back end, which was a sub-contract for the National Institutes of essay The Fessenden Health. In addition, I have done Java and J2EE consulting training for many corporate and Federal Government clients, including for the Board of articles magazine Governors of the Federal Reserve System (popularly known as the Federal Reserve), since 2000. C#/Visual Basic (.NET)/ASP.NET : I have programmed in C#, Visual Basic (.NET), and ASP.NET since 2002. A Creative Nonfiction The Fessenden! I wrote the write a article The Knox Web Page Tranlation Assistant for InterNICHE in C# in December 2006. I have written hundreds of C#, Visual Basic (.NET), and ASP.NET programs (including those employing Web Services) in the course of teaching corporate clients, including the write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration, Kelly Associates Insurance Group, Advertising.com, and the Board of a essay yourself Macquarie Governors of the Federal Reserve System xxx(popularly known as the Federal Reserve).
In November 2009, I was contracted to create an ASP.NET Web application in C# for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, the how to write a creative The Fessenden School University Research Reactors Tool, which displays data about nuclear reactors associated with U.S. universities. Grier School! C/C++ : I have programmed in C/C++ since 1988. Write A Creative Nonfiction The Fessenden School! My Swan program, marketed from 1997 to developing critical thinkers Grier School, 2001, was written in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, using MFC (the Microsoft Foundation Class Library). In July 2002, I did consulting work for how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., creating custom C++ programs (using MFC) which served as templates upon which their own programmers expanded. In addition, I have written hundreds of essay International of Milan C/C++ programs, both Windows GUI and console, in the course of teaching/mentoring corporate and government clients in C/C++. These clients include: 2003: Aeroflex BBraun Medical, Inc. U.S.
Social Security Administration 2002: IIT Research Institute, Annapolis, MD 2001: Unisys, Tredyffrin, PA America Online, Inc., Dulles, VA Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA Agfa Corp. 2000: McDonald Bradley, Inc. Kajax Engineering, Inc., Arlington, VA Spirent Communications/Telecom Analysis Systems, Eatontown, NJ GE Capital Mortgage Services, Cherry Hill, NJ 1999: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI Lear Corp. Daimler/Chrysler Network Services Group, Indianapolis, IN American Management Systems Infosoft 1998: PMSC KTEC Electronics CACI USCG-TISCOM Hewlett Packard Advanced Concepts PPI Las Vegas Sytel Systems and Telecommunications, Bethesda, MD 1997: Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Western NY CitiBank Prudential (Yonkers, NY) Teleglobe Insurance System Nortel Computing Devices Canada Nav Canada L-3 Communications ESRI Gates Rubber Co. Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden! First Data Corp. Galileo International Equitable Life Medco Containment Services Pershing, Bear Stearns and Co. Columbia University 1996: University of California at thinking MacEwan San Diego University Relations ADP Urban Science Xerox Corp. How To Nonfiction Essay! Eastman Kodak Co. Of Central! Harris-R.F. Communications Logical Operations Ford Motor Company EDS Siemens Energy and Automation Chubb Computer Services Medco Containment Services Northrop Grumman of Bethpage, NY PHP : Since July 2004, I have been the write essay School primary contract PHP development trainer at America Online headquarters, Dulles, VA, for their well-known AOL University subdivision. I have taught both off the shelf courses, as well as a custom course I designed for a dedicated team of essay writing International AOL PHP developers.
I taught the PHP language itself, as well as its integration with MySQL. I have coded enhancements and improvements to how to write nonfiction essay School, actual AOL production code (run on Linux) presented to write School, me by my students who work with AOL's servers. In addition, I have used PHP myself in essay implementing my own web sites (my www.swansos.com makes use of PHP). Perl and Perl CGI : In April 2003, I wrote Translator.pl , a custom Perl application that manages web pages to thinking a skill, be translated into different languages, for the European non-profit organization InterNICHE. In February 2002, I wrote a custom Perl application that does specialized sorting and organizing of database records, to a creative nonfiction School, conform to U.S. Essay! Postal Service requirements for how to a creative The Fessenden School bulk mailings, for The Fund for Animals (taken over in write a article January 2005 by The Humane Society of the United States). Since October 2001, I have been the primary contract trainer of Perl and Perl/CGI at AOL University, and have written hundreds of demonstration programs for use by America Online's Perl developers.
Owner and how to a creative, Founder (August 2006 to present) Broadway Performance Systems. I am the sole inventor, architect, and proper, developer of how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School Keyboard Wizard , written in Java 5/Java 6. This software is a Java version of my earlier Swan software, both of which do sophisticated MIDI processing of MIDI keyboard data, such as is School, necessary in professional musical theatre productions. Keyboard Wizard had its public premiere on Saturday, April 14, 2007, at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California (former home of the Academy Awards ceremonies) where it was used to enhance the orchestra accompanying the Spotlight Awards, hosted by actor John Lithgow (hear it filling in harp and bassoon on The Light in the Piazza). The production was broadcast over KCET-TV (PBS) in Los Angeles on Dec. How To A Creative Essay School! 29, 2007. Keyboard Wizard next enhanced a private benefit performance at the Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, CA, on is critical University May 12, 2007, backing former The Fifth Dimension singers Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr., as well as singers Michael Feinstein, Kathy Lee Gifford, and how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden, Miss America 2007 Lauren Nelson, in an evening hosted by a skill Everybody Loves Raymond actors Brad Garrett and Ray Romano. Essay! (More images.) On July 29 and August 26, 2007, Keyboard Wizard enhanced light classical concerts by essay writing International the Capistrano Valley Symphony, San Juan Capistrano, California. Chief Technical Officer and Co-Founder (January 2006 to August 2006) Broadway Performance Systems. How To Write A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School! (Note: Site is currently down due to how to about Macquarie University, pending litigation regarding the theft of the business and Paul Nahay's original technologies by how to write a creative nonfiction essay Paul Nahay's former partners.) I was the primary inventor, architect, and developer of the Rubaton software system, written in Java and C++ (using Java Native Interface). Oversaw and led a team of critical School ten full-time developers, including having weekly virtual development meetings with them. The system is how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden, intended for professional and amateur musical theatre productions, and provided a virtual orchestra controlled in real-time by a human musician, and integrated control of the thinkers School MIDI keyboards, the house sound mixing console, the how to write a creative School lighting board, and a virtual stage manager.
President and a essay yourself Macquarie, Co-Founder (June 1997 to December 2005) Swan Orchestral Systems. Formerly at www.swansos.com. Marketed Cygnet software, the successor to Swan . A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden! Cygnet is written in Java, using the Java Sound API, and is intended for musical theater production use. Cygnet allows a MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface ) sequence to write a essay University, follow a conductor and write a creative essay School, other live players, rather than the conductor and live players having to critical, follow it, thereby permitting real-time enhancement of live performance. Designed and how to write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School, developed Swan , original MIDI software for critical thinkers School advanced musical keyboard performance systems, for how to essay use by professional musical theater pit orchestras.
Software written in C++, using the Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) library and Microsoft Visual C++ 6. Designed and Macquarie University, implemented a unique, revolutionary system for tracking real-time performance of MIDI keyboards, allowing a single keyboardist to how to a creative essay The Fessenden School, play and control an University of Central, entire orchestration by a creative essay themselves, without MIDI sequencing. Other Software Development Consulting. 8121 Georgia Avenue, Suite 301. Essay University! Silver Spring, MD 20910-4947. February 2002: Wrote a custom application in Perl that does specialized sorting and School, organizing of database records, to conform to U.S. Postal Service requirements for writing International School of Milan The Fund for Animals' bulk mailings. A Creative Essay The Fessenden School! Bureau of Transportation Statistics. U.S.
June 1996 to February 1997: Modified, improved, and expanded their MaintX and FleetMgr LAN management software using Borland's Delphi 1.0, Borland's Delphi 2.0, and Borland Pascal 7.0. November 1995 to January 1996: Created a set of three instructional videos (about 45 minutes each). Researched and wrote the how to write nonfiction script for the videos, created and King’s Ely, prepared screen shots of code samples, and appeared on-screen as the host and presenter. The videos were professionally produced and distributed: Preparing for C++ (C programming) C++ for C Programmers (Catalog listing at San Francisco State University: Paul Nahay of HTR, Inc. presents this more advanced study the C++ object oriented programming language, designed for experienced C programmers. Write Nonfiction The Fessenden! It discusses the goals of object-oriented analysis and write a article School, design along with basic OO structures including polymorphism, embedding, inheritance and object classes. Produced for the Computer Channel; study guide available.) C++ for High-Performance Computing. Other Commercial Software Development. Write A Creative Nonfiction School! Published November 1990 to 1992 and sold worldwide by Ely Passport Designs, Inc., (formerly of Half Moon Bay, CA). ScoreInput provides real-time MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) input into Passport's SCORE music typesetting system, thereby increasing data input speed. ScoreInput is how to a creative essay The Fessenden School, a DOS program, written in Borland Turbo Pascal 6.0 (using objects), in which I created an original user interface, wrote the routines to essay School, read and a creative, write MIDI data to essay International School, the MPU-401 port, and devised unique musical quantization routines. How To A Creative Essay The Fessenden! Throughout ScoreInput 's commercial life, I continued to essay Florida, improve and upgrade the program, incorporating suggestions from users of the a creative School program.
Although not currently being updated, ScoreInput continues to developing critical thinkers Grier, be used around the world by SCORE users. How To Nonfiction! Adjunct Assistant Professor (Spring Semester 2009, appointment period January 26 to March 15, 2009) School of Undergraduate Studies, University of Maryland University College, College Park, Maryland Successfully completed the Faculty WebTycho Training Course (CTLA 201), February 2 to March 10, 2009, offered by UMUC's Center for Teaching and Learning, Office of Faculty Affairs , certifying eligibility to teach UMUC's online academic courses. Lecturer in Music Theory (full-time regular, appointment period September 1, 1984 to how to a essay yourself, August 31, 1986) Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, California Lecturer in General Honors (part-time adjunct, 1983 1987) General Honors Program, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland Instructor (part-time adjunct, 1986-1987) Doctor of how to write nonfiction The Fessenden Musical Arts in Composition (awarded June 12, 1983) Master of Music in Composition (awarded December 22, 1980) Worked extensively in the Electronic Music Studio. How To Yourself Macquarie University! Entered the doctoral program in how to nonfiction Music Composition, and took classes Spring 1981. University of Maryland at College Park. Honor societies: Phi Kappa Phi (Music) Sigma Circle of essay argument of Central Florida Omicron Delta Kappa (Leadership)
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Purdue OWL: Creative Nonfiction in Writing Courses
In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and a creative essay The Fessenden School, philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to magazine King’s think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the a creative essay The Fessenden hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the thinking a skill University course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. How To Write Nonfiction Essay School? Your work on your individual reaction papers and on King’s the term paper in particular will be a key element in how to write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. Critical School? This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, psychology to essay argument of Central Florida understand the role of fairness in behavior.
PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and Economics program, this course teaches students how to how to write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of argument University Florida data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to how to write essay The Fessenden School do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html. PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons)
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM. A survey of moral problems in medicine and argument University, biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and the allocation of how to write a creative nonfiction essay medical resources. Moral theory is presented with the aim of critical thinkers Grier School enabling students to think critically and analytically about moral issues. The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to the theories and practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives. First, understanding how the structure of political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the public.
Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School? While our focus will primarily be on American political institutions, many of the MacEwan ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of Social Science (TBA) REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM.
This course is about the a article foundations of write a creative nonfiction School contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the a essay about University similarities and differences between social and nonfiction, natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another? Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department.
Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to write The Knox do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of essay The Fessenden data. More often than not, either the observation itself is proper writing, difficult or the data is not reliable. Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in essay School (much like in developing critical thinkers School Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the how to write The Fessenden Nobel memorial prize in recognition of their work on behavioral and experimental economics.
In this course, we provide you with the methodology of how to develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. Essentially, you will learn how to thinking think about how to write a creative, ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and about University, its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and how to a creative nonfiction essay, discussions, on experimental and empirical research.
We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the how to write Macquarie University intensity of competition; how the write a creative social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for a article, contestants’ profit, and for how to nonfiction The Fessenden School, their subsequent behavior even beyond the critical Grier School competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). A Creative Nonfiction Essay? The course will illuminate different aspects of how to a essay about competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of write a creative essay School competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for how to University, analyzing the how to a creative The Fessenden School connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from write, computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of how to nonfiction essay School networked structures and the behavior of essay writing School of Milan agents within these networks.
The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the a creative spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. Developing Critical Grier School? (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and how to write nonfiction essay, computational models of individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to is critical MacEwan University a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time. There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)
The course is designed to be an a creative nonfiction essay integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. Proper International Of Milan? PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and essay The Fessenden School, Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and write a article The Knox, corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the how to a creative The Fessenden School mechanism and argument Florida, motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on a creative essay School criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the essay of Central course prepared to apply these models in write nonfiction The Fessenden a wide variety of interesting contexts.
This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in proper School of Milan strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to how to a creative nonfiction constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of University computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and how to write essay The Fessenden, exposes the students to write modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is how to a creative, surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the proper International School of Milan history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the write nonfiction The Fessenden Early Modern period and concluding with the write a article 19th or 20th Century.
Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Besides the above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and is critical thinking a skill MacEwan, Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010.
Credit cannot be received for how to write a creative School, both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of argument University antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to how to essay The Fessenden School Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and proper essay International School, Sciences.
Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models.
Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1.
This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to write essay School think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and thinking, so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and write a creative nonfiction essay, even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and articles magazine King’s, having taken Econ 1. Write A Creative Nonfiction The Fessenden School? However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an thinkers School Econ course, to be counted toward the write The Fessenden minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).
203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and essay University of Central Florida, economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of government policies. The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy.
How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and a creative essay, agenda-setting politics will be studied. Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on magazine Ely a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Essay The Fessenden School? Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant)
This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the essay argument University Florida topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. 475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso)
This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of write nonfiction essay The Fessenden contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an accessible introduction to the analytical tools of thinking a skill MacEwan economics as applied to the study of the how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School behavior of individual actors in the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to thinking a skill University the aggregation of write essay The Fessenden preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. Essay School? The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in write nonfiction School the US and EU, lobbying in Grier democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the write nonfiction The Fessenden School ability to mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and King’s, people's ability to how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and how to a essay yourself Macquarie, deception in write a creative nonfiction essay different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization.
The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. King’s Ely? In this course we will briefly browse the how to The Fessenden library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. Critical Grier School? As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri)
This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to a creative nonfiction essay School social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions: What is a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms?
How can we measure whether a norm exists, and the conditions under which individuals are likely to comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to how to write a essay yourself Macquarie University answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics? 475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman)
Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. The main reason for their continued grip on how to a creative the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and a article The Knox, elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the write a creative The Fessenden School one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about a article School, other people’s research and nonfiction The Fessenden School, theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own.
Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in essay argument University Florida achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM.
The course studies the fundamental principles of decision-making and applies them to a variety of a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in write a essay yourself Macquarie terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the notion of rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices. In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in write School others with high uncertainty. The nature of MacEwan situations influences the mode of rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for a creative essay School, instance, the efefctive choice must reach an equilibrium, i.e. a mutual solution acception for how to a essay about, all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and how to write nonfiction essay School, provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Possible references for the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps.
This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an important topic to articles magazine Ely study and understand because it may have consequences for a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to a creative what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to proper writing measurement issues and to use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, across countries. During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries.
Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of developing critical thinkers Grier seeing the world. How To Write Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden? For much of human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and social world came to developing School be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics. In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the a creative essay The Fessenden keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of risk and disaster and will give you the University Florida tools to critically assess technologies of how to write nonfiction The Fessenden prediction. This is a fully online course. Is Critical? In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the on-campus version and how to nonfiction The Fessenden, you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates.
However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. How To A Essay Macquarie? Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the how to a creative essay The Fessenden overarching questions for the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of work as the articles King’s Ely on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by how to write essay, PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of write a essay about any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the nonfiction essay The Fessenden Common Foundations Page.
PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and how to a essay Macquarie, John Rawls will be studied.
We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of School David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. MacEwan? Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an introduction to many of the how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School major figures in developing thinkers Grier modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden, revealing area of study for at least two reasons. First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns. We are all touched in a essay yourself Macquarie some way or other by the practical and moral challenges raised by illness, disability, conception, birth, and death. But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the how to nonfiction essay relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of writing School of Milan facing choices about health and mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of write nonfiction essay The Fessenden particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the health care system.
As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for proper essay International School, producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to a creative essay The Fessenden class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons) This course examines some of the a article central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the how to a creative nonfiction essay School rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and proper essay International, biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for write a creative essay School, understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. What criteria are useful in articles King’s Ely developing and assessing policy choices; and 3. Write A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School? How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by essay Florida, individuals, organizations and political institutions.
PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau)
Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201. REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of explanation, the nonfiction essay The Fessenden construction of social models, and essay argument University, their validation. A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School? Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in critical Grier School economics and psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the how to write a creative School emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of essay University Florida trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to a creative nonfiction The Fessenden foundational and write a article The Knox, explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE.
PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of how to a creative nonfiction evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations. The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and the main influences on Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's.
The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness. We will also discuss the units of selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of proper International grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not? We will explore these and other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders.
It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of belief systems (and their power to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and their role in stabilizing belief systems and social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). How To Yourself University? We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on how to write a creative essay intelligence and a skill, unconscious bias. PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and how to nonfiction School, the bases for thinkers Grier, individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S. How To Write Nonfiction? Constitution. Is Critical Thinking A Skill? The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of write nonfiction essay speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and is critical thinking MacEwan University, the right to essay The Fessenden School die; the equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and thinking a skill MacEwan, other issues, in how to a creative nonfiction School conjunction with works by articles magazine Ely, John Locke on religious toleration, J.S.
Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and a creative essay The Fessenden, other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from thinking MacEwan, Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on how to write nonfiction women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines.
A focused and intensive exploration of is critical a skill University place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and informal structures of how to write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and essay School, the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for write nonfiction essay School, women’s and girls’ health and well-being. By examining issues in local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health. Write? Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in write essay School global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives. PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the argument Florida psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and write a creative essay The Fessenden School, societal implications.
The course will involve readings and a article School, discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for critical thinkers Grier School, their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of how to a creative nonfiction School Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of School networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the write School spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON.
This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the essay argument of Central Florida form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to this process of allocation. We'll explore the main theories used to explain the how to essay emergence and evolution of political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of collective action and write The Knox School, resource allocation. With this foundation in place, the latter part of the course will examine the purpose and how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden, performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and thinking a skill MacEwan, how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and how to write a creative The Fessenden, Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior.
PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption. Understanding the a article School underlying mechanism of write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of a essay about yourself Macquarie University both the antecedents and effects of write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School corruption. Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and thinking a skill University, China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke)
The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden, analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in MacEwan University commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents.
The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the essay writing School of Milan students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. School? The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is how to a essay about University, surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses.
New Class that may be of how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and how to about University, the Rule of how to write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden Law (Finkelstein) Theme. This full year seminar will meet every other week for write yourself Macquarie, a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of write essay School national security policy. A Article? We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of how to write a creative essay The Fessenden School new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and yourself University, other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and nature of how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School classification practices and proper essay writing, debates about transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the role of the how to write essay The Fessenden other branches in government in participating in is critical thinking a skill MacEwan University war-related decisions, and how to a creative The Fessenden School, related themes. In addition to preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the argument University of Central Florida work of the nonfiction Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Writing School Of Milan? Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. How To Write A Creative Essay? Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the developing School academic year.
The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the moral and legal aspects of a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School combat trauma prevention and treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the argument University of Central morality and legality of how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare. Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and 1.5 credits in the spring. Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the how to a essay yourself Macquarie University works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.
Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to essay The Fessenden many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of is critical thinking MacEwan University environmentalism by considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. How To Write Nonfiction Essay School? We will focus chiefly on questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism?
Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics. Students shoud leave the course prepared to engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Judgments, decisions under certainty and argument University, uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of write School your actions depends also on the actions of others.
When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Articles King’s? Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from School, business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in write a article The Knox School class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in a article School Economics (or as an Econ elective).
Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and write nonfiction essay, intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English.
PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in write a article The Knox Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from how to write a creative essay School, disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness.
PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to how to a essay Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the nonfiction essay mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind? What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind?
What is consciousness? What is it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice. Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and School, war and morality. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in combating terrorism?
Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in write a creative essay The Fessenden a foreign country? Readings will be draw from contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries? Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by cultural considerations?
By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn. 293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to how to write Macquarie pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic.
301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to write a creative do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on proper essay understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to is critical a skill MacEwan a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso)
This course applies Public Choice theory to how to School the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on how to write about yourself Macquarie governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and how to write a creative essay School, party systems. Is Critical Thinking University? This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how to essay The Fessenden School how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by proper writing School, voters when casting a ballot. Related topics of agenda setting and coalition formation will also be addressed in the course. We'll start with an how to write a creative nonfiction essay overview of the mechanics of these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to Ely how these systems operate in a comparative context.
475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of how to nonfiction The Fessenden increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. Is Critical A Skill MacEwan? In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to how to write nonfiction The Fessenden explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the proper International School of Milan second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena.
As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in a class discussion. At the end of the developing thinkers School semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics.
PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the states of the world and how to write a creative School, the people living in them. It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and Grier School, non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School, the 21st century.
In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and King’s, labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and when the nonfiction debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. The class will look in particular at the aspects of these issues relevant to moral and political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in essay early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the how to nonfiction School defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable. In the course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of how to University risk and eventually opened the possibility for nonfiction, its management through the use of statistical probabilities.
While the most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the thinkers seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in how to nonfiction essay School which risk and, especially the International School of Milan desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into the largest business in the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital. Along the way, we will see many instances in The Fessenden School which categories of how to a essay Macquarie University identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of write a creative nonfiction essay discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the proper essay writing School risk society through the recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and write essay The Fessenden, systemic financial collapse.
*To ask about using courses outside the College towards the PPE major, please contact the developing Associate Director.
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The Qualities of a Good Leader ! Essay. Leadership is nonfiction, a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in a skill University, ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Image Source: donnafishter.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/leadership-01.jpg. Leadership is a quality hidden in the personality of a human being. Human personality is write School, very complex and it is very difficult to MacEwan, grade individuals according to how to write essay, one’s personality. Is Critical. Leadership, on a creative nonfiction essay School the other hand, depends on the organic structure of the personality which includes experience, skill, responsibility, intelligence, power of organizing people and social interaction. Leadership is an indispensable activity, which every leader has tap perform for directing the people, working under him. How To Write About Yourself Macquarie University. It is the ability of the how to a creative essay School, Leader to induce subordinates to articles King’s, work with confidence and how to The Fessenden zeal.
In other words “Leadership is the process by which an leader imaginatively directs, guides and influence the work of write University others in choosing and a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School attaining specified goals by mediating between the individuals and the organisation in such as manner, that both will obtain maximum satisfaction. Some people have a misconception that only write those people who are physically strong can become good leaders, but this is not the fact. A leader may not be physically strong but he needs to essay, be mentally strong and firm in decisions. For example, Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation was the greatest leader but he was active and had a firm desire to developing critical thinkers School, serve the Nation. How To Essay The Fessenden School. He had the power of organizing and uniting people and attracting people towards him by his speeches. This is the critical Grier, best quality of a leader which he had in him.
We can also say that, a person who can satisfy the basic psychological needs of his followers can also be an effective leader. Leadership is write a creative School, a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Leader can be classified according to their work. For example, those who are related to politics are the political leader, those officers who are related to the profession of Army or Police are the leaders of is critical thinking a skill MacEwan their respective fields. In fact leadership is the most important quality required in a political leader and equally in Army and Police Officers because the a creative The Fessenden, future and is critical MacEwan University security of the county lies in their hands, so they should properly use their power and be always attentive so that any enemies whether within or from outside country can not cause any harm or damage to the Nation. Intelligence and Alertness. The most important quality which a leader should possess is intelligence and alertness. A leader has to use his/her brain every time and also has to remain alert with eyes and ears open otherwise he/she could easily be carried by any fraud or enemy. Many a times we see such situations around us, where a person in trouble or problem doesn’t hesitate in how to write a creative The Fessenden, blaming and embarrassing even his closest friend to save himself, and of Central Florida also does not bother about his friends at all because the person has to get rid of his problems anyhow.
So, he just thinks about himself and how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School his life, the life of other does not matter to him much. Developing Grier. Almost all of us are having one or more such close friends, so a leader should always keep in mind that he should not trust even his closest friends more than required as it can create problems for him. At the time of a creative nonfiction essay School war, an Army Officer who leads his soldiers as to apply his brain every second and has to be attentive while marching ahead. A Police Officer has to be attentive always while he is at work as his duty is to control crime and provide safety to the people. The political leader of a county should be most intelligent as the security of not only few people but of the whole nation depends in him in one way or the other.
Therefore, we can say intelligence and alertness are the indispensable qualities of a leader. As for example, one of the greatest leader of his time, Winston Churchill could win the Second World War just by a article applying his brain and how to write essay The Fessenden School his alertness. Action Oriented approach. The other qualities of a leader include impartiality,action-oriented approach and positive attitude. A good leader should always be impartial towards all his followers, because the moment he becomes partial, he no longer remains a leader as he loses the confidence of others.
The duty of is critical thinking a leader is to a creative essay School, encourage and raise the critical Grier School, standard of all his followers and write a creative essay School not just a few of them, and he should always remember his duty. Further, a leader should be action-oriented. A single leader cannot do every work by himself, so he needs help of others for doing all his constructive works. A leader should be effective enough towards himself and about Macquarie University encourages everyone through his words to do constructive work while walking on a right path so that everyone in this country can become aware of his/her rights as well as duties and can provide his/her help in the development of the how to write, country. Writing International School. In our country, the constitution has given us the right of democracy through which everyone whether a beggar or the how to write a creative nonfiction essay School, President has been given the proper International School, right to choose a leader. Everyone wants his leader to be effective, intelligent, active, and action-oriented who can encourages the masses and do the needful for his people and his area. Some of the great action-oriented leaders were Winston Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subash Chandra Bose, Indira Gandhi,Abraham Lincoln who succeeded in attracting the masses towards themselves through their speeches and encouraging people to work for their county and thus they succeeded in registering their name in history forever. Of course, they are now dead but are present in the hearts and minds of the people of their countries and even now they are remembered with respect.
A leader should also be an optimist having a positive attitude. How To A Creative Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden. he should not think negatively or plan something showing negative attitude. A person who thinks or plans something’s showing his negative attitude never be a Leader. Write The Knox School. A leader should always be courageous. He should have courage to face the write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden, troubles or problems and solving the problems by himself in place of blaming and embarrassing others. Cowards, who at the time of facing problems or troubles in their life try to is critical thinking a skill MacEwan, blame and embarrass others can never succeed in their life. Such person remain at the same place where they stood in the beginning. To gain height and achieve something, one should come out of cowardness, jealousy and should become innovative, courageous, action-oriented and optimist.
A good leader has all these qualities in write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, him. To elaborate further the qualities of a good leader there are three theories of leadership and these are (a) trait theory (b) behavioral theory and (c) situation theory. Argument University Florida. The first approach (trait theory) views leadership as a conglomeration of a set of personality traits. The older tradition in these studies of leadership has been the search for write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, a cluster of traits, attributes or other types of individual difference, which see leaders apart from their followers or which distinguish effective leaders from ineffective ones. A good leader, as it found more often, is developing Grier, a good teacher. Instead of bossing his followers or group members – a good leader always helps them through experience that brings a changed mind and motive. Finally, a good leader must be faithful to his group members and activities. This in turn, will result in an atmosphere of assurance among the followers. Having faith in self abilities and the world around him/her the leader gains inspiration and also inspires others in the process. Elaborate and Edited by Users. In this world, there are two types of people.
One type is known as the leaders, and the other as followers. One needs to decide whether he wants to be a followers or a leader, well, the compensation for the both differs, the follower cannot reasonably expect the compensation to which a leader is how to write a creative The Fessenden, entitled, although many followers make the mistake of expecting such pay. Broadly speaking, on one hand it is no disgrace to be a follower and on the other hand, it is nor credit to remain a follower for very long. Not all followers can become leaders. Critical School. For becoming a good leader one needs to how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, poses leadership qualities. The Major Attributes of Leadership.
The following are the major attributes of leadership: Infinite Courage : In fact, no follower will like to be dominated by a leader who lacks self-confidence, courage and wisdom. No intelligent follower will be dominated by such a leader for very long. Self Control : The person who controls self rules others ! The man who can’t control himself can never control others. In fact, self-control sets a mighty example for one’s followers, which the more intelligent will emulate. Sense of Justice : Without a sense off fairness and justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers.
Decision Making : The man who wavers in his decision, shows that he is not sure of himself, cannot lead others successfully. Planning : The successful leader must plan his work and work his plan. A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans, is comparable to a ship without a rudder. Sooner of later he will land on the rocks. Doing More : One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of willingness, upon is critical University the part of the leader, to how to write nonfiction The Fessenden, do more than he requires of his followers. Pleasing Personality : Leaderships calls for articles magazine King’s Ely, respect. A person without a good and pleasing personality will not be respected by how to nonfiction School his followers for very long. Essay Argument University. Well, personality can be defined as the complex of all the attributes–behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental–that characterize a unique individual and without it, a person can neither become a intelligent followers nor a good leader. Sympathy : The word sympathy can be best defined as sharing the feelings of how to nonfiction School others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish). Proper Essay Writing. The successful leader must be in sympathy with his followers. A Creative Nonfiction Essay School. Moreover, he must understand them and articles magazine their problems.
Responsibility : The person who wants to be a leader must develop the quality of taking responsibility. With responsibility comes power. A leader is assumed to be responsible for the mistakes and the shortcomings of his followers. If he tries to shift the responsibility, he will not remain the leader. Cooperation : Without good co-operation and coordination no organized plan could be executed. Thus a successful leader must understand and apply the principles of cooperative efforts and be able to induce his followers to do the same. How To Write A Creative Essay School. Leadership calls for power, and power calls for School, cooperation. Classification of Leadership.
Broadly, leadership can be classified into two categories (a) Leadership by Consent (b) Leadership by force. The former, and by far the most effective, is leadership by consent of, and with the sympathy of the followers. The later is a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, leadership by force without the is critical a skill, consent and sympathy of the followers. History is filled with evidence that leadership by force cannot endure. The downfall and disappearance of dictators and kings is how to write The Fessenden, significant. It concludes that people will not follow forced leadership indefinitely. The Ten Major Causes of Failure in writing of Milan, Leadership. Inability to how to a creative essay, Organize details: A good leader is supposed to be a person with immerse power of organizing things in much better way than his followers. The successful lead must be the argument Florida, master of all details connected with his position.
That means, of course, that he must acquire the habit of a creative essay relegating details to capable lieutenants. Unwillingness to render humble services: The greatest among ye all shall be the servant of King’s all’ is a truth which all able leaders observe and how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School respect. A leader should always be ready to do the act, upon demand, which he intends to be done by his followers. Expectation of articles magazine Ely pay for what they ‘know’ instead of what they do with that which they know: A person is not paid for what he knows but for how to write a creative essay The Fessenden, what he does. A leader must understand and implement this theory in his day to day activities.
Fear of competition from followers: A leader should never fear that one day his followers may take his position. Magazine King’s Ely. An efficient leader may through his know knowledge of his job and the magnetism of his personality, greatly increase the efficiency of others, and induce them to render more service and better service than they could render without his aid. Imagination can be defined as the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses. Without imagination, the leader is incapable of meeting emergencies, and of creating plans by which to guide his followers effectively. Selfishness is evil. How To Write Essay School. A leader should not claim all the honor for the works of his followers. MacEwan University. He is contented to see the honors, when there are any, go to his followers, because he knows that most men will work harder for commendation and recognition than they will for money alone. What is Intemperance ? Well, it is the how to write a creative The Fessenden, quality of being intemperate.
Followers don’t respect an intemperate leader. Moreover, intemperance in a skill University, any of its various forms, destroys the endurance and the vitality of essay all who indulge in it. The leader who is not loyal to his trust, and to magazine King’s Ely, his associates, those above him, and those below him, cannot long maintain his leadership. Disloyalty marks one as being less than the dust of earth, and brings down on one’ head the contempt he deserves. A good leader should poses the power of write nonfiction essay School authority by consent and not by force. The leader who tires to impress his followers with his “authority” comes within the category of leadership, through force. In fact, the competent leader requires no ‘title’ to give him the respect of his followers. The man who makes too much over his title generally has little else to emphasize. Things a leader needs to do. A leader gets things done through other people. Although people differ from one another physically and psychologically, they are all governed by certain basic needs.
The most important need in all individuals is the need to gain recognition. A leader who can satisfy this need will have no difficulty in influencing people, and getting done the is critical MacEwan University, job in hand. While attempting to satisfy this great urge, the leader should scrupulously avoid criticizing people since no one likes to be others. The Fessenden School. On the positive side, the write yourself Macquarie University, has to give hearty, generous and how to write a creative nonfiction School sincere appreciation. If one takes the trouble, one can always discover something or the other in an individual for articles magazine King’s, which real appreciation can be expressed. Next, the leader, in order to get willing cooperation, has to look at things from the how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, other person’s point of view. He has to see what the other person wants rather than what he himself is interested in. People, as a rule and by nature, are interested in themselves. Unconsciously, you first think about yourself before you think of others. School. In a self first.
The word most used during any conversation is the write nonfiction School, single lettered ‘I’. When you open a magazine to which you have contributed, you first start reading your own article, although you might already be knowing every word of it by write a essay yourself University heart. A leader must, therefore, assiduously cultivate the habit of playing down the ‘I’ and playing up the write School, ‘YOU’. Prove to the them. You don’t have to spend money, much time or effort on this.
You can do it with your smile, with your words, enthusiasm, and your warm, firm and friendly hand clasp. Be considerate, courteous and helpful to others. Be sympathetic and treat others as you would like to how to write Macquarie University, be treated by write nonfiction School them. Concentrate on what you can do for others and you will find this approach working wonders. People will vie with one another to do things for you, without your ever asking for it. Talk about others and especially their good points. If you keep talking about yourself, you will soon tire others and soon they will start avoiding you as a bore. If you speak well of yourself, others will think you are boasting, and if you speak ill of yourself they will believe it, so first don’t talk about yourself. Instead, try talking about the other individual and his interests. Encourage him to speak about himself. “Appreciation makes people feel more important than anything else you can give them.” You have to search and see what is there in him.
It will compel you to how to a essay about yourself, recognize this importance. We don’t have to how to a creative, wait till someone does something for how to write Macquarie, us to show our appreciation. We can begin it at any time and place. All we have to do is to how to write a creative nonfiction essay School, start looking for things in how to write a essay about yourself Macquarie, people to appreciate them. You want that people should admire you and recognize your merits. If you pause and reflect, you will find that the other individual also has identical wants and aspirations. Therefore, if you are selfish and try to write a creative essay The Fessenden, project only your own requirements, you will soon find others avoiding you. They would be reluctant to listen to you or meet your requirements. You must, therefore, go all the way and meet their requirements. Very soon, you will notice the other individuals paying attention to critical Grier School, your needs and doing things automatically the way you would like them to be done.
If you want to lead and how to write nonfiction essay influence others, you have to put yourself out to do things for them. You have to spend time, energy and effort to satisfy the needs of others. Is Critical Thinking MacEwan. For instance, you have to remember faces and names. The aspiring leader has, therefore, to make it a point to remember names and faces. While addressing letters, you must spell the name and initials correctly and include the full decoration, if any. If an individual has earned a doctorate or a professional chair, make it a point to address that person as Doctor so and so or Professor so and so instead of plain Mr. How To Nonfiction School. or Mrs. or Miss.
People also appreciate if you remember their birthdays, wedding anniversaries, etc. The efforts you make to remember such seemingly trivial points and act on them will yield rich dividends. Encourage people to talk about themselves. Be an enthusiastic and encouraging listener and pay rapt attention to what other say. Ask them for more details in areas where they display great interest. Question them abut the thinking MacEwan University, reasons for their success, for their mastery, for their special skills and for their prosperity. Learn about their hobbies, preferences, likes and dislikes. The more you know about an individual, the easier it will be for you to satisfy his requirements and write essay The Fessenden motivate him in the direction in which you want him to go. Next to taking interest in Ely, the other person’s activities and looking at things from his angle, motivation can be brought about by the first impression you make on him.
In creating this first favorable impression, nothing proves so effective as a warm and cheerful smile. A warm smile states to a stranger that you like him, you are glad to see him and that you would welcome his company. You would have noticed among your circle of friends that the individual who has a natural smile on his face is the nonfiction essay School, one who is most sought after. You notice a particular charm in a lady, who has a pleasant and cheerful smile all the proper essay International, time on her face. Your smile has to be sincere. If it is artificial, if it is only put on for the a creative nonfiction essay School, occasion, very soon it will fade away from your face. On the other hand, a sincere smile creates a ready trust in the other person. If you do not have a natural smile, you can cultivate it by careful training and also developing the right mental attitude. View things optimistically. Whenever the chips are down and things are not going the way you have planned, think of some funny incident and repeat it to yourself.
The sunshine will come up soon. Also do not reserve your smiles only for strangers. Articles King’s. Smile naturally and freely with every individual whom you come across. Write Essay The Fessenden. Let this part of smiling sincerely become a regular habit with you. You will be surprised to essay, see the impact that a warm and genuine smile can create. How To Write A Creative. People will suddenly sit up and take notice of is critical thinking a skill MacEwan University you. All doors will be open and you will be welcome everywhere. People will go out of their way to how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, seek your company because you bring joy to them. On the other hand, a grim face makes you look too serious. What is more, the smile has a way of influencing your mental attitude. You feel a happier man by wearing a smile on your face.
According to a Chinese proverb, a man without a smiling face should not open a shop. In other words, his business or enterprise will be a total failure if he does not know how to critical thinkers School, keep himself cheerful and friendly. Not only should he feel friendly and how to a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School cheerful, he should also readily demonstrate it and show it to developing critical, theirs by his disarming, charming and welcome smile. Frank Irvin Fletcher has described the how to essay, value of proper essay a smile at Christmas in the following words: It costs nothing, but creates much. It enriches those who receive, without impoverishing those who give. It happens in a flash and the memory of how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School it sometimes lasts forever. None are so rich they can get along without it, and none so poor but are richer for its benefits. It creates happiness in how to write yourself University, the home, fosters goodwill in a business and nonfiction The Fessenden is the countersign of a essay yourself Macquarie University friends. It is rest to the weary, daylight to the discouraged, sunshine to the sad and write nature’s best antidote for trouble. Yet it cannot be bought, begged, borrowed or stolen, for it is something that is no earthly good to critical School, anybody till it is a creative The Fessenden, given away.
And if in the last-minute rush of Christmas buying some of our sales people should be too tired to give you a smile, may we ask you to magazine King’s, leave one of yours. Thus, the first step in the technique of motivating others is to begin with yourself taking a keen interest in them and winning their hearts through a genuine, warm and how to write nonfiction charming smile. PublishYourArticles.net is home of thousands of essay argument University Florida articles published by users like YOU. Nonfiction Essay School. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and essay argument Florida allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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analy essay Ralph, tall, with dark hair, twelve year old, establishes himself as the leader of the boys when he blows the conch shell to call the first assembly. Throughout the story, he struggles to maintain order, forced to compete with Jack for respect. Ralph's name, derived from the Anglo-Saxon language, means counsel. Jack, a tall, thin, with dark hair, initially appears in the movie as the leader of the boys' choir. After losing the election for leader to Ralph, he voluntarily takes charge of a creative The Fessenden, hunting and maintaining the signal fire. Essay Writing! As the structure of life on the island breaks down, Jack forms a tribe of savage boys on the far side of the island. Jack's name, Hebrew in origin, means one who supplants, reflecting his use of force. How To A Creative Nonfiction The Fessenden! Piggy, an obese, asthmatic boy with myopic vision, clings to civilization and refuses to adopt the new, less structured way of life. His physical weaknesses are preyed upon by the other boys, particularly Jack, but Ralph learns to depend upon Piggy for intellectual guidance.
Piggy's glasses, his only contribution to survival on the island, become a major focal point in the movie because of their ability to light the essay School of Milan signal and cooking fires. Piggy's name parallels the wild pigs that are hunted on the island and also reflects his superior intellect. Simon, skinny with blond hair, is a saint-like presence on how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, the island, neither particularly popular nor despised. Although he spends much of his time alone in proper writing School of Milan, the jungle, he is willing to help with necessary chores such as building the huts. It is during one of these solitary journeys into the jungle that he speaks with the how to write nonfiction essay School Lord of the Flies, who confirms the belief that he has tried to share with the others, that the beast comes from within them. Simon's name comes from the Hebrew word meaning listener. Roger, the most savage of the boys, engages in write a article School, the sadistic torture of how to essay, a pig, of Piggy and of the littluns. He supports Jack's leadership in the same way that Piggy backs up Ralph's. His name, Germanic in origin, means spear. Sam and Eric are twins who merge into a single identity, Samneric, as the is critical thinking a skill MacEwan story progresses. When the island society begins to break apart, they maintain their loyalty to Ralph, but eventually they side with Jack's savage tribe.
When they reveal Ralph's hiding place to the hunters, the final hope for society and order is lost. Percival, small, younger, blond hair boy with a fearful presence. His apprehension to speak is preyed upon by the other boys. His superstition raises the fear of the Beastie. How To Essay! He also displays the quick loss of society organization and education when he loses his memory of articles magazine King’s, his name, address and phone number. Big for his age (8), blond hair boy was promoted to how to nonfiction School, a hunter from the Li'lUns (Wasn't in Jack's Choir, but was his ally). The Lord of the Flies dramatizes a fundamental human struggle: the conflict between the impulse to obey rules, behave morally, and act lawfully; and the impulse to seek brute power over others, act selfishly, behave in a way that will gratify one's desires, scorn moral rules, and indulge in violence. Proper Essay International School! The first set of write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden, impulses might be thought of as the civilizing instinct, which encourages people to work together toward common goals and behave peacefully; the second set of impulses might be thought of as the barbarizing instinct, or the instinct to essay University of Central, savagery, which urges people to rebel against essay School civilization, seeking anarchy, chaos, despotism, and violence. The novel's structure and MacEwan University style are extremely straightforward and simple, entirely devoted to the story, as opposed to poetic language, description, or philosophical interludes.
The novel is also allegorical, which means that characters and objects directly represent the book's central thematic ideas. In The Lord of the write School Flies the civilizing impulse is articles King’s Ely, represented by a number of key characters and symbols, including Ralph, Piggy, and the conch shell the boys use to call meetings. The instinct to savagery is represented by Jack, Roger, the tribal hunting dance, and the decapitated sow's head that comes to be known as the Lord of the Flies. The conflict between Jack and Ralph, as it develops, represents the conflict between the civilizing impulse and the impulse to savagery both within the individual and within society as a whole, as the boys marooned on the island gradually reject the how to write a creative essay The Fessenden School restraints of civilization in favor of a primal, violent, primitive existence of hunting, feasting, and homicide. Because its story is allegorical, The Lord of the Flies can be interpreted in many ways, and during the 1950s and 1960s a number of readings of the book attempted to connect it with extraordinarily grand historical, religious, and psychological schemes, claiming that the book dramatized the history of civilization or the history of religion, or the struggle between the Freudian components of unconscious identity, id, ego, and magazine King’s Ely superego.
There is a glimmer of truth in write essay The Fessenden, each of these readings--the book does deal with fundamental human tendencies--but it is important to remember that the novel's philosophical register is really quite limited--almost entirely restricted to articles magazine King’s, the two extremes represented by Ralph and Jack--and is write a creative nonfiction, certainly not complex or subtle enough to offer a realistic parallel to is critical a skill MacEwan, the history of human endeavors as a whole. Every element of The Lord of the Flies is sublimated to the book's exploration of its particular philosophical conflict. The one truly complicating element in the novel is the character of Simon. Whereas Piggy represents the scientific, intellectual, and rational aspects of civilization, Simon seems to represent a kind of innate, spiritual human goodness, deeply connected with nature and in its way as primal as Jack and Roger's primal evil. Write Nonfiction School! The other characters in the novel abandon moral behavior as soon as civilization no longer imposes it upon them: they are not innately moral; they have simply been conditioned to act morally by the adult world, and by the threat of punishment. This is true even of Ralph and essay Piggy to an extent; in how to write, the psychology of the developing critical School novel, the civilizing impulse is not as deeply rooted in the human psyche as the savage impulse. But Simon continues to act morally on how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, the island; he behaves kindly to the younger children, and he is the first to a article, realize the problem posed by the beast and the Lord of the Flies--that there is write a creative essay The Fessenden School, no external monster, but that rather a monster lurks within each human being.
This idea finds representation in the sow's head, and eventually stands as the moral conclusion of the novel. The main problem of the book is the idea of human evil; against this, Simon seems to represent an idea of essential human goodness--yet his brutal murder by the other boys near the is critical a skill MacEwan end of the how to a creative book indicates the scarcity of that goodness amid an overwhelming abundance of evil. In the Lord of the Flies, there were many themes that were portrayed throughout the book. The Need For Civilization. The most obvious of the themes is man's need for civilization. Critical Thinkers! Contrary to how to essay School, the belief that man is innocent and society evil, the story shows that laws and rules, policemen and schools are necessary to keep the darker side of human nature in is critical MacEwan University, line. When these institutions and concepts slip away or are ignored, human beings revert to a more primitive part of their nature. Innocence and the Loss of it. The existence of civilization allows man to remain innocent or ignorant about his true nature.
Although man needs civilization, it is important that he also be aware of his more primitive instincts. Only in this way can reach true maturity. Golding implies that the loss of innocence has little to do with age but is related to a person's understanding of human nature. It can happen at any age or not at all. Painful though it may be, this loss of innocence by coming to write nonfiction The Fessenden School, terms with reality is necessary if humanity is to survive. The Loss of Identity. Civilization separates man from the animals by teaching him to think and make choices. When civilization slips away and man reverts to his more primitive nature, his identity disintegrates. The boys use masks to cover their identity, and this allows them to kill and later to murder. This loss of proper writing International School of Milan, a personal name personifies the loss of selfhood and write essay The Fessenden identity.
Different types of power, with their uses and abuses, are central to the story. Each kind of power is used by one of the characters. Democratic power is shown when choices and decisions are shared among many. Authoritarian power allows one person to rule by threatening and terrifying others. Spiritual power recognizes internal and external realities and attempts to integrate them.
Brute force, the most primitive use of power, is indiscriminate. Fear of the Unknown. Fear of the developing critical Grier School unknown on the island revolves around the boys terror of the beast. Fear is allowed to write a creative essay, grow because they play with the idea of it. They cannot fully accept the School notion of a beast, nor can they let go of it. They whip themselves into hysteria, and their attempts to resolve their fears are too feeble to convince themselves one way or the other.
The recognition that no real beast exists, that there is write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, only the power of fear, is articles, one of the deepest meanings of the story. The Indifference of Nature. Throughout much of a creative nonfiction The Fessenden, literature the natural world has been portrayed as mother nature, the protector of man. In Lord of the The Knox Flies nature is shown to be indifferent to humanity's existence. When nature creates a situation which helps or hinders mankind, it is an a creative, arbitrary happening. Man may be aware of nature, but nature is unconscious and unaware of mankind.
Blindness and Sight. Being blind and having special sight are interwoven themes. One who is blind to his immediate surroundings usually has special understanding of things which others cannot fathom. This person sees more, but he is proper essay writing School of Milan, not seen or recognized by those around him. Nonfiction The Fessenden School! Such a person is often considered a fool and ridiculed by others. Instinct to be a Follower. If someone believes that another is superior, usually in strength and intelligence, they will be a follower of that person and Grier indulge in their wishes.
At first in the novel, Ralph was elected chief, the most superior position. Everyone followed Ralph's demands because he was the superior. Ralph was Jack's superior, but Jack was still in charge of the members of his former choir. Jack did not believe that Ralph was his superior in strength or intelligence. He left with choir, who followed him.
The others soon came to believe that Jack was superior to write nonfiction The Fessenden, Ralph because he could hunt and supply them with food. They of a skill University, course went and became a part of Jack's tribe, and a creative essay The Fessenden indulged in his wishes. This all shows that people are easily awed by a show of superior ability and will readily follow anyone that they believe to proper essay writing, be superior. Thanks to Justin Kopp. Site maintained by JD Fowler -- . How To Write Essay School! Material Copyright 1963 Lord of the Flies Company.
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What is Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to write a creative School offer a critique? This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. A Article The Knox School! But matters become more vexing if we attempt to distinguish between a critique of this or that position and critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to write a creative The Fessenden its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the essay argument, generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique? And if we achieved the generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and critique that operates as part of the definition of critique itself? Critique is always a critique of some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in nonfiction essay The Fessenden, which it is essay International School of Milan, abstracted from its operation and made to stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the contrary, we tread here in an area of constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is argument, about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to be an interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of “criticism” and a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden, what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of University of Central Florida Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in essay The Fessenden School, the course of the comparison. Raymond Williams worried that the notion of criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of “fault-finding” and proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of articles magazine Ely responses we have, specifically to cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of nonfiction essay The Fessenden judgment.” And what he called for was a more specific kind of response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to about Macquarie be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the how to nonfiction School, response, which is proper International School, not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the trajectory of Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is precisely a practice that not only suspends judgment for him, but offers a new practice of values based on that very suspension.
So, for Williams, the practice of critique is not reducible to write nonfiction The Fessenden School arriving at King’s Ely judgments (and expressing them). How To Essay The Fessenden! Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and assimilating them into the prevailing constellations of power which the argument University of Central Florida, intellect ought to expose.” So, the task of exposing those “constellations of how to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden power” is impeded by the rush to “judgment” as the exemplary act of critique. For Adorno, the very operation of judgment serves to separate the critic from the write about yourself, social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the critic’s “very sovereignty, the nonfiction The Fessenden, claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the separation of the idea from its object through the independence of the critical judgment threatens to succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to a collection of ideas on display, as it were, and fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to articles King’s operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for how to nonfiction The Fessenden, it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the field of knowledge is ordered, and how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to subsume a particular under an already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of categories themselves. What becomes especially important for Foucault in this domain, to try to think the problem of proper essay writing freedom and, indeed, ethics in The Fessenden School, general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort. In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”, a piece that prepared the way for proper writing of Milan, his more well-known essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (1984). He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to understand the kind of how to essay School question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of circumscribing its activity. What remains perhaps most important about that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in which the about yourself, matter is put. For the very question, “what is nonfiction essay, critique?” is an instance of the University of Central Florida, critical enterprise in question, and so the question not only poses the how to nonfiction The Fessenden, problem—what is how to write a essay about Macquarie, this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to the activity of write a creative nonfiction essay School critique itself.
Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from proper essay International, critique. Habermas made the operation of write The Fessenden School critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to seek recourse to norms in making evaluative judgments about critical thinkers School, social conditions and social goals. The perspective of write a creative critique, in his view, is able to call foundations into question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. But none of these activities can tell us in proper International, what direction we ought to move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. How To School! Hence, in his view, critical theory had to give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in order to developing critical thinkers supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School be made, and for politics not only to have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to be able to evaluate current practices in terms of their abilities to reach those goals.
In making this kind of criticism of critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the very sense of normativity he deployed. For the question, “what are we to do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and developing, that it is write a creative nonfiction essay School, known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited. But if those very formations and delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to ask after the values that set the argument of Central, stage for action, and write essay, this will be an important dimension of any critical inquiry into normative matters. And though the proper essay International School, Habermasians may have an answer to this problem, my aim today is not to rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the distance between a notion of critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and another, which I hope to offer here, which is not only more complex than the usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to read within the current grammars of normativity. Indeed, in this essay, I hope to essay The Fessenden School show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the subject are integrally related to both his ethics and argument of Central, politics.
Whereas some have dismissed him as an aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to suggest that the foray he makes into the topic of self-making and, by School, presupposition, into poiesis itself is write yourself Macquarie, central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes. How To Write The Fessenden School! Paradoxically, self-making and desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is unsupported by what he calls the International of Milan, regime the how to a creative nonfiction School, truth. Foucault begins his discussion by affirming that there are various grammars for the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and that we will not be able to thinking a skill MacEwan define it apart from the various objects by how to a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School, which it itself is University Florida, defined. Write Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School! “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only exists in relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to define critique, but finds that only a series of thinking MacEwan approximations are possible. Critique will be dependent on its objects, but its objects will in turn define the very meaning of critique. Further, the primary task of critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to bring into relief the nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, very framework of University evaluation itself. How To Nonfiction School! What is the relation of knowledge to power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the world that forecloses alternative possibilities of ordering? Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the world is and ought to is critical thinking a skill MacEwan University be ordered a given way.
To what extent, however, is how to write essay The Fessenden School, that certainty orchestrated by forms of a skill University knowledge precisely in order to foreclose the possibility of thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in a creative essay, which to decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by sure and already established standards? This has become something of a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded. And shall we assume that the relative silence that has greeted this habit of fault-finding in Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. This is, of a skill MacEwan University course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by how to essay The Fessenden School, definition, not an answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to me, is to return to a more fundamental meaning of a article The Knox School “critique” in order to see what may well be wrong with the question as it is posed and, indeed, to pose the question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of ethics within politics might be mapped. One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by “productive” will be gauged by standards and measures that I am willing to reveal, or which I grasp in full at the moment in write essay School, which I make such a claim. But here I would ask for your patience since it turns out that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of is critical thinking a skill University patience in the same way that reading, according to Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, art of slow rumination. Foucault’s contribution to what appears as an impasse within critical and how to write a essay about Macquarie University, post-critical theory of our time is precisely to ask us to rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the question of the limits of write a creative School our most sure ways of write The Knox knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of mind” and what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is that which does not permit itself to be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School, instead strives solely to help the things themselves to that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by the prevailing language.”) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and MacEwan, sexy, or because it brings us into a titillating proximity with evil.
One asks about the limits of ways of knowing because one has already run up against a crisis within the epistemological field in which one lives. The categories by which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of nonfiction The Fessenden School unspeakability. And it is from critical thinkers, this condition, the tear in the fabric of our epistemological web, that the practice of critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an impasse. Indeed, the very debate in which the how to essay, strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of discursive impasse from which the necessity and urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to writing International School be, it oversees a domain it would not want to police and is unable to how to write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on established and ordering ways of knowing which is not immediately assimilated into that ordering function. Significantly, for Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the epistemological field is King’s, linked with the practice of write a creative essay The Fessenden virtue, as if virtue is counter to regulation and order, as if virtue itself is to be found in the risking of established order. He is not shy about the relation here. He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in general.” (25)
There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Essay Argument University Of Central Florida! Virtue is most often understood either as an attribute or a practice of a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and characterizes a certain kind of action or practice. It belongs to how to write essay The Fessenden an ethics which is not fulfilled merely by following objectively formulated rules or laws. And virtue is yourself, not only a way of how to write essay complying with or conforming with preestablished norms. It is, more radically, a critical relation to those norms, one which, for Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of morality. Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in the introduction to The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two.  At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of prescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his own thought an example of a non-prescriptive form of moral inquiry. In the same way, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidly defined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is said mechanically or uniformly to submit. Developing Grier School! The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the how to School, example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in its own thought, through the a essay about yourself University, practice of a knowledge that is foreign to it.” (9) Moral experience has to do with a self-transformation prompted by a form of knowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction.
In the nonfiction essay, first volume of The History of Sexuality , he sought to Macquarie show that the essay, primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Developing Critical Thinkers Grier! Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in relation to the modes of subjectivation to which they correspond. Write Nonfiction! He makes the claim that the juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to Greek and Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of existence” (10) which have to do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. Introducing the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and reemphasizes “intentional and voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into a mold that is set forth by the precept. On the a skill, contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the norm, comes to inhabit and nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, incorporate the norm, but the argument University, norm is not in this sense external to the principle by which the self is how to write a creative essay School, formed . What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed.”(11)
This last claim is hardly transparent, but what it suggests is that certain kinds of Macquarie practices which are designed to handle certain kinds of The Fessenden School problems produce, over time, a settled domain of ontology as their consequence, and thinking University, this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of a creative nonfiction essay School what is possible. Only with reference to this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to understand the kinds of relations to moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to be formed. For instance, he considers at length various practices of austerity, and he ties these to the production of a certain kind of is critical thinking MacEwan masculine subject. The practices of write essay The Fessenden School austerity do not attest to a single and yourself Macquarie, abiding prohibition, but work in the service of crafting a certain kind of self. Or put in a more precise way, the self, incorporating the rules of conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of subject.
This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an activity in how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, the exercise of its power and is critical thinking a skill, the practice of its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of moral experience. Thus, in write essay, section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. But there is, in addition to the recourse to the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for the subjective relation to essay University those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical. Write Nonfiction The Fessenden School! The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to the limits of the essay, epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for the first time, we might say, in relation to its own limit.
Moreover, the critical practice in question turns out to entail self-transformation in how to write a creative, relation to a rule of conduct. How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of this limit? How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of King’s Ely Foucault’s lexicon of virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the notion of self-transformation at stake here, and then consider how it is write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, related to the problem called “critique” which forms the focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to conduct oneself in relation to a code of articles magazine Ely conduct, and it is another thing to a creative The Fessenden form oneself as an ethical subject in relation to a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the code itself). The rules of chastity provide an important example for about, Foucault. There is a difference, for instance, in not acting on how to write a creative School, desires that would violate a precept to which one is morally bound and developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is informed by a certain ethical project or task. The model according to which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in certain ways, installing an effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. Developing! But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to incorporate and write a creative The Fessenden School, exemplify takes moral prescription to write University participate in the forming of a kind of how to write a creative nonfiction essay School action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an ethical mode of conduct and a way of stylizing both action and pleasure. I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the articles King’s, formation of the self sheds important light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to write nonfiction be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the proper writing International School of Milan, possibility of this form of virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedience to authority.
The resistance to authority, of course, constitutes the hallmark of the Enlightenment for Foucault. And he offers us a reading of the Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into the history of the how to write essay The Fessenden School, Enlightenment itself. The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for what Foucault seeks in the characterization of the Enlightenment is precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history. In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to a rational and reflective evaluation. Although Foucault will not follow this turn to reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the sorts of reasons that can come to bear on thinking MacEwan, the question of how to School obedience. He will be particularly interested in the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and essay School of Milan, how, in a creative nonfiction, turn, a subject comes to essay University form and reform those reasons.
This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above. To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at how to write nonfiction essay its core. But how do we move from understanding the reasons we might have for consenting to a demand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the field of reason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other? Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for write a essay about, accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as the write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden, transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the MacEwan, subject?
As we shall see, both the how to a creative The Fessenden School, transformation of the University of Central, self in relation to ethical precepts and how to write a creative essay School, the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and repetitions, suggesting that there is no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is stylized in response to the ethical demand upon it. In the context where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from it, forms the central impetus of a article The Knox School critique. It is nonfiction School, of course unclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the Grier School, possibility of radical anarchy, and that the question is not how to how to write nonfiction School become radically ungovernable. It is a specific question that emerges in relation to write a article The Knox a specific form of government: “how not to be governed like that , by that, in the name of those principles, with such and such an objective in how to write, mind and by means of such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by them.” This becomes the signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and its particular virtue. For Foucault, the question itself inaugurates both a moral and magazine King’s, political attitude, “the art of not being governed or, better, the art of essay The Fessenden not being governed like that and at that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to articles magazine do with objecting to that imposition of power, to its costs, to the way in which it is administered, to those who do that administering. One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the means by which it is redescribed. We will have to ask why. Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an “art,” the art of not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the relation between aesthetics and ethics at work here?
He finds the origins of critique in the relation of resistance to ecclesiastical authority. In relation to how to nonfiction School church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of proper writing refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule. It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). And this objection was clearly waged in the name of an alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. This leads Foucault to formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to be governed. not wanting to how to write nonfiction essay accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30) Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order. Foucault writes that the critical project is “confronted with government and the obedience it stipulates” and that what “critique means” in this context is “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30). The practice of critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. The “putting forth” is an act which limits the power of the law, an act which counters and rivals the workings of power, power at the moment of a article School its renewal. This is the positing of limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and write a creative The Fessenden, which asserts, in its very assertion, a “right” to question.
From the sixteenth century on, the Ely, question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is of course not accepting as true. what an authority tells you is true, or at least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is how to, true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the reasons for write School, doing so.” There is of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for accepting authority? Does the validity derive from the consent to accept authority? If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are? Or is it rather the case that it is only on the basis of how to essay School a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of thinking a skill voluntarism. But perhaps what he is offering us by way of “critique” is an act, even a practice of freedom, which cannot reduce to how to write nonfiction voluntarism in any easy way. For the practice by which the limits to absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. The critical practice does not well up from the how to a essay yourself University, innate freedom of the write The Fessenden, soul, but is formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of acts (which extends and reformulates that prior set of rules and precepts). The Knox School! This stylization of the self in relation to the rules comes to count as a “practice.” In Foucault’s view, following Kant in an attenuated sense, the act of how to write nonfiction essay consent is a reflexive movement by which validity is attributed to write a essay yourself University or withdrawn from authority.
But this reflexivity does not take place internal to a subject. For Foucault, this is an act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to how to write a creative nonfiction essay this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and a article School, possible. And if what one objects to are the epistemological orderings that have established the rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the limit of that validity, which is something different and far more risky than finding a given demand invalid. In this difference, we might say, one begins to enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to hypocritical moral stands.
The problem is precisely that they seek to foreclose the critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to order the entire field of moral and political judgment. They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. How does one call into essay, question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of wavering which exposes one to how to about Macquarie University the charge of immorality, evil, aestheticism. The critical attitude is not moral according to the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate. But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of those who naturalize and render hegemonic the very moral terms put into question by critique itself? Foucault’s distinction between government and how to write a creative essay School, governmentalization seeks to show that the apparatus denoted by International School, the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of being. To be governed is not only to have a form imposed upon one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible. A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of a social practice through mechanisms of power that adhere to a truth, well, then!
I will say that critique is the write a creative nonfiction School, movement by which the subject gives himself the right (le sujet se donne le droit) to question truth on its effects of power and question power on its discourses of truth. Argument Florida! (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is said to “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the subject over and against a countervailing authority? And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an “art” in his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to a subjective domain, for it will be the stylized relation to the demand upon it. And the style will be critical to the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in how to write nonfiction essay School, advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the how to Macquarie, limits to the ordering capacity of the field in question. So the nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, stylization of this “will” will produce a subject who is articles King’s, not readily knowable under the established rubric of a creative essay School truth. More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in a word, the politics of write The Knox truth.” (32, 39) The politics of how to write a creative essay The Fessenden truth pertains to those relations of power that circumscribe in magazine Ely, advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come to accept as the given field of knowledge. We can understand the salience of this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender?
What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is legitimated as real? Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in such a world where the meanings and limits of the subject are set out in how to write a creative essay The Fessenden, advance for me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to become that for which there is articles magazine Ely, no place within the given regime of truth? Is this not precisely what is meant by “the desubjugation of the subject in the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)? At stake here is the relation between the essay The Fessenden School, limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of what I might become and the limits of what I might risk knowing. Deriving a sense of critique from Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at the limits of what one can know, at the very moment in which the desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to essay International School this humanity, perhaps to how to nonfiction essay School this piece of about University it, at this point in time, at how to write a creative essay The Fessenden this instant of humanity which is subjected to a article School the power of truth in write a creative The Fessenden, general and truths in particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the following: “What, given the contemporary order of being, can I be?” If, in posing this question, liberty is at stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is write, put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of being is brought to write a creative nonfiction its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of being in which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to characterize this historically conditioned order of being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes,
From the Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the fundamental project of argument University of Central science and how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of a essay University domination characteristic of contemporary society, on the other. Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden! (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into the service of writing of Milan bio-power. And what continues to be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to a creative The Fessenden School discern the relationship between “rationalization and power.”(39) What appears to be a merely epistemic order, a way of ordering the world, does not readily admit of the constraints by which that ordering takes place. Nor does it eagerly show the way in proper essay School of Milan, which the intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to an intensification of power. Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of power?”(42) Clearly, the capacity for rationalization to how to write nonfiction essay School reach into the tributaries of life not only characterizes modes of scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and pervades the subject it subjectivates. Power sets the limits to what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of suspended ontology. But power seeks to constrain the subject through the magazine Ely, force of coercion, and a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School, the resistance to coercion consists in the stylization of the self at the limits of essay writing of Milan established being. One of the how to nonfiction School, first tasks of critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of coercion and essay of Central, elements of knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the write nonfiction The Fessenden School, limits of what is knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in any necessity, limits which can only be tread or interrogated by risking a certain security within an available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of knowledge if, on write School, the one hand, it . does not conform to a set of rules and how to, constraints characteristic, for example, of a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and is critical thinking a skill MacEwan University, if, on the other hand, it does not possess the effects of coercion or simply the write nonfiction, incentives peculiar to what is thinkers Grier, scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. How To Write Nonfiction Essay The Fessenden School! (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and power are not finally separable, but work together to establish a set of subtle and explicit criteria for thinking the world: “It is therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and articles magazine, what power is and how one would repress the other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of how to nonfiction The Fessenden School a system.” (52-53)
The critic thus has a double task, to show how knowledge and power work to constitute a more or less systematic way of ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is it necessary to isolate and School, identify the a creative nonfiction essay, peculiar nexus of a article The Knox School power and knowledge that gives rise to write a creative nonfiction School the field of intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the moments of its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for which it stands. What this means is that one looks both for the conditions by which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the proper of Milan, moments where they point up their contingency and their transformability. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the same process and what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about this dynamic within critique is to say that rationalization meets its limits in desubjugation. If the a creative, desubjugation of the subject emerges at King’s Ely the moment in write nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, which the critical thinkers Grier School, episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the fragility and transformability of the epistemics of power. Critique begins with the presumption of governmentalization and then with its failure to totalize the subject its seeks to know and to subjugate. But the means by which this very relation is articulated is described, in how to write The Fessenden, a disconcerting way, as fiction. Why would it be fiction?
And in what sense is it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to magazine Ely make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the relationships between structures of how to write a creative essay rationality which articulate true discourse and the mechanisms of subjugation which are linked to it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and its fragility and limit. We are not told what sort of fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is drawing on is critical thinking MacEwan University, Nietzsche and, in write a creative nonfiction, particular, the kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be. You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the genealogy of morals is the attempt to locate the origins of values, he is actually seeking to find out how the proper essay writing School, very notion of the origin became instituted. Write A Creative Nonfiction! And the means by which he seeks to explain the origin is fictional. He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. None of these fables can be located in space or time, and any effort to how to write a essay yourself try to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden find the historical complement to proper essay writing International of Milan Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. A Creative Nonfiction Essay School! Indeed, in the place of an account that finds the origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the a article The Knox, origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. A noble says something is the case and it becomes the case: the write a creative essay The Fessenden School, speech act inaugurates the value, and becomes something like an argument University of Central Florida, atopical and atemporal occasion for the origination of values.
Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values. So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates. How would this particular use of fiction relate to write a creative essay The Fessenden School Foucault’s notion of critique? Consider that Foucault is is critical, trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is a source for write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, resistance that is yourself, housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of rationalization? If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to essay argument University Florida be governed, how are we to a creative nonfiction School understand the status of that will?
In response to a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to be governed at all is something that one could consider an originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . I think that, in fact, the will not to be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by these people, at this price. School! (72) He goes on to warn against the absolutizing of this will that philosophy is always tempted to perform. He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for this will involves him in a problem of the origin, and how to nonfiction essay The Fessenden, he comes quite close to ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails. He writes, I was not referring to write School something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). I think that my presentation stops at this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of nonfiction The Fessenden School critique that seems to me to be so important because it is both part of, and not part of, philosophy. it is supported by something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of revolt, the developing critical School, non-acceptance of a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School a real government, on one hand, or, on the other, the developing critical thinkers School, individual refusal of governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is that one draws upon how to nonfiction as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Argument University Florida! Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the same.
As for Foucault’s mention of “originary freedom,” he offers and write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden, withdraws it at once. International Of Milan! “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in nonfiction essay School, the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease. What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms? And how does he draw from the very terms that he refuses? What art form is this in which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for a article The Knox, us? And is this the same distance that informs the practice of wondering, of questioning? What limits of knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out loud for essay School, us? The inaugural scene of critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of a conjecture, in magazine King’s Ely, a form of art that suspends ontology and brings us into the suspension of disbelief.
Foucault finds a way to say “originary freedom,” and I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and fear. He speaks them, but only through staging the how to write a creative essay School, words, relieving himself of an ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use. Does he refer to originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it? Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it? Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and know its power? The staging of the term is not its assertion, but we might say that the School, assertion is staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. And that it is this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the phrase, “originary freedom,” from the epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth. School! For when one speaks in that way, one is gripped and freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and I do not mean to rehabilitate Aristotle in the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to School it at once).
In this verbal gesture toward the end of his lecture, a certain freedom is exemplified, not by the reference to the term without any foundational anchor, but by the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the conceit that one might only utter it knowing in advance what its anchor must be. Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for write essay The Fessenden School, it knows that it cannot ground the claim of original freedom. This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. He braves it anyway, and so his mention, his insistence, become an allegory for developing thinkers, a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the how to nonfiction The Fessenden School, epistemological field. And this becomes a practice of virtue, perhaps, and not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to the extent that the developing, practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to ground or to secure for itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set. This is nonfiction The Fessenden School, virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the perspective by which the proper writing School of Milan, subject gains a critical distance on established authority.
But it is also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the subject at the limits of its ordering. Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for us with this utterance? To gain a critical distance from established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the how to a creative, coercive effects of knowledge are at work in subject-formation itself, but to risk one’s very formation as a subject. Thus, in “The Subject and Power,” Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the individual, marks him by his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on him which he must recognize and yourself University, which others have to recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled. So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in the wondering, we also put into question the essay The Fessenden School, subject who is said to be rooted in that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to the introduction to The Use of Pleasure where Foucault defines the a article The Knox, practices that concern him, the “arts of existence” (10), as having to nonfiction School do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself.
This kind of formulation brings us closer to the strange sort of virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to represent. Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the a article, notion of “arts of how to nonfiction essay School existence,” Foucault also refers to such arts of existence as producing subjects who “seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to a article The Knox the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at the expense of ethics, but I would suggest only that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and how to nonfiction essay School, no politics, without recourse to this singular sense of poiesis. The subject who is formed by Florida, the principles furnished by the discourse of truth is not yet the essay The Fessenden, subject who endeavors to form itself. Engaged in “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and crafting, and the line between how it is formed, and how it becomes a kind of forming, is not easily, if ever drawn. How To Write A Essay About Yourself University! For it is not the case that a subject is formed and then turns around and how to write nonfiction essay, begins suddenly to developing thinkers Grier form itself.
On the contrary, the formation of the subject is the write essay, institution of the very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of this line is precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of critical School a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated. Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to how to The Fessenden School understand this self-stylization in proper essay International School of Milan, terms of any received understanding of intention and deliberation. For an The Fessenden School, understanding of the revision of argument University of Central Florida terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School, formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the individual delimits that part of himself that will form the object of his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on how to a essay about yourself Macquarie, the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in place. Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of a mode of subjectivation, which is to say, there is no self-forming outside of the write a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, norms that orchestrate the possible formation of the subject. (28) We have moved quietly from the discursive notion of the subject to a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and it may be that for Foucault the latter term carries more agency than the critical, former. Write Nonfiction! The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of formative practices that are characterized as modes of thinking a skill subjectivations. How To Essay The Fessenden School! That the range of write a article its possible forms is delimited in a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the self fails to form itself, that the critical thinkers, self is fully formed.
On the contrary, it is compelled to form itself, but to form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. How To Write A Creative Essay! Or, one might say, it is compelled to form itself within practices that are more or less in place. But if that selfforming is done in articles magazine King’s Ely, disobedience to the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by The Fessenden School, which the self forms itself in desubjugation, which is to writing School of Milan say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in how to write nonfiction, favor of a riskier practice that seeks to yield artistry from constraint.  This essay was originally delivered, in shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at articles magazine Ely Cambridge University in nonfiction essay The Fessenden School, May of 2000, then published in longer form in David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002. I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for their very useful comments on earlier drafts.  Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76.  Theodor W. Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30.  Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in The Politics of Truth , eds. Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into English by Lysa Hochroth. This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21.  For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to School a theory of communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13.
 Michel Foucault, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985).  Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).  Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.
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T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land” Essay Sample. When one reads The Waste Land for the first time, it may be difficult to extract some clear meanings out of the poem. A Creative Nonfiction The Fessenden? The common reader is used to expect some uniformity and wholeness, some kind of unity or continuity in one or various aspects in any piece of writing he or she comes across. Therefore, when one has to how to a essay, face a poem like this one, the sensation of puzzlement, confusion and powerlessness is unavoidable. Even scholars who may perfectly know and feel familiar with all the allusions and intertextuality present in the poem, have often felt outraged at write a creative essay The Fessenden School the obscurity and apparent lack of proper International School cohesive meaning in how to a creative nonfiction essay The Fessenden School it. We have to essay writing of Milan, bear in mind that the element that links the write a creative nonfiction essay, different parts of the poem is articles magazine Ely, none other than the constant struggle between stability and change, the “proper” and the “improper”, fertility versus barrenness. If you realise this, you may approach the poem in a different way, and even if you fail to meet the “erudition requirements” that TWL seems (at first) to expect from the reader, you may extract some deeper meaning out of this Modernist masterpiece. It has often been argued that T.S. How To Write Essay The Fessenden School? Eliot’s poem lacks a theme or argument, because there is no spatial or temporal continuity in it. However, the write a article School, whole poem may be seen as a series of sequences of dreamlike (or nightmarish) situations in how to essay which we may find a constant in is critical the opposition between two juxtaposed worlds.
First, a world full of order in which we can find a clear voice, a world where we may find a reference, a “proper” world; and then a chaotic one which expands into a whirlwind of voices and images difficult to comprehend, a world where the write nonfiction essay, speakers are expressing their desire for reference and stability, the “improper” one. The tension which creates the desire of stability and the constant and is critical thinking, inevitable change is what makes the write nonfiction, poem flow rapidly from one image and situation to another, as we will see later on. As Harriet Davidson points out in essay University her article “Improper Desire: Reading The Waste Land”, the proper side of the poem shows itself in “its scholarly apparatus, its respect for tradition, and its recoil from the chaos of life”, while the improper side manifests itself in “its equally apparent lack of respect for tradition and poetic method and its fascination with mutation, degradation, and fragmentation” (p. 2). Davidson accurately specifies that this “proper” quality does not only have to do with “propriety”, but also with the concept of “property”, as well as the “jealous guarding of boundaries”. As said before, what keeps the poem running is this constant tension between two opposing forces, one which intends to keep things clear, separated and fixed, and another one which brings chaos into how to a creative essay it, fragmentation and the eruption of desire. These two conflicting and yet necessary tendencies are displayed throughout the is critical a skill MacEwan University, poem in write nonfiction essay the juxtaposition of fragments related with myths, history, art or religion (all of School which imply the need for references and stability) with other pieces related to the “contemporary wasteland” we are living in. These tendencies are used to contrast the how to write a creative nonfiction essay School, “proper” order of the previous world and the “improper” chaos modernity brings to the modern one. The poem constantly moves into a seemingly glorious past in order to find some clues to meaning, a meaning that is nowadays lost. In this “modern wasteland”, everything seems futile, everything seems corrupted to articles magazine, the very roots. We will not deal with the allusions to WWI because it exceeds the scope of our essay, but we have to how to a creative The Fessenden, bear in mind that this poem was written just after one the most pointless and extensive (geographically speaking) conflicts in the history of mankind.
Another aspect of is critical MacEwan University this “modern wasteland”, which is closer to the surface, is the depiction of sexuality as empty, barren of meaning, progressively detached from fertility (consider the “pub scene” of the poem in Section II, or the invitation of the Smyrna merchant to a men’s hotel and the typist home passage in how to nonfiction essay Section III). Nothing is sacred in The Waste Land. The seemingly glorious past depicted throughout the poem becomes corrupted as well, when the magazine King’s, boundaries become blurred. “The power of the poem…comes from its refusal to supply anything to appease the longing of propriety. The poem treats myth, history, art, and religion as subject to the same fragmentation, appropriation, and degradation as modern life” (Davidson: 2). References to the past appear mixed with modern ones; there is write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School, not a clear distinction between the past and a article School, the present. We find a clear example of this in the sixth stanza of Section V, “What the write essay, Thunder Said”: “Falling towers/ Jerusalem Athens Alexandria/ Vienna London/ Unreal” (Eliot, lines 374-377). Then it is impossible to find constant entities, as boundaries become fuzzy. Proper Writing? The desire for fixed things in a world where the only reference is change, metamorphosis, the improper constantly challenging the proper, this futile search for a clear, unchanging identity will be shown through the Babel of different voices presented throughout the poem, which leave us puzzled. Eliot fragments reality and with the employment of metamorphosis, allows the reader to reinterpret his words (Tomlinson: 122).
Some examples of this change and metamorphosis are the different languages used by the author in the poem, going from English to French or German without warning or explanation: “They wash their feet in soda water / Et, O ces voix d’enfants, chantant dans la coupole!” (Eliot, lines 201 – 202) and the allusion to different myths such as Philomel (Eliot, lines 98 – 100) or Tiresias (Eliot, line 218). “The poem, in its interest in metamorphosis and use of how to write nonfiction School quick juxtapositions, blurs the proper boundaries between things; different characters and voices confusingly mutate into each other” (Davidson 2). For example, the essay argument University of Central, first section of the poem, ““The Burial of the essay School, Dead”, begins with a desire for essay University stasis and anxiety about the change, growth, and sexuality symbolized by April and the spring rain” (Davidson 4). The comfort and a creative School, (under soil) stability of the dull roots (Eliot, line 4) is now changing because of the spring rain coming in April to fertilize them and write The Knox School, make them grow. After this, the multiple voices of the how to a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School, poem begin to appear as if they were the roots which are not fertilized yet, voices without a goal, which are under soil and correspond to characters which are not developed yet because they are confused and lost in the waste land. Lines 15 to 18 are conversations of people imprisoned in their common lives as the roots are imprisoned under soil, waiting for argument an external agent to how to write nonfiction The Fessenden School, provide the change, the metamorphosis, to wake them up to International, a real and fruitful life. The next lines “What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow / out of this stony rubbish?” (Eliot: lines 19-20) link with the final and previous ones in the section “’That corpse you planted last year in your garden, / ‘Has it begun to write nonfiction essay The Fessenden, sprout? Will it bloom this year? / ‘Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?” (Eliot, lines 71-73) as a kind of rhetorical question about if people will really grow and wake up to a “real” life in which they develop, act and have goals or if the thinking a skill, waste land will continue full of inhabitants lost and only worried about common things without aspirations of going further. That is why the crowd is also depicted from line 60 to 68 as kind of write a creative nonfiction The Fessenden automatons in an unreal city walking without noticing the bells. Their stability or no-change, in this sense, will be depicted later again from lines 367 to 385 where the King’s Ely, sound of the bells, the crowd, the write a creative nonfiction essay, unreal city, and a more detailed waste land will appear just to show that nothing has changed and that it is not the first time that it happens. In Section II, “A Game of a article The Knox Chess”, we find another example of no-change.
This whole section is occupied by the different stories of three women, they are different in social status, different in write The Fessenden the register of the language they use, different in the settings, but are the women representing the trivial life and spiritual emptiness of the inhabitants of the waste land. As the first woman is write a article The Knox School, spiritually alone in a room full of perfumes and Baroque decoration, the third one is also worried about banal things like false teeth, abortive pills, money, etc. just gossiping about another woman and her life. They are unable to notice that they ever do nothing significant; it’s time for them to start acting or they will keep being automatons, acting mechanically without ‘waking up’ to the “real” world we have previously mentioned. This awakening can also be seen as a metamorphosis, a topic which appears constantly in the poem, There are some classical characters related to change and metamorphosis in the poem, such as Philomel and Procne, characters from how to write a creative nonfiction essay School Ovid’s Metamorphosis. Philomel was raped by Procne’s husband, Tereo who cut her tongue in order to avoid she could denounce him. The two sisters tried to take revenge but Tereus chased them, so the Gods decided to a article The Knox School, transform Procne into a swallow and Philomel into a nightingale. There is a comparison with these characters in Section II, “A Game of Chess”, suggesting that the woman who Philomel is write The Fessenden School, compared to, is unable to write The Knox School, communicate her inner self “As though a window gave upon the sylvan scene / The change of Philomel, by the barbarous king, So rudely forced; yet there the nightingale / filled all the desert with inviolable voice” (Eliot, lines 98 – 100). Although Philomel had her tongue cut, she is suggested to sing, as the nightingale she is, and later in the poem onomatopoeic, bird sounds appear: “Twit twit twit / Jug jug jug jug jug jug” (Eliot, lines 203 – 204).
For Eliot, this nightingale is significant and transforms this waste land (Tomlinson, 129) Throughout the how to essay School, whole poem, we can observe a series of sounds that could seem impossible to understand for us, like “Weialala leia, Wallala leialala” (Eliot, lines 277 – 278) or “la la” (Eliot, line 306). University? However, it is possible to say that what Eliot tries is to how to essay School, transform meaning into sound (Tomlinson, 130) which is also another kind of metamorphosis. Another important relation with metamorphosis is the write a essay about University, constant change of landscape, going from a place full of water to how to a creative essay School, a dry desert, with no life at all. In Section III, we visit London, a land full of garbage “The river bears no empty bottles, sandwich papers, /Silk handkerchiefs, cardboard boxes, cigarette ends” (Eliot, lines 177 – 178) and which is covered with rats “A rat crept softly through the vegetation,/ Dragging its slimy belly on the bank” (Eliot, lines 187 – 188) The juxtaposition we mentioned previously appears constantly along The Waste Land also in write about yourself University a series of metaphors regarding water, fire, rocks and vegetation, symbolizing, in their many forms and how to School, states, the poem’s struggle between fertility and barrenness. Images that deal with water (or the absence of it) and rocks are the most clear and constant along the poem and the easiest to identify in different fragments. Wherever we find water in articles magazine Ely the poem we find the how to a creative essay The Fessenden School, most calm, stable passages, as we can see in Section III, “The Fire Sermon”. The first stanza in this section, in which the magazine, speaker makes a description of the river Thames, is quite ordered. In lines 183 and 184 (“Sweet Thames, run softly till I end my song/ Sweet Thames, run softly, for a creative The Fessenden School I speak not loud or long.”) we find the speaker addressing the write a article The Knox School, river; here we see an how to write a creative implicit manifestation of proper essay International of Milan a natural desire for stability, even at a creative nonfiction the expense of living in this modern waste land from where “the nymphs are departed” (Eliot, lines 175, 179). The same happens in write about yourself the fourth section of the how to a creative essay The Fessenden School, poem “Death by Water”, in which Madame Sosostris’ cheap prophecy is fulfilled: “Fear death by thinkers School water” (Eliot, line 55).
Here we can find one voice only, which tells us of Phlebas the write a creative nonfiction School, Phoenician, a symbol of the ‘proper’ old times who drowned. According to Davidson, this could be seen as surrendering to change, a symbol of resignation in a state of thinking MacEwan peace that contrasts with the previous section: “The peaceful surrender of the body to the water suggests an acceptance of death and change, a gentle memento mori in opposition to the anxiety about change at the end of ‘The Fire Sermon’” (Davidson 5). On the other hand, whenever we find settings where rocks predominate, we find the most chaotic passages. For example, at School the beginning of the fifth section, “What the Thunder Said”, in which we find dry, apocalyptic voices, which have a desperate, imperious need for water: “If there were water/ And no rock/ If there were rock/ And also water/… But there is essay of Central, no water” (Eliot, lines 346-359). After this obsessively repetitive language and use of alliteration, the reasoned, structured nature of the final stanzas comes as a relief. By changing the style, Eliot also changes how we feel about the life in a creative the waste land. This relief by the shift in style evidently mirrors the physical and mental relief brought by the rain. Both formally and thematically, then, this final section follows a pattern of obsession and resignation. Rocks then represent a chaotic, changing world; the first image that comes to our mind is essay, that of a creative nonfiction The Fessenden School a volcanic eruption.
We face a world of movement which needs and desires the stability water will apparently bring. But it seems that the how to yourself University, ultimate meaning of water in The Waste Land is none other than peaceful resignation because no one seems capable of change. It is interesting how the image that symbolises stability is the same used for death (as shown in Section V and Section IV, respectively). From this perspective we could adopt an entropic reading of the poem: the nonfiction essay, only resource we have to stop chaos is death. Life is essentially chaotic, a cumulus of essay of Central “improper” desires, and the only “proper” one is the a creative nonfiction The Fessenden, desire of dying because it is the only thing that will put an end to worries and the feeling of being lost. At the same time, human beings are always looking for articles magazine Ely a reference in proper, stable things. According to this vision, this kind of how to write The Fessenden School “anchor” we are constantly looking for does not exist. The only solution we have to stop all this nonsense and confusion that surrounds us is death, the only perfect and absolute thing we can manage to attain. Davidson, Harriet. “Improper desire: reading The Waste Land”. The Cambridge Companion to King’s, T. S. Eliot. David Moody ed., Cambridge: C.U.P., 1994.
Eliot, T.S. The Waste Land. The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Volume D, 7th edition, 2007, pp. 1587-1599. Tomlinson, Charles. Write A Creative Essay? T. S. Eliot: Significado y Metamorfosis. Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 2008. Is this the perfect essay for write a essay about yourself University you? Save time and order T.S.
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