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Bank Deposits: A Black Belt Case Study. A Newspaper School. In early 2000, dot-coms were all the rage. Any idea even remotely related to critical thinking Fraser College - NAVITAS, the ability to transact online was immediately funded. Consequently, many decisions were made quickly and without supporting data. And many of how to a newspaper School these decisions were made in for an Brown, error – but could Six Sigma have made a difference? This case study will review how a Black Belt entered a dot-com transactional business, reviewed a process and how to article ks3 Roedean School came to his own conclusions about process performance. The Black Belt began working at online bank, and critical of argument Fraser International - NAVITAS his first project involved the process of how deposits were made to this bank. Write Article Ks3 Roedean School. Since it was an online bank, there were no branches for how write an essay in english International Study, customers to use. Instead, deposits were mailed using the United States Postal Service (USPS). Savings resulting from the lack of branches and tellers were passed along to the customer in the form of higher rates, free services, etc.
Customer focus groups and surveys indicated that the process of making a deposit is of critical importance to a customer. Write Article Ks3 Roedean. The process from the customer#8217;s viewpoint is very straightforward – they sign a check, fill out a deposit slip and mail both to the bank. Articles. Deposits were the second largest driver of a newspaper ks3 Roedean inquiries to the customer call center (13 percent of all calls). Customers expressed frustration in mailing delays and couldn#8217;t understand why their checks took so long to post to their account. The bank#8217;s mission was to receive the deposits as quickly as possible and writing a good essay Haileybury begin the deposit and how to ks3 Roedean check clearing cycle. When the bank originally set up the critical thinkin The Regent’s International Bangkok processes, a decision was made to establish #8216;local#8217; deposit locations around the United States. How To Write Ks3 Roedean School. These local deposit locations received the deposits and overnight express reshipped them to a central processing location daily.
This local receipt and express reshipment to a central location was done for two main reasons: A deposit being mailed to a local location would take less time than mailing to critical The Regent’s School, Bangkok, a centralized, national location. Customer input indicated that mailing within a state or to a neighboring state would make customers more comfortable than mailing to a centralized, national location somewhere across the United States. The Black Belt hit the article ks3 Roedean School ground running on his DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) project. A project charter was created identifying exactly what the writing Charterhouse process entailed. The business case was written, the problem statement crafted and the scope clearly identified. The team was formed and how to article ks3 Roedean School quickly moved into thinking the art of argument Simon College the measurement phase. Data surrounding the deposits was collected and the analyze phase began to ks3 Roedean School, yield some alarming results. Intuition led the leaders of the an introduction essay George Brown College business to set up a system that locally collected deposits for School, express reshipment to a centralized, national location for processing. How could mailing to a centralized, national location be quicker than mailing locally and express reshipping? Why would customers not feel more comfortable mailing locally than to a centralized, national location?
Data collection, however, revealed a few flaws that were not originally identified: The express reshipment process was manual. Manual processes that are not reinforced daily and that do not have adequate control plans tend to break down. That is exactly what occurred with the local deposit locations. Some locations would not receive deposits on writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, a daily basis. When deposits were received, they sometimes would not be express reshipped that night because of a lack of engrained process. For deposits that were received during the week, the express reshipment process functioned properly. On the weekend, however, express reshipment wasn#8217;t possible, so deposits arriving on Saturday were not express reshipped until Monday evening.
Because of USPS processes, some deposit mailings to local deposit locations took as long as three days. Tack on how to write article ks3 Roedean, a weekend stay for the above-listed bullet, and a deposit made via mail to critical Bangkok, a #8220;local#8221; deposit location may take longer than five days just to be received by the bank. An additional analysis of deposits made to a local deposit location with express reshipment to a national location versus mailing directly to a centralized, national location yielded the how to write a newspaper following results: The local process operates at articles on resume writing, a 2.1 sigma level, while the centralized, national process operates at how to ks3 Roedean, a 2.5 sigma. A 2 sample t -test indicated that there is a statistically significant difference between the two process means (p=0.0013). The centralized, national process is faster (2.6 average days) than the local express reshipment process (4.6 average days). An additional survey conducted with focus groups indicated that the deposit mailing location is not a significant factor for a majority of respondents. As an in english International aside, the original data indicating that customers were more comfortable mailing deposits within their state could not be found. A benchmarking analysis of direct competitors indicated that all utilized a centralized, national deposit process.
It did not take further data collection to convince the how to leaders of the business to modify their deposit process and move to a centralized, national process. The facts spoke for themselves. Cost savings resulting from only printing one address envelopes (instead of numerous local), reduced overhead associated with processing, fewer customer inquiry calls and investigations, and a more stable process resulted in savings of $4 million per year. Not bad for a six month Black Belt project. How Write An Essay Holland Center. If You Loved This Article, You Might Also Love. Stop this in-your-face notice Reserve your username Follow people you like, learn from. Extend your profile Gain reputation for your contributions No annoying captchas across site. This was an interesting read to me as I am a BB working in how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean, the banking industry. The dates have been removed from this article but it must have been a few years ago, since if I were working this effort a solution to certainly have considered is the check deposit app where members can just take and critical International - NAVITAS upload a photo of their checks for write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School, deposits, without any mailing.
Amazing how technology can trump even the leanest process. I am a MBB with 15 years experience. No technology ever trumps a lean process. That is of argument International College because technology is just part of a potential solution to create a lean process. School. In fact, the application of technology may actually create a process that creates customer non-value add (waste). I disagree with your reply to Tom. Mobile banking has already begun to of Wollongong, supersede (and will eventually completely) this project.
I think this project was a quick win for this guy, do not disagree with that. But the ability of mobile apps to deposit a check as soon as you have it in hand, that technology replaces the need to how to write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, mail this check in altogether. Wonderful case study. Well written and detailed the critical thinking Simon Fraser College bb project implementation. Proud to read this success story. Thanks for sharing. I, too, was a BB, MBB, QL at one time but am now in an executive leadership role. Although a great framework, this is a classic example of why business leaders grow frustrated with Six Sigma. Taking 6 months to do a project is a tough putt if for no other reason than the how to write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School business changes. My only 2 cents is that Six Sigma project cycle times are far too long oftentimes. I am a MBB with 15 years experience.
Leadership is the writing a good essay reason project cycle times are excessive. Any project can be managed to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean, whatever time frame leadership demands. It is NOT the fault of articles on resume writing Charterhouse 6 Sigma if leadership allows a project leader to take 6 months. Also, keep in mind that BB#8217;s usually has other responsibilities and higher priority projects within an organization. How To Write A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean. Its not uncommon for how do for an George, companies to utilize blackbelts in a different role versus project role. Write A Newspaper Article. Why did we not analyse the call centre data to articles writing Charterhouse, find out which process has more complaints the central or local one? What was the problem statement and how was the MSA done? Am pretty sure after working in ks3 Roedean School, service industry for over a decade that the data on delivery TAT was skewed and not normal. Why did we chose to use a t- test to find the how write an essay Holland International Study Center difference and why we are using averages ? this topic is very interesting where i can understand DMAIC Project and how to a newspaper School process of six sigma. am a fresher in six sigma green belt and i would like to continue to learn about the project and continous procees. How Write In English Holland Study Center. Connect on Twitter.
Find us around the web. Copyright iSixSigma 2000-2017. User Agreement. Any reproduction or other use of content without the express written consent of iSixSigma is how to article School prohibited. The Art Of Argument Fraser University/Fraser International College. More
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Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies. This study seeks to determine the article School, prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in this research and data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from community pharmacies and patent medicine drug distribution outlet and articles on resume writing the level of knowledge of the public health implication of counterfeit drugs will be collected from pharmacist and patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. Write A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean School? The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in conclusion a set up similar to a newspaper and outside the study area to writing Haileybury test for validity and reliability of instrument. Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.
Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. A Newspaper? Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to thinkin The Regent’s International School, Bangkok assess effects of selected variables on how to a newspaper ks3 Roedean the prevalence of counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. Writing Essay Conclusion? Final output of the research will be recommendations on how to write the control of counterfeit drugs. The objectives of this study are to: • assess the prevalence of the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in writing Haileybury Calabar metropolis. • compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. • identify factors influencing the a newspaper article School, distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in writing Calabar metropolis. • determine the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implications of counterfeit drugs. Identification / defining research problem.
The availability of counterfeit drugs in the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in parts of Africa and Asia, the figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernandez, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009). Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School antibiotics and the spread of service of Wollongong in Dubai, disease within a community, as well as loss of life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to get rich overnight. There is ks3 Roedean, low awareness of the problem of counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). A Good Essay? Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and given less concern in the area of how to ks3 Roedean School, research.
Measuring the magnitude of the phenomenon of counterfeit drugs turns out to be extremely complicated, particularly due to various reasons that have to do with the disposable means to detect the critical thinking the art of argument University/Fraser International College, trafficking routes, the number and the identity of those involved in the production and distribution processes, and the difficulty in systematizing and coordinating the information from the a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, various stakeholders in charge of keeping, collecting and analyzing data (Charles, 2010). Available statistics have tried to propose figures on the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the worldwide pharmaceutical market. Their estimations reflect both the writing a good essay conclusion, magnitude and the volatility of the problem: percentages of how to article ks3 Roedean, counterfeit medicines in different national pharmaceutical markets vary from as 1 percent to as high as 50 percent. In general, higher percentages refer to less developed countries and economies in transition whereas lower percentages refer to the developed countries. Therefore, it is essential to you write essay Brown take into write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, account geographical, economic, legal and social criteria in order to interpret these percentages (Newton, et al, 2009).
Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to a combination of enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and a more efficient regulatory control. According to the WHO, developed countries such USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and those within the European Union (EU) have a very low proportion of counterfeit medicines no more than one per cent of market value (WHO, 2012). However, the thinking the art of argument Fraser - NAVITAS, fact that a considerable amount of counterfeit drugs cases are declared on an annual basis by developed countries proves that this problem still affects both developed and how to write article ks3 Roedean School developing countries. Case studies can illuminate what statistics cannot. Nevertheless, the in english Study Center, situation is more dramatic in less developed countries due to fragile economies, widespread poverty, lack of regulation, difficulties in controlling the system, as well as the write a newspaper School, difficulties in thinkin The Regent’s International Bangkok furthering and enforcing strong legislative measures. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the entire amount of medicines worldwide (WHO, 2012). Pfizer estimates that counterfeit Viagra alone causes a loss of how to write a newspaper, 2 billion USD in sales. According to the Centre for Medicine in the Public Interest, based in the United States of America, counterfeit drug sales generated 75 billion USD globally in 2010. However, and according to other estimates, these rates increased to 20 per writing cent as there is a growing problem of drugs that look alike in most market.
The situation seems to be even worse in some African countries. However, there are currently little published work on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and no available research work in the study area. Thus the following questions need to be answered: • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and ks3 Roedean School patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. • What are the factors affecting the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implication of counterfeit drugs. 1. There is no significance differences in the prevalence of articles, counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets in Calabar metropolis. 2. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and years of experience has no effect on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in Calabar metropolis.
According to World Health Organization (2010) defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to identity and write article ks3 Roedean or source which makes it difficult to track the manufacturer of such drugs (WHO, 2011). The counterfeited could include incorrect ingredients, misstated amount of the active ingredients, or lack quality control in the manufacturing of the drug. An Essay In English Holland International Center? According to how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean NAFDAC in writing its definition of Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and drugs that are not registered with the how to write ks3 Roedean, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Looking at the above definition, it can be deducted that counterfeit drugs are drugs that are adulterated, inappropriate, and illegal and poses a threat to human health. The latest attempts at the international level to better specify the definition of thinkin School, Bangkok, counterfeit medicines showed how complex the how to article, problem is in reality. This is what happened for writing essay Haileybury, example when in 2008 the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Task-force (IMPACT) tried to redefine counterfeit medicines. At the end the proposed definition, was not officially endorsed at an international level, lengthily yet precisely explained what counterfeiting was and was not, stressing the differences between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) related issues and public health protection (Charles, 2010). The term counterfeit drugs describe a drug with a false representation of a newspaper School, its identity and how write an essay Holland International Study or source (3) and this is also applicable to the drug container or other packaging or labeling information. Counterfeits may include drugs with correct ingredients or wrong ingredients/components, some without active ingredients, with incorrect amounts of active ingredients, or with fake packaging.
Drugs that are not authorized to be distributed in a given country but authorized elsewhere are not considered counterfeit. In reality the how to article School, fight against counterfeit medicines goes well beyond the mere protection of IPRs and on resume Charterhouse is a struggle aimed at protecting patients and public health while fighting organized criminals profiting from this crime. For this reason, its use was sometimes avoided or well specified in the new regulations proposed at the international level and aimed at protecting public health. The problem of counterfeit drugs is of public health concern due to its associated health risks. The associated health risks include antibiotic resistance, therapeutic failure, toxic effects and even deaths. (Akunyili, 2005). Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and a newspaper article School this may result to negative effect of drug resistance that may affect the essay service University of Wollongong, entire community. Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to the inability to eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and tuberculosis in developing countries. Resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is already common (Meremikwu, 2007). The recent emergence of counterfeits of Artemisinin derivatives (Newton et al, 2006) and antiretroviral drugs (Ahmad, 2004) in some countries of South-East Asia and how to write a newspaper article School Africa is an important development which is potentially disastrous because alternative drugs are either inaccessible or unaffordable. The use of counterfeit drugs can also lead to Therapeutic failure especially drugs containing insufficient or no active ingredient, which can also lead to loss of writing Charterhouse, confidence by the patients on the conventional drugs and public health program if they are aware. A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean? An estimated 700,000 deaths annually are caused by fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the critical The Regent’s Bangkok, total annual mortality due to article the menace will definitely be much higher (Harriset al., 2009).
Various instances where fake drugs resulted in deaths due to thinking the art of argument Simon Fraser College failure to treat life-threatening conditions have been reported in the literature. In 2001 about 192,000 people were reported to have died in China as a result of fake drugs. Also about 2500 people died in Niger following the administration of counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines (containing no active ingredient) to some 60,000 people during the 1995 meningitis epidemic (Cockburn 2005). Research has shown the incidence of Acute renal failure due to poisoning from how to article ks3 Roedean diethylene glycol packaged as a cough syrup which resulted in hundreds of deaths in Haiti, Bangladesh, Nigeria, India and Argentina which are examples of the potentially fatal effects of counterfeit drugs containing a toxic ingredient in in english Holland International Center place of the how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, original active ingredient (WHO, 1995). Also as recent as 2008, deaths in the US have been attributed to the use of writing Charterhouse, adulterated heparin from China (Harris et al., 2009). The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars were lost to how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School drug counterfeiting business in School, 2004 (WHO, 2006). This increased to 40 billion US dollars in 2006 and how to a newspaper ks3 Roedean is projected to on resume writing Charterhouse reach 75 billion US dollars in 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng, 2007). Write Article Ks3 Roedean? Many pharmaceutical companies are deprived of their rightful profits due to the unjust competition from this brutal crime and have even resulted in the collapse of some of the companies (Akunyili, 2005). Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a good a place where the write School, drugs are relatively scarce of the prices are high. According to the WHO, an essay writing University of Wollongong, estimated 2 billion people globally have limited access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is attributed to poverty, high cost of drugs, inadequate health facilities and how to article ks3 Roedean School corruption (Cohen et al., 2007).
Unlike in more developed nations where little or no tariffs are collected from essay pharmaceutical products (Harris et al., 2009), high taxes and tariffs are usually collected from genuine medicines in less developed countries, leading to eventual increase in drug prices, decrease in incentive to adequate supply of drugs and consequent scarcity of the drugs that may be exploited by the counterfeiters (Morris and write ks3 Roedean Stevens, 2006) since, most of the patients in those countries pay for critical thinking of argument Simon International, the drugs from ks3 Roedean School their own pockets. Although, drug counterfeiting is as dangerous and as lucrative as the an introduction College, narcotic business, its penalty tends to be less severe. Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to be involved in School the narcotic trade usually switch to critical Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and write School less risky. There are also some reports of individuals being singly involved in this offense as in articles on resume Charterhouse the case of a US pharmacist convicted of diluting patients’ injections (Reggi, 2007). The business of how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, fake drugs requires little capital and simple equipment hence, it can be easily and successfully carried out by some small scale unrecognized industries (Reggi, 2007). Appropriate penalty for drug counterfeiting could be an effective deterrent.
Unfortunately, the thinkin The Regent’s Bangkok, penalty for manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in many developing countries. For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is usually punished by article ks3 Roedean School, imprisonment for periods ranging between 3 months to articles on resume Charterhouse 5 years or alternatively a fine of 70-3600 US dollars (Akunyili, 2007). Similarly, in South American countries, the penalty for such a crime is just six months in jail or a fine (Bate and Boateng, 2007). Such a weak and incongruous penalty is incapable of making any great impact in preventing this lucrative crime. Unlike developed nations with clear and a newspaper School strongly enforced laws on civil liability against suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm to consumers, most of the poor countries afflicted with the problem of drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced. For example, in the US it is not uncommon for a good conclusion Haileybury, victims of fake drugs to seek compensation in the order of millions of dollars from the culprits of the how to School, crime. On the other hand, although, the how do George Brown, punishment for a newspaper, the supply and australia writing University of Wollongong manufacture of fake drugs in India and China is very severe (death penalty), inadequate and how to write ks3 Roedean School inefficient civil liability laws is a huge roadblock to successful combat of drug counterfeiting in writing a good conclusion the two nations (Harris et al., 2009). Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the victims of the write article ks3 Roedean School, problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and you write essay College China being the biggest culprits globally (Bate and Boateng, 2007). One statistics by a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, the European Commission described India as the source of 75% of fake drugs and according to one report, most of the fake drugs in Nigerian markets originate from India (Raufu, 2003). Drug counterfeiting business may also be encouraged by the different standards set by service, the exporting countries regarding the drugs for public use and those for exports with the standard of the latter being less stringent than the former.
One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in combating the how to article, crime (Reidenberg and Conner, 2001). This factor is particularly important in countries like Nigeria whose indigenous pharmaceutical industries can only cater for thinking of argument Simon - NAVITAS, 40% of the demand of its teeming population (Akunyili, 2007). Despite the effort of NAFDAC in fighting counterfeit drugs in Nigeria, gap still exist in the availability of how to a newspaper ks3 Roedean, published research in the study area. The study will be carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. Australia Writing In Dubai? Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It comprises of three Senatorial districts each of which is a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, made up of in english International Study Center, 5-7 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Calabar is the capital of how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, Cross River State. The state is located in the south-south geo- political zone of the country within the tropical rain forest belt.
The State has an School, Bangkok, annual rainfall of over 3500 millimetres. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the University of write, Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops. In addition, a Cement factory and a Petroleum depot are located at articles the outskirts of the how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, town. The major occupations of the people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. The state shares boundaries with Akwa Ibom,, Abia, Ebonyi and Benue State. Critical Thinking International College - NAVITAS? The state is made up of 1,47,1967 males and 1,421,021 females. How To Write A Newspaper Article? Majority of the population in the urban settings are civil servants while majority of the population living in the rural settlement are farmers. The researcher intends to carry out a cross sectional descriptive study by searching literature, collecting drug samples from selected community pharmacies, patent medicine vendors and drug consumers and interviewing the a good essay conclusion, subjects. How To Article School? The choice of the research design is because of it flexibility and adaptability to change. This design also requires strong focus and concern to create observational skills, capable of getting precise and accurate data and to be competent to interpret different situation effectively.
Quantitative research strategy will be used in the design, collection and The Regent’s International School, analysis of data. Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor’s outlets will be selected using a simple random sampling technique. 10 registered Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor’s outlets each will be selected in both LGAs using the collected list from the how to write a newspaper article School, state ministry of how write Center, health as sampling frame. The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to each Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. You Write An Introduction George College? The first 10 Community pharmacies and a newspaper article patent medicine vendor outlets selected will be included in the research. How Write An Essay In English Study? Medications to be included in this research will be selected based on high therapeutic importance and utilization based on discussion with local pharmacist experts. For the community based sampling for drug consumers, the write a newspaper article School, following multi-stage techniques will be used: Phase I: Simple random sampling technique will be employed to select three wards from each setting (rural and urban) using the you write an introduction for an essay, lottery method.
Numbers will be assigned to each ward, folded and put in a polythene bag and then six persons will blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first six wards selected will be included in the research. Phase II: In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Numbers will assign to each settlement folded and put in how to write article ks3 Roedean a basket. It will then be vigorously mixed. The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into the study (i.e.6 wards x 4 settlements = 24 settlements).
Phase III: In each selected settlement, at the entrance, a pen will be spin and the direction of the mouth of the pen will determined the first household to be selected and thereafter systematic sampling procedure will be employed in articles on resume subsequent selection of eligible households. Four research assistants (2 males and how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean 2 females) who are fluent in the local language and English will be recruited for The Regent’s School,, data collection and will be trained on field exercise and how to handle ethical issues. Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and follow the research protocol for obtaining drug samples based on the recommended sampling techniques. If they are unable to purchase the necessary quantity for a complete sample from one batch or lot, they will note it and another attempt will be made to purchase it from another randomly selected outlet of the same type. The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the respondent using a structured questionnaire.
The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to ensure questions are clear and well understood by the respondents and School data collectors. Data obtained from the study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to access effects of selected variables on institutional delivery services utilization. P- Value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the writing a good Haileybury, data as applicable. S/N TASK/ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED TIME LINE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR TASK. 1. Write A Newspaper? Final research proposal 1 week Research team. 2. Critical Thinking The Art Of Argument Simon University/Fraser? Preliminary visits to area of study 1 week Research team.
3. Clearance and permit from communities and a newspaper article ks3 Roedean local authorities 4 weeks Research team. 4. Recruitment of field staff/community mapping 1 week Research team/ field staff. 5. Training of field assistant 1 week Research team. 6. Pretesting of instruments for collection of data (questionnaire) 4weeks Research team. 7. Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team.
8. Collation and analysis of data 4 weeks Research team. 9. For An George? Report writing and presentation of findings 3 weeks Research team. Total weeks = 20weeks (4 months) This research will provide data on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Urban and rural settings and how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean make recommendations on public health approach to australia University of Wollongong addressing the how to write article School, current challenge. Societal and scientific relevance. The output from this research will serve as evidence to inform the scientific community and relevant government agency on Charterhouse the proportion of counterfeit drugs in the study area, this will help inform policy guidelines and safeguard against counterfeit drugs. This study will also improve public health practice in terms of improving health education and how to ks3 Roedean identify the most at risk population of counterfeit drugs for intervention. The subjects will be briefed on writing the purpose of the study and how to a newspaper article School consent will obtain from them to enroll into the study. Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the study. All the information will be treated and kept secretly with high confidentiality without disclosure of the respondents’ identity.
No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as collected and the same with the literatures collected for the purpose of this study. Furthermore the researcher will avoid using any equipment or technique that will have possible harm or against the interest of the participants. Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to influence the participants to obtain information. The drugs and questionnaire will be anonymous and the researcher will maintain a high level of confidentiality when treating the how do you write for an essay Brown, information collected. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Medicine work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Medicine essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of write article School, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/medicine/counterfeit-drugs-community-pharmacies/ [02-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to an essay Holland International Study Center request removal:
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A history of Tesco: The rise of Britain's biggest supermarket. By Tim Clark , and article Szu Ping Chan. 6:00PM BST 04 Oct 2014. Tesco started life in 1919 when Jack Cohen started selling surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London. How Do For An College? Mr Cohen made a profit of how to ks3 Roedean School ?1 from sales of ?4 on his first day. The Tesco brand first appeared five years later in 1924 when he bought a shipment of tea from a Mr T. E Stockwell.
The initials and letters were combined to form Tes-co and in 1929 Mr Cohen opened the flagship Tesco store in Burnt Oak, North London. The brand continued its rise in the 1930s when Mr Cohen built a headquaters and warehouse in North London, and in 1932 Tesco became a private limited company. In 1947 Tesco Stores (Holdings) Ltd floated on thinkin Bangkok the stock exchange with a share price of 25p. Tesco showed its expansionary zeal early on by buying up rival shops. In the 1950s the retailer bought 70 Williams stores and write 200 Harrow stores, followed by 97 Charles Philips stores and how write an essay in english Holland Study Center the Victor Value chain in the early 1960s. During the 60s supermarkets started to expand rapidly by selling more products in ever larger stores. In 1961 Tesco Leicester entered the Guiness Book of Records as the largest store in Europe and in how to write ks3 Roedean 1968 Tesco opened its first 'superstore' in Crawley, West Sussex. Supermarkets revolutionised the way people shopped and by the 1970s Tesco was building a national store network to cover the whole of the UK, which it continues to expand to this day, while also diversifying into other products. In 1974 Tesco opened its first petrol stations, and an introduction for an essay Brown would become the UK's largest independent petrol retailer. By 1979 total sales topped ?1bn, and by 1982 sales had doubled to more than ?2bn. In 1987 Tesco successfully completed a hostile takeover of supermarket rival Hillards for ?220m.
In the 1990s Tesco continued to tighten its grip on the UK with more store openings and an agressive marketing campaign in how to a newspaper ks3 Roedean an attempt to overtake Sainsbury's as the UK's leading grocer. In 1992 , the company launched is slogan 'every little helps', followed by the Tesco Value range in 1993 . This was followed by the launch of the Tesco Clubcard scheme in 1995 , helping Tesco to overtake rival Sainsbury's as the UK's largest food retailer. Critical International? 1996 saw the how to a newspaper article, retailer introduce its first 24-hour store while it also expanded overseas opening shops in Poland, the critical of argument Simon Fraser International, Czech Republic, and Slovakia. In 1997 Tesco appointed Sir Terry Leahy as chief executive. A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean School? Tesco.com was launched in 2000 and the supermarket continued to writing a good, expand its range of products, which now includes clothes, electricals and personal finance products.
In 2004 Tesco entered the broadband market. In 2006 , the retailer announced ambitious plans to how to a newspaper, open stores in the US under the name 'Fresh and Easy' and funded by existing resources. An Introduction Essay? Tesco now operates in 13 countries. Today it reported that group sales were ?51.8bn in the year to February 23 2008 . How To Ks3 Roedean? Pre-tax profit rose to ?2.8bn. In 2008 the an essay Holland International Study Center, retail giant took its conquest of the how to article ks3 Roedean, UK one step further by buying up some rival Somerfield stores on remote islands in Scotland, giving Tesco a presence in every single postcode area in a good essay Haileybury the country. As it stands there is only one postcode in the UK - in Harrogate in North Yorkshire - which does not have a Tesco. In 2009 Tesco Bank was launched as a joint venture with Royal Bank of Scotland. In 2010 the supermarket opens its first zero-carbon supermarket in Ramsey, Cambridgeshire. 2013 saw Tesco report its first drop in profits for 20 years. The decline would continue. How To Ks3 Roedean School? 2014 has been a tumultuous one for Britain's biggest supermarket: Tesco reports its worst performance for 20 years on June 4 , with a 3.7pc decline in like-for like sales in the first quarter.
On July 10 , Tesco unveils Alan Stewart as its new chief financial officer. Mr Stewart is to join from Marks Spencer. Tesco shocks the market on September 22 with an admission that it has overstated its half-year profit forecast by ?250m . Critical? Tesco launches investigation and suspends UK chief executive Chris Bush, UK finance director Carl Rogberg, UK food commercial director John Scouler, and food sourcing director Matt Simister. In 2001 a blackmailer failed in an attempt to extort ?5m from Tesco through a parcel bomb campaign and a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School was jailed for 16 years. Writing Essay Haileybury? In 2008 Phillip McHugh, a former tax inspector, was jailed after threatening to bomb Tesco stores unless they gave him ?1m. Mr McHugh sent 76 letters to the company threatening to how to article ks3 Roedean School, blow up shops and articles on resume poison customers by contaminating food, promising that blood will flow unless they gave into his demands.
Jim Slater: 50 years on, my formula still works. A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean? Revealed: The world's cheapest stock markets. The biggest companies in the world in 2015. The Fortune Global 500 has been released the annual ranking of the largest companies in the world by revenues. Here is a list of the 20 biggest corporate money-makers. An Essay In English? The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business? These are the you write an introduction essay George Brown, most valuable start-ups in the world. In pics: Some fledgling firms have reached valuations in how to article School the tens of billions.
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Revealed: The 20 best countries in the world to do business. Forbes's annual index assess countries by a range of factors from taxes and technology to red tape and a newspaper School innovation. These are the top 20 countries for doing business. You Write George College? What are the super-rich planning for Valentine's Day? From a rare pair of Gucci shoes, to spending £110,000 releasing an album, Britain's wealthiest are pulling out all the stops. First rate rise in a newspaper ks3 Roedean 'August 2019' - latest market prediction. The Art Of Argument Simon Fraser International - NAVITAS? Briefing: Predictions saw a huge shift this week. We explain why - and what it means for mortgages and savings.
The world's 10 most expensive cities 2015. New data: Discover the priciest cities around the globe for luxury property. Tables: The cheapest places to buy an ks3 Roedean, Isa. Our colour-coded tables show at a glance which investment shop will be cheapest for critical thinkin The Regent’s you. Article Ks3 Roedean School? Financial detox: tips for saving on shopping. Essay Writing Service University Of Wollongong In Dubai? How to save money on your house and bills. Louis Saha: 'A British bank lost me a six-figure sum. I’m suing’ Five ways Brexit could impact your investments. A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean? More from the web. More from The Telegraph. More from The Telegraph.
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Electronic Road Pricing for traffic congestion Essay. One of the most problems today is the traffic congestion that we experience in the large city. Write School? We feel that it is a headache during our journey and it gave us a lot of negative effects. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and critical University/Fraser - NAVITAS increased vehicular queuing. How To Article School? The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. Australia Essay Writing University Of Wollongong? As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage.
If you live in a large city or any area where there are lots of commuters on the road, then you are probably familiar with the how to article ks3 Roedean School effects of traffic congestion. What you may not realize is the extent of the effects heavy traffic congestion can have. This gridlock can have a tremendous impact on your personal life, career, your future and you write an introduction essay College even your safety. Finding a solution to traffic congestion could mean a vast improvement in the quality of life in your area. One example of a large city is the city of Manila, this city listed in how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean the journal as the 75th most densely population urban center with 14,400 people per square kilometer in the art Fraser University/Fraser College a total land area of 1,437 square kilometers. If the population increase also the write article ks3 Roedean number of cars increases. The city is notorious for its traffic mess, especially since traffic laws are all but ignored, and a clean driving record is a bribe away. Getting stuck on articles on resume Charterhouse, Manila’s roads is one very unpleasant experience. During rush hour, traffic in write a newspaper article the main thoroughfares in Manila slows to a crawl, and an accident can cause gridlock for an introduction essay George hours.
Because of this traffic the write article ks3 Roedean drivers, commuters and other people that is belong to the traffic experiencing a negative effect and there are the following: Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects: Wasting time of writing essay conclusion motorists and passengers (“opportunity cost”). As a non-productive activity for most people, congestion reduces regional economic health. Delays, which may result in late arrival for employment, meetings, and education, resulting in lost business, disciplinary action or other personal losses. Wasted fuel increasing air pollution and how to write a newspaper article carbon dioxide emissions owing to increased idling, acceleration and braking. Wear and conclusion tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements. How To Article? Emergencies: blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to you write an introduction essay Brown their destinations where they are urgently needed. Manual paying of a newspaper toll is also a cause of traffic and wasting time for the motorist and passengers. . The following is the negative effect of manual paying of roads toll.
1. Wasting time for the motorist. It is wasting time because the motorist stops to pay their toll manually at the toll booth. 2. Cause of an essay Holland International Study traffic. Sometimes the how to article School number of vehicles increases that’s why it will be the cause of traffic. 3. Errors because of the toll collector. The collector experiences some error in accepting the toll from the motorists. One good example is when they paid with the big amount of money then the collectors do not have enough money to change it. Because of the traffic, motorist and passengers suffer their times and the air is critical thinkin Bangkok polluted, the solution now is here, it can help to how to ks3 Roedean minimize traffic.
Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) is an electronic system of road pricing. It uses a dedicated short-range radio communication system to deduct ERP charges from smart-cards inserted in the in-vehicle units of vehicles each time they pass a pricing point when the system is in operation. The pay-when-you-use principle helps make motorist more aware of the true cost of driving. This way, road usage can be optimized. The ERP system has three major groups of writing service University of Wollongong in Dubai components. The first centered on how to article ks3 Roedean School, the IU and the stored-value smart-card. While the IU was produced specifically for the ERP system, the how write in english Holland smart-cards were marketed by article School, a consortium of local banks for multiple uses. Different IUs were produced for critical of argument Simon College different classes of vehicles, with each type distinguished by different colors. The second group of components comprises those installed at write a newspaper ks3 Roedean, the on-site ERP gantries.
These include the antennae, the vehicle detectors and the enforcement camera system. All these are linked to a controller at each of the site. Data collected is transmitted back to the Control Centre continuously through leased telephone lines. The third group of components is at the Control Centre, and an essay Holland International Study includes various servers, monitoring systems as well as a master-clock to ensure that the timing at how to a newspaper ks3 Roedean, all the articles writing Charterhouse ERP gantries is synchronized. All the financial transactions are processed here, before being sent to write ks3 Roedean School the banks for settlement. In addition, violation images are processed at the Control Centre, and letters are printed and sent out from here to all the offenders. What are the purposes of Electronic Road Pricing?
Aim is to charge vehicles for the use of the road at times and at places of congestion For congestion management. Not for raising revenue. Every entry or pass under a control point is automatically charged a fee The implementation of electronic road pricing system will be one of the solutions to motorist who had to deal with the how do you write for an Brown inconvenience of slowing down vehicle and article winding down windows when paying tolls. It is so convenient and australia essay University in Dubai efficient motorist is not required to slowdown when the write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School passing the ERP gantries. The Electronic road pricing system to be installed for the congested area can reduce the traffic and critical thinking the art Fraser University/Fraser College thus easing overall traffic congestion. Write Article Ks3 Roedean School? Replacing the essay Haileybury existing toll collection system to more advance technology, the ERP system, is another way to advancement of how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School a country. How Write Holland International Study? What is Electronic road pricing? Electronic road pricing system (ERP) is simply an electronic system of how to a newspaper article School road pricing. It is designed to automate our current road pricing system with no more paper coupons or enforcement officer at gantries. Essay? The system is a dedicated short – range radio communication system.
The ERP consist of four main components: 1. The In – Vehicle Unit (IU) 2. The Cash card. 3. ERP gantries or control points. 4 .The central computer system. The IU is an electronic device installed in the vehicle that communicates with the gantry point equipment and write a newspaper School accepts a cash card for payment of ERP charges. Critical Thinking The Art Fraser International - NAVITAS? Each unique number is how to a newspaper article School tied to critical thinking Simon Fraser - NAVITAS the registration number of the vehicle to which it is attached.
The cash card is a stored value of how to article ERP payment. It is called the smart card is reusable and can topped up. It is easy and writing University of Wollongong in Dubai convenient to use. The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at all roads. They are also located along the expressways and arterial roads with heavy traffic to discourage usage during peak hours. How To A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean? The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on a good conclusion, 2 gantries, one in front of the other. Cameras are also attached to the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles.
There are different IUs for different classes of vehicles i.e. for cars, taxis, light good vehicles, heavy good vehicles, buses, motorcycles and exempted vehicles such as fire engines, ambulances and police cars. This is essential because the ERP charges are different for classes. The IUs are color coded so that illegal switching of IUs between different classes of vehicles will e discourage. How To A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean? Data is transferred from the on resume writing local controller to central computer. The central computer system is the control room monitors the traffic network and equipment. Write? There it records all ERP transactions, faults in the equipment and australia writing in Dubai digital image of violating vehicles. The functional requirements of electronic road pricing system are: 1. It should be multi – lane system with no booths. 2. A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean School? There would be no manual payment. 3. There would be no need to slowdown at ERP gantry points. 4. There is a possibility that more than one vehicle passing simultaneously under the entry point.
5. Vehicle could travel at speed of more than limited speed. The ERP system is designed to thinkin be simple and easy to understand. The IU is capable of doing self – diagnostics on itself and on the cash card when the card is first inserted. There are a number of icons that appear on the LCD display to show errors. When the cash card balance is low, there will be a low balance indicator icon on the LCD display. Furthermore, when the IU with a low cash card goes under an ERP point, there would be continuous long beep to how to write School remind the driver to top up his card before the next journey. Violations of the ERP system. A massive campaign needs to be implemented prior to the implementation of ERP to teach motorists how to use the thinking Simon Fraser University/Fraser system and avoid violations. There are three types of violations; 1. There is mainly no IU. 3. Insufficient balance in the cash card. To ensure the how to article ks3 Roedean School system can run smoothly and efficiently, service and information must be provided to the public in the beginning.
In addition to the ERP hotlines, brochures, exhibitions, radio and television talk show. Strong marketing campaign is essential to explain the benefits and costs, the financial, efficiency equity effects of ERP. Achievement of ERP. The ERP rates are to be such that there is neither congestion nor underutilization of the roads. Hence, we are aiming to operate the roads within arrange of speeds at the upper end of the thinkin International School, Bangkok traffic level of services. In addition, ERP would be an effective mean to mange future congestion and maintain average road speed during peak hours by diverting private vehicles trips to public transportation or non – peak travel time under various pricing and traffic growth scenarios.
Main Objective of how to write ks3 Roedean School ERP. Toll is collected before entering the zone. Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS? Charges will be levied on a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, a per–pass basis and can vary according to articles on resume time and congestion levels. With ERP, motorists will be aware of the true cost of driving. With this system of charging, a motorist will be encouraged to choose whether to drive, when and where to drive. He may choose a different route, destination, time of travel or decide to use public transport.
By doing this, it will reduced traffic congestions. Benefits of ERP. The transport operation benefits relate to reduced vehicular traffic, particularly during congested periods, reduced travel times, and increased public transport use and higher car and taxi occupancy. The environmental benefits involve reduced vehicle emissions and reduced exposure to traffic noise inside the charging zone. How To A Newspaper School? However, the environmental conditions of other areas may witness some deterioration due to the overall redistribution of traffic. ERP therefore can assist in the overall improvement to the environment, but is not the sole solution to the complex issue of air quality and noise abatement.
If ERP is to be used to meet environmental objectives, further studies will need to be conducted to define the parameters, benchmarks and related implementation details. How does ERP works? 1. When the motorist inserts a cash card into you write essay George Brown College, the IU, it checks the health of the IU and cash card. If everything is in order, there will be a short beeping sound and the cash balance of the cash card will be shown on the backlit LCD display of the IU for few seconds. A green light emitting diode (LED) will light up on the IU and remain lit until the cash card is how to a newspaper School removed. If the system is not working when the cash card is inserted into the IU. An “err” message appears on the IU display with a long beeping sound and a red LED lights up on the IU. In such cases, one or more of the small icons may also be shown on an essay Holland, the display; to indicate the type of e.g. Cash card error, and low Cash card balance. Another indication of faulty system is a blank display.
2. At the ERP control point, the first gantry recognizes the presence of an IU and its class and instructs it to debit the cash card with appropriate amount. This amount is determined from table of prevailing charges for the various classes of vehicle loaded into how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School, the outstation by the central computer. Between the first and second from gantries, the IU debits this amount from the International Center cash card. Write A Newspaper School? If the debiting is successful, the second gantry queries the IU and then gets such confirmation. The driver hears a short beat and sees the new cash card balance on the IU display. 3. If the IU is unable to deduct because of an error in critical thinkin The Regent’s the system or there is no cash card (or n invalid card) or insufficient balance in the cash card to meet the amount, the driver hears a long beep sees a red LED on the IU and “err” appears on the IU display with an error, the driver may also hear the long beep and see a blank display on the IU. 4. Meanwhile, the vehicle presents detector detects the passage of a vehicle. The antenna at the gantries, the vehicle presents detector and a newspaper article ks3 Roedean the IU together with the in english Holland Study logic in the local controller decide whether a complete successful transaction has been made. 5. If not, there has been a violation or an a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, error. The cameras are instructed to take a photograph of the on resume Charterhouse rear license plate of the offending vehicle. 6. Violations are committed by vehicles that have no IU, no cash card or an insufficient balance in the cash card to meet the cost of the passing under the ERP gantry.
Errors occur when there is a faulty IU, no power to the IU from the vehicle battery, faulty cash card and article ks3 Roedean partial communications between the IU and the antenna. 7. When a photograph is taken, attaches information on how write International, why it was taken so that technical errors and violations are differentiated. Errors do not result in prosecution of the how to write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School motorist. 8. The information from the outstation on successful transaction, violation and error records and the photograph are sent periodically by telephone lines to the control center. Another control center monitors the state of all outstation equipment. Publication of Electronic Road Pricing. Implementation of ERP will not be possible without a general public consensus on the objectives and principles of the proposal.
There will likely be public resistance to ERP arising from suspicion about the government’s motive, the reluctance to accept new initiatives and road users’ resentment about the imposition of new charges. A well-planned and executed public consultation programmed to demonstrate how ERP works and to thinking Fraser University/Fraser International College allow public input into the development of system objectives can promote awareness of the ERP system as a measure to relieve traffic congestion and develop understanding in the community for how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School its possible introduction. It is recommended that a public consultation programmed be initiated to increase public understanding of the traffic congestion problem and to encourage public discussion of possible use of restraint measures and writing alternative solutions including ERP. The public should be consulted specifically on the acceptable traffic speeds. IU Fitting Program. There were two major program launched prior to the start of the ERP. The first was the write ks3 Roedean installation of IUs on the 680,000 eligible vehicles while the second was on publicity, to get motorists and motorcyclists aware and ready for the ERP system. The IU fitting program took 10 months, starting from September 1997. How Do An Introduction George Brown? The 680,000 vehicles that were potential users of the ERP system were grouped into batches, and owners of each batch were invited to write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School have IUs fitted at one of the 200 authorized IU fitting centers. This was spread out over the 10-month period, so that there will be no last-minute rush to fit IUs.
To encourage vehicle owners to keep to the schedule, the IUs were given away at no cost to them if they had their IU fitted during the allocated time period. Otherwise, a charge of S$150 was payable. The fitting of IUs onto vehicles was not compulsory – it was left very much to the individual to decide. Nevertheless, at the end of the IU fitting program, about 98% of the registered vehicles were fitted with IUs. Publicity was another important aspect and this started even before the start of the IU fitting program and was in place for more than a year, all the way up to and beyond the launch date of the ERP system.
All vehicle owners were sent brochures, detailing the ERP system, how it works and the differences between that and the then working ALS/RPS. Advertisements were also placed in the print media as well as on critical International School,, television to drum up awareness of the new road pricing system. An important awareness and confidence building program was the test phase – all the ERP gantries were switched on and working. The only differences were that the message on the ERP gantries read “On Test” instead of “In Operation”, and that the ERP charge was set to zero. This allowed motorists to test their IUs and to experience the ERP charging process. One of the differences between the ERP and how to write article School the then ALS/RPS pointed out in the publicity program was that, unlike the latter, the ERP system imposes a charge each time a vehicles passes through the control point. In the ALS/RPS schemes, the fee payable was a daily charge that allowed the vehicle to make unlimited number of you write essay Brown College passing for that day. Conclusion. (Electronic) Toll Collection may become an increasing important instrument within the big bundle of how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School measures for regional demand and traffic management. The ERP system provides a targeted solution for congestion pricing by allowing the authorities to pin-point specific congested spots and vary the congestion charge according to prevailing traffic conditions. Therefore, the charges can either increase or decrease according to the demand of thinking the art Simon Fraser University/Fraser usage of the ks3 Roedean priced-road or expressway, which is reviewed quarterly.
By pricing congested stretches, ERP system helps to moderate and spread out vehicle usage for optimal usage of the thinking of argument Simon International road network by encouraging motorists to consider alternatives. These would include using other routes to how to write a newspaper article School arrive at their destinations, travelling during the off-peak periods, switching to public transport or car-pooling. You Write An Introduction For An College? The ERP system has been effective in managing traffic congestion and resulted in how to write article traffic speeds remaining within the optimal speed range. In English Holland International Study? However, the ERP system cannot operate in silo and has to work in tandem with vehicle ownership control measures, increasing and optimizing road capacity, as well as encouraging motorists to shift to public transport to maintain a smooth-flowing road network. Write A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean? As congestion becomes increasingly pervasive, it would not be practical to continue erecting physical gantries to how do you write an introduction essay George College address the congestion problem. In addition, the ERP charges imposed at a newspaper School, discrete gantry points also lead to writing conclusion undesirable consequences e.g. congestion spills over to nearby minor roads in a newspaper ks3 Roedean School residential areas, thus leading to localized congestion.
This would be a more equitable and economically efficient system than the current point charging system where motorists are charged based on the number of gantries they drive through rather than distance travelled on a congested road. Furthermore, motorists who join a congested road after the gantry points are not charged even though they also contribute to the congestion of the road. It can help to minimize traffic, this is the way to help motorist to critical avoid wasting time. They can arrive on time on their business and how to a newspaper article School the other things. It can also help to reduce air pollution to avoid the negative effects of the art Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS human health and also in our environment. Electronic Road Pricing. University/College: University of California.
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