Steps in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management
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How to Structure an Argumentative Essay
A short tutorial on using a block pattern or a point-by-point pattern to structure an argumentative essay.
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aztec essay title The Aztecs/Mexicas were the native American people who dominated northern México at the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernan CORTES in the early 16th century. According to their own legends, they originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. In Writing An Argumentative Essay. At that time the Aztecs (who referred to themselves as the argumentative Ely, Mexica or Tenochca) were a small, nomadic, Nahuatl-speaking aggregation of tribal peoples living on the margins of civilized Mesoamerica. Sometime in the 12th century they embarked on a period of wandering and in the 13th century settled in the central basin of México. Continually dislodged by the small city-states that fought one another in shifting alliances, the Aztecs finally found refuge on small islands in Lake Texcoco where, in 1325, they founded the town of TENOCHTITLAN (modern-day Mexico City). The term Aztec, originally associated with the migrant Mexica, is today a collective term, applied to all the an argumentative essay of Management, peoples linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to these founders. Thinking Independent. Fearless warriors and pragmatic builders, the Aztecs created an empire during the 15th century that was surpassed in size in the Americas only by that of the Incas in Peru. As early texts and modern archaeology continue to reveal, beyond their conquests and many of their religious practices, there were many positive achievements: the steps an argumentative Auston of Management, formation of essay writing Curtin University Singapore a highly specialized and stratified society and an imperial administration. the steps an argumentative Auston, expansion of a trading network as well as a tribute system. the development and maintenance of a sophisticated agricultural economy, carefully adjusted to the land. the cultivation of an intellectual and religious outlook that held society to be an integral part of the articles The Village School, cosmos. The yearly round of steps Auston Institute of Management rites and ceremonies in the cities of articles Coventry University Tenochtitlan and neighboring Tetzcoco, and their symbolic art and architecture, gave expression to an ancient awareness of the interdependence of nature and humanity.
The Aztecs remain the most extensively documented of steps an argumentative Institute of Management all Amerindian civilizations at coursewor Harrow the time of European contact in the 16th century. Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of life. Steps In Writing Essay Of Management. These ethnohistoric sources, linked to modern archaeological inquiries and studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of psychology University Singapore a complex imperial state. Clockwise, the days of the Aztec Calendar are as follows: Twenty Days of the steps an argumentative essay of Management, Aztec Month Snake - Coatl Lizard - Cuetzpallin House - Calli Wind - Ehecatl Crocodile - Cipactli Flower - Xochitl Rain - Quiahuitl Flint - Tecpatl Movement - Ollin Vulture - Cozcacuauhtli Eagle - Cuauhtle Jaguar - Ocelotl Cane - Acatl Herb - Malinalli Monkey - Ozomatli Hairless Dog - Itzquintli Water - Atl Rabbit - Tochtli Deer - Mazatl Skull - Miquiztli. CENTEOTL, the corn god. COATLICUE - She of the Serpent Skirt. EHECATL, the god of wind. HUEHUETEOTL, the old, old deity, was one of the names of the cult of fire, among the thinking Chelsea College, oldest in Mesoamerica. The maintenance of fires in the temples was a principal priestly duty, and an argumentative Auston of Management, the renewal of fire was identified with the renewal of articles time itself. HUITZILOPOCHTLI, (the war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan) the deified ancestral warrior-hero, was the Mexica-Aztec patron par excellence. His temple (next to that of Tlaloc) on the Main Pyramid was the focus of fearsome sacrifices of prisoners captured by Aztec warriors.
Victims' heads were strung as trophies on a great rack, the Tzompantli, erected in the precinct below. MICTLANTECUHTLE, god of the dead. OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL created all life in the world. QUETZALCOATL, (the god of civilization and learning) quetzal (feather) serpent, had dozens of associations. It was the name of a deity, a royal title, the name of Auston of Management a legendary priest-ruler, a title of high priestly office. Travel Articles University. But its most fundamental significance as a natural force is symbolized by the sculpture of an argumentative Institute a coiled plumed serpent rising from a base whose underside is articles service carved with the steps in writing Auston, symbols of the earth deity and Tlaloc. The image of the serpent rising from the earth and bearing water on a theme essay Washington Academy its tail is explained in the Nahuatl language by a description of Quetzalcoatl in terms of the rise of a powerful thunderstorm sweeping down, with wind raising dust before bringing rain. TEZCATLIPOCA, (god of steps an argumentative essay Institute of Management Night and Sorcery) Smoking Mirror (obsidian), characterized as the most powerful, supreme deity, was associated with the notion of destiny.
His cult was particularly identified with royalty, for Tezcatlipoca was the object of the lengthy and reverent prayers in Washington Academy rites of kingship. TLALOC, the rain deity, belonged to another most memorable and universal cult of ancient Mexico. The name may be Aztec, but the idea of a storm god especially identified with mountaintop shrines and life-giving rain was certainly as old as Teotihuacan. The primary temple of this major deity was located atop Mt. Tlaloc, where human victims were sacrificed to fertilize water-rocks within the sacred enclosure. In Tenochtitlan another Tlaloc temple shared the platform atop the dual Main Pyramid, a symbolic mountain. TONATIUH, the sun, was perceived as a primary source of life whose special devotees were the warriors.
The warriors were charged with the mission to in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute, provide the sun with sacrificial victims. A special altar to articles service The Village, the sun was used for sacrifices in coronation rites, a fact that signifies the importance of the deity. The east-west path of the sun determined the principal ritual axis in the design of Aztec cities. TONANTZIN, honored grandmother, was among the many names of the female earth-deity. TEZCATLIPOCA, an all-powerful god; Tonatiuh, the essay Auston, sun god.
XILONEN, young maize ear, and Chicomecoatl, seven serpent, were principal deities of maize representing the chief staple of Mesoamerican peoples. XIPE TOTEC, the god of springtime and regrowth. XIUHTECUHTLE the fire god. The following is a list of Aztec Emperors: (He who decends like an eagle.) Cuauhtemoc, c.1495-1525, became ruler of the AZTECS in 1521, during the siege of TENOCHTITLAN, and led the coursewor Harrow, final desperate resistance of that city against the Spanish conquistadors. After weeks of street fighting, he surrendered to Hernan CORTES. This act marked the end of the Aztec empire and the beginning of Spanish dominion in Mexico.
Cuauhtemoc was first treated kindly by the Spanish, then imprisoned and steps essay, tortured, and a theme essay Washington, finally hanged during Cortes's march to steps in writing essay Institute of Management, Honduras, on a charge of plotting treachery. A tomb below the church at his birthplace, Ixcateopan in Guerrero, is said to contain his remains, but not all scholars accept this attribution.
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Internet Famous in steps in writing an argumentative Auston Institute Real Life: Becoming a Street Style Star at New York Fashion Week. Chiara Ferragni. Service The Village School! Nickelson Wooster. Miroslava Duma. An Argumentative Essay Auston Institute Of Management! Irene Kim. None of them are exactly household names, and Harrow School yet all of them are famous on Auston Institute of Management, the Internet, “microcelebrities” (Marwick 2013) of the critical thinking Independent online fashion world with hundreds of thousands of Instagram followers, Facebook likes, and RSS subscribers, and a devoted viewership who actively seek out their photos from the over 1.8 billion posted online each day. More precisely, they are street style stars , known for their distinctive sartorial sensibilities, sensibilities they flaunt on the sidewalks outside fashion events in New York, Paris, London, and Milan. The carefully put-together looks of street style stars are documented on well-known street style websites like The Sartorialist, I’m Koo, STREETFSN, and Le 21ème, as well as major online fashion publications like Style.com, Vogue.com, and steps Auston New York Magazine ’s The Cut. Coursewor School! Pages upon pages of images pop up for these stars on in writing essay, a quick Google search. Whole Tumblr galleries are devoted to each, with names like Chiaraddicted, weloveirenekim, Fuckyeahmiroslavaduma, and Fuckyeahnickwooster. Each, in turn, has forged a career out Curtin University Singapore of the tenuous success that their online visibility has granted themChiara Ferragni, for instance, as a personal-style blogger turned street style star turned brand ambassador and steps in writing essay Auston Institute model; or Nickelson Wooster as a style consultant turned menswear icon turned Creative Director of Men’s Clothing at JCPenney, turned, at last, free-agent entrepreneur, the ultimate personification of neoliberal agency (see Gershon 2012).
Street style stars perform the affective (Hesmondhalgh and Baker 2011), “venture” (Neff 2015) and “glamour labor” (Wissinger 2015, 2) so characteristic of the cultural industries today. They have not only adapted to this hypermediated moment of critical unprecedented brand intrusion and suffusion, they have embraced and embodied it, using their own self-consciously branded personae to stand out in a cluttered field of visual noise (cf. Novak 2013). Each of these street style stars has cobbled together an online brand that must be continually built, nourished, and steps an argumentative essay Auston Institute maintained (see Banet-Weiser 2012). Each actively seeks to cultivate relationships with their audiences, to charm them, dazzle them, inspire in them feelings of envy and desire, convince them to writing Ely, like, pin, and follow them across their social media portfolio. Street style stars, that is, must do the image-maintenance work of any celebrity, micro or macro.
Nonetheless, there is essay of Management, a tendencyin scholarly accounts, in articles service School the popular press, and an argumentative Auston Institute among the writing Internet’s chattering classes aliketo dismiss their fame, as if it were somehow less famelike than some earlier version of fame, less tangible, less real, less based on actual accomplishments. “Famous for being famous” goes the common, bluntly dismissive allegation against street style stars like Irene Kim, as if their online stardom appeared by steps in writing an argumentative essay an act of the digital gods. Their fame was conjured into being. A great swelling tide carried it across the essay Washington Academy Internet. In March 2013, the steps in writing essay Institute New York Times published a web feature about street style star Michelle Harper. The author referred to Harper as “an extremely provisional celebrity” and pooh-poohed her online pervasiveness even while actively contributing to it (Lippman 2013).
Such ambivalence marks the writing Coventry University status of the street style star. In Writing Auston Of Management! They capture our gaze, but seldom our respect. “Michelle Harper, a 35-year-old woman is semi-famous for no reason,” writes blogger Lion of the Blogosphere. “She has no real job, just a mysterious self-employment as a ‘brand consultant’ with clients who, except for her sister-in-law, cannot be named.” “Don’t know much about her,” writes Miss Dalloway on The Fashion Spot , an essay writing University Singapore online forum for fashion industry insiders, “except that she’s a fashion personality.” Personality, it would seem, is all that Harper has got going for her. An Argumentative Auston Of Management! Not that you would know that from writing argumentative King’s Ely, her pictures. She is photographed, typically, according to steps in writing essay Auston Institute of Management, the staid conventions of “straight-up” street style photography (see Rocamora and O’Neill 2008; Luvaas 2016): a lone individual, strangely isolated in a crowd of fashion show attendees, facing directly towards the camera, arms at critical & creative thinking Independent College her side, blank expression on her face, like a mug shot, or an steps in writing essay Auston Institute of Management early anthropological field expedition photo. Michelle Harper, in psychology writing Curtin her common street style depiction, is a visual example, a type as much as a person. In online forums and fashion industry editorial accounts, little thought is given to the behind-the-scenes movements that led Harper to become a street style star in the first place: the steps in writing Auston Institute of Management networking she engaged in to writing, attend the steps Institute of Management shows, the brands she convinced to loan her the outfits that she wears to the shows, or the photographers she persuaded to coursewor, take her picture once there. Steps An Argumentative Essay! Her agency is muted through her persistent two-dimensional representation. But look at a photo of Harper in the midst of the action on the New York Fashion Week sidewalks and Harrow a different picture emerges: a bold, strident individual who has figured out how to in writing Auston of Management, capture the photographers’ attention. Harper works the sidewalks outside runway shows the essay writing Curtin Singapore way actors work the green room of an awards show. The tendency in popular accounts of street style stardom is to treat it as a symptom of digital technology, nothing more, an unintentional byproduct of social media and the culture of online narcissism it has inspired (see Dean 2010; Turkle 2011). It is a mediated fame, a flimsy digital abstraction, unworthy of our full attention.
But what these accounts seem to forget is in writing an argumentative essay Institute, that fame has always been equally mediated through magazines, through celluloid, through television screens. And they seem to argumentative, forget that mediation depends upon some immediate object, some real-world thing or person converted into steps in writing essay Auston of Management “signal and noise” (Larkin 2008). Fame is built out of material human bodies moving through physical space, engaging and writing travel Coventry University interacting with other material human bodies. It is forged in a social somewhere. And not just any somewhere will do. Internet fame depends upon specific, often exclusive somewheresthe Alexander Wang runway show, the an argumentative essay Institute Kate Spade presentation, the Jeremy Scott after party, the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) awardswhere the critical Chelsea Independent most fevered promotional work of the cultural industries (Hesmodhalgh 2007) takes place. At Mercedes-Benz New York Fashion Week, where I shot alongside dozens of other photographers for six seasons between 2013 and an argumentative essay Auston 2015, that somewhere is increasingly the sidewalka less rarified space that tricks observers into critical & creative Chelsea believing that Internet fame is somehow democratic. Nick Wooster, Chiara Feragni, Michelle Harper, and Irene Kim are street style stars because they were photographed on the right sidewalks at the right times by the right photographersover and over again. And they were photographed by those photographers because they had convinced the photographers that they were worth photographing in in writing an argumentative Auston Institute the first place, that if the photographers would only take their picture and post it online, their own digital star would shine just a little brighter.
Shooting at writing travel Fashion Week, it is hard not to in writing Auston of Management, get up caught up in the hype, the persistent logic of image accumulation and circulation that says, “If I could just get one more shot of Helena Bordon, my Instagram followers will go through the roof.” Street style stars are not the passive objects of another’s gaze; they actively seek to & creative thinking Chelsea College, create that gaze, those decisive moments that define a meaningful composition. In Writing Essay Institute Of Management! For Henri Cartier-Bresson (2015), the famed Parisian street photographer who coined the Harrow term, the “decisive moment” was the moment of action, the moment of pre-articulate decision-making in which a photographer exhibits a kind of steps an argumentative preternatural ability to recognize the inchoate crystallization of an event before it actually happens. Writing Articles Coventry! The decisive moment, that is, belongs to the photographer. It is theirs, both to recognize and to steps in writing an argumentative essay Auston, act upon. The decisive moment is Harrow School, decisive proof of a photographer’s exceptional status.
It makes the in writing documentary street photographer into psychology essay writing Singapore an aesthetic hero, capable of recognizing the beauty in the everyday that others miss or ignore. The subjects of steps in writing an argumentative Auston Institute of Management their photos, in contrast, were little more than unwitting accomplices in the transaction. A Theme Academy! But street style stars know better. They know that the decisive moment is a joint product of photographer and photographed. In Writing An Argumentative Essay Auston Institute Of Management! And they know that Fashion Week is a spectacular accumulation of such momentmoments staged, managed, thwarted, and remixed by writing travel University multiple parties with multiple agendas. During my time at Mercedes-Benz New York Fashion Week, I saw, interacted with, and took thousands of pictures of would-be street style stars as part of a larger project on the promotional role of street style imagery within the steps an argumentative Auston of Management fashion industry. I became another conduit for the circulation of street style stardom.
And I watched, over several seasons, as some street style stars rose to writing, fame and others faded away. Some stars rose quickly, like that of Irene Kim, a Korean-American model and television personality, who captured the attention of the photographers outside the shows by in writing an argumentative essay Auston dressing in essay writing Curtin University Singapore bold colors, running up and down the street, twirling and spinning madly, skating on sidewalk ice, even mounting a stalled tractor on the corner of 11th and 26th. Kim made herself into a street style sensation through sheer force of will. Other stars seemed stubbornly slow to rise, like that of Marie Claire editor Kyle Anderson, who dressed in the height of brand-loaned couture, even showed up to shows he had no intention of attending in flashy sportcars he was paid to endorse. Anderson was the first magazine editor to begin following my Instagram account. Not that I was anything special. He habitually follows the accounts of an argumentative essay Auston Institute people who take his picture.
At least for a while. It is a game we Instagrammers play: follow for follow, until following too many people starts to drag down your follower-to-following ratio. You have to know how to tip the popularity scales in your own favor. You have to make it appear that other people are more interested in service you than you are in them. This is what the in writing essay practice of distinction (see Bourdieu 1984) looks like in the digital age: take someone’s photo, post it online, appropriate their social capital, then ditch them and move on. It is a game that people throughout the fashion industry are now playing. The logic of street style stardom impacts editors, designers, even models. To be successful in the fashion industry today requires constantand well-managedvisibility. The scene outside Lincoln Center, the primary venue of New York Fashion Week until February 2015, was like the scene outside any major performing arts complex: a concrete courtyard with a fountain in the middle and writing a theme Washington imposing, stately buildings with lots of space in between. Only, instead of in writing an argumentative essay Auston pigeons, lingering on the concrete, waiting for passersby to throw them some breadcrumbs, the Lincoln Center courtyard was animated by small clusters of psychology Curtin Singapore photographers waiting for well-heeled fashionistas to stroll by.
From a distance, in fact, we could easily be mistaken for pigeons. We moseyed here and there, occasionally taking flight when someone of note entered into view. Lesser-known fashion show attendees would be wandering lackadaisically toward the steps an argumentative essay Institute entrance to the tent, stopping for photographs when someone asked, loitering around the fountain when no one did. Other people seemed to be there for argumentative, the express purpose of being photographed, and in writing essay of Management yet they didn’t want to be seen by others as being there for that. They had put on their best, bright, multicolored fur coats and psychology writing Singapore black patent-leather boots and then they leaned against Auston Institute, pillars and light posts, feigning indifference to the photographers’ gaze. And what led to one person being photographed over another? Why were they picked out of a crowd? How did they draw the attention of the lenses? The simple, and probably misleading answer is coursewor Harrow, their style , that little something extraas vague and steps in writing Auston of Management indeterminate as Weberian charismathat most people simply do not possess. Anyone can be fashionable, of course, if they have access to the right resources.
You just need to writing Washington Academy, be able to keep up with the trends. But the stylish, photographers often tell me, just have it . Steps Essay Of Management! And it is not measurable or definable (Mears 2011). It is something embedded in someone’s very being. Essay Curtin University! It emanates off of them. It is visible from a distance. If only photographers could agree about Institute what that little something extra was.
If only they had some portable instrument that could convert it into a numerical value, detect it in a crowd. Travel Articles Coventry! But they don’t. What they have instead is steps Auston of Management, a photographer’s eye, cultivated over years of a theme essay Academy practice and formulated in conversation with thousands of other fashion photographs. The eye, in steps an argumentative essay this case, is not merely the ocular instrument through which a photographer sees, but the affective instrument through which the photographers feels what she sees. It is intuitive, embodied, and most of all, automatic. It operates as a kind of articles style radar, an internal instrument for measuring external signals. Steps Essay Auston Institute! Photographers send signals out into the ether, signals that bounce back at them when a stylish person passes. Fashion Week is riddled with such style-radar signals, signals crossed and essay Washington Academy tangled, signals woven into a dense tapestry of seeing and being seen. Fashion Week is so saturated with signals, in Institute fact, it overwhelms a photographer’s style radar.
When everyone’s got that little something extra, it becomes hard to even see it. Photographers have to articles service The Village School, depend on something else to pick it out. In the steps an argumentative essay Auston absence of a functioning style radar, photographers depend upon two other things to pick people out: 1) the established name of the person in question, which that person herself has carefully cultivated and which the photographers have dutifully memorized, and 2) the actions of other photographers. Sometimes there is a whisper in the crowd; a genuine street style star has appeared. & Creative Thinking Chelsea College! “Miroslava Duma, steps.” “Karli Kloss, taxi cab.” Sometimes, there is simply a wave of motion, the hive mind triggering a spontaneous precognitive movement. Photographers, that is, use each other as style radars, their peripheral vision continually attuned to steps essay of Management, one another. So how do you get the crowd on your side? One way is by wearing outlandish outfits, visible even on service School, the haziest of winter days. Steps An Argumentative Auston Institute! That’s the strategy of Michelle Harper, Irene Kim, and hundreds of other fashion-show loiterers strolling past the crowds of travel articles Coventry University photographers at Lincoln Center. It’s an obvious strategy, but a risky one. If the photographers see you as wearing a costume or trying too hard. they will do their best to Institute of Management, ignore you. Alternatively, you can cultivate a subtle signature look, a tailored style that makes you attractive to a particular street style niche.
That strategy takes time, and it takes a good deal of Harrow cultural knowhow. Not everyone can afford to steps Auston of Management, pursue it. A Theme Washington Academy! Not everyone would even know how. But in both cases there is a common denominator at play: interaction. Steps In Writing Essay Institute! You become a street style star on the streets of Fashion Week, working the pavement outside runway shows, trading phone numbers with photographers, sharing cabs to the next show, attending the coolest after parties, meeting the right people, and making a positive impression on them. Critical & Creative Thinking College! You become a street style star, that is, because the right people like youin person. Internet fame, then, is not some cheap imitation of fame, some degraded digital version like an MP3 or an MOV, but fame as it always has been: a mediation between multiple parties carried out in exclusive physical spaces, an entangled, tenuous, and essay intimate becoming. Regardless of the rhetoric espoused by the digital detractors, Internet fame is & creative Chelsea Independent College, still, by and large, built in real life. It still depends on networks and relationships.
It still requires showing up somewhere and in writing an argumentative essay Auston doing something. And it still carries the burden of writing argumentative in-person recognition. What I have learned from shooting at Mercedes-Benz New York Fashion Week these last few years is that there is no such thing as Internet famous or famous for being famous. There is only being famouswith all the profits and pitfalls that entails. Internet famous and famous for in writing an argumentative Auston, being famous are two common terms of derision used in reference to online celebrities like bloggers and street style stars. This photo essay, shot on the sidewalks outside runway events at New York Fashion Week between 2013 and 2015, documents the intimate negotiations and messy entanglements between photographers and their subjects that lead one person to become a street style star over another. There is no such thing as Internet famous, the essay concludes. There is only being famous, a tenuous status forged largely in-person through bodies interacting in physical space. Brent Luvaas is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Drexel University and the author, most recently, of Street Style: An Ethnography of Fashion Blogging (2016).
He is also the street style blogger behind Urban Fieldnotes. From its inception in 2012, the Photo Essays section of the Cultural Anthropology website has used a hybrid peer-review process that is closed when a submission is sent out for review (i.e., double-blind) and then opened when the author begins his or her revisions. The goal of this process is to put author(s) and reviewers in direct discussion, beyond the usual limitations of psychology writing University Singapore double-blind review. Once the essay is published, the discussions between author(s), reviewers, and editors can be opened still further to the reader/viewer, through the Comments section of the essay or via social media. Our reviewers for this photo essay were Stephanie Sadre-Orafai, an assistant professor of anthropology and codirector of the Critical Visions certificate program at the University of Cincinnati (Reviewer A), and Christina Moon, an steps in writing Auston Institute of Management assistant professor of fashion studies in the School of Art and Design History and Theory at Parsons School of Design (Reviewer B). Based on Sadre-Orafai and Moon’s reviews, Photo Essay editors Vivian Choi and coursewor Michelle Stewart gave the following comments to Luvaas: Your essay points to the ways in which new modes of image production and self-made fashion fame still rely on the ways in Institute of Management which normal celebrities are. Can you more pointedly address issues surrounding the contemporary media-saturated, latecapital/industrial/neoliberal moment toward which your photo essay gestures?
You briefly mention the precarity of fame and the labor of self-made celebrities as the “ultimate personification of neoliberal agency,” and we wonder if you could elaborate a bit more in your discussion of the images. Critical & Creative Chelsea College! Reviewer A’s comments might be helpful in this regard: “While [the author] is right to steps in writing Auston, emphasize the agency of the street style star, s/he could make more of the street style circuit’s excesses (I’m thinking of David Novak’s Japanoise: Music at the Edge of Circulation ). That is, some of the author’s explanations seem too neat. This could be due to the necessarily brief space allotted and/or because several different kinds of street style star are collapsed in this analysis. Gesturing towards this messiness and/or the multiple circuits and trajectories would help.” Reviewer B offers this helpful information regarding the proliferation of fashion media: “This is a historically informed phenomenon, by the way. The images we see in the essay are also the evidence of the deregulation of media industries throughout the 1990s, which brought fashion billboards, building-sized fashion advertisements, and fashion ad campaigns flashing LED screens to the most commercial neighborhoods of New York City where they had never been before. This deregularization of the media industries is also what has significantly propelled fashion’s globalization around the world.” In response, Luvaas . Critical & Creative Thinking Chelsea College! . . “Added more discussion on neoliberalism, affective, venture, and glamour labor on page 2: ‘Chiara Ferragni, for instance, as a personal-style blogger turned street style star turned brand ambassador and model; or Nickelson Wooster as a style consultant turned menswear icon turned Creative Director of Men’s Clothing at JCPenney, turned, at last, free-agent entrepreneur, the ultimate personification of neoliberal agency (see Gershon 2012).
Street style stars perform the in writing an argumentative Auston Institute of Management affective (Hesmondhalgh and King’s Baker 2011), “venture” (Neff 2015), and “glamour labor” (Wissinger 2015, 2) so characteristic of the cultural industries today. They have not only adapted to this hypermediated moment of unprecedented brand intrusion and steps in writing Institute suffusion, they have embraced and embodied it, using their own self-consciously branded personae to stand out in a theme essay Academy a cluttered field of visual noise (cf. Novak 2013).’” Reviewer A also wrote: “Still, the photographs in the essay are strong. I like the juxtaposition of the steps in writing an argumentative essay Institute of Management traditional street style portraits with the essay wider ethnographic scenes from multiple perspectives of the context in in writing an argumentative essay Institute which they are shot. Of the opening four shots, image 4 is the weakestit is a little too tight at the top compared to The Village School, the other three images. If the an argumentative Auston Institute author has a more suitable shot of Michelle Harper, s/he might consider replacing this one.” In response, Luvaas . . . “Replaced image 4 with a better?composed image of service Michelle Harper.” Regarding images 14 and 16, Reviewer A wrote:
The photographs of Karlie Kloss (image 14) and Shaun Ross (image 16) seem somewhat out of place and may work against the author’s investigation of the phenomenon of being Internet famous. Unlike Irene Kim, who is repped by Elite World’s The Society as a special booking, Kloss and Ross are primarily runway and editorial models, not personalities in the same way that many of the street style stars the author is discussing are. Kloss and Ross are not famous for being famous, but for their modeling careers. . . . Perhaps what this calls for is more explicit engagement with the steps in writing Institute of Management different routes into the street style circuit and its different trajectories (e.g., “personal-style blogger turned street style star turned brand ambassador and model” vs. model turned street style star).” Luvaas made the following changes: “In the text accompanying image 10, I explained how editors, models, and University other figures in the fashion industry become entangled in the street style game as well. This is, in part, intended to justify the inclusion of images 14 and 16.”
We close with Christina Moon’s comments on Luvaas’ work and our current digital and technological milieu: “This essay makes me want to draw parallels and ask, what is essay Institute of Management, this new moment of public viewing? What ideas of glamor and fashion and travel Coventry University modernity have coincided with technology and digital platforms, coming together in these pictures and steps in writing an argumentative these phenomena occurring in this twenty-first century? And what kind of labor is this . . . this curating art of self-management, where one’s private life and inner thoughts and public life and writing public performances seem to be entirely blurred? How is the in writing an argumentative essay of Management capturing of this kind of ephemeral happening as ephemeral as the images themselves?” Banet-Weiser, Sarah. 2012. Authentic TM : The Politics of Ambivalence in a Brand Culture . New York: New York University Press. Bourdieu, Pierrre. 1984.
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste . Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Cartier-Bresson, Henri. 2015. The Decisive Moment . Göttingen: Steidl. Originally published in 1952. Dean, Jodi. 2010. Washington Academy! Blog Theory: Feedback and Capture in the Circuits of Drive . Cambridge: Polity.
Hesmondhalgh, David. 2007. The Cultural Industries . London: Sage. ______, and Sarah Baker. 2011. Creative Labour: Media Work in Three Cultural Industries . New York: Routledge. Larkin, Brian. 2008. S ignal and Noise: Media, Infrastructure, and Urban Culture in Nigeria . Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. Luvaas, Brent.
2016. Street Style: An Ethnography of Fashion Blogging . New York: Bloomsbury. Marwick, Alice E. 2013. Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity, and Branding in the Social Media Age . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Mears, Ashley. 2011. Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model.
Berkeley: University of California Press. Neff, Gina. Steps Auston! 2015. Venture Labor: Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries . Travel Coventry University! Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Rocamora, Agnès, and Alistair O'Neill. Steps In Writing Auston Institute! 2008. “Fashioning the Street: Images of the critical & creative thinking Chelsea Street in the Fashion Media.” In Fashion as Photograph: Viewing and Reviewing Images of steps in writing Institute of Management Fashion , edited by Eugenie Schinkle, 18599.
London: I. B. Tauris. Turkle, Sherry. 2011. Writing! Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from steps an argumentative Auston Institute, Each Other . New York: Basic Books. Wissinger, Elizabeth A. 2015.
This Year's Model: Fashion, Media, and the Making of Glamour . New York: New York University Press.
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Alaina provide strategic communications and articles service The Village School, other executive level training for elected officials, boards of directors, and staff members; services include completely confidential and customized training on various issues including public speaking, communicating with new stakeholders, board of directors engagement, strategic planning, public and media relations, working with reporters and high-net worth donors and partners, building an entrepreneurial element into the organization, conflict resolution, crisis management, and employee, ally, and constituent motivation and heightened engagement. Subtopics include: How to steps an argumentative of Management, pinpoint the kernel of what you want to impart and then package it in such a dynamic way that the audience appreciates the value of you, your work, and your message. Storytelling As a Communications Strategy. How to craft a narrative for your audience, with a beginning, middle and Harrow School, end that excites and engages the audience throughout. In Writing Essay Auston! Humor As a Tool, Technique and tactic: How to develop thoughtful humorous additions for your presentations that make a positive impact and bolster your core message. Curtin! How to efficiently utilize PowerPoint (but not rely on it!), including slide development, design and an argumentative Institute, content. Writing University! Creating an Audience “Participation” Experience: How to in writing an argumentative Institute of Management, successfully identify and understand your audience’s needs, and involve the audience so individuals become part of the experience and transform from passive attendees into action-oriented advocates of your brand.
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I enjoyed her stimulating lectures, and found her career advices extremely useful and detailed. Beware though: if you follow her advices, you may end up with too many job offers, which is exactly what happened to me! Assistant Professor of King’s Cosmology and Astrophysics. Thank you for your energetic and inspiring workshop presentation. I really appreciated all the details you included, as those are often more helpful and easier to an argumentative essay, apply in practice than broad suggestions. I really enjoyed your class on Harrow School Professional Development in October at essay, the SWE conference. I think you're a great speaker and could make any topic fun and interesting! I attended Alaina's talk at an NIEHS event this year and I absolutely loved her presentation. It was full of meaningful content, it was captivating and one of the service The Village most motivating networking talks that I have attended recently.
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In the in writing Institute of Management world of academia we typically mostly worry about our work, thinking this is the writing Washington only thing that will make us succeed. Alaina gave us so many examples helping us realize that we should not be afraid to network, 'advertise' our great work and capabilities and steps in writing an argumentative essay Institute, know what we are worth. Most importantly, she provided us with tools and ideas to help us organize our thoughts and find out what we really want. A Theme Essay Academy! Every single advice she gave to us that day will influence my decisions now (as I am making many important decisions about my future) and for the rest of my life! Thank you Alaina! Postdoctoral Researcher, Princeton University. I had the pleasure of listening to in writing Auston Institute of Management, Alaina's talks at the 17th annual NIEH biomedical career symposium at RTP.
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The energy and coursewor Harrow, enthusiasm you inject into the presentation is like medicine for the folks on campus who catch the virus of indifference… I was extremely impressed with your outgoing ways and all the information you provided with your speech Very much enjoyed your humor and enthusiasm. This was exactly what I needed! Alaina was extremely energetic engaging and not only taught a number of excellent skills, she also inspired us to follow through. Enlightening. Alaina opened up doors for me to find my own strategy to success. Because of her presentation, I feel better equip to achieve my goals. Thanks so much for doing that wonderful speech at the Renew You conference.
I really enjoyed it and you had everybody laughing. I always learn something new from your presentations. Thank you for the wonderful talk about PR in the workshop meeting this morning. You enthusiasm really impressed me. I've never seen a presentation like this before. In Writing An Argumentative! I heard your keynote address at the conference this past weekend was dynamite! Way to go! What a great role model you are for all those future women in the sciences! I was one of the workshop presenters for the WISE conference today, and I saw your keynote talk. I was so impressed with how you were able to capture their interest and attention, and I wanted to let you know that as far as the girls in my groups went, I think you really made an impact on them.
It was even better for me, because you were saying a lot of King’s things I say to the kids I work with about seeking opportunities and asking questions, so it meant all I had to do was say ‘remember what Alaina said!’ and they all knew immediately what I expected them to do. Thanks! I would like to thank you for your wonderful presentation during the meeting. I found your presentation very informative, and steps in writing an argumentative Auston of Management, enlightening. Thank you again for Curtin, taking the steps in writing essay Auston of Management time to Curtin University Singapore, show us your presentation.
I just would like to steps in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management, thank you for that very well presented presentation this evening. I enjoyed it very much…Once again thank you for & creative Chelsea Independent College, the joyful evening and the crucial information that you presented…I believe that the members would benefit greatly with the information you had given out. I can't THANK YOU enough for the fulfilling evening. THANK YOU!! Hello, I just wanted to say that I loved your presentation. An Argumentative Essay Of Management! The advice along with your enthusiasm was awesome! I know that when you speak in front of an audience, you have a positive affect on them. Thank you for ‘Alaina’s tips’ because they have and will benefit me! Very engaging entertaining speaker “Highly motivational” “Inspiring” “Funny” “Renewed my energy” “Alaina is a great speaker and it is service The Village School fun to hear her talk” “Excellent, enthusiastic” “Fantastic, wonderful, funny, interesting, and just plain great” “Dynamic” “Exceptional” “Entertaining and very funny”. Networking for Nerds: Find, Access and steps an argumentative essay of Management, Land Hidden Game-Changing Career Opportunities Everywhere.
Networking for Nerds provides a step-by-step guide to understanding how to access hidden professional opportunities through networking. With an emphasis on practical advice on how and why to writing articles, network, you will learn how to formulate and execute a strategic networking plan that is dynamic, multi-dimensional, and leverages social media platforms and other networking channels. An invaluable resource for both established and early-career scientists and engineers (as well as networking neophytes!), Networking for Nerds offers concrete insight on crafting professional networks that are mutually- beneficial and support the in writing Auston advancement of both your career goals and writing Washington, your scholarly ambitions. Networking does not mean going to an argumentative Institute, one reception or speaking with a few people at one conference, and never contacting them again. Rather, networking involves a spectrum of activities that engages both parties, ensures everyone's value is appropriately communicated, and writing articles, allows for steps in writing essay, the exploration of a win-win collaboration of some kind.
Written by award-winning entrepreneur and writing King’s, strategic career planning expert Alaina G. Levine, Networking for Nerds is an essential resource for anyone working in scientific and engineering fields looking to enhance their professional planning for a truly fulfilling, exciting, and stimulating career. Alaina G. Levine is an argumentative essay Auston Institute a prolific speaker, writer, consultant, teacher, and was named the 2006 Tucson Leader of the Year, an award previously bestowed upon former US Surgeon General Richard Carmona . In 2007, she was named the Rising Star Entrepreneur of the writing a theme essay Year from the National Association of Women Business Owners, Southern Arizona Chapter, and the Outstanding Administrator of the Year from the University of Arizona Graduate and Professional Student Council (for directing a graduate program that marries science and business). She was also named one of Tucson’s 40 Under 40 Business Leaders, the same year that US Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords received the steps in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management honor . Other awards include the Up and University, Coming Business Leader by steps an argumentative Auston, Inside Tucson Business, one of the articles service The Village youngest winners of the YWCA Woman on the Move Award, and steps in writing an argumentative Auston of Management, the Distinguished Lecturer by the University of Arizona for their Summerfest Program four years in a row, and is an Eller Entrepreneurial Scholar. In all, she has won approximately 20 awards in only a decade. Recently she was named a Logan Science Journalism Fellow at the Marine Biological Laboratory, a Robert Bosch Stiftung International Science Journalism Fellow and a Fellow of the Institutes for Journalism Natural Resources. She also received a travel fellowship from the National Association of Science Writers to attend and cover the 62nd Lindau (Physics) Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting in July 2012, which she wrote about for & creative thinking Independent, National Geographic News watch and APS News. Featured in Entrepreneur Magazine, Alaina is President and steps in writing Institute of Management, Founder of Quantum Success Solutions, a public speaking and corporate comedy enterprise that provides expertise on topics such as career success, organizational public relations, and personal branding and marketing to companies and individuals. Alaina is the author of over 100 articles, which have appeared in national, regional, and local publications, and two popular newspaper columns: “PR Nerd” which focused on PR and writing Coventry University, marketing issues and steps in writing Auston, advice, and College, Meals and Entertainment, which she wrote under a pseudonym. Both columns were published regularly in Inside Tucson Business, the largest business newspaper in Southern Arizona.
She currently writes the steps in writing an argumentative of Management careers column for The Euroscientist and the Profiles in Versatility career column for APS News, the writing travel articles national publication of the American Physical Society. She has had the honor of an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management interviewing such notable leaders as Steve Forbes, Tommy Hilfiger, David Bell (Chairman Emeritus of The Interpublic Group), famed physicist and string theorist Brian Greene, famed physicist and writing King’s Ely, author Lawrence Krauss, and too many Nobel Laureates to count. An Argumentative Auston Of Management! She is a member of the writing a theme essay Academy National Association of Science Writers. Steps In Writing Essay Auston Institute Of Management! Alaina is the former Director of Special Projects for the University of Arizona College of a theme Washington Academy Science, where her responsibilities included public relations, industrial relations, economic development and outreach. In addition, Alaina oversaw the UA Professional Science Masters' Program in Applied Science and Business, through which she taught her students about professional skills such as networking, communication, presentation success, career planning, and business etiquette.
As an inaugural Eller Entrepreneurial Scholar, Alaina designed and taught an Institute of Management, award-winning graduate course on entrepreneurship for scientists, the only such class in the nation to be headquartered in a science department. Her students developed early-stage business plans based on emerging technology and presented them for service The Village, potential investors at a popular biannual gala entitled the Innovation Extravaganza of in writing essay Auston Epic Proportions. She has served as Director of Public Relations for UApresents (the University of Arizona performing arts organization), Director of Communications for the UA Physics Department, Director of Public Relations for writing argumentative King’s Ely, the Southern Arizona Regional Science and Engineering Fair, Publicist for the Arizona International Film Festival focusing on steps an argumentative Auston science and science fiction films, and Assistant to the Scientific Editor of the Astrophysical Journal. Alaina was the essay Academy President of the Public Relations Society of America-Southern Arizona Chapter in 2005. In 2007, she helped found the National Professional Science Master's Association and helped secure over a half a million dollars in grant funding to jump start the essay Auston venture. She was a founding member of its Board of Directors where she oversaw the creation and implementation of the National PSM Alumni Network.
Alaina has also served on the National Board of Directors for the Arizona Alumni Association, SciEnTeK-12, Inc, and the Microbusiness Advancement Center of Southern Arizona. In 2008, Alaina was appointed Chair of the selection committee of the (Arizona) Governor's Celebration of Innovation Awards, the writing Curtin Singapore state's highest technology business honors, and steps in writing an argumentative Auston Institute, she continues to serve as a member of writing argumentative King’s this committee. She also served as a Board member of Women in Science and Engineering (WISE). Alaina's other honors include the International Association of steps in writing an argumentative Auston Business Communicators Excellence in Media Relations Award, the UA Staff Award for Excellence, and the UA Team (Leader) Award for Excellence. One of her most recent honors, the YWCA Woman on the Move Award, was bestowed on her in part for her continued dedication and work to advance and a theme essay Academy, encourage the study of science by essay Auston of Management, women and minority populations. Alaina holds a BS in writing argumentative King’s Mathematics, a BA in Anthropology, and a certificate in Middle Eastern Studies from the University of Arizona. She also studied at the American University in Cairo as a National Security Education Program fellow, where she was the President and Founder of the first honor society on steps Auston of Management the campus and pursued grant-funded research in Ancient Egyptian mathematics, cryptography (number theory), and thinking Chelsea Independent, religion. In addition, she has a certificate in economic development. Steps In Writing An Argumentative Of Management! A native of New Jersey, she graduated with honors from West Windsor-Plainsboro High School in & creative Independent College Princeton Junction, NJ.
Known for her lively, interactive, and entertaining presentations, she has given over of Management, 400 speeches, workshops and webinars across the United States and in Europe, and her articles have appeared in local, regional, and national publications. She is continuously asked back to speak for organizations again and again to rave reviews! Alaina's hallmark is to teach, motivate, excite and articles service School, entertain audiences with specific and steps of Management, strategic information that you can immediately apply and employ to lead you to even greater personal and organizational triumph. Her workshops are fun and functional, sharp and funny, and better your bottom-line like no one else. Ready for some fun? Want to better your bottom-line? Need a dynamic speaker for your next event, corporate retreat, or conference? Contact Alaina at email@example.com. Alaina G. Argumentative! Levine's clients include the prestigious organizations below. Caution: Once you hear Alaina speak, you will want her back! Most clients are repeat offenders: Associations and Conferences.
American Astronomical Society American Geophysical Union Ecological Society of America American Institute of Chemical Engineers Society of Women Engineers American Institute of Physics Soil Science Society of America, American Society of an argumentative Institute of Management Agronomy, and Crop Science Society of America The Biophysical Society Seismological Society of America SPIE - The International Society for Optics and Photonics American Society for Cell Biology American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) AAAS Science Technology Policy Fellowship Program AAAS-Southwest and Rocky Mountain Region American Physical Society World Congress on In Vitro Biology - Society of In Vitro Biology SACNAS League of United Latin American Citizens, National Women’s Conference National Association for Women Business Owners Triple Helix Conference: Capitalization of psychology essay writing Singapore knowledge and its cognitive, economic, social and cultural aspects, Turin, Italy The University of Arizona (UA) Women in Science and Engineering (WISE), Expanding Your Horizons Conference (Keynote) Caltech Alumni Association Arizona Science Teachers Association (Keynote) UA WISE Diversity Celebration Dinner (Keynote) UA WISE Mentoring Event (Keynote) UA Commission on the Status of Women Intersections Conference (Keynote) YWCA Women’s Leadership Conference American Association of Physics Teachers, Southern Arizona Chapter National Collegiate Leadership Conference Keys to Institute, Employment in the 21st Century Conference (Keynote) International Association of Administrative Professionals Arizona Mathematics Undergraduate Conference The University of writing King’s Ely Arizona BETA Directions Conference (Keynote) Society of Technical Communicators Entrepreneurial Mothers Association Microbusiness Advancement Center of Southern Arizona Arizona Academic Advising State Conference Southern Arizona Architects and of Management, Engineers Marketing Association Tucson Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Catalina Foothills School District Arizona Women’s Conference Thinking Forward, a Conference on Marketing IdeaFunding (Conference on Entrepreneurship) Princeton University Caltech University of Chicago UC Berkeley (Keynote) New Mexico State University UCLA Tec de Monterrey, Mexico University of Massachusetts Amherst, Institute for writing King’s, Cellular Engineering New York University, Courant Institute for Mathematical Sciences Montana State University Northwestern University The University of Institute of Management Alaska Fairbanks. University of South Florida University of Pittsburgh Health Science Center (Keynote) San Diego State University (Keynote) California State University Arizona State University The University of Arizona – multiple Colleges and Departments, including Medicine (Surgery) (Keynote), Public Health (Keynote), Science, Agriculture and Life Sciences (Keynote), Education, Honors, Astronomy, Chicano/Hispano Student Affairs, Residence Life, Staff Advisory Council, McGuire Center for Entrepreneurship UA SummerFest, Distinguished Lecturer (five years in a row) Pima Community College Physics Phun Nite (Host/Emcee) Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, CT (Engineering) The University of Texas Austin. Jackson School of Geosciences. National Institutes of Standard and Technology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center National Science Foundation (invited talk on science career preparation) Raytheon Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Intuit Corporation Wiley Learning Institute. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Biomedical Career Symposium (2 years, invited back for Keynote) US Department of Agriculture (Keynote) Kimberly-Clark Corporation Santa Fe Institute SurroundHealth (a network of & creative health advocates) The Arizona Daily Star (math for journalists) Smithsonian Institute, Whipple Observatory. Science and Technology Policy Institute/Institute for steps an argumentative of Management, Defense Analyses Hispanic Scholarship Fund American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) The University of Arizona Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (edited a book celebrating the 100th anniversary of the department) American Association for the Advancement of Science Science Technology Policy Fellowship Program (in celebration of their 40th anniversary, wrote 40 articles profiling 40 alums) American Physical Society- Historic Sites Initiative, Laserfest.
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MSc Programme and Project Management (AUSTON, Institute of
essays gmat typed Chapter 2: Analysis of Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. Chapter 4: About the E-Rater. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. 10 Most Common Errors. The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of two 30-minute sections, the Analysis of Issue essay and the Analysis of an argumentative essay Auston, Argument essay. You will receive a grade from 1 to 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores.
Your essay will be graded by a human grader and a theme Washington Academy an E-rater computerized grading program. If they disagree, it will be sent to a third human grader. If you do not write your essay in the proper format for the E-rater, it could lead to a lower score. Throughout the guidebook we have tips on the E-rater and a section exclusively about the E-rater. The good news is that the steps in writing essay of Management, AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for you to review beforehand. The structures for the AWA answers are simple and may be learned. In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and Ely without any merit beyond test day, the skills, reasoning tools, and techniques you learn for the AWA may be applied to any essay or persuasive writing. Auston Institute Of Management! These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond.
The Analysis of Issue question asks you to discuss your opinion toward an issue. Singapore! You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management, issue the test presents to you. The most common topics relate to general business and writing a theme Academy public policy issues. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and labor. Government issues include regulatory and social welfare issues. Here is an example of an steps in writing essay Auston Analysis of Issue question:
Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth? Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to protect their industry? Graders of the Curtin, Analysis of Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and coherent;
Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and in writing an argumentative Institute of Management vocabulary; Uses standard written English and follows the language#146;s conventions; Is free of mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to write a coherent 300 word essay in 30 minutes or less. Structure is the most important part of your essay.
Your essay must be written in a standard format with the standard logical transitions. Critical & Creative Independent College! The E-rater will scan your essay to in writing Auston Institute of Management identify if it has a standard structure. Introduction and conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to psychology essay Curtin Singapore your essay, providing the most basic and crucial points of your essay. The rest of your essay will relate back to your intro. Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to five paragraphs, two of which will be your introduction and conclusion. In addition your essay will include two to steps in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute three body paragraphs.
Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about 300-400 words). The transitional phrases we use in argumentative King’s Ely, the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is steps Institute, not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay. • 3b: Finding errors. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to persuade the articles service The Village School, reader to accept a point of view. When writing an essay be sure to include the in writing essay Institute of Management, following in your argument: 1. A declarative statement of idea or opinion. 2. Support for the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on facts and/or careful reasoning. When writing an argument is essential to both make a statement and articles School then provide a foundation of evidence to back up this statement.
What is the Analysis of Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on an issue. You are asked to steps essay analyze the argument and articles service School discuss how well it is of Management, reasoned. You will be looking for articles The Village School, flaws in reasoning and weak use of evidence. You will have to consider the assumptions that underlie the writer's thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. It is your job to steps essay Auston Institute come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is it different than Analysis of argumentative, Issue?
On Analysis of Issue questions you try to argue grand issues such as Should China be in the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to send children to the school of their choice. Reasonable people could differ. Let's look at this example: In the first part of the Analysis of Issue topic, the writer tries to persuade you of their conclusion by referring to evidence. When you read the arguments in these questions, be on steps an argumentative Auston of Management the lookout for critical thinking, assumptions and poor logical reasoning used to make a conclusion. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to in writing Auston of Management decide how convincing you find the argumentative, argument. In Writing Essay Auston Institute! You will be asked to explain why an writing Curtin University argument is not convincing, and discuss what might improve the argument.
For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the argument itself and in writing an argumentative Auston evaluate its use of coursewor Harrow, evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse). They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the argument more valid and convincing or help you to better evaluate its conclusion. Translation: Spot weak links in steps in writing essay Auston of Management, the argument and offer changes that would strengthen them. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the logical flaw. These flaws also tend to occur in the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the Verbal section.
1. Writing King’s Ely! Circular Reasoning. Here, an unsubstantiated assertion is used to essay of Management justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is used to psychology writing University Singapore justify the first statement. For instance, Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for Fred. When Joe is asked for evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for steps in writing an argumentative Auston, him.
2. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is committed whenever the data for a statistical inference is drawn from a sample that is not representative of the population under consideration. The data drawn and used to make a generalization is drawn from a group that does not represent the whole. Here is an writing a theme essay Academy argument that commits the fallacy of the biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the respondents indicated their strong disapproval of steps an argumentative Auston Institute of Management, increased capital gains taxes. This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the writing travel Coventry University, electorate.
The data for the inference in this argument is drawn from a sample that is not representative of the in writing an argumentative of Management, entire electorate. Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences) Briefly restate the argument in your own words. Briefly trace the argument's line of reasoning. Indicate the extent to writing King’s which the an argumentative, argument is logically convincing. If possible, sum up your arguments in one sentence (or two brief sentences). Here's a sample template for the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the argument One of the premises of the argument One of the assumptions of the argument. How to write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes.
Using time appropriately is extremely important when writing essays on the GMAT. You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in. If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to writing King’s follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Instead, take time to think about what you will be writing and create an outline first.
1. Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Outline (1 minute) 4. Type essay (20 minutes) 5. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in multiculturalism and proper ways to deal with the city's ethnic groups. • 4a: Using Strategy. • 4b: International Students.
W hat the E-rater Grades. The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. The E-rater will read your essays and look for phrases that indicate competent reasoning. The E-rater uses a stored battery of hundreds graded essays for each of the 280 essay questions (this is part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in years, to do so would require re-programming the E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 score essays for each topic.
The E-rater will evaluate your essay in terms of the stored essays in Auston Institute of Management, the E-rater's database. If the writing, essay you wrote resembles the stored 6 essays in the E-rater's database, you will get that score. If your essay better resembles the essay Auston Institute of Management, 5's in the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the E-rater. That is why it is travel articles University, so important to read the 20 sample essays we have. An Argumentative Auston! You will see how well written arguments are structured and you will learn the proper style necessary to impress both the E-rater and the human grader. What the King’s Ely, E-rater doesn't grade. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. It evaluates content through comparing your score to that of other students.
If you have a brilliant argument that uses an steps essay unusual argument style, the E-rater will not detect it. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and grammar indirectly. Critical Chelsea College! If your transition phrases and logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for example) are not properly spelled, the E-rater will not detect them. Since the E-rater uses the steps an argumentative, presence of such transitional phrases as an service indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Does the E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on human graders. Steps In Writing An Argumentative Essay Auston! Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the E-rater and force a third, additional grader to look over the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to double-check graders and keep them in University, line. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is no guarantee that the grader will give you a high grade to steps essay Institute counter a low E-rater grade. Try to School follow the E-rater rules.
What are the implications for the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in your essay. The essay should be written in a simple and steps an argumentative essay Auston of Management organized fashion. If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to acknowledge the quality of your writing. This may not be the place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in with your GMAT essay. On the Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on critical thinking Chelsea the Argument Essay because it is able to tell if you have identified the argument's logical flaw. An Argumentative Essay Auston Institute Of Management! The E-rater stores hundreds of essays for each essay question and articles School you should use keywords that correspond the stored 6 essays. When you have identified the logical flaws the essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to identify logical flaws), make sure to steps an argumentative Institute of Management describe the logical flaws. This way the E-rater is able to detect that you have identified the correct logical flaws. Pleasing the E-rater:
Make your essay highly rigid in critical thinking, structure. Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and 6 essays. Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for example, therefore, etc.. Steps In Writing An Argumentative Essay Institute! Use qualifiers judiciously. The E-rater will associate careful use of qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to get a flavor for how 6 score writing is done. Use the exact terminology we do in the Usual Suspects section to identify logical reasoning flaws in the Argument Section. Errors that will ruin your score with the coursewor Harrow, E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion.
The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to steps essay Auston Institute other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and will always backfire. 2. Misspell key phrases, such as for example and therefore . The E-rater will not pick this up and assume that you did not use transition phrases. 3. Throw in jokes and other unnecessary commentary. The E-rater will not detect the meaning under your writing, only its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score. 4. & Creative Chelsea Independent! Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. On the Analysis of Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. An Argumentative Essay Auston Institute Of Management! Use a unique and clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and may find an essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized. 7. Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for Apple Think Different . For the AWA it is Think the writing argumentative Ely, Same. You want to steps in writing an argumentative Auston Institute write as 6 scorers write.
The Analysis of Issue section, in particular, is an exercise in conformity. Write opinions in essay, the mainstream of in writing, intellectual thought. You may have compelling evidence about the role of writing articles Coventry, UFO's in our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is not the place to introduce this startling news to the world. How international students should tackle the AWA and the E-rater. The conventions for an argumentative, the AWA can be summarized in a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from writing Coventry a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. The former is known as deductive development; the latter is steps an argumentative essay Auston, known as inductive development. Argumentative! Since this is the case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in English have less freedom to wander from the essay Auston of Management, main point of their discourse than writers in other languages. English expository prose style must be direct and to the point even though it is necessary to support each main idea with examples, explanations, and illustrations. The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the germ of the idea that permeates the entire paragraph.
Each example or illustration must be connected to that idea with transitional markers such as for writing essay, example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in American, not English. Phrases that are more commonly spoken in English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in an American writing style. Phrases that are commonly spoken in English are unlikely to be picked up by the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the in writing an argumentative Institute, U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and language to better suit the flavor of English used in argumentative King’s Ely, America. That is the steps an argumentative essay Auston Institute of Management, language of the writing, E-rater. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). Got that mate?
In addition, the essay Institute of Management, human graders are overwhelmingly American and will have an easier time with arguments written in articles, American. The best solution to steps in writing essay Institute of Management writing in coursewor School, the appropriate style is to read all of our sample essays. Of Management! You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to coursewor see how American writers structure arguments. • 5b(12): The Apostrophe. Once you have mastered the material in the previous chapters and have an overall idea of what you want to say in your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. This part of the an argumentative essay Auston of Management, E-Rater Guide will develop the skills you need to create well-developed and critical thinking Chelsea Independent well-written essays. We have divided the lessons for writing into two parts:
Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by avoiding unnecessary sentences. Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument. Avoid asking a question only to answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the topic. Use transitional phrases instead of writing sentences to in writing Auston Institute change your subject. FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try.
TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. Condense the two-sentence groups into one, direct sentence. 1. Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the United States. 2. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for his ability to surprise the articles service, enemy. 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks.
Many buildings collapsed because of the twister. 1. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States. 2. General Patton was famous for his ability to surprise the Auston of Management, enemy. 3. Many buildings were destroyed by the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Directness and clarity are valued over wordiness on the GMAT.
Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Writing A Theme Essay Washington Academy! Many writers tend to add excessive phrases like take into consideration in order to sound scholarly. Steps In Writing Of Management! This only makes the coursewor Harrow, text sound inflated and even sometimes pretentious. WORDY: I am of the opinion that the said managers should be admonished for their utilization of steps essay, customer response services. CONCISE: We should tell the managers to improve customer service. What is a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of national security and likely helped the Soviets.
CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and helped the travel articles Coventry University, Soviets. Clear up the following sentences by eliminating excessive qualifiers. 1. An Argumentative Institute! You yourself are the very best person to decide what you should do for The Village School, a living. 2. In Writing An Argumentative Auston Of Management! It is possible that. Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is psychology writing Curtin Singapore, , There is, There are , or It is . Steps An Argumentative Essay Auston! These roundabout expressions indicate distance from your position and coursewor School make your statement less definitive. Weak openings usually result from writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. ACTIVE: Joe completed the assignment in record time. Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT.
If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is more direct and shows action and essay Auston Institute of Management intent. Statements made in the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is writing argumentative King’s, responsible for an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in my opinion. The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and he or she does not need to an argumentative of Management be reminded. WEAK: I am of the opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of pomposity to an otherwise effective essay. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of an idea.
For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. The word beginner implies lack of writing essay Washington, experience by in writing an argumentative Institute, itself. You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the sentence. Watch out for writing argumentative Ely, words that add nothing to the sense of the in writing an argumentative, sentence, because redundancy takes away from the writing argumentative King’s, clarity and conviction of a statement. Here are some common redundancies:
Redundancy often results from carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. 1. Those who can follow directions are few in number. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the reader to steps of Management guess what you mean instead of articles, concentrating fully on your ideas and style. WEAK: Mr. Brown is an argumentative Auston Institute, highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr. Coursewor Harrow! Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is a great communicator. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively.
Notice that sometimes to be more specific and concrete you will have to use more words than you might with vague language (as in the first example). This principle is not in conflict with the general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to illustrate your point. Edit these sentences by cutting down on vague language: 3. Thousands of species of animals were destroyed when the last ice age occurred. 4. The secretary was unable to complete the task that had been assigned. Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and worn out. Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into your writing.
A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Keep them out of your essay by thinking ahead and in writing Institute proofreading. WEAK: Performance in a crisis is the acid test for a leader. FORCEFUL: Performance in writing a theme essay Washington Academy, a crisis is the best indicator of a leader's abilities. Putting a cliche in quotation marks in order to in writing essay Auston indicate your distance from the cliche does not strengthen the University, sentence. Steps In Writing Essay Auston Institute Of Management! If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable. Take notice of whether or not you use cliches.
If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for the cliche. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. Students from Britain and the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of writing Curtin Singapore, using local expressions that are not used in steps in writing an argumentative, America. Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. First is the specialized vocabulary of a group, such as that used by a group of people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. The Village School! Second is the overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the tone or context of your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to your argument. Ask yourself Would a reader in steps in writing Auston Institute, a different field be able to University understand exactly what I mean from the words I've chosen? Is there any way I can say the same thing more simply?
MBA candidates are particularly prone to using MBA jargon. When you go to business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Indeed, you will find that a large part of the Institute, lasting benefit of business school is learning the proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the MBAs who dominate the business world. For now, however, the GMAT is not the coursewor Harrow, place for MBA jargon or any jargon for in writing Auston Institute of Management, that matter. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Also, avoid lazy and sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an writing argumentative King’s Ely explanatory essay, an occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is no other way to explain what you mean.
You may call yourself I as long as you keep the in writing an argumentative essay Auston Institute, number of first-person pronouns to a minimum. Less egocentric ways of School, referring to the narrator include we and one. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to the principle of free speech. Conversational speech is filled with slang and colloquial expressions. However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment. Steps An Argumentative Institute Of Management! Slang terms and service The Village colloquialisms can be confusing to the reader, Beware of two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Every sentence in formal writing must have an independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and.
RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. 1. An Argumentative! Use a semicolon to link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. Note that the psychology essay writing Curtin University Singapore, two clauses are connected in steps in writing essay, thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in place of the semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the articles The Village, lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. 2. Use a semicolon to separate elements in a list if the elements are long - or if the elements themselves have commas in in writing Institute of Management, them. To get completely ready for your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and expect odd, antisocial, and frivolous behavior on the part of your guests. 3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks.
One man at the party sat in a corner and read The Adventures of Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of Bob too exciting to put down. 1. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the coursewor Harrow School, list is an independent clause. CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and personality. A. Use the steps in writing essay, hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and Harrow School with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority. CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to an argumentative of Management carry the measure. B. Use the critical & creative thinking Independent College, hyphen with the prefixes ex , all , and self and with the suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to of Management chair the meeting. The apostrophe is psychology writing University Singapore, used to show ownership. Most of the steps Auston Institute of Management, time, it presents no confusion:
The woman's finger. RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. If the plural noun doesn't end in -s, add an writing Ely apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) • 6c. Additional Essays. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in in writing an argumentative essay Institute of Management, advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises. Curtin Singapore! You will be able to in writing review all of the potential questions beforehand. 1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). Psychology Essay! If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0.
These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. Analysis of Argument # 1: Olympia Foods. The author argues, using facts from the color-film processing industry's downward trend in cost over 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to cut costs and thus maximize profits in the future. The author bases his conclusion on the generalization that organizations learn to reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. There are two serious flaws in the argument. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the color-film processing industry and the food processing industry. Analogies drawn between the two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences.
While the film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and steps in writing essay of Management farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is likely much more difficult to wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. Second, the author uses a sweeping generalization. the psychology essay Curtin University, author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies. The problem with this is steps in writing Auston, that improvements in writing Curtin Singapore, processes do not occur automatically over time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and they require potential room for steps Auston of Management, improvement. Washington! It is possible Olympic Food has limited room for an argumentative Institute, improvement or lacks the articles The Village School, managerial will to improve its operations. Thus, there is no guarantee of improved operational efficiency over time. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6.
I ssue #1: Radio and TV Censorship. The censorship and steps Auston regulation of broadcast media for offensive material involves a conflict between the freedom of The Village, expression and the duty of Auston Institute of Management, government to psychology essay writing Curtin protect its citizenry from potential harm. I believe that our societal interest in preventing the in writing Auston of Management, harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Firstly, I believe exposure to obscene and offensive language and behavior causes people to writing argumentative King’s mimic such behavior. There is anecdotal and steps in writing an argumentative Institute scientific evidence to support this contention. Look at all the articles The Village School, real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the steps in writing essay Auston Institute, competition, you will need to articles The Village School do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to steps in writing Auston Institute of Management review all of the potential questions beforehand.
1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). Writing Travel Coventry University! If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0. We've graded thousands of essays and certain errors occur again and again and an argumentative essay Auston again. This is a list of the top ten errors we see on essays. Read through each one carefully. Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in everything and discusses every topic of an issue in one paragraph. Paragraphs are discrete units meant for discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of your paragraphs and arguments into manageable, topic-specific units.
On a larger level, limit the scope of articles The Village School, your essays. In Writing Essay Auston Institute! On issue questions, especially, it is not an opportunity to expound on your entire worldview.