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Calgary couple signs no-homework deal with school. A Calgary couple signed a unique contract with a school this week that prevents teachers from giving their children homework, the articles Calgary Herald reports. Tom and Shelli Milley negotiated the deal because their pre-teen kids were spending as many as three hours each evening on University, homework, the paper says. Here’s the start of the story: CALGARY — As Tom Milley and his wife Shelli shuttled their children to and from speedskating practice and music lessons, then raced to put dinner on the table, they dreaded the hours of homework still before them. Spencer, 11, and sister Brittany, 10, could spend up to three hours a night completing math problems and word lists with the help of their parents. No longer. The Milleys have struck a blow for family freedom — by getting their kids’ teachers to promise to lay off on write Fanshawe College, the homework indefinitely. Define Think University? Last week, the articles Milleys signed a unique contract with teachers and the principal at St. Bridget School to essay School, eliminate homework completely for write online Fanshawe, Spencer and define think University Brittany. “The general (homework) policy of the school was 10 minutes per online, grade per night and I think each teacher took that quite literally to who writes House College, mean each teacher should assign 10 minutes per grade per night,” a frustrated Tom Milley said. “The later it gets, the more stressed out they become.” Their no-homework contract is the result of two years of lobbying the school and district.

And it doesn’t mean the write online Fanshawe kids are completely off the who writes essays hook. Shelli still quizzes Spencer at night to prepare for an upcoming science exam while Tom works with Brittany to improve her spelling. The difference is the family can now choose when and how it studies at home. Read the rest of the write online articles story here. Read a Calgary Herald editorial on the subject here. No replacement for prime Florida International University, B.C. colon cancer screening tests — yet. ART SEEN: Black women drawn in fabric in powerful exhibition #8230; Colon cancer screening test suspended due to manufacturing defect. Burnaby’s “Sea to River” bikeway has charming name, but grim #8230;

Buy, sell and write trade smarter. Stories, pictures and or coursework St. Michaels University School tributes to write online articles, life. View and place obituaries, and more. Share the joy. Tell the world. Read and place announcements here. The faster, fresher and greener way to shop flyers. Find the define job you want in your city.

View and articles College place job listings, and more. Calgary couple signs no-homework deal with school. College? 2017 Postmedia Network Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized distribution, transmission or republication strictly prohibited. Your account has been deactivated. Sorry, we could not verify that email address. Your account has been reactivated.

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The information below will be used to optimize the content and make ads across the network more relevant to you. You can always change the information you share with us by editing your profile. Write College? Attention Print Newspaper Subscribers. For verification of Print Subscriber offers (e.g. epaper, Digital Access, Subscriber Rewards), please input your Print Newspaper subscription phone number and postal code. By clicking Create Account, I hearby grant permission to Postmedia to use my account information to create my account. I also accept and who writes Brooke House agree to be bound by Postmedia's Terms and Conditions with respect to my use of the Site and online Fanshawe College I have read and understand Postmedia's Privacy Statement. I consent to essays Brooke House, the collection, use, maintenance, and disclosure of my information in accordance with the Postmedia's Privacy Policy.

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SharePoint MOSS 2007 Consultant Resume. US-MN-Minneapolis (will consider relocating) • Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) in MOSS 2007 and WSS 3.0. • Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) in .NET Framework 2.0 Application Development in C# • Skilled in write Fanshawe Customizing SharePoint portals and sites using SharePoint Designer 2007. • Strong experience in Architecting and writing Florida University Developing SharePoint Portals, Site Customization, Branding, Site Features, Site Templates, Web Parts, Excel Services, Business Data Catalog (BDC) and customizing Search using MOSS 2007 and WSS 3.0 Object Model API. • Breath of experience in large scale enterprise application development in .NET Framework 3.5/3.0/2.0/1.1 using C#, ASP.NET, XAML, WPF, WCF, LINQ to SQL, Silverlight 2.0, AJAX. • Software Design experience in using patterns like Facade, Singleton, Factory, Iterator, Visitor, MVC, and UIP 2.0. • Strong database experience in online Fanshawe College T/SQL Programming, SQL Server 2005 and School Oracle databases.

• Excellent communication skills and relationship management abilities. .NET Frameworks Microsoft.NET Framework 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0, ADO.NET Entity Framework, ASP.NET Provider Framework. Languages C#, ASP.Net, CAML, XAML, LINQ to SQL, LINQ to articles Fanshawe College, XML, WPF, WCF, Silverlight 2.0, VB.Net, XML, XSL, XSLT, AJAX. OO Design Patterns Facade, Singleton, Factory, Visitor, MVC, UIP 2.0, UML, Entity Classes. Office SharePoint Product and Technologies MOSS Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS) 2007, Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 Object Model, WCM, Features Development, List Definitions, Site Columns and Control Templates, Installation, Configuration, Site Template Customization, Site Definition Customization, Content Management, Collaboration, Workflows, Custom Web Parts, Reports Business Data Catalog, Search, InfoPath Forms Server, Master Pages, Content Types, Excel Services and prime writing Florida International InfoPath 2007. Databases Reporting SQL Server 2005/2000, T-SQL, Oracle 9i, ADO.NET, Table Adapters, SQL Reporting Services (SSIS), Crystal Reports 9. Tools SharePoint Designer, XMLSpy, TeamPrise, CruiseControl.NET, Enterprise Architect, ERWin, Visio 2003, MS Project, Team Foundation Server (TFS), InstallShield 11.

Role: Sr. SharePoint Developer. Duration: Apr 01, 2009 -- Till date. Location: Minnetonka, MN. Environment: MOSS 2007, WSS 3.0, SharePoint Designer 2007, Excel Services, InfoPath Forms, MOSS Search Service, Single Sign On, Business Data Catalog, Master Pages, Layout Pages, Site definitions, List definitions, Web Content Management and. • Responsible for creating new custom site templates, site definitions, list definitions for provisioning custom sites.

• To perform site administrator role for 22+ sites under a site collection, creating and managing site collection policies, site collection features, running custom reports, creating search keywords and best bets. • Created custom actions, custom navigation using WSS object model. • Created custom workflows in C#.NET and SharePoint Designer and Fanshawe custom Task Forms in InfoPath 2007. • Worked on extending custom field controls and created FilteredLookupList control by extending SPField class. The control provides n number of hierarchical dependent dropdown list for courses Brillantmont International School, lookup values in a List. • Created custom dashboards for write articles, showing workflow status which included task completed, pending and finished for approval workflows. • Created Custom Content Types to Document Information Panel for Microsoft Word to accept information to be stored inside the list library. • Developing Logical Access Reporting Web Part that allows Manager to St. Michaels, see who has access to what sites along with User Permissions under the write online articles Fanshawe, site collection. • Coded in think Monash WSS object model to extend and build Custom Actions, ECB menus to show custom links.

• Customizing XSLT for Data Views in SharePoint Designer. • Worked on customization of write online Fanshawe DispForm.aspx, EditForm.aspx and NewForm.aspx in SharePoint Designer. • Customized search user interface by editing and customizing the coursework St. Michaels School, XSLT of search results web part on serach.aspx page. • Created a new Publishing Portal for articles College, Intranet users, created custom master pages for the portal. Project: Critical Spreadsheets and User Developed Computing Tools -- CSS-UDC. • Provisioning a new site by developing custom site template and site definitions. • Created custom Document Approval and Task Initiation forms in vacation essay The Knox School SharePoint Designer and articles Fanshawe updating Document inventory based on the approval status and who writes essays Brooke House College applying retention codes and security. • Implemented Excel Services for securing critical spreadsheets for Tax and Consolidation department to restrain users from changing and viewing values of and Fanshawe locking down sensitive formula cells in the spreadsheet. • Developed managed code assemblies for creating custom User Defined Functions for argumentative, custom functions for articles Fanshawe College, calculations. • Created Audience Targeting solutions to target list item fields to vacation essay, particular set of audiences using WSS 3.0 object model.

• Created a new site and Fanshawe College developed custom master pages to give custom look and argumentative King’s Ely feel for Information Protection site. • Worked extensively on customization and branding of SharePoint sites using SharePoint Designer. Created custom master pages, layouts, CSS, extending Page Publishing Toolbar where QuickAccessMenu and EditingMenuAction controls were extended. • Customized user profiles to write College, set privacy policy settings for user on their user profiles. Client: Thomson Reuters. Role: Sr. SharePoint/.NET Developer. Duration: Dec 01, 2008 -- Mar 30, 2009. Location: Eagan, MN. Environment: .NET Framework 3.5, C#, ASP.NET, LINQ to essays College, SQL, XML, XAML XSLT, TFS, SQL Server 2005, MOSS 2007, WSS 3.0, SharePoint Designer, InfoPath 2007 Forms.

The Westlaw International provides online legal content to lawyers, law students and practitioners. This excerpt of cases and citations is taken from Law Books. The project task was to online articles Fanshawe, create generic custom controls, use personalization's features, creating entity framework classes and XSLT style sheets development. The application runs on .NET Framework 3.5, ASP.NET, LINQ to SQL, XML queries for SQL Server and uses XML and prime essay writing International University XSLT heavily. • Analysis, Design and write College Developing of components of International SharePoint portal. Worked extensively on Customization of SharePoint Search, Site Branding, Customization and Personalization. Created custom web service for ordering refreshments for the meetings configured in the SharePoint portal. • Worked on LINQ to XML to generate complex XML from the configuration data stored in the SQL Server 2005 for dynamic user control rendering on application pages. Extensively worked on XML, XSLT style sheets for rendering of xml data into courses International School, various document formats. Developing template generic custom controls in ASP.NET to online articles College, read custom render xml which creates user controls inside the control. • Creating ADO.NET Entity Framework classes and to use LINQ to vacation essay writing, SQL to online Fanshawe College, generate Render XML for user controls efficiently.

• Writing FOR XML queries in SQL Server 2005 to generate XML files used in the application to read configuration data stored in the SQL database that is used to create and render the controls in the user control at the runtime. • Creating XSLT style sheets to style the content, loading images, creating hyperlinks links and to transform the content into word document format. Role: Sr. Prime International. SharePoint/.NET Consultant. Duration: May 2007 -- Nov 30, 2008. Location: Louisville, KY. Environment: .NET Framework 3.0/2.0, C#, MOSS 2007, WSS 3.0, ASP.NET, WPF, WCF, XAML, XML, XSLT, XML Web Services, Visual Studio.NET 2005, Oracle 10g, T-SQL, Caching Application Block, UIP 2.0, Cruise Control.NET. • Developed a portal in MOSS 2007 for teams within the Intranet to collaborate, share documents and digital asset and training management. • Developed solution to automate the document creation/publication process using SharePoint 2007 and Workflow.

The end result was a sophisticated workflow system that tracked and managed the write online, publication of a document as it passed through several different departments. Prime Essay Writing Florida International University. The system reduced the overall time to publish and review document and provided better visibility into Fanshawe, the entire process for vacation essay writing, management. • Redesign and branding of corporate intranet portal using SharePoint Designer and Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 created various provisioning components like Custom Master Pages, Content Types, Site Columns, Application Pages, Site Templates, Connected Web Parts, Features and Modules. Created custom workflows in Windows Workflow Foundation and write College InfoPath Forms. • Implementation of Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 for corporate intranet, document management, internal and external (extranet) collaboration. Project 2: Enrollment Center. The project was about creating new functionality and enhancements for Enrollment Center public facing web application. The Knox. The Enrollment Center provides online enrollment of Health Benefits provided by Humana Inc. • Created security application block in .NET 2.0 to extend the IPrincipal and IIdentity object to create a custom security object and intercept the requests coming from write online articles Fanshawe College Non-Secure path on the Humana portal.

The new customized principal and identity objects were put on Current Thread to provide integration with one of the prime essay, existing Humana System, developed C# class to override methods of IHttpModule. • Was to write online articles, create new UIP application pages and creating new navigation graphs, configuring web.config to create new views and writing controller classes to enable navigation and vacation essay writing School hooking events. • Developed custom user controls, dynamic xml based navigation menu controls in online College asp.net 2.0, extending Menu Control, Ajax enabled drop down lists, created JSON service to be called form front end web page. • Developed Logging using Enterprise Logging 2003 and Log4net, created new build and deployment framework in CruiseControl.NET and integrate that with TFS. • Developing custom FXCop rules specific to Humana Coding and define think University Design Standards, here I have created new classes and incorporate the new rules to check if the variable, methods and parameter names contain digits or not using Visitor pattern. The application is content management tool used to manage content for dynamic user controls for write College, Enrollment Center application. Its was developed on .NET 3.0 framework using XAML, WPF, WCF, Silverlight and SQL Server 2005. • Creating XAML based UI screens in Expression Blend, styling templates for user controls.

• Worked in Visual Studio 2008 to develop code for commands, binding user controls, creating classes for data binding and writing custom validation logic by extending and coursework or coursework St. Michaels University School overriding methods using ValidationRule class. • Developed and Implemented style triggers, coded logic for write Fanshawe, handling routed events for various controls, created XAML resources and define think University resource dictionaries. Data Inspector is write College, a standalone Win Form application was developed in essay writing The Knox School .NET Framework 3.0, Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) for services. It inspects the data for a subscriber and provides management and triaging information to the user. • Implemented Composite Application Guidance (CAG) block for articles Fanshawe College, Data Inspector WPF application. • Coded event triggers, menu routed events, wrote classes for styling the data grids using style triggers, written code to create custom templates for Tab control, Grids and button styles. • Created and coded Static and Dynamic Resources as a resource dictionary in who writes essays Brooke College XAML, coded to bind controls to underlying data context and database. • Used Commanding System of WPF to define application commands to define various events and write online articles actions based on or coursework St. Michaels University School the commands executed in the application also worked routed events to define, subscribe to write Fanshawe College, routed events. Duration: December 2005 -- April 2007. Location: White City, London UK. Role: Senior Analyst Programmer .NET.

Environment: .NET Framework 2.0, C#, ASP.NET, VS.NET 2005, SQL Server 2000, AJAX, XML,XSL, XSLT, T-SQL, VSS, Microsoft. Enterprise Library 2003, Application Blocks, Caching Application Block, Microsoft Data Protection API (DPAPI), NANT, Model View. Controller, ASP.NET 2.0 Provide Model, Microsoft Authorization Manager (AzMan), ASP.NET 2.0 Navigation Controls. Pink Files are used for the maintenance of sales and contract history on programs in the system (known as: MORAG) used by the Commercial Rights Department (CRD). The design philosophy focuses on enhancing the working practices of CRD. The functionality is driven by the need to reduce the overall reliance on paper files and or coursework St. Michaels University School folders; ease of use by write online articles Fanshawe, making the essay writing International University, changes intuitive for write online Fanshawe, non-IT staff and improvement in efficiency from a reduced workforce. Most of the data can be found in existing areas of the define think, system, but is presented in this document as summarized 'at-a-glance' views shown in read-only grids with the articles, capability for Printing and prime essay writing Florida additional manipulation via export to write articles, Excel. Prime Essay Writing International. The functions address the needs of write online articles College many business areas and initial conflicts of interests that have been resolved. However, it now remains the responsibility of CRD to Brooke House, ascertain the accuracy of the contents of this document as meeting all the articles College, Business Requirements. • Involved in creation of functional specifications for the RBAC (Role Based Access Control) Security Module and prime essay Florida created the XML Schema and XML Role base security policy files, the policy file was created to articles College, hold the information about the control objects sets, its permissions sets and writing argumentative roles. • Created Role based access classes and their methods for Roles, Tasks and Operations management and Fanshawe created Typed Datasets in data access layer for update, select and delete methods for controlled value list that are the who writes essays House College, CVL which are used to articles, populate various drop down lists used in the application.

I also created the user interface to essay Florida International University, update and add new CVL entries inside the Data grid also responsible for design and coding of template buttons and hyperlink columns. • Installed and Configured Microsoft Authorization Manager utility (AzMan) on the Production Server and setting up the users and their roles as per online articles College, functional specs along with the control to role and operation mappings and Strong naming the Enterprise Library Assemblies and their projects. • Extended the ASP.NET 2.0 Menu Control, to vacation essay writing, fetch and populate custom menu link items stored in the SQL database to display items on the menu. Online Articles. This was done by overriding the Site Map XML file which is bound to ASP.NET 2.0 Menu Control. The gateway portal is the entry point of BBC services which include all the media departments, download sections, forums and other services. The requirement was to recreate the static website to more manageable and dynamic in nature.

And for this work it was decided to article Brillantmont School, create a new portal in online articles Fanshawe College Share point portal server. The Knox School. Initially as a proof of concept, we created new portal and portal sites with several audiences and web parts. • Installing and setting up the write online Fanshawe, SharePoint portal server on essay writing the Windows 2003 system. I configured the SharePoint portal and articles Fanshawe College created the define University, default sites, was responsible for setting up users and assigning necessary rights to online Fanshawe College, them. • Configuration of define Monash University Virtual servers and application pools, defining sites and workspace components I also configured the portal by making changes to WSS CSS and write online articles College modifying the default look and feel changes to customized as per client's need. • Creation of web parts, creating test cases and unit testing of these web parts.

• Creating news sections, Audiences section and designing the College, portal pages. • Establishing connections with database and articles Fanshawe College loading data into web parts, rendering the HTML output from the XML data and applying the required css to be aligned with the look and feel. • Administration of sites and vacation writing The Knox School users, assigning users to sites and roles, creating alerts and contents, assigning alerts to various activities. The application system was developed for a new exchange system called: “TACHONET”. The core business of the TACHONET architecture consists of the write online articles Fanshawe College, TACHONET XML Messaging System acting as secure and reliable “hub spoke” system (including authentication, validation, data transformation, logging, auditing,?), for sending XML requests to and receiving XML responses from the different Member States (and corresponding Card Issuing Authorities). Each Member State local card issuing application (CIA application developed by each Member State) uses via standard protocols (i.e. XML over HTTPS and XML Web services), the TACHONET services of the define Monash, central TACHONET application which, in turn, acts as “hub spoke” for sending requests to and receive responses from the CIA applications of the other Member States, through the TESTA communication network topology. In a nutshell, TACHONET acts as relay between the Member States and write articles Fanshawe this latter does not centralize any data in its database.

• Configuration BizTalk Server 2004 using Configuration Wizard using Basic Configuration option and setting up logon information for the services installed by the BizTalk Here, we configured the Enterprise SSO Database, MSMQT, Business Rules Engine and other components. • Created a detailed design specification document for the new modifications to the system. • Done Impact Analysis and Gap Analysis and coursework University School its documentation for the new requirements. • Developed XML schemas and making changes to the existing schemas with modification as per the specification document. • Creating Maps as per the specification document for modifying the schemas using functoids. • Created custom funtoids in C#.NET for validating credit cards details data in the schema and deployed as a .NET Assembly. • Was responsible for Configuring Send Receive Ports, Enlisting ports, creating receive locations in BizTalk Configuration Panel, Deploying the BizTalk Application. Duration: July 2003 -- December 2005. Role: Senior Analyst Programmer .NET. Environment: .NET Framework 2.0, C#, ASP.NET, Visual Studio. NET 2005, SQL Server 2000, AJAX, XML,XSL, XSLT, T-SQL, VSS,

Microsoft Enterprise Library 2003, Microsoft Data Protection API (DPAPI), NANT, Model View Controller, ASP.NET 2.0 Provide Model, The EWI client business is online Fanshawe, focused on objective assessment and vacation writing The Knox School development of people, jobs, and organizations, helping clients to increase productivity, and profitability through more effective use of their human resources. The MAMT system was developed to facilitate an online change management and maintenance management for their products. The MAMT system was designed on SOA technologies using web services and windows services at the client side to pool the server for messages and based on .NET Framework. • Involved in every stage SDLC cycle where my responsibility was to study the write articles, requirements form the functional requirements document and model the define think University, application by creating use case, class diagrams, component diagram, deployment diagram and architecture diagrams, I also depicted the online articles Fanshawe, relationships like associations and or coursework inheritance in Enterprise Architect. • Developed various User Controls like navigation, inbox header, upload file component and coded the events of them in C#. I also worked on Business Logic Layer, Interfaces and Data Access Layer. • Designed the user interface, integrated the online articles College, web pages, writing menu controls and XML for containing pages links and writing courses Brillantmont School title properties.

I created AJAX enabled dropdown controls for loading loads of data asynchronously without server round trips and online articles wait time, developed and Used the AJAX techniques. • Loading of vacation essay writing data and binding it to data grid, also overridden the write articles College, OnDataBound Events of the data grid to manipulate data and template columns and changing the Tool Tip and properties of Ely Image control embedded inside the data grid and data paging. • Implemented the Microsoft Enterprise Library Logging Framework, Caching Framework and Localization Framework. • Daily check in and check out of code files, data backups and write online articles job scheduling. • Used MVC Design Pattern and argumentative Ely implemented it using Microsoft Data Application Block DAAB and support utility classes also developed the complete data access layer which is wrapper to SQL Helper. • Wrote Unit Test Cases for Unit Testing of various modules, I have used Visual Source Safe for version control and at the end of the project I have created the User Manual and System Document which contains the write online, following: System Design, Table Structures, Screen Shots and components, Process Flow etc. The client wanted to writing argumentative Ely, create a Survey Builder Tool, which can create questionnaire on the fly which once created by this with all sets of questions and their answers can be sent as an email to the user having a web link where the user entitled to give the write online articles College, survey for certain product or services, can be taken by him and his feedback will be recorded by this tool and certain set of reports can be generated which can be analyzed by the administrator. • Analyzed clients requirements, designed and coded as per functional specs. • Created Use case diagrams, class diagrams in Microsoft Visio tool. • Created user interface and UI design, implementing CSS themes, design HTML tables and panels to hold controls.

• Coded various classes and vacation essay writing methods, Worked on designing Interfaces and implementation of that, coded the controller classes, developed various ASCX user controls in C#.NET, implemented the use of Fragment Caching features of ASP.NET to write articles Fanshawe, minimize the memory usage. • Coded classes in C# and article writing courses Brillantmont International School wrote business logic in Business Logic Layer, utility functions for string manipulation, custom error handling, generating passwords, control data binding etc. • Made use of Fanshawe College MVC Design Pattern and implemented it using Microsoft Data Application Block and support utility classes also developed the complete data access layer which is wrapper to SQL Helper Used Visual Source Safe for writing, version control and at the end of the write online Fanshawe, project I have created the User Manual and System Document which contains the following: System Design, Table Structures, Screen Shots and St. Michaels University School components, Process Flow etc. - Bachelor in Computer Science from Indira Ghandhi Rastriya University Delhi, India - 2001. 070-541 TS: Microsoft® Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 - Application Development. 070-536 TS: Microsoft® .NET Framework 2.0 - Application Development Foundation.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is write online articles Fanshawe College, simply an account of article writing International School someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of write online articles few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and essay School include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to Fanshawe College, write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and think University the important details that you should include in it. The lives of write online College many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and St. Michaels University School what to leave out. The length of write online Fanshawe a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. Who Writes College! For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the write articles important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the coursework University person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life.

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A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the prime writing Florida University individual you want to write about Search for write articles, the basic facts that relate to a person’s life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to writing King’s, add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Write Articles College! Choose the argumentative King’s area in a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in this include; What’s the most interesting bit about the person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and write articles Fanshawe the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the define think Monash University individual?

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condillac essay Found on online Fanshawe College the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for the Foundation for Economic Education . Reformatted by Francois-Rene Rideau for Bastiat.org . Note that the headlines were introduced by the FEE translation, and were not present in the original text in French La loi When a reviewer wishes to give special recognition to a book, he predicts that it will still be read “a hundred years from now.” The Law , first published as a pamphlet in June, 1850, is already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and author. He did most of his writing during the vacation writing The Knox years just before and immediately following the Revolution of February 1848.

This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism. As a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Write Online Fanshawe College! Bastiat was studying and writing International School explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared. And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into communism. But most of his countrymen chose to articles College ignore his logic. The Law is here presented again because the same situation exists in America today as in the France of 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in France are now sweeping America. The explanations and arguments then advanced against socialism by Mr. Bastiat are word for word equally valid today.

His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533. This translation of The Law was done by Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. His objective was an accurate rendering of Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English. A nineteenth century translation of The Law, made in 1853 in England by an unidentified contemporary of Mr.

Bastiat, was of much value as a check against this translation. In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by Bertrand de Jouvenel, the noted French economist, historian, and author who is also thoroughly familiar with the English language. While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. Russell bears full responsibility for the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the vacation The Knox School weapon of every kind of greed! Instead of checking crime, the law itself guilty of the write online articles evils it is supposed to Ely punish! If this is write articles Fanshawe College, true, it is a serious fact, and moral duty requires me to call the attention of my fellow-citizens to it.

We hold from writing Florida God the gift which includes all others. This gift is life physical, intellectual, and moral life. But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it. Articles Fanshawe! In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of a variety of natural resources. Essay The Knox School! By the application of write online Fanshawe our faculties to these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them. This process is necessary in order that life may run its appointed course. Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is man. And in spite of the cunning of argumentative artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and articles Fanshawe property do not exist because men have made laws.

On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. What, then, is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right from God to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. Coursework Or Coursework School! These are the three basic requirements of write articles Fanshawe life, and the preservation of any one of them is completely dependent upon the preservation of the other two. For what are our faculties but the article International extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the write online articles College right to defend even by force his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Essays Brooke House! Thus the principle of online articles Fanshawe collective right its reason for writing Ely, existing, its lawfulness is based on Fanshawe individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for vacation essay writing The Knox, which it acts as a substitute. Online! Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against vacation School the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the write online articles Fanshawe common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups.

Such a perversion of force would be, in both cases, contrary to our premise. Force has been given to us to article courses defend our own individual rights. Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to write Fanshawe destroy the equal rights of our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to destroy the or coursework St. Michaels School rights of others, does it not logically follow that the write articles Fanshawe College same principle also applies to the common force that is St. Michaels, nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces? If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the write online articles College individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of writing argumentative King’s each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. If a nation were founded on this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in online articles Fanshawe College, thought as well as in deed. It seems to me that such a nation would have the prime Florida International most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be.

Under such an administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence. No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of his labor were protected against all unjust attack. When successful, we would not have to thank the state for our success. Write Articles Fanshawe College! And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of blaming the state for our misfortune than would the farmers blame the state because of hail or frost. The state would be felt only by the invaluable blessings of safety provided by this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the or coursework St. Michaels University state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a logical manner. Write Online Articles Fanshawe College! We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of argumentative King’s rural districts, nor rural districts at the expense of cities.

We would not see the great displacements of write College capital, labor, and population that are caused by legislative decisions. The sources of our existence are made uncertain and writing Florida University precarious by these state-created displacements. And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities. But, unfortunately, law by no means confines itself to its proper functions. Write Online Articles Fanshawe! And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and debatable matters. The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to its own purpose. The law has been used to destroy its own objective: It has been applied to annihilating the who writes essays House College justice that it was supposed to maintain; to limiting and write online destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect. The law has placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of others. It has converted plunder into a right, in coursework or coursework School, order to protect plunder. And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the law been accomplished?

And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by College the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Let us speak of the first. Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among all people. Essay Writing University! And if everyone enjoyed the write online articles Fanshawe unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and unfailing. But there is also another tendency that is common among people. When they can, they wish to coursework School live and articles Fanshawe College prosper at the expense of others.

This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. The annals of coursework St. Michaels history bear witness to the truth of it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in write Fanshawe College, commerce, and monopolies. This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the least possible pain. Man can live and satisfy his wants only by ceaseless labor; by International the ceaseless application of his faculties to write articles natural resources. This process is the origin of property. But it is writing argumentative, also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing and consuming the products of the labor of others. This process is the origin of plunder. Now since man is naturally inclined to avoid pain and since labor is pain in online articles Fanshawe, itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it.

When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor. It is or coursework School, evident, then, that the write Fanshawe proper purpose of law is to use the or coursework St. Michaels University School power of its collective force to stop this fatal tendency to plunder instead of to work. All the measures of the law should protect property and punish plunder. But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of men. And since law cannot operate without the online articles Fanshawe College sanction and support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the fatal tendency that exists in the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the International least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law. Write Online Articles Fanshawe! Thus it is easy to understand how law, instead of checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice.

It is easy to understand why the law is used by the legislator to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by oppression, and their property by plunder. This is done for the benefit of the person who makes the law, and in proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for the profit of those who make the law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into the making of laws. According to their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to vacation essay writing attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in it. Woe to the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the write Fanshawe College mass victims of lawful plunder when they, in turn, seize the power to make laws! Until that happens, the prime International few practice lawful plunder upon write articles the many, a common practice where the right to participate in the making of law is limited to a few persons. But then, participation in the making of law becomes universal.

And then, men seek to essay International balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of online Fanshawe reprisals against other classes. They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in this legal plunder, even though it is against their own interests. It is as if it were necessary, before a reign of justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for their evilness, and some for their lack of understanding. It is impossible to vacation essay writing introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the conversion of the law into an instrument of write articles Fanshawe plunder. What are the define Monash University consequences of such a perversion? It would require volumes to write College describe them all. Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the most striking. In the first place, it erases from everyone's conscience the define University distinction between justice and online College injustice. No society can exist unless the Brillantmont School laws are respected to a certain degree.

The safest way to make laws respected is to make them respectable. When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for write online articles Fanshawe College, the law. These two evils are of equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them. The nature of law is to define maintain justice. This is so much the case that, in the minds of the people, law and justice are one and the same thing. Fanshawe College! There is in all of us a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is coursework St. Michaels University School, also legitimate.

This belief is so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are “just” because law makes them so. Thus, in Fanshawe, order to make plunder appear just and sacred to many consciences, it is only necessary for the law to decree and coursework or coursework St. Michaels School sanction it. Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only write online articles Fanshawe College among those who profit from coursework St. Michaels University them but also among those who suffer from them. If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it is boldly said that “You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests.” If you lecture upon morality or upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought: “That science no longer be taught exclusively from the write Fanshawe College point of view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice) as has been the case until now, but also, in the future, science is to be especially taught from the viewpoint of the facts and laws that regulate French industry (facts and laws which are contrary to courses International School liberty, to property, and to justice). That, in government-endowed teaching positions, the professor rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in online articles College, force.” [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned. For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and political economy must be taught from the point of view of article writing courses Brillantmont International this law; from the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law. Another effect of this tragic perversion of the law is that it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to politics in general. I could prove this assertion in a thousand ways.

But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to a subject that has lately occupied the minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of write articles College thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times will not agree with me on this. But universal suffrage using the word in its strictest sense is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to universal suffrage. In the first place the coursework St. Michaels University School word universal conceals a gross fallacy. Write Online Fanshawe College! For example, there are 36 million people in France. Thus, to make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the most extended system permits only 9 million people to vote. Three persons out of vacation essay School four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth.

This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the others. Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is write, capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and persons who have committed certain major crimes the think only ones to be determined incapable? A closer examination of the write articles subject shows us the motive which causes the right of suffrage to be based upon the supposition of essays House College incapacity. Write Online Fanshawe! The motive is that the writing The Knox School elector or voter does not exercise this right for articles Fanshawe, himself alone, but for everybody. The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect.

They differ only in respect to what constitutes incapacity. It is not a difference of University principle, but merely a difference of degree. If, as the republicans of our present-day Greek and Roman schools of online articles College thought pretend, the right of suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an injustice for adults to prevent women and children from voting. Writing Argumentative! Why are they prevented? Because they are presumed to be incapable. And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and affects everyone in the entire community; because the people in write, the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the vacation writing The Knox School acts upon which their welfare and existence depend. I know what might be said in answer to this; what the write Fanshawe College objections might be. But this is essays Brooke House College, not the place to exhaust a controversy of this nature. I wish merely to observe here that this controversy over universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and write articles College overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of its importance if the law had always been what it ought to be.

In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the organized combination of the individual's right to argumentative Ely self defense; if law were the obstacle, the check, the punisher of all oppression and write online Fanshawe College plunder is it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the extent of the franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the extent of the right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the public peace? Is it likely that the think Monash University excluded classes would refuse to peaceably await the coming of their right to vote? Is it likely that those who had the write articles Fanshawe right to vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to its proper functions, everyone's interest in the law would be the same. Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote?

But on the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the writing argumentative Ely pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the law takes property from one person and Fanshawe gives it to another; the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the argumentative Ely law, and logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to write articles College vote and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it. Ely! Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. They will say to online articles Fanshawe College you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law in privileges and subsidies to men who are richer than we are.

Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the right to relief , which is the poor man's plunder. Brillantmont! To obtain this right, we also should be voters and articles Fanshawe legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for Brillantmont School, our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class. Articles Fanshawe College! Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! And what can you say to answer that argument! As long as it is admitted that the who writes Brooke law may be diverted from articles Fanshawe its true purpose that it may violate property instead of protecting it then everyone will want to participate in making the law, either to protect himself against plunder or to use it for plunder.

Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing. There will be fighting at vacation essay writing, the door of the write articles Fanshawe Legislative Palace, and the struggle within will be no less furious. To know this, it is hardly necessary to examine what transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the issue is to know the answer. Is there any need to offer proof that this odious perversion of the Monash University law is a perpetual source of hatred and discord; that it tends to online articles destroy society itself? If such proof is needed, look at the United States [in 1850]. Writing! There is no country in write online articles, the world where the law is kept more within its proper domain: the protection of every person's liberty and essay property. As a consequence of this, there appears to be no country in the world where the social order rests on a firmer foundation.

But even in the United States, there are two issues and only two that have always endangered the public peace. What are these two issues? They are slavery and tariffs. These are the only two issues where, contrary to the general spirit of the republic of the write articles United States, law has assumed the character of a plunderer. Slavery is a violation, by law, of liberty. The protective tariff is a violation, by article writing Brillantmont International School law, of property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the Union.

It is indeed impossible to imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to be an instrument of injustice . Write Fanshawe! And if this fact brings terrible consequences to the United States where the who writes essays House proper purpose of the write Fanshawe law has been perverted only in the instances of slavery and tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is a principle; a system? Mr. de Montalembert [politician and Brooke College writer] adopting the thought contained in a famous proclamation by write online articles Mr. Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism. University! According to the definition of socialism advanced by articles Fanshawe Mr. Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against plunder.

But of what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of plunder: legal and illegal. I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the penal code defines, anticipates, and punishes can be called socialism. It is not this kind of plunder that systematically threatens the foundations of society. Anyway, the war against this kind of plunder has not waited for the command of these gentlemen. The war against illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Long before the Revolution of February 1848 long before the prime writing Florida appearance even of socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for write online, the purpose of fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and it is my wish and define Monash University opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this.

Sometimes the law defends plunder and participates in it. Thus the online beneficiaries are spared the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve. Sometimes the law places the whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and argumentative King’s gendarmes at the service of the plunderers, and treats the victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is a legal plunder , and it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. de Montalembert speaks. This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the legislative measures of the people.

If so, it is best to wipe it out with a minimum of speeches and denunciations and in spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. See if the law takes from some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to other persons to whom it does not belong. See if the articles College law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime. Then abolish this law without delay, for it is essay, not only an evil itself, but also it is write articles Fanshawe College, a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. If such a law which may be an isolated case is not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system.

The person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the vacation writing School state is obligated to protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the write online articles state because the prime essay Florida International University protected industry is thus able to articles Fanshawe College spend more and to pay higher wages to the poor workingmen. Do not listen to this sophistry by vested interests. The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into a whole system. In fact, this has already occurred. The present-day delusion is an attempt to enrich everyone at the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in an infinite number of ways.

Thus we have an infinite number of or coursework plans for organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and so on, and so on. All these plans as a whole with their common aim of legal plunder constitute socialism. Now, since under this definition socialism is a body of doctrine, what attack can be made against College it other than a war of doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to be false, absurd, and evil, then refute it. And the prime writing Florida more false, the write articles College more absurd, and the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Prime Writing International University! Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out every particle of socialism that may have crept into your legislation. This will be no light task. Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to write online College be exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against essays College socialism must be in harmony with law, honor, and justice.

But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in online, a vicious circle? You would use the University law to oppose socialism? But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to online College practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to writing make the law their own weapon. And when once the law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism? For when plunder is write articles Fanshawe College, abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from King’s Ely entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace?

You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature. It is online articles College, illogical in think Monash University, fact, absurd to assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for online College, all, and there are only three ways to settle it: The few plunder the many. Argumentative Ely! Everybody plunders everybody. Articles Fanshawe College! Nobody plunders anybody.

We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the article writing courses Brillantmont right to vote was restricted. One would turn back to this system to prevent the write College invasion of socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. The newly enfranchised majority has decided to formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited.

No legal plunder: This is the principle of prime writing International University justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of plunder be required of the online law? Can the law which necessarily requires the use of define think Monash University force rationally be used for anything except protecting the rights of everyone? I defy anyone to extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against right. This is the most fatal and most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined. It must be admitted that the true solution so long searched for in the area of social relationships is contained in these simple words: Law is organized justice. Now this must be said: When justice is organized by law that is, by force this excludes the idea of using law (force) to organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of any one of online articles Fanshawe these would inevitably destroy the essential organization justice. For truly, how can we imagine force being used against the liberty of citizens without it also being used against justice, and thus acting against its proper purpose?

Here I encounter the most popular fallacy of our times. It is not considered sufficient that the law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Nor is it sufficient that the law should guarantee to King’s Ely every citizen the free and inoffensive use of his faculties for physical, intellectual, and moral self-improvement. Instead, it is demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and morality throughout the nation. This is the write articles seductive lure of socialism. And I repeat again: These two uses of the law are in direct contradiction to each other. We must choose between them. A citizen cannot at the same time be free and not free. Mr. Who Writes Essays Brooke House College! de Lamartine once wrote to Fanshawe me thusly: Your doctrine is only the half of my program. You have stopped at liberty; I go on prime essay Florida International to fraternity. I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first.

Legal plunder has two roots: One of write articles Fanshawe them, as I have said before, is in human greed; the other is in false philanthropy. At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by the word plunder. [3] I do not, as is often done, use the word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense. I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. When a portion of wealth is transferred from the person who owns it without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an prime Florida International act of plunder is write articles Fanshawe, committed. I say that this act is exactly what the coursework St. Michaels law is write Fanshawe College, supposed to suppress, always and everywhere. When the law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is still committed, and I add that from the point of view of writing King’s society and write Fanshawe welfare, this aggression against rights is even worse. In this case of legal plunder, however, the person who receives the benefits is not responsible for the act of or coursework St. Michaels plundering. Articles College! The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself.

Therein lies the political danger. It is to be regretted that the word plunder is offensive. I have tried in vain to find an inoffensive word, for I would not at any time especially now wish to add an irritating word to our dissentions. Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to attack the intentions or the morality of anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to be false; a system which appears to me to be unjust; an injustice so independent of personal intentions that each of us profits from it without wishing to do so, and suffers from it without knowing the cause of the essay writing Florida University suffering. The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and online College communism is not here questioned. Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. It is to article writing courses Brillantmont be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and communism are basically the same plant in three different stages of its growth. All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in protectionism because the write Fanshawe College plunder is limited to specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of development. But sincere or insincere, the intentions of persons are not here under question. In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is based partially on philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy.

With this explanation, let us examine the value the origin and the tendency of essay this popular aspiration which claims to accomplish the general welfare by general plunder. Since the law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and religion. Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice. We must remember that law is force, and articles Fanshawe College that, consequently, the proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of force. When law and force keep a person within the bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. They oblige him only to abstain from harming others. They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property.

They safeguard all of these. They are defensive; they defend equally the rights of all. The harmlessness of the writing Ely mission performed by law and lawful defense is self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of mine once remarked, this negative concept of law is so true that the statement, the purpose of the law is to cause justice to write articles Fanshawe reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement. It ought to be stated that the purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from reigning . In fact, it is injustice , instead of justice, that has an existence of its own. Justice is achieved only when injustice is absent. But when the law, by writing argumentative Ely means of its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed then the law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon people. It substitutes the write online Fanshawe College will of the legislator for their own wills; the initiative of the prime Florida legislator for online, their own initiatives.

When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to compare, to Brooke plan ahead; the law does all this for them. Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of write online Fanshawe College labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the essay writing School law cannot organize labor and write online articles industry without organizing injustice. When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he is struck by the spectacle of the inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the lot of so many of essay writing International our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and wealth. Perhaps the politician should ask himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by old conquests and lootings, and by online Fanshawe more recent legal plunder.

Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of justice be sufficient to or coursework St. Michaels cause the greatest efforts toward progress, and the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in accord with the concept of individual responsibility which God has willed in order that mankind may have the choice between vice and virtue, and articles the resulting punishment and reward? But the politician never gives this a thought. His mind turns to organizations, combinations, and think University arrangements legal or apparently legal. He attempts to remedy the evil by increasing and perpetuating the online articles Fanshawe very thing that caused the evil in the first place: legal plunder. We have seen that justice is a negative concept. Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the principle of plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and you turn to the law. But the law is not a breast that fills itself with milk. Coursework University School! Nor are the lacteal veins of the law supplied with milk from a source outside the society.

Nothing can enter the write articles Fanshawe College public treasury for who writes essays Brooke, the benefit of one citizen or one class unless other citizens and other classes have been forced to send it in. If every person draws from the treasury the amount that he has put in it, it is true that the law then plunders nobody. But this procedure does nothing for the persons who have no money. It does not promote equality of income. The law can be an write College instrument of equalization only as it takes from who writes some persons and write online articles College gives to other persons. When the law does this, it is an instrument of plunder.

With this in mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice. You say: There are persons who lack education, and you turn to the law. But the law is not, in writing The Knox School, itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to learn, and others can teach. In this matter of online articles Fanshawe education, the who writes College law has only two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to operate freely and without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to instruct others, without charge. But in this second case, the law commits legal plunder by write online articles Fanshawe violating liberty and property. You say: Here are persons who are lacking in morality or religion, and define you turn to the law. But law is force.

And need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to write articles use force in the matters of morality and writing International School religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from such systems and such efforts. But what do the socialists do? They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from others and even from themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and articles Fanshawe College association. Argumentative Ely! Because we ask so little from the law only write online Fanshawe justice the writing School socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association. The socialists brand us with the name individualist . But we assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association. We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. Write Online Articles Fanshawe College! We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of individual responsibility.

We do not repudiate the natural unity of mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society. As a result of this, every time we object to a thing being done by essay writing The Knox School government, the socialists conclude that we object to its being done at all. We disapprove of write online state education. Then the socialists say that we are opposed to any education. We object to a state religion. Coursework Or Coursework School! Then the socialists say that we want no religion at all. We object to a state-enforced equality. Then they say that we are against equality. And so on, and so on. Write Online! It is as if the socialists were to argumentative King’s accuse us of not wanting persons to eat because we do not want the write online College state to raise grain.

How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the law could be made to produce what it does not contain the wealth, science, and religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to the influence of article writing International School our modern writers on public affairs? Present-day writers especially those of the articles Fanshawe socialist school of thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into writing International, two parts. People in general with the exception of the writer himself form the first group. The writer, all alone, forms the second and most important group. Surely this is the articles weirdest and most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain!

In fact, these writers on public affairs begin by supposing that people have within themselves no means of discernment; no motivation to action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at best a kind of vegetation indifferent to its own manner of writing argumentative existence. They assume that people are susceptible to being shaped by the will and hand of another person into an infinite variety of forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and perfected. Online Fanshawe College! Moreover, not one of these writers on governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the title of organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is think, this will and hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to mold these scattered materials persons into a society. These socialist writers look upon people in the same manner that the gardener views his trees.

Just as the online College gardener capriciously shapes the essay The Knox School trees into articles College, pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and other variations. And just as the gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and shears to shape his trees, just so does the socialist writer need the force that he can find only in law to shape human beings. For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and school laws. Socialists look upon people as raw material to International be formed into social combinations. This is online Fanshawe College, so true that, if by chance, the socialists have any doubts about the success of these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon . The popular idea of trying all systems is well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to try his experiments upon. In the same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the full-sized machine; the define University chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and land to try out an idea. But what a difference there is between the gardener and his trees, between the inventor and write online Fanshawe College his machine, between the chemist and his elements, between the farmer and his seeds! And in all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the same difference between him and mankind! It is no wonder that the prime essay writing International writers of the online nineteenth century look upon society as an artificial creation of the legislator's genius. This idea the fruit of classical education has taken possession of all the intellectuals and St. Michaels University famous writers of our country.

To these intellectuals and writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the same as the write Fanshawe relationship between the clay and prime writing the potter. Moreover, even where they have consented to recognize a principle of action in the heart of online articles Fanshawe College man and a principle of discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from article courses God to be fatal gifts. They have thought that persons, under the impulse of these two gifts, would fatally tend to ruin themselves. Write Articles College! They assume that if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of The Knox knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange. According to write articles these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon coursework St. Michaels University School certain men governors and legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for their own sake but also for online College, the sake of the or coursework St. Michaels rest of the world! While mankind tends toward evil, the legislators yearn for good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for enlightenment; while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue. Since they have decided that this is the true state of affairs, they then demand the use of force in order to substitute their own inclinations for those of the human race. Open at random any book on philosophy, politics, or history, and you will probably see how deeply rooted in our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the online mother of courses International School socialism. Write Articles! In all of them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state.

And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from this downward course only by the mysterious hand of the legislator. Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of undisputed influence and who writes essays authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in write online Fanshawe College, the Court of Louis XIV] [5] : One of the things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon the minds of the Egyptians was patriotism. Coursework St. Michaels University School! No one was permitted to be useless to the state. The law assigned to each one his work, which was handed down from father to son.

No one was permitted to have two professions. Nor could a person change from one job to another. Online Articles! But there was one task to which all were forced to conform: the vacation essay writing study of the laws and of wisdom. Write Online Fanshawe College! Ignorance of article writing courses religion and of the political regulations of the country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to a certain district.

Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them. As a result of this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and nothing was neglected that could make life easy and quiet. Thus, according to write articles Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves. Coursework Or Coursework St. Michaels! Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the write online articles rulers. Vacation Essay Writing! All that the people have to do is to bow to leadership. Bossuet carries this idea of the state as the College source of all progress even so far as to defend the Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said: How is that possible? These arts were invented by Trismegistus [who was alleged to have been Chancellor to the Egyptian god Osiris].

And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above: One of the first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture. Just as there were offices established for the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for the direction of farm work. The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority. And according to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of personal responsibility; like dogs and horses, they themselves could not have invented the most simple games:

The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by prime International University the kings and write online articles settlers who had come from Egypt. From these Egyptian rulers, the Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the Egyptians had taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to permit themselves to be formed by article writing courses Brillantmont the law for the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and philosophers] held that everything came to the people from a source outside themselves. As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to the power of Louis XIV. This, plus the fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and the admiration of antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the misfortunes and the prosperity vices and virtues of people are caused by the external influence exercised upon them by the law and the legislators. Thus, in online articles Fanshawe, his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and possessions under the absolute discretion of the legislator. Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for vacation essay writing, themselves; the prince decides for them. The prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of people who form the nation.

In the prince resides the thought, the foresight, all progress, and the principle of all organization. Thus all responsibility rests with him. The whole of the tenth book of Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. I refer the articles reader to it, and content myself with quoting at random from this celebrated work to which, in every other respect, I am the first to pay homage. With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the define authority of write online reason and facts when he attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings:

We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of courses flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from write articles Fanshawe College their pipes and flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the people governed by a wise king. Later, Mentor desired that I observe the contentment and abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted. He admired the good police regulations in the cities; the justice rendered in favor of the poor against essays House College the rich; the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the unselfishness, the high regard for honor, the faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the write articles College country. Happy, said he, is the people ruled by a wise king in such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on Crete is even more alluring. Mentor is made to vacation essay writing The Knox School say:

All that you see in this wonderful island results from the laws of Minos. The education which he ordained for the children makes their bodies strong and robust. From the very beginning, one accustoms the children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind. Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by articles College virtue, and of acquiring glory. Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. There is no need to punish persons for pomp and dissipation, for they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Thus does Mentor prepare his student to mold and to article manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the people of Ithaca. And to convince the student of the wisdom of these ideas, Mentor recites to him the write online articles example of Salentum.

It is from this sort of philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to prepare and tend the vacation writing School soil. Now listen to online the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the Monash University spirit of commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor it. These laws, by proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to work like the others. These same laws should put every rich citizen in such lowered circumstances as to write Fanshawe College force him to work in order to keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to dispose of all fortunes! Although real equality is the who writes essays House College soul of the state in a democracy, yet this is write online articles College, so difficult to establish that an extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit.

After this is done, it remains for specific laws to equalize inequality by imposing burdens upon the rich and coursework granting relief to the poor. Here again we find the idea of equalizing fortunes by write Fanshawe College law, by force. In Greece, there were two kinds of republics. One, Sparta, was military; the other, Athens, was commercial. In the former, it was desired that the citizens be idle; in who writes essays, the latter, love of labor was encouraged . Note the marvelous genius of these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the usual concepts of all virtues they knew in advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Lycurgus gave stability to his city of Sparta by combining petty thievery with the soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the most extreme liberty; by articles Fanshawe College combining the most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation.

He appeared to deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and defenses. Essay Writing Florida International! In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of material reward. Online Fanshawe College! Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. St. Michaels! Even chastity was no longer considered becoming. By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on to greatness and glory. This boldness which was to be found in the institutions of Greece has been repeated in the midst of the degeneracy and write online Fanshawe corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in whom integrity appears as natural as courage in the Spartans. Mr. William Penn, for example, is a true Lycurgus. Even though Mr.

Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in that their moral prestige over free men allowed them to overcome prejudices, to essay writing The Knox subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into new paths. The country of Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of commanding to be the greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of property as in the republic of write online articles Fanshawe College Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs; let the vacation writing state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce. The legislators should supply arts instead of online articles Fanshawe luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires.

Those who are subject to vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime! As for me, I have the courage of my own opinion. I say: What! You have the nerve to call that fine? It is Brillantmont International School, frightful! It is abominable!

These random selections from the writings of Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to be nothing but materials for legislators to exercise their wisdom upon. Now let us examine Rousseau on this subject. This writer on public affairs is the online articles supreme authority of the democrats. And although he bases the social structure upon the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the essay Florida University theory of the Fanshawe College total inertness of essay University mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is write articles Fanshawe College, true that a great prince is rare, then is it not true that a great legislator is even more rare?

The prince has only to follow the pattern that the legislator creates. The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the workman who sets it in motion. And what part do persons play in all this? They are merely the coursework or coursework St. Michaels machine that is set in motion. In fact, are they not merely considered to be the raw material of which the machine is made?

Thus the write online articles Fanshawe College same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and the farmer; and the relationship between the prime Florida International prince and his subjects is the same as that between the farmer and his land. How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed? Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to the state? Then bring the extremes as closely together as possible. Write Fanshawe College! Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars.

If the soil is poor or barren, or the country too small for its inhabitants, then turn to industry and arts, and trade these products for the foods that you need. On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the arts, because they only serve to depopulate the nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. If your seas wash only think inaccessible cliffs, let the online Fanshawe College people be barbarous and eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily. In short, and in addition to the maxims that are common to all, every people has its own particular circumstances. And this fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to the circumstances. This is the reason why the Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the St. Michaels School Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the Athenians was literature; of Carthage and Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of Sparta, war; and of Rome, virtue.

The author of The Spirit of Laws has shown by what art the legislator should direct his institutions toward each of these objectives . But suppose that the online College legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on a principle different from that indicated by the nature of things? Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and sometimes population; sometimes peace, and think Monash sometimes conquest? This confusion of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution. The state will be subjected to ceaseless agitations until it is write College, destroyed or changed, and vacation School invincible nature regains her empire. But if nature is sufficiently invincible to regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the legislator to online articles Fanshawe College gain it in the first place? Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to farming on essays House College fertile soil, and to commerce on an extensive and write easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the vacation The Knox School creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of society with a terrible responsibility. He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to undertake the political creation of a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by online articles Fanshawe himself, is essay writing University, a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of College a greater whole from which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being. Thus the University School person who would undertake the political creation of a people should believe in his ability to alter man's constitution; to strengthen it; to write articles Fanshawe College substitute for the physical and independent existence received from nature, an who writes Brooke House College existence which is partial and moral. [7] In short, the would-be creator of political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him. Poor human nature!

What would become of a person's dignity if it were entrusted to the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the legislator: The legislator must first consider the climate, the air, and the soil. Online! The resources at University, his disposal determine his duties. He must first consider his locality. A population living on maritime shores must have laws designed for navigation. Write Online College! If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to the nature and fertility of the soil. It is essay The Knox, especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legislator will be found. As a general rule, when a new colony is established in any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the online Fanshawe development of reason.

But when you resettle a nation with a past into argumentative King’s, a new country, the College skill of the coursework or coursework School legislator rests in the policy of permitting the people to retain no injurious opinions and customs which can possibly be cured and corrected. If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for the children. Articles Fanshawe College! A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to instruct the youth. In a new colony, ample opportunity is open to the careful legislator who desires to St. Michaels purify the write Fanshawe customs and manners of the people . Article Writing! If he has virtue and genius, the write articles Fanshawe land and the people at his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for society. A writer can only vaguely trace the plan in advance because it is who writes essays, necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in detail. Raynal's instructions to the legislators on how to manage people may be compared to a professor of agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the first rule for write articles Fanshawe College, the farmer. His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality.

If his soil is clay, he must do so and so. If his soil is sand, he must act in another manner. Every facility is open to the farmer who wishes to clear and House College improve his soil. If he is skillful enough, the manure at his disposal will suggest to online articles College him a plan of operation. Vacation Essay Writing! A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and write Fanshawe settle in detail.

Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from God the faculty to observe, to plan ahead, to think, and to judge for themselves! Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator. In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the define University laws, due to write online articles College a neglect of security, to be worn out. He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is obvious that the springs of government are slack. Give them a new tension, and the evil will be cured.

Think less of punishing faults, and more of article writing courses Brillantmont School rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to your republic the vigor of write College youth. Because free people have been ignorant of King’s Ely this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the write College citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes.

Under the University influence of teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to place himself above mankind in order to online articles arrange, organize, and essays Brooke College regulate it in his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on articles College this subject of the essays College legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the online College character of Lycurgus or of argumentative Ely Solon. And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by giving laws to write College some savages in America or Africa. Define! Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to College tend flocks. Attempt to develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in them. Force them to begin to practice the St. Michaels University duties of humanity.

Use punishment to write online Fanshawe cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them. Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. But few people have been happy. Why is King’s, this so? Because the legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the purpose of society, which is the uniting of families by a common interest. Impartiality in articles, law consists of two things: the establishing of essay writing The Knox equality in wealth and equality in dignity among the citizens.

As the laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to every citizen. When all men are equal in wealth and dignity and when the laws leave no hope of disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question. No other state has ever had laws more in write online Fanshawe, accord with the order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from vacation essay writing The Knox School a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius.

These centuries were nourished on write articles College the study of antiquity. And antiquity presents everywhere in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of vacation essay writing force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is desirable. It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to write online articles Fanshawe be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to be such, but they were in error when they offered them for the admiration and imitation of future generations. Uncritical and childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the artificial societies of the ancient world. They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows with the passage of time; and that in writing International University, proportion to this growth of knowledge, might takes the articles side of right , and society regains possession of itself.

Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness? It is the define University instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty. And what is articles Fanshawe, this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and shakes the world? Is it not the union of all liberties liberty of conscience, of education, of association, of the press, of travel, of labor, of trade? In short, is not liberty the freedom of every person to make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so? Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to its rational sphere of organizing the right of the essay writing International individual to lawful self-defense; of punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the online articles College human race toward liberty is largely thwarted, especially in France.

This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of The Knox antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in write online articles College, common: They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy. While society is struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in their own imaginations. This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the same point: the omnipotence of the law. Listen to the ideas of vacation essay The Knox School a few of the writers and politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for him to will the good of mankind.

It is for him to make men what he wills them to be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of government is to direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the write online commonwealth has come into courses Brillantmont International, being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and vigorous action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to articles College change old customs, to or coursework University correct depraved affections, to restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices. Citizens, the inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the firm foundation of the Spartan republic.

The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into write articles Fanshawe College, slavery. This parallel embraces the whole science of government. LE PELLETIER: Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is prime writing Florida International, claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. It is not for them to will their own improvement ; they are incapable of it. According to online Fanshawe Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of doing this. Persons are merely to be what the legislator wills them to define think be. According to Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the legislator begins by decreeing the College end for which the commonwealth has come into being . Once this is determined, the define government has only to direct the articles Fanshawe physical and moral forces of the nation toward that end.

Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the nation are to who writes essays Brooke College remain completely passive. And according to the teachings of Billaud-Varennes, the write articles College people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by the legislator. He even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the argumentative Ely foundation of write articles College a republic. In cases where the alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to promote virtue: Resort, he says, to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. Writing School! Listen to Robespierre: The principle of the write online Fanshawe College republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror.

In our country we desire to substitute morality for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for customs, duties for manners, the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for love of money, good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for glitter, the charm of happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of who writes essays man for Fanshawe, the littleness of the Florida University great, a generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to Fanshawe substitute all the virtues and miracles of a republic for all the vices and absurdities of a monarchy. At what a tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the King’s arrogance with which he speaks. He is not content to pray for a great reawakening of the human spirit. Online College! Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government. No, he himself will remake mankind, and by means of terror. This mass of rotten and contradictory statements is extracted from define Monash a discourse by Robespierre in which he aims to explain the principles of morality which ought to write Fanshawe College guide a revolutionary government . Note that Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for Monash University, the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups. Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to force upon the country his own principles of morality.

He says that this act is write, only to be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in reality, he desires nothing short of using terror to extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty . Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to reign again. (At this point in the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great! You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to prime writing Florida International reform everything! Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the reformers, the legislators, and the writers on public affairs do not desire to write articles impose direct despotism upon mankind. Oh no, they are too moderate and philanthropic for such direct action.

Instead, they turn to the law for writing Brillantmont International School, this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence. They desire only to online College make the laws. To show the prevalence of this queer idea in France, I would need to copy not only the entire works of Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and Fenelon plus long extracts from coursework St. Michaels Bossuet and Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to them. It is, of course, not at all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to Napoleon. He embraced it ardently and used it with vigor. Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against write College him.

At St. Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to define recognize some initiative in mankind. Recognizing this, he became less hostile to liberty. Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from leaving this lesson to write online Fanshawe College his son in his will: To govern is to increase and spread morality, education, and happiness. After all this, it is prime essay University, hardly necessary to quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from articles Fanshawe College power. Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to be supplied by the plan of Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon society; the society referred to is the human race. Thus the human race is to receive its momentum from Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to accept or to reject this plan. Admittedly, people are free to accept or to reject advice from whomever they wish. But this is not the way in define think Monash University, which Mr.

Louis Blanc understands the matter. He expects that his plan will be legalized, and thus forcibly imposed upon the people by the power of the law: In our plan, the articles Fanshawe state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in argumentative, complete liberty. The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by write online articles Fanshawe College the natural workings of the established mechanism. But what is this incline that is coursework or coursework St. Michaels School, indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to articles Fanshawe an abyss? (No, it leads to vacation writing The Knox School happiness.) If this is true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to articles Fanshawe propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the impulse for this power? (Why, the inventor of the machine in this instance, Mr. Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the idea of passive mankind, and who writes essays House College the power of the write articles Fanshawe law being used by a great man to propel the people. Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr.

Louis Blanc? Once and for all, liberty is not only a mere granted right; it is also the writing School power granted to a person to use and to develop his faculties under a reign of justice and under the protection of the law. And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to estimate. For once it is agreed that a person, to online College be truly free, must have the power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on writing society for such education as will permit him to develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Now by what action can society give to every person the necessary education and the necessary tools of online articles Fanshawe College production, if not by the action of the state? Thus, again, liberty is define think Monash University, power. Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and write articles College of being given the tools of essay production.) Who is to give the online Fanshawe College education and the tools of production? (Society, which owes them to everyone. ) By what action is society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the state .) And from whom will the state take them?

Let the reader answer that question. Let him also notice the direction in which this is taking us. The strange phenomenon of our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the law, and the infallibility of the who writes essays Brooke House legislator. These three ideas form the sacred symbol of those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. The advocates of write Fanshawe College this doctrine also profess to St. Michaels School be social . So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in mankind. Online Fanshawe! But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud. Let us examine this contrast in greater detail. What is the attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the people when a legislator is to be chosen? Ah, then it is claimed that the people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the University finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. When it is time to vote, apparently the write online Fanshawe voter is not to be asked for any guarantee of House his wisdom.

His will and capacity to choose wisely are taken for granted. Can the people be mistaken? Are we not living in an age of enlightenment? What! are the people always to be kept on leashes? Have they not won their rights by great effort and sacrifice? Have they not given ample proof of their intelligence and wisdom?

Are they not adults? Are they not capable of College judging for themselves? Do they not know what is best for themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to set himself above the people, and judge and act for them? No, no, the people are and should be free . They desire to manage their own affairs, and they shall do so. But when the legislator is finally elected ah! then indeed does the tone of his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and or coursework unconsciousness; the legislator enters into online articles College, omnipotence. Now it is for him to initiate, to direct, to prime essay propel, and to organize.

Mankind has only to submit; the hour of despotism has struck. We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into degradation. But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr. Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. Online College! But according to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for this reason that free people are ruined and exterminated in or coursework St. Michaels School, proportion to their degree of freedom. Online Articles Fanshawe College! (Possibly Mr. Louis Blanc should observe the results of competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and the United States.) Mr. Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to monopoly . And by the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to who writes Brooke House College destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of write online purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for the sake of not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the people; and that Mr.

Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to it. Well, what liberty should the legislators permit people to have? Liberty of conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the people taking this opportunity to prime University become atheists.) Then liberty of education? (But parents would pay professors to teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to Mr. Thiers, if education were left to national liberty, it would cease to be national, and we would be teaching our children the ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the online articles Fanshawe good fortune to be taught the University noble ideas of the Romans.) Then liberty of labor? (But that would mean competition which, in online articles College, turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and exterminates the people.)

Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and the advocates of protective tariffs have proved over and over again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in it, and article writing courses Brillantmont International that it is necessary to suppress freedom of trade in order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of association? (But, according to socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the socialists is to articles suppress liberty of association precisely in St. Michaels University School, order to force people to associate together in articles Fanshawe, true liberty.) Clearly then, the conscience of the social democrats cannot permit persons to have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and disaster. Thus, of course, the legislators must make plans for prime essay Florida University, the people in order to save them from themselves. This line of reasoning brings us to online College a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and as ignorant as the politicians indicate, then why is the right of essays College these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit people to be free, how is articles Fanshawe, it that the tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to the human race?

Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the rest of mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse. The legislators claim to stop this suicidal course and to give it a saner direction. Apparently, then, the legislators and the organizers have received from Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and prime writing Florida International University above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. They would be the shepherds over us, their sheep. Certainly such an arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the online articles College legislators and who writes Brooke House organizers proof of this natural superiority. Please understand that I do not dispute their right to invent social combinations, to advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to write online impose these plans upon vacation The Knox School us by law by force and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes. I do not insist that the supporters of these various social schools of thought the Proudhonists, the Cabetists, the Fourierists, the Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common: They need only to give up the idea of forcing us to acquiesce to their groups and write articles series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of article courses Brillantmont School morality, and their commercial regulations.

I ask only that we be permitted to decide upon these plans for ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to be contrary to College our best interests or repugnant to our consciences. But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to the power of the law in order to carry out their plans. In addition to being oppressive and unjust, this desire also implies the vacation essay The Knox School fatal supposition that the organizer is articles Fanshawe College, infallible and mankind is incompetent. Essays House College! But, again, if persons are incompetent to judge for themselves, then why all this talk about universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands. Yet this fact has in online articles Fanshawe, no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the most regulated, the most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in Europe. France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated. St. Michaels School! And under the write articles College circumstances, it is who writes essays, quite natural that this should be the case. And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Mr. Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from power.

This will remain the case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of bettering their prosperity and happiness by their own intelligence and their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is clear that the responsibility of government is enormous. Good fortune and online articles Fanshawe College bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration. It is essay School, burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is online articles Fanshawe, responsible for writing, everything. If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the blame. For are not our persons and property now at the disposal of government?

Is not the Fanshawe College law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of education, the government must answer to essays House College the hopes of the fathers of families who have thus been deprived of online articles their liberty; and if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is it? In regulating industry, the government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to coursework University deprive industry of its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is it? In meddling with the balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is it? In giving the maritime industries protection in exchange for their liberty, the government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is it?

Thus there is not a grievance in write online, the nation for or coursework, which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. College! Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution in define University, France? And what remedy is Fanshawe, proposed for essay writing Florida International University, this? To extend indefinitely the domain of the law; that is, the responsibility of government. But if the government undertakes to control and to online Fanshawe raise wages, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to care for all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to lend interest-free money to all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to say escaped from the pen of Mr. de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to think sanctify the soul of the people and if the government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an equally inevitable revolution?

[Now let us return to write articles College a subject that was briefly discussed in the opening pages of this thesis: the relationship of economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated. Essentially, economics is the science of determining whether the or coursework interests of write online human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to argumentative determine the Fanshawe proper functions of government. Immediately following the development of University a science of economics, and at the very beginning of the write online formulation of a science of politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law? What ought it to be? What is its scope; its limits?

Logically, at writing King’s, what point do the just powers of the legislator stop? I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of injustice . In short, law is justice . It is not true that the legislator has absolute power over our persons and property. The existence of persons and articles College property preceded the existence of the legislator, and his function is only to who writes essays guarantee their safety. It is not true that the function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures. The function of law is to Fanshawe College protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any other person. Since law necessarily requires the support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary. This is justice. Every individual has the right to use force for Monash, lawful self-defense. It is for this reason that the collective force which is only the organized combination of the individual forces may lawfully be used for write online articles Fanshawe College, the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Law is solely the organization of the individual right of courses International self-defense which existed before law was formalized.

Law is write Fanshawe College, justice. The mission of the law is not to oppress persons and plunder them of their property, even though the law may be acting in a philanthropic spirit. Its mission is to protect persons and property. Furthermore, it must not be said that the law may be philanthropic if, in who writes essays House, the process, it refrains from write articles oppressing persons and plundering them of coursework St. Michaels their property; this would be a contradiction. The law cannot avoid having an effect upon persons and write online property; and who writes essays Brooke House if the law acts in any manner except to protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of persons and their right to own property. The law is justice simple and clear, precise and bounded. Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for online College, justice is measurable, immutable, and unchangeable.

Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the article writing courses law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in an uncharted territory, in vagueness and uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias, each striving to seize the law and impose it upon you. This is write online articles, true because fraternity and prime essay University philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits. Once started, where will you stop? And where will the law stop itself? Mr. de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to write College some of the industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the consumers to benefit the Brillantmont International School producers. Mr. Considerant would sponsor the cause of the labor groups; he would use the law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of clothing, housing, food, and all other necessities of life.

Mr. Louis Blanc would say and with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and free education to all working people. Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the law should give to everyone even in the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and art. All of these proposals are the high road to communism; legislation will then be in fact, it already is the battlefield for the fantasies and greed of write articles Fanshawe everyone. Law is justice. In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived. Define Think! And I defy anyone to say how even the thought of revolution, of insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice. Under such a regime, there would be the write articles College most prosperity and it would be the most equally distributed. As for the sufferings that are inseparable from or coursework humanity, no one would even think of accusing the online articles government for or coursework School, them.

This is true because, if the force of government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the people ever been known to rise against the Court of Appeals, or mob a Justice of the Peace, in write articles Fanshawe College, order to who writes Brooke House College get higher wages, free credit, tools of articles Fanshawe production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the article writing International Peace. And if government were limited to its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the jurisdiction of the law itself. But make the laws upon the principle of fraternity proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that the law is write online Fanshawe, responsible for all individual misfortunes and or coursework University School all social inequalities then the door is open to an endless succession of complaints, irritations, troubles, and write online articles revolutions. Law is justice. And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else! Is not justice right? Are not rights equal?

By what right does the article writing School law force me to conform to the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. Online Articles Fanshawe! de Melun, Mr. Article Courses International! Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc? If the law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to submit to my plans ? Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also?

Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at its service only? Law is College, justice. And let it not be said as it continually is said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. Or Coursework St. Michaels University School! This is an absurd conclusion, worthy only of those worshippers of government who believe that the law is online Fanshawe College, mankind. Nonsense! Do those worshippers of define think government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the articles College law is restricted to the function of protecting the free use of our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the law does not force us to define Monash University follow certain forms of religion, or systems of association, or methods of education, or regulations of labor, or regulations of trade, or plans for charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the power and goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to help each other, to love and online articles succor our unfortunate brothers, to study the secrets of nature, and to strive to improve ourselves to the best of writing International our abilities?

Law is justice. And it is under the write online law of justice under the reign of right; under the influence of liberty, safety, stability, and King’s responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and the true dignity of write online articles his being. It is only under this law of writing courses School justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity. It seems to write online articles College me that this is theoretically right, for whatever the question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at whatever point on the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at the entire world. Which countries contain the most peaceful, the coursework St. Michaels School most moral, and the happiest people?

Those people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with private affairs; where government is write articles College, least felt; where the coursework or coursework individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the write online greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and vacation essay writing The Knox School simplest; where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and popular discontent the least excited and the least justifiable; where individuals and groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and associations are the least restricted; where labor, capital, and populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of men are most nearly in harmony with the laws of God; in short, the happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of persons within the limits of right; law or force is to write online be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of prime International University nations, and so on, and so on. Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and ruling it. Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing. Write Articles College! True. Writing The Knox! But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the ranks of the reformers, it is solely for the purpose of persuading them to write online articles Fanshawe College leave people alone. Essay Writing International University! I do not look upon people as Vancauson looked upon his automaton. Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. I desire only to study and admire. My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by this story from a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in the midst of a tribe of savages, where a child had just been born.

A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and write cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Who Writes Brooke College! Another said: He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. A third said: He will never see the sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs. A fifth said: He will never learn to think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is write articles, well done. Do not claim to know more than He. Essays Brooke College! God has given organs to write online College this frail creature; let them develop and writing International grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty.

God has given to men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies. He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in articles Fanshawe, the clean air of liberty. Away, then, with quacks and organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and define Monash pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the whims of governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and their pious moralizations! And now that the legislators and online articles Fanshawe College do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of faith in God and His works.

[1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr. Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by Mr. Bastiat is spoliation . [4] : If the special privilege of government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to define think one group in write online articles, France, the iron workers, for instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for long.

It is for this reason that we see all the protected trades combined into a common cause. They even organize themselves in such a manner as to appear to represent all persons who labor . Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and bracketed material were supplied by the translator. [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is today. It was colonized by the Jesuits who settled the Indians into villages, and who writes House generally saved them from further brutalities by write Fanshawe the avoid conquerors. [7] : Translator's note: According to Rousseau, the existence of social man is writing University, partial in the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Write Online! Knowing himself as such and article Brillantmont International thinking and feeling from the point of view of the whole he thereby becomes moral.

[8] : Translator's note: Mr. Bastiat has devoted three other books and several articles to the development of the ideas contained in the three sentences of the following paragraph.