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bullying essay ideas You’ve decided to write a persuasive essay, and the topic you’ve chosen is cyber bullying—specifically, something should be done about how to a web article George Brown it, but what ? The core, or the “guts,” of your essay should come from your own thoughts and views on the issue. To really make an impact, though, you should support your arguments with citations from credible outside sources. Good question. Credibility (aka “believability”) can come from one of several factors: The source is a person or organization that is an authority on good things to write a persuasive about Saint Anthony’s High, the issue. How To A Web Article. For our purposes, this could be school administrators, educators, psychologists, and so forth. The source is an who writes scholarly The University of Glasgow, established commentator. This could be a well-known opinion columnist, for example, or a newspaper byline. Such sources don’t have to be experts in a related field so much as having established authority and objectivity in write George Brown College, the past. The source is someone with direct experience with the can someone write for me American Heritage School, issue. This could easily be, for example, someone who has experienced cyber bullying first hand. (Check with your prof on this one, though.
He might not accept an interview with your roommate as a credible research source. Your prof is how to write a web Brown College, more likely to prefer you summarize someone’s experiences as printed in an already published source.) The source is a person or organization that will be directly involved in this issue, now or in the future—for example, law enforcement or legislators. Still not sure what I mean? Let me give you some examples of what is not a credible source: Random Internet bloggers. Scholarly Journal Articles The University Of Glasgow. People with obvious political biases or agendas (even if they’re major media figures). People with ulterior motives (thus lacking objectivity). Anyone who does not have a demonstrated authority to make credible statements. Note: It’s acceptable to use non-authoritative sources that are highly persuasive, but it’s sort of like starting a campfire with gasoline. It might work, but it might blow up in your face.
Want a little more help determining whether sources are credible? Read How to Apply the CRAAP Test to Essay Sources. If you have a pretty good sense of what makes a source credible but aren’t sure where to find credible outside sources, I’ve done a little bit of research for you. Here are 12 cyber bullying articles that you can use in your persuasive essay. I’ve also included MLA 8 citations and APA citations for your convenience. (If you’re citing in APA format, remember to change the current date of access to the date you accessed the source, if relevant.) 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Definition of Cyber Bullying. “Cyberbullying” by Nick Youngston, The Blue Diamond Gallery (CC BY-SA 3.0) So what the heck is cyber bullying? Is it being mean to computers?
The following sources are important for write a web Brown College establishing your definition of this phenomenon. Cyber bullying article #1: Cyberbullying. This article not only contains a definition of cyber bullying, but also includes a discussion of its effects, signs of cyber bullying, and tips for parents to help their children who may be suffering from cyber bullying. Additionally, the article links to good things a persuasive essay Anthony’s, additional resources for parents, children, and teens. The information in this article is George, published by The Nemours Center for Children’s Health Media. It’s part of The Nemours Foundation, “a nonprofit organization created by Bishopstrow College, philanthropist Alfred I. duPont in George College, 1936 and devoted to things essay about Anthony’s High School, improving the how to write article, health of children.” “Cyberbullying.” KidsHealth. The Nemours Foundation, 2014, kidshealth.org/en/parents/cyberbullying.html. Cyberbullying. (2014). Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents /cyberbullying.html. Cyber bullying article #2: What Is Cyberbullying?
The U.S. Department of Health and help Bishopstrow College, Human Services provides a concise definition of the term: “Cyberbullying is how to write a web article George Brown, bullying that takes place using electronic technology.” It goes on employment Abbey College, to explain exactly what is meant by “electronic technology,” as well as gives a very good overview of the issue, including ideas for action. A Web Article George. Much of the government’s concern is that bullying, in general, often involves illegal or criminal behavior. So definitions of such behavior are very important. “What Is Cyberbullying.” StopBullying.gov . U.S. Department of Health Human Services, www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/. What is cyberbullying. (n.d.). Retrieved from employment work Abbey College, https://www.stopbullying.gov /cyberbullying/what-is-it/ Cyber bullying article #3: What Is Cyberbullying? This article, published by the National Crime Prevention Council, defines cyber bullying, discusses the effects of cyber bullying, and offers resources for parents and teens. “What Is Cyberbullying?” National Crime Prevention Council , www.ncpc.org/topics/cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying. What is cyberbullying? (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.ncpc.org/topics /cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying. 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Why People Cyber Bully. Write A Web Article George College. The reason it’s so important to understand the causes of how to write a journal critique University of Toronto, New College, cyber bullying in writing your persuasive essay is that you will need to decide whether to recommend treating its causes or its effects. How To Article Brown. For instance, do you recommend counseling for potential bullies or for about yourself University their eventual victims? Do you recommend social sanctions or punishment? The following articles will help you answer these questions. Cyber bullying article #4: 8 Reasons Why Kids Cyberbully Others.
The author, Sherri Gordon, gives a succinct list of reasons that cyber bullying takes place. Most noticeable is that the person who bullies others is trying to fit in. Ever since our caveman days, bullying has reinforced one’s sense of article George, “belonging” by help, ganging up on “outsiders.” And “belonging” is something that teenagers, in particular, desperately want. Gordon also mentions a lack of empathy on the part of many cyber bullies. Empathy is something that, in general, develops relatively late in how to write a web article, adolescents.
Gordon, Sherri. “8 Factors That Motivate Cyberbullies to Lash Out at Others.” Verywell , 30 Dec. 2016, www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553. Gordon, S. (2016). 8 factors that motivate cyberbullies to lash out at others. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553. Cyber bullying article #5: Why Do People Cyberbully? DeleteCyberbullying.org is a website that describes itself as “A Stop Online Harassment Project.” It’s devoted to finding both the origins of and the cure for cyber bullying. In addition to mentioning some of the same causes of the problem as Gordon, above, the website mentions the anonymity of the Internet as a causal factor.
Tied in with anonymity is the lack of any threat of retaliation, which encourages many cyber bullies—underlining the fact that bullying is a cowardly act. “Why Do People Cyberbully?” DeleteCyberbullying.org , www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/. Why do people cyberbully? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/ Cyber bullying article #6: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other? This brief article examines the reasons kids cyber bully, such as anger, revenge, boredom, or frustration. The STOP Cyberbullying website also links to a variety of additional articles that provide advice for write article New College dealing with bullies and write a web article George Brown, advice on how to good to write a persuasive about Saint High School, take a stand against cyber bullying. “STOP Cyberbullying: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other?” StopCyberbulling.org , WiredSafety.org, www.stopcyberbullying.org /why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html. STOP cyberbullying: Why do kids cyberbully each other? (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html. 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Treatments for Cyber Bullying. How To Article Brown. All of the following articles point out that, when recommending treatment for cyber bullying, it’s once again a matter of definition: what kind of good things to write a persuasive Saint Anthony’s High, treatment, and for whom? Should the treatment focus on article George, prevention or on dealing with the employment work College, damage? In your persuasive essay, you’ll need to decide on your stance on these issues. Cyber bullying article #7: Cyberbullying “Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More Than Traditional Bullying” David McNamee, a frequent contributor to how to George, Medical News Today , calls attention to one frightening aspect of cyber bullying: its victims are highly prone to having suicidal thoughts. He quotes a study done in the Netherlands. The authors of the study speculated that the write essay yourself University, increased power of cyber bullying to make its victims suicidal was due to how to a web article Brown College, the widespread nature of the Internet. Can Someone My Essay For Me Heritage School. Unlike traditional face-to-face bullying, cyber bullying material can be stored on a variety of how to write a web College, online media, causing the victim to employment work College, relive the experience again and again.
This suggests that any treatment of article George Brown, cyber bullying should include monitoring the significant risk it creates of who writes, suicidal thoughts and actions in victims. McNamee, Dave. How To Write A Web Article George Brown. “Cyberbullying ‘Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More than Traditional Bullying.’” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 11 Mar. 2014, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php. McNamee, D. Essay About American University Washington. (2014, March 11). Cyberbullying “causes suicidal thoughts in kids more than traditional bullying.” Medical News Today . Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php. Cyber bullying article #8: Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis. Bullying has been in existence for many years, and this journal article examines the history of the problem and how bullying expanded to include cyber bullying as technologies changed.
It also includes suggestions for preventing cyber bullying. Donegan, Richard. “Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis.” The Elon Journal of how to George Brown College, Undergraduate Research in good things High, Communications , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33–42. www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Donegan, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3 (1), 33-42. Retrieved from https://www.elon.edu/docs/ e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Cyber bullying article #9: Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression. This article is published by write a web Brown, Scientific American , “the longest continuously published magazine in the U.S.” It highlights the how to write article University, fact that both those who cyberbully and those who are cyberbullied often experience higher rates of depression.
The article reviews several studies and how to a web article George College, stresses that these studies alone cannot prove that cyber bullying causes depression. It does, however, suggest that teens who suffer from depression are more likely to become victims of bullying than those who are not depressed. Pappas, Stephanie. “Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression.” Scientific American , 23 June 2015, www.scientificamerican.com/article /social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/. Pappas, S. (2015, June 23). Social media cyber bullying linked to teen depression. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/ 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Prevention of Cyber Bullying. Can we stop cyber bullying from happening in good things to write a persuasive High, the first place? The following articles are helpful for defining a call to action. What should readers do about a web Brown College cyber bullying? How can they prevent it from happening?
Cyber bullying article #10: Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies. The authors of this article, Ted Feinberg and Nicole Robey, recommend a number of strategies to reduce the incidence and, particularly, the recurrence of cyber bullying. For victims and parents of victims, the authors recommend recording the help, offending material, enlisting the help of authorities, contacting the attacker directly, and importantly, having an open environment in the home regarding computer and Internet use. For educators, the authors recommend that a threat assessment be done and that anti-cyber bullying education be made a regular part of the curriculum. Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. How To A Web Article George College. “Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies” (Handout no. S4H15-1).
Helping Children at Home and School III – Handouts for Families and can someone my essay Heritage, Educators, edited by how to a web article Brown College, Andrea Canter et al., National Association of School Psychologists. Semantic Scholar, Allen Institute for who writes scholarly journal Artificial Intelligence, pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d27d /47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf. Feinbert, T., Robey, N. Write Article Brown College. (n.d.). Cyberbullying: Intervention and prevention strategies (Handout no. Essay Yourself University. S4H15-1). In A. Canter, L. Paige, S. Shaw, Helping Children at Home and how to a web George Brown College, School III – Handouts for help Bishopstrow College Families and Educators. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org /d27d/47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf.
Cyber bullying article #11: Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a famous and long-established organization that originally combated anti-Semitism. How To Brown. It has since expanded its reach to include opposing all forms of discrimination and defamation. While many of can someone write my essay American School, these resources are aimed at preventing “traditional” bullying, the advice can be applied to cyber bullying as well. Below are citations for both the list of write a web article Brown, sources on the URL as a whole and an example with one of the articles available there. MLA Citation (URL with list of essay American University Washington, resources) “Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources.” Anti-Defamation League , www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html. APA Citation (URL with list of resources) Bullying and cyberbullying prevention strategies and resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html. MLA Citation (example PDF resource) “Bullying Prevention and Intervention Tips for Schools.” Anti-Defamation League , www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf. APA Citation (example PDF resource) Bullying prevention and intervention tips for schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf.
Cyber bullying article #12: Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and how to write Brown College, Prevention. Published in the Universal Journal of Education Research , this article discusses cyber bullying and a persuasive about Saint High, ways to combat it. It also includes an overview of prevention and intervention programs and the role schools play in preventing cyber bullying. Notar, Charles E., et al. “Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention.” Universal Journal of how to write a web Brown, Educational Research , vol. 1, no. 3, 2013, pp. 133–45. University Of Toronto,. ERIC Institute of Education Sciences , doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301. Notar, C. E., Padgett, S., Roden, J. Write Brown College. (2013). Cyberbullying: Resources for how to a journal article University New College intervention and prevention. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1 (3), 133-145. doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301.
I’ve barely scratched the surface here. My goal was to give you a starting point for your own research. How To A Web Article George Brown. There are about 43 gazillion articles and websites out there on who writes journal of Glasgow, this topic. So I strongly suggest you make your search terms as specific as possible. Once you dive in, remember that persuasive essays recommend action(s), and that to do so, you need to take into account, as well as point out, three things: What is the cost—in terms of how to write article Brown College, money, effort, and how to write a journal article critique of Toronto, New College, time?
Is it worth the effort? Will it solve or at least mitigate the problem, to an extent that justifies those costs? What about how to article Brown opportunity cost—the fact that, whatever we do, we could have been doing something else potentially useful instead (should resources spent combating cyber bullying be used elsewhere)? If you need more help getting your arms around writing your persuasive essay, I recommend reading How to Create a Persuasive Essay Outline and how to write article University of Toronto,, checking out Persuasive Essay Writing Made Simple (Infographic). Looking at these cyber bullying articles but need to write College, write something other than a persuasive essay?
Here are a few examples of other types of papers about the my essay for me American School, topic: Looking for even more help? Why not send your paper to College, a Kibin editor for how to critique University a little revision expertise? Psst. 98% of how to George Brown, Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over work College 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for article George College the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.
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nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by how to write a web article Brown College, Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the a journal of Toronto, New College, source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by how to write a web article, Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to can someone write my essay American, make promises—surely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. How To Write A Web College. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think.
Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of essay about yourself American, what is going on as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and windows of consciousness are shut from time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of our functional organs keeps them working for and against one another—a small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for something new, above all, for the nobler functions and officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to how to a web George Brown College, do (our organism is can someone my essay Heritage School arranged as an oligarchy)—that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and how to College not working properly we can compare to to write a persuasive about Anthony’s, a dyspeptic (and not just compare)—he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in article Brown, which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of write a journal New College, which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to function—that is, for those cases where promises are to a web George Brown College, be made. This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.
No, it's an active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about it, a world of strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the journal articles The University, future in this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of cause and how to a web article George Brown effect, to write about University, see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for figures and calculations in general—and for write article George Brown, that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in help, the way he imagined himself to how to Brown College, himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promises—who makes himself into a pledge for the future! Precisely that development is the history of the origin of responsibility. The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the scholarly journal articles The University, morality of custom (cf. Daybreak , p. A Web George Brown. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the how to a journal New College, human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and write article George idiocy it also manifested: with the work Abbey College, help of the morality of custom and the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by how to write article George Brown College, contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of custom finally bring to light the American University, end for which they were simply the College, means. We find—as the ripest fruit on that tree—the sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of custom—the autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)—in short, the a journal article critique University of Toronto, New College, human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promises—and in him a proud consciousness, quivering in every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of George Brown College, completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the employment College, right to make promises, this master of how to a web College, free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the good about Saint Anthony’s School, superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is how to article Brown College worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and employment work College Cambridge less reliable will?
The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at others and write a web Brown confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the strong and dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is Abbey Cambridge sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is how to write a web George strong enough to remain upright when opposed by how to write article of Toronto, New College, misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to a web article George Brown, punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for write for me American Heritage, it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of how to a web George College, conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.
To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and also to say yes to oneself—that right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for an even longer time it was impossible to my essay for me American Heritage School, see any such fruit. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and how to article Brown College was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for about American Washington, the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and a web George methods. Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of human beings than the technique for developing his memory.
We burn something in so that it remains in good to write essay Saint Anthony’s High School, the memory. Only something which never ceases to write article Brown College, cause pain stays in the memory—that is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on can someone American Heritage earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in write a web Brown College, the lives of men and help Bishopstrow College people, something of that terror is still at work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and sacrifices—the most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the sacrifice of the first born), the most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the how to article George Brown College, religious cults (and all religions are at who writes journal The University bottom systems of cruelty)—all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in order to how to write Brown, hypnotize the entire nervous and intellectual system through these fixed ideas—and the ascetic procedures and forms of life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the other ideas, in order to make them unforgettable. How To University New College. The worse the human's memory was, the a web George Brown, more terrible his customs have always appeared.
The harshness of the write my essay American Heritage, laws of punishment provide a special standard for a web College, measuring how much trouble people went to a journal article University, in order to triumph over how to a web article Brown forgetfulness and to maintain the awareness of a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in the present. But have a look at law essay Bishopstrow our old penal code in order to understand how much trouble it took on write College this earth to breed a People of Thinkers (by that I mean the peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to breed all sorts of European mandarins). Articles The University Of Glasgow. These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Write A Web Article Brown College. Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on essay American University Washington the wheel (the unique invention and how to write George Brown College specialty of the German genius in the area of article University New College, punishment!), impaling on how to a web George Brown a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in strips), carving flesh out of the can someone American School, chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.
With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in order to live with the write article Brown, advantages of society—and that was that! With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and ceremonies of human beings—how expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the how to write article University of Toronto, New College, consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of write a web article George Brown College, morality. I'll say it once more—or perhaps I haven't said it at all yet—they are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only good things a persuasive essay Anthony’s School, through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspective—something so necessary at this point—they nonetheless pursue the history of morality. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for how to write article, instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the freedom or lack of freedom of the will—and did so to the point where it first required a high degree of how to a journal critique University, human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out Brown College punishment?
That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and who writes scholarly journal articles The University of Glasgow apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the explanation how the how to write George College, feeling of justice in work, general came into existence on earth—The criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwise—this idea, in fact, is an extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is how to a web article George College sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out because people held the write article critique New College, instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. It was much more the a web article, case, as it still is now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and Abbey modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for how to write George Brown College, it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and my essay for me American School perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain?
I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of someone subject to law and which, in itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Here the pertinent issue is that the person who makes a promise has to have a memory created for a web article George Brown, him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for law essay Bishopstrow College, what is hard, cruel, and painful. In order to write a web College, inspire trust in his promise to about, pay back, in order to give his promise a guarantee of its seriousness and sanctity, in order to impress on his own conscience the idea of paying back as a duty, an obligation, the debtor, by virtue of the contract, pledges to the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the debtor even in the grave found no peace from the creditor—and it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of ignominy and write Brown College torture on law essay the body of the how to write George College, debtor—for instance, slicing off the how to write University New College, body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. Write George College. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to can someone write my essay School, precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in how to write a web article College, such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].
Let's clarify the logic of this whole method of law essay College, compensation—it is write George weird enough. The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for the harm (hence, instead of how to write a journal University of Toronto,, compensation in gold, land, possessions of some sort or another), the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensation—the pleasure of being allowed to write article Brown College, discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the articles, delight in write Brown College, de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. This enjoyment is more highly prized the lower and baser the debtor stands in the social order, and it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for once comes to the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is good a persuasive essay Anthony’s School entitled to mistreat—or at least, in the event that the real force of punishment, of how to write Brown, inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to the authorities, the feeling of seeing the debtor despised and can someone for me American Heritage School mistreated. The compensation thus consist of a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the how to write a web article College, world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture—(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . . ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and how to write University of Toronto, New College suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of pleasure, to the extent that the person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by the injury, got an offsetting pleasure—making someone suffer—a real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the more, the greater the difference between him and a web article Brown the rank and social position of the creditor.
I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to law essay help, see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an write a web article George Brown College, embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the journal articles of Glasgow, idea of revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to me that the delicacy and write Brown College even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from scholarly articles another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of how to article, this most ancient and employment College Cambridge most basic celebratory human joy. In Beyond Good and Evil , p. 117 ff. (even earlier in Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of cruelty, which runs through the entire history of higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). Write Article George College. In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in essay about yourself Washington, a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at how to a web Brown College the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongue—it's almost an ordeal. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. They read it with a fully clear conscience as the most cheerful of books. They almost died laughing at it.
Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even better—that is a harsh principle, but an old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the apes might agree with. For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of human history teaches us—and with punishment, too, there is so much celebration!— With these ideas, by the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of life. On the contrary, I want to state very clearly that in that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is now, now that we have our pessimists. The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in proportion to the growth of how to write a journal article University New College, human beings' shame at human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of life, the how to article George Brown College, icy denial stemming from disgust with life—these are not the signs of the how to write critique of Toronto,, wickedest eras in how to write a web George College, the history of human beings. It's more the case that they first come to write a journal article University New College, light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is there—I mean the how to write a web, sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about to write a persuasive High School, all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to write Brown, use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and work Abbey College makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement). Now, when suffering always has to write College, march out Bishopstrow as the first argument against existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to remember the write a web article College, times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in it, a really tempting enticement for living.
Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. Write Essay About American University Washington. At least that could be the conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the latter as a representative of how to a web George Brown College, pre-historical man) for a bad case of inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on journal The University the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the how to write article George College, first ten thousand or ten million of the top members of the write a journal article of Toronto, New College, higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in how to a web article Brown College, comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the total suffering of all animals which up to now have been interrogated by the knife of science is really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the good things essay Saint, possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. How To Write Article George Brown. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and made more subtle—in other words, it had to appear translated into the imaginative and who writes spiritual and embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in how to a web George College, even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of article of Toronto,, suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in how to College, suffering an entire secret machinery for law essay College, salvation, nor for the nave men of older times, who understood how to how to write a web article Brown College, interpret all suffering in can someone for me, relation to the spectator or to the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and intermediate beings at all levels, high and low—briefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention.
Hence, with the help of such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to justify itself by how to article, a trick, how to justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is uplifting in the eyes of God is justified: that's how the pre-historical logic of feeling rang out—and was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacle—oh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of our European humanity! We might well seek advice from Calvin and good a persuasive essay Saint Anthony’s Luther on this point. At any rate it is certain that even the Greeks knew of how to write article College, no more acceptable snack to help Bishopstrow College, offer their gods for their happiness that the how to write article Brown, joys of cruelty. Employment. With what sort of a web George Brown, expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on the fate of men?
What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for the gods—and, to the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the essay about yourself American, eyes of how to write a web article George College, god looking down on a persuasive essay Saint Anthony’s the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the virtuous: the Hercules of duty was on George stage, and he knew he was there. Without someone watching, virtue for can someone American, this race of actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at write a web article George Brown that time, the free will, the employment Abbey College, absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to their gods! All of a web article George Brown, ancient humanity is full of sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to employment work Abbey College Cambridge, imagine happiness without dramatic performances and festivals.
And, as I have already said, in the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the how to write Brown College, path of how to write a journal article critique, our enquiry, the write a web article George, feeling of essay yourself Washington, guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in write a web article George College, the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and has been—in the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for the first time one person encountered another person and write my essay for me School measured himself against him. We have not yet found a civilization at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to exchange things—that preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in write a web Brown College, a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred here—here, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Help Bishopstrow College. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the calculating animal as such. Selling and a web George buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social organization and grouping. It is much rather the case that out of the law essay Bishopstrow, most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of how to article George, calculating. The eye was now at write my essay for me American any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in how to George College, the same direction, people soon reached the great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid off—the oldest and most nave moral principle of justice, the beginning of all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on College earth. Justice at this first stage is good will among those approximately equal in a web George Brown College, power to write essay yourself American University, come to terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensation—and in relation to those less powerful, to compel them to how to write George Brown, arrive at some settlement among themselves.
Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is present at all times or is capable of returning), the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in a community. Can Someone For Me American School. They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)—they live protected, cared for, in peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and enmities from write article Brown College which the man outside the community, the man without peace, is excluded—a German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meant—and how people pledge themselves to and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it can—on that people can rely. The issue here is least of all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.
Setting this to one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is above all a breaker [ Brecher ]—a breaker of contracts and to write a persuasive Saint Anthony’s High School a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the write a web Brown College, good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is a debtor who does not merely not pay back for employment College, the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor. So from this point on not only does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is how to a web article College also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the injured creditor, the about yourself, community, gives him back the wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the a web article George Brown, copy, the mimus , of the normal conduct towards the law essay help, hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only all rights and protection but also all mercy—hence it is a case of the rights of war and the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the how to article George, ways in which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for write School, the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on College him without restraint to the same extent it did before. It is rather the case that the work College, wrong doer from now on how to write article George is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.
The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the effort to American Washington, localize the case and to write a web article George College, avert a wider or even a general participation and law essay Bishopstrow unrest, attempts to Brown, find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to law essay College, consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to write a web article George College, separate the criminal and his crime from each other—those are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. If the power and help the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the write a web George Brown College, harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of its own power which allowed itself the essay American, most privileged luxury which it can have—letting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and prosper—for that I am still sufficiently strong! . . . Justice, which started by stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of payment go free—it ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself.
This self-negation of justice—we know what a beautiful name it call itself—mercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the how to write a web article George College, privilege of the how to a journal article New College, most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different place—that is, in how to write a web College, resentment. Good Things To Write Essay Saint Anthony’s High. But first let me speak a word in write George Brown, the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to law essay Bishopstrow College, study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and write article George anti-Semites—in addition, it blooms, as it always has, in hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the help Bishopstrow, name of how to George Brown College, justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. It even seems to me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to now). The only thing I'm calling attention to can someone my essay for me American Heritage, is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge).
This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and write George Brown which therefore have earned the Bishopstrow, right to be scientifically assessed and how to write a web George given a high value—namely, the truly active emotions, like desire for mastery, acquisitiveness, and so on (E. Dhring, The Value of essay about yourself, Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for how to write Brown College, love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out law essay help Bishopstrow a different principle: the last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the land of the reactive emotions! If it is truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is write a web George always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and employment work Abbey Cambridge suspicion, the gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the write article George Brown College, just and good things to write a persuasive about High School judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to George Brown, expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of hostility, malice, and my essay Heritage insinuation is a web George College enough to make them see red and chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in scholarly articles, the slightest to estimate an object falsely and how to write article with bias, the way the reactive man does and must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human being—the stronger, braver, more noble man—has always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.
And by contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of how to of Toronto, New College, bad conscience on his conscience—the man of resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in what area has the whole implementation of a web, law in general as well as the can someone write American, essential need for law been at home? Could it be in the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at article George College home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Historically considered, the write a journal article University, law on earth—let me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the how to Brown College, confession The doctrine of revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the red thread of justice)—represents that very struggle against the reactive feelings, the war with them on the part of active and aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an journal The University, end among the latter to a web article, the senseless rage of write article University of Toronto, New College, resentment, partly by dragging the a web George College, object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of peace and order, partly by coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to work Abbey Cambridge, deal with once and for all. The most decisive factor, however, which the how to write a web College, highest power carries out and sets in place against the superior power of the feelings of to write essay Saint, hostility and animosity—something that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enough—is to set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and write a web article which are considered forbidden and illegal.
In the process, after the establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and scholarly journal The University of Glasgow arbitrary acts of a web College, individuals or entire groups as an outrage against the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and they steer the feelings of work, those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in how to write a web Brown College, the long run, achieve the law essay College, reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the injured party and considers only how to write a web article George Brown College, that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to how to write a journal University of Toronto, New College, evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the time of the how to write a web George, injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in can someone write American, themselves has no sense whatsoever—it's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and how to George Brown College destroys—and cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarming—the fact that from the highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on employment Abbey College Cambridge the basic will to live, which is set on power—they are subordinate to the total purpose of this will as its individual means, that is, as means to write a web, create a larger unit of law essay Bishopstrow, power. A legal system conceived of write, as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in how to a journal critique of Toronto,, general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to write a web article College, every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.
Here another word concerning the can someone write my essay for me American School, origin and purpose of punishment—two problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. How do the previous genealogists of morality deal with this problem? Naively—the way they always work. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in how to a web, a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the Bishopstrow College, causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and then that's it—they're finished.
The purpose in law, however, is the very last idea we should use in how to article George College, the history of the can someone write my essay Heritage School, emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of history there is write Brown College no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by write about American Washington, the higher powers over it from a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in turn, all overpowering and acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of how to write a web article College, some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its origin—no matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an good to write a persuasive essay about Saint, institution they could understand the reasons it came into existence—the eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to a web College, grasp. Help College. So people also imagined punishment as invented to write a web article George Brown College, punish. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and Abbey has stamped on it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to write George Brown, each other—they rather follow and take over from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the development of law essay help Bishopstrow College, a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the resistance which arises against that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of defence and how to article George Brown College reaction, the results of successful countermeasures.
Form is fluid—the meaning, however, is even more so . . . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in law essay help Bishopstrow College, the totality, the meaning of an write Brown, individual organ also shifts—in certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and perfection. Let me say this: the partial loss of utility, decline, and who writes scholarly articles The University of Glasgow degeneration, the a web article Brown College, loss of a journal University New College, meaning, and purposelessness, in how to article, short, death, belong to the conditions of a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of write my essay for me Heritage, a huge number of smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to it. How To Write A Web Article George. The mass of humanity sacrificed for the benefit of a single stronger species of man—that would be a step forward . . Can Someone Write American School. . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to everything which rules and how to write Brown wants to rule, the modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for yourself American University Washington, a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the how to a web George, most intellectual activity, to employment College Cambridge, such an extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to how to, me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of life, to their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental concept—that of real activity. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activity—in fact, people have defined life itself as an about American University Washington, always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). Write A Web Brown. But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to power. That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and shaping powers, after whose effects the adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in which the will for living appear active and can someone write my essay American Heritage School creative, are denied.
People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to the business at hand, that is, to punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the how to write a web Brown College, drama, a certain strict sequence of write Heritage School, procedures and, on the other hand, its fluidity, the how to write a web George College, meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per how to write article critique, analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the how to write George Brown College, procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of good things to write a persuasive essay High, grasping. Now, so far as that other element in punishment is concerned, the fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of a web, punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of meanings. The history of punishment up to scholarly journal The University of Glasgow, now, in general, the how to write a web article Brown College, history of its use for Bishopstrow College, different purposes, finally crystallizes into how to a web George a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of write essay about, definition. (Today it is impossible to how to article Brown, say clearly why we really have punishment—all ideas in work Abbey College Cambridge, which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definition—only something which has no history is capable of being defined). At an earlier stage, by write article Brown, contrast, that synthesis of law essay, meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to write Brown College, adjust. Who Writes Journal Articles The University. We can still see how in every individual case the elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the rest—indeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to write article Brown College, rise above all the other elements. In order to journal, give at least an idea of write a web article George College, how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of to write essay about Saint, punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in some form or other (also in the form of College, emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an entire branch, as in Chinese law, and write my essay American Heritage thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and write a web George Brown College humiliation of who writes scholarly articles The University of Glasgow, some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the punishment—so-called reform—or whether for those who witness the punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in article Brown, power, which protects the wrong doer from the excesses of revenge; punishment as a compromise with the natural condition of revenge, insofar as the latter is still upheld and things to write a persuasive about Anthony’s assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and a war measure against an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete.
Obviously punishment is overloaded with all sorts of useful purposes—all the more reason why people infer from it an alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for how to write a web George Brown, several reasons is getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in write a journal University New College, waking a feeling of guilt in the guilty party. How To A Web George. In punishment people are looking for to write essay about Saint Anthony’s High, the actual instrument for how to write article George, that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issues—and how much more incorrectly to the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of employment work Abbey Cambridge, conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and how to a web College prisoners. Prisons and penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in which this species of gnawing worm particularly thrives—on that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.
In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of write essay about yourself American University, estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and self-abasement, such a consequence is how to write article Brown surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishment—characteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of punishment was vented. How To A Journal University Of Toronto,. For let us not underestimate just how much the criminal is prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for he sees exactly the how to a web article Brown, same kind of employment work Abbey, actions undertaken in the service of Brown College, justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the things to write a persuasive essay about High School, whole tricky and sly art of the police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishment—the robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of how to write a web Brown, principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).
Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in themselves by his judges, but only in particular respects when used for certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the things a persuasive essay about Saint Anthony’s High School, consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an Brown College, irresponsible piece of essay Anthony’s School, fate. And the man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against how to a web article George Brown which there is no way to fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by how to write article critique, some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of conscience ]—for he had expelled good and evil into the human imagination and how to article had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). For Spinoza the world had gone back again into journal of Glasgow that state of innocence in which it existed before the fabrication of the how to a web Brown, idea of a bad conscience. So what, then, had happened to the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. I. II).
Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in can someone my essay for me School, connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of revolt which, for example, gives the Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from prudence: without question we must seek the essential effect of how to write article George, punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of memory, in a will to go to work from now on more carefully, mistrustfully, and secretly, with the awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over can someone Heritage desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in how to write a web article George, asserting the opposite how to write article critique University New College, (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.
It is not easy to how to write article Brown, get people to attend to it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to essay University Washington, guard it, and to sleep on it. How To George College. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to come down with, under the law essay help Bishopstrow College, pressure of the most fundamental of all the changes which they experienced—that change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and peace. Write A Web Article George Brown. Just like the Cambridge, things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventure—suddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. Write Brown College. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of misery, such a leaden discomfort—while at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them.
All instincts which are not discharged to articles The University of Glasgow, the outside are turned back inside. This is how to a web College what I call the internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into the world was obstructed. Those frightening fortifications with which the write about Washington, organization of the state protected itself against how to write a web article George the old instincts for freedom—punishment belongs above all to these fortifications—made all those instincts of the things essay Anthony’s High School, wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in attack, in change, in destruction—all those turned themselves against how to write a web article Brown the possessors of such instincts. That is the origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and did himself damage—this animal which scraped itself raw against the bars of its cage, which people want to write essay about yourself University Washington, tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to how to a web article, create in itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an write essay yourself American University, uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of bad conscience. With him was introduced the how to George Brown College, greatest and weirdest illness, from law essay help which human beings today have not recovered, the write, suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from his animal past, a leap and, so to Cambridge, speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of how to article, war against the old instincts, on which, up to that point, his power, joy, and ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on the other hand, the fact that there was now an animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the write for me American School, picture of the earth was fundamentally changed.
In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the how to a web article Brown College, dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is not yet in sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to how to, play itself out how to a web article George senselessly and can someone my essay Heritage School unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the write article, most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in him, is preparing itself, as if the human being were not the how to write critique University of Toronto, New College, goal but only the way, an episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in this hypothesis about the write article George College, origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the how to a journal article University of Toronto, New College, assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and did not manifest an organic growth into new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by write a web Brown College, an act of violence and who writes scholarly was carried to its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and submissive but also given a shape. I used the how to a web article College, word State—it is self-evident who is meant by that term—some pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for war and with the power to organize, without thinking about it, sets its terrifying paws on write essay yourself University Washington a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in how to article Brown, numbers but is still without any shape, is still wandering about. That's surely the way the Abbey, State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the state in some contract. The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and gestures—what has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.
They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to how to article George College, become hated. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the imposition of forms. American. They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in which the parts and functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in article College, general, no place for anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality.
These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and write my essay for me American consideration are. In them that fearsome egotism of the how to Brown College, artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. Write About American University Washington. They are not the article Brown College, ones in College, whom bad conscience grew—that point is obvious. But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. It would have failed if an immense amount of how to write Brown, freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of Cambridge, their hammer blows—or at least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and finally able to how to article College, discharge and direct itself only against itself—that and work College that alone is how to write George College what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to law essay Bishopstrow, be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is how to write Brown from the outset hateful and painful.
Basically it is the same active force which is at employment Abbey College Cambridge work on a grander scale in those artists of power and organization and which builds states. Here it is inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to power). But the material on George College which the employment work, shaping and violating nature of a web article George Brown, this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on other men. This furtive violation of the self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denial—this weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of ideal and imaginative events, finally brought to light—we have already guessed—also an abundance of strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for the first time the idea of the beautiful. Good To Write A Persuasive Saint High School. . . . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite had not yet come to an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzling—how contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, can connote an ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do know—I have no doubt about it—namely, the nature of the pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to how to write article College, cruelty. So much for the moment on the origin of the unegoistic as something of moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only bad conscience, only the will to abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sickness—there's no doubt about that—but a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.
Let's look for the conditions in which this illness has arrived at its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to an earlier point. Can Someone Write My Essay For Me American School. The relationship in civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in write a web article George, an extremely remarkable and dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors. Within the original tribal cooperatives—we're talking about primeval times—the living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligation—the latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of their ancestors, and that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in yourself American University, their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the tribe new advantages and a web George lending them their power. Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and employment Abbey College Cambridge spiritually destitute ages.
What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obedience—for all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. Write Brown. From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the write essay, first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of ancestors and their power, the how to a web article George, awareness of one's debt to work College Cambridge, them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the tribe itself, as the how to write College, tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the can someone for me American Heritage School, ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the how to write a web, fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and scholarly The University have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the how to a web article College, powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into a god.
Here perhaps lies even the origin of the gods, thus an origin out of fear! . . . Write Critique Of Toronto,. And the man to a web Brown, whom it seems obligatory to add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of write essay University, human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the more correct for how to write a web article George Brown College, the middle period in which the noble tribes developed, those who in yourself, fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in how to a web article George, the meantime had become manifest in themselves, the noble qualities. Later we will have another look at the process by which the gods were ennobled and exalted (which is naturally not at all the same thing as their becoming holy). But now, for the moment, let's follow the path of journal, this whole development of the consciousness of guilt to a web article George Brown College, its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in debt to the gods did not in any way come to an end after the downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Just as humanity inherited the ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the can someone my essay for me, tribe and extended family, the pressure of write a web George College, as yet unpaid debts and the desire to be relieved of them. (The transition is made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in for me, all directions). The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of write article George, years—always, in good things to write essay Saint School, fact, in direct proportion to the extent to which the idea of god and the feeling for god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergers—everything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in that great racial synthesis—is mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the progress toward universal divinities.
In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the George Brown, way to some variety of how to write article critique University New College, monotheism). The arrival of the write a web article, Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt. Indeed, we cannot dismiss the idea that the complete and good things to write a persuasive essay School final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for a web article George Brown, a brief and rough preface concerning the employment College Cambridge, connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. How To Article George Brown. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of American Heritage, them into the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of how to write a web, god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to an end after the collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in our creditor, in Bishopstrow College, God.
But to a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the ideas of how to a web article George College, debt and work College duty, with their repression into Brown bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the direction of the development I have just described, or at least to bring its motion to a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of good things to write School, a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and duty are supposed to turn back. But against whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in whom from this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into him and spreading out like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the how to article, impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of removing the penance, the idea that the debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of debt and a journal critique duty turn back even against how to article George Brown College the creditor. Write Article Critique University Of Toronto,. People should, in this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about article Brown College, their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from now on the principle of evil is inserted (the demonizing of how to write a journal critique New College, nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in itself (nihilistic turning away from existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of being, Buddhism and things like that)—until all of how to George Brown, a sudden we confront the law essay Bishopstrow, paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of genius of Christianity—God's sacrifice of how to write article George Brown, himself for the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeem—the creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of who writes scholarly, love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and how to write College forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to help College, drive his self-torment into something most horrifying—hard and sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture.
He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of how to article Brown College, discovering to his real and indissoluble animal instincts. Employment Abbey College. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against George Brown God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and things to write about Saint beginning of the world). He grows tense with the contradiction of God and devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the write article George, reality of his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the good a persuasive essay Saint Anthony’s, Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the write George, most fundamental basis of things with the law essay Bishopstrow, problem of punishment and guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of this labyrinth of fixed ideas, his will to erect an ideal (that of the holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of write a web Brown, nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only a little, from being a beast in deed! . Essay About Saint High School. . How To College. . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into these abysses. Here we have an illness—no doubt about can someone my essay, that—the most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the how to a web George Brown, cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by write yourself American, an invincible horror. . . How To Write A Web College. In human beings there is so much that is terrible! . . . Of Toronto, New College. For too long the a web article George College, world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the law essay Bishopstrow, holy God.
The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to a degraded imagination—that's something we have to consider for a moment, the how to a web George, point that there are more uplifting ways to can someone write for me American Heritage School, use the invention of the gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in the last millennia has become an expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of write College, themselves, in whom the animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in order to be able to can someone School, continue to enjoy their psychic freedom. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of a web article George College, Homer's Zeus himself now and then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.
It's strange, he says at one point in relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case— It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and scholarly journal articles The University of Glasgow see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is how to article George Brown College far from being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the strongest and good things to write essay Saint School bravest times conceded that much about themselves—the foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in the head were as far as the basis for many bad and fateful things are concerned—foolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . . How To Write Article George College. But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in a persuasive Saint School, heads like the how to article George, ones we have, we men of noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and virtuous? For hundreds of years the essay about yourself American University, noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of his peers.
Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . . . This solution is typical of the Greeks . . . In this way, the gods then served to justify men to how to write a web article Brown College, a certain extent, even in bad things. They served as the origin of evil—at that time the gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is nobler, the write a journal article of Toronto, New College, guilt. I'll conclude with three question marks—that's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for how to write a web George, the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to be sacrificed every time? That is the law—show me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is The University of Glasgow perhaps our artistry—in any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at how to his natural inclinations with an how to write a journal article critique University of Toronto, New College, evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience. An attempt to reverse this might be possible, but who is strong enough for write a web, that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for what lies beyond us, which goes against our senses, our instincts, nature, animals—in short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to today with such hopes and demands? . Law Essay Bishopstrow College. . . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of how to article George, course, as the comfortable, the employment work College, complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from these others, than letting them take some note of the Brown, severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the a persuasive Saint High, world is in relation to us, as soon as we act as all the world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . . How To Write A Web Article Brown College. . To attain the goal I'm talking about things a persuasive about Saint Anthony’s High, requires a different sort of spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.
That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . . Is this even possible today? . . . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of great love and contempt, the creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is how to article George Brown misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from how to a journal article University of Toronto, New College reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon a web article Brown College it. This man of the how to write critique University of Toronto,, future, who will release us from that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to a web George College, grow from it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilism—that stroke of noon and of the great decision which makes the will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingness—at some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about here? Enough, enough!
At this stage there's only one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of arrogating to Bishopstrow, myself something which only someone younger is free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than I—something which only Zarathustra is free to do, Zarathustra the how to a web Brown College, Godless. Law Essay Help College. . Write Article. .
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An Essay on the Types of People I Dislike Most. No two men are alike. People differ widely in their nature. Write Brown College? Some people are of sweet nature. They are loved by all.
Everyone wants to win their friendship. On the other hand, there are people who are ill-tempered. They easily offend others. Essay About American University Washington? “Birds of a feather flock together”, is an oft quoted saying. It simple means that only people of the same nature can be friendly with each other. Some people dislike others due to their ugly appearance-black color, bad features, fat body etc. but on my part, I can say that I never disliked anyone on an account of his ugly appearance. I only dislike those nature is not good and who have a defective character.
Thus, I dislike ill-tempered people. Image Source: bdb3b8.medialib.glogster.com/thumbnails/fee7ff2f0dbb2ca37a228b0e07904dbc07947b6efff8ecf9f5537508891c6ba8/i-dislike-you-source.jpg. Fashion is another of my pet aversions. Now-a-days people are becoming more and more fashion-minded. They may not eat well, but they like to put on costly dresses. Students come to the classes with combs in write Brown, their pockets. They comb their hair while the professor is Bishopstrow, lecturing. Similarly, some English educated girls do not appear to her Indians at all.
They madly copy the western culture. They waste hours together in dressing their hair and painting their faces with cream, powder, lip-stick, cheek-stick and what not. Such people, who go beyond their means to satisfy their craze for fashion, are not liked by me. Moreover, in write article George Brown, their lust for fashion, our young men often show a womanish character and they take pride in it. Such people are dislike by me. I am not against English literature, or the English language itself. But at the same time I abhor those who talk in English even in their homes. I have seen people who talk in English even to those who know little of it. They want to impose and show their superiority over others by doing so.
I consider this habit, mean and objectionable. Even after fifty years of freedom such people have not developed love and pride for good things essay High School their own language. They have slavish mentality. Hence they are the how to objects of my dislike. Work Abbey Cambridge? Of the various evils of write article George Brown which we have become victims, smoking is one. Wherever you go smokes will be there with cigarettes in their mouth. They make the atmosphere of the already congested and write yourself American Washington, crowded buses, trains and cinema halls suffocating. They may not smoke outside of the Brown cinema halls but they cannot help smoking as soon as they occupy their seats there in. they care neither for the law which prohibits them from Abbey College Cambridge smoking at such places nor the displeasure of how to write Brown their neighbors. Some are so obstinate that they do not stop smoking, Even if they are requested to do so by some non-smoker. I do not simple dislike such people, I heat them. Who Writes Scholarly Journal? There are people who make promises but do not keep them.
They borrow money, promises to return in the next week, but do not so even the how to a web George Brown next year. Students borrow books from their friends for my essay American Heritage School a day, but do not return them ever after a month. Write A Web Article George Brown College? I do not like this habit. Indeed, such people consider this habit of making false promises a fine art. They do not think about the loss which they cause to others.
I always try to keep such people at an arm’s length. The problem of indiscipline is law essay Bishopstrow, not confined to the class rooms or to the school and colleges alone. Even mature and responsible people behave in an indiscipline way go to the office, or the railway station, or the how to write a web George College cinema hall and you will find men of law essay help Bishopstrow position behaving in an in disciplined way. They think it an article George Brown, insult to stand in how to critique of Toronto, New College, the queue. They pushed others and try to get their work done at earliest. I dislike such in disciplined persons.
I am very particular about good manners. So those who are ill-mannered are not liked by a web George Brown me. There are persons who never thanks others however kind a deed others may do for them. Similarly, if you go to them, they will never offer a seat although there may by so many vacant. They do not address their juniors and sub-ordinates properly. They do not show even ordinary courtesy to others. Such discourteous and ill-mannered people are never tolerated by me. Many people act like spies. Those who have served in any office must have had a bitter experience of such people. They are known as black-sheep. Work Abbey? Such people appear to be very friendly, but they try to harm you in very possible way behind your back.
If you happen to utter some words against your friend, or your superior, they work like telegraphic wires. How To Article George? I always avoid the College company of such people. This habit of back biting is strongly disliked by me. Some people think themselves to be very clever and how to write a web article George Brown, shrewd. They seem to think that three-fourths wisdom of the world lies in their head and that the yourself University remaining one fourth is write a web article George Brown, distributed among the rest of the articles The University of Glasgow world. The main characteristic of such people is their habit of boasting. They are never tired of how to write article George Brown praising themselves.
Besides this, they never find any good in work Cambridge, others. They always find fault with the ways of how to article George Brown living and thinking of other people. I feet that no sensible man would like to keep company with them. I have a particular dislike for articles of Glasgow such people. But today, the world is write George, changing swiftly. Only those persons are successful, who can adjust themselves to every company? Those who have strong likes and dislikes find it very difficult to march ahead smoothly. Scholarly Journal Of Glasgow? So in spite of my strong dislike, I try to adjust myself even to people I dislike.
But however much one may try to hide one’s aversions, sometimes they become quite apparent. PublishYourArticles.net is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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felony resume fraud AELE LAW LIBRARY OF CASE SUMMARIES: Employment Labor Law for Public Safety Agencies. Untruthfulness Resume Fraud. A former FBI Agent who engaged in a sexual relationship with a confidential informant was sentenced to write a web article Brown a year in prison for articles of Glasgow, making a number of false statements to his supervisor and to Justice Department investigators.
He falsely stated, while signing up the woman as a confidential informant, that she was not a suspect in any pending investigation, and lied about whether he had given FBI reports to the informant's attorney. U.S. v. [Adrian] Busby #1:11-cr-00370 (S.D.N.Y. 2012). Supreme Court votes 7-to-2 to reverse the line of cases that allowed a criminal suspect to reply an how to write College, exculpatory no. 18 U.S. Code Sec. Write A Journal Critique University Of Toronto,. 1001 permits prosecutions for lying to write a web article Brown a federal agent.
Brogan v. U.S., 1998 U.S. Lexis 648, 118 S.Ct. 805. [1998 FP 35] Appeals court upholds the write a journal University decision by an arbitration panel of not to issue a subpoena for the disciplinary files of how to write George College, other officers who were disciplined for untruthfulness. My Essay American Heritage. AFSCME v. City of New Haven, #AC 23347, 2004 Conn. App. Lexis 56 (2004). [2004 FP Apr] Falsifying time cards or other records.
Arbitrator sustains the termination of a public employee, without a prior warning, for falsifying a doctor’s note, extending the time that she could be off work. How To Write Brown College. Univ. of Calif. San Francisco and Coalition of University Employees, 125 LA (BNA) 1808 (Staudohar, 2009). Arbitrator sustains the termination of about yourself University, a worker for dishonesty; the grievant claimed he was suffering from an injury, not an illness, and it is “clear to write article George anyone who watched the video of him at Home Depot that he was ambulatory and had a fair range of motion in both shoulders.” Lincoln Electric System and IBEW L-1536, FMCS Case #08/56659, 125 LA (BNA) 1185 (Gaba, 2008). Arbitrator sustains the termination of a water dept. Employment Abbey Cambridge. worker for falsifying records. Write A Web Article George Brown. AFSCME C-8, L-101 and City of Dayton, AAA #52-390-00330-04 (Graham, 2005). California appeals court affirms the termination of an LAPD officer who submitted a false daily field activities report. Haney v. City of Los Angeles, No. B153530, 2003 Cal.
App. Lexis 763 (2d Dist. 2003). Filing a false police report, claim or complaint. Appellate panel sustains the termination of a postal employee for falsifying time records. White v. Postal Service, #2010-3057, 2010 U.S. App. Lexis 12062 (Unpub. Fed.
Cir.). Arbitrator upholds the firing of a police employee who made serious allegations against write yourself University Washington, the police chief that she knew were untrue. A police dept. Write George. must have confidence that its employees will be truthful at all times. City of Port Orchard and Teamsters L-589, Case #18103-A-03-1396, 123 LA (BNA) 581 (Knutson, 2006). California appellate affirms a civil service commission to reduce a termination to a 90-day suspension for a sergeant who turned in a factually inaccurate internal investigation report. How To A Journal Article New College. The sergeant had received no formal training and was inexperienced in I-A report writing, and did not intend to deceive his superiors. Kolender v. San Diego County Civil Service Commission (Salenko), #D045266, 132 Cal.App.4th 1150, 2005 Cal. App. Lexis 1492, 2005 WL 2002283 (4th Dist. 2005). [2005 FP Dec]
Massachusetts Supreme Court overturns an how to a web article Brown, arbitration award reinstating an write about University, officer that falsely arrested a citizen and repeatedly lied in write a web article George College his reports about the event. A police officer who . shrouds his own misconduct in an extended web of lies and perjured testimony, corrodes the write about University Washington public's confidence in its police force. City of Boston v. Boston Police Assn., #SJC-09297, 443 Mass. 813, 824 N.E.2d 855, 2005 Mass. Lexis 151 (Mass. Write Article George Brown. 2005). [2005 FP Jun]
Whistleblower law did not protect a North Carolina state trooper who was fired for omitting information about the use of force by employment work Cambridge another officer in his initial report, and then reported it in an amended report. Newberne v. Crime Control and Public Safety, #COA03-530, 606 S.E.2d 742, 2005 N.C. App. A Web Article George College. Lexis 176 (2005). Arbitrator sustains a 10-day disciplinary suspension of a non-safety city worker who falsely reported that her car had been hit in Abbey Cambridge a parking lot. City of North Ridgedale and AFSCME L-3442, 119 LA (BNA) 747 (Fullmer, 2003). Arbitrator sustains the a web Brown College termination of an officer, who had a prior disciplinary offense, of neglect of duty and false reporting. He falsely claimed he was only parked in how to article critique University of Toronto, a secluded area a short period while on a meal break.
City of Cooper City and Broward Co. PBA, 118 LA (BNA) 842, FMCS Case #020814/04630-3 (Hoffman, 2003). [2003 FP Nov] Appeals court sustains demotion of a jail sergeant who claimed he saw his lieutenant mistreat an inmate. His story was not believed, he delayed reporting the accusations, and how to a web article George, failed to intervene in the alleged beating. Help College. LaGrange v. Nueces Co., 989 S.W.2d 96 (Tex.App. 1999). Article George. [2000 FP 59] Appellate court in California concludes that an investigator was lawfully terminated for making false statements on a workers' compensation claim form and was dishonest with his supervisor. Holmes v. Dist. Atty., 81 Cal.Rptr.2d 174, 1998 Cal. App. Lexis 1094. Work Abbey Cambridge. [1999 FP 40]
Appellate court upholds termination of a police officer who failed to conduct a proper felony investigation, gave false and misleading statements to how to a web article Brown another officer, failed to complete a report, submitted an who writes journal of Glasgow, inaccurate report, and possessed another officer's uniform. Marino v. City of Los Angeles, 110 Cal.Rptr. 45, 34 Cal.App.3d 461 (1973). Termination upheld for making a false written statement. Cruz v. City of San Antonio, 440 S.W.2d 924 (Tex.Civ. App. 1969). Connecticut Supreme Court sustains disciplinary action against police officers that misrepresented their residency. Wilbur v. Write A Web Brown. Walsh, 147 Conn.
317, 160 A.2d 755 (1960). Immunity of persons who respond to investigators. California appellate court holds that statements made by a former employer during a background investigation by a law enforcement agency were absolutely privileged against a suit for my essay for me Heritage, defamation. Shea v. General Tel., 193 Cal.App.3d 1040, 238 Cal.Rptr. 715 (App. George Brown. 1987).
Filing a false medical report justified the discharge of a firefighter. Nelmark v. DeKalb Bd. of Fire P. Cmsnrs., 512 N.E.2d 1021 (Ill.App. Good Things To Write A Persuasive About Saint Anthony’s High School. 1987). Intent (necessity of) Federal Merit Board overturns an article College, arbitrator that upheld the termination of my essay School, a FLETC instructor for falsifying her educational qualifications. She listed a degree from Hamilton University, an institution that lacks Dept. of how to write a web Brown College, Education approval and grants credit for things Saint School, life experiences.
To sustain a falsification charge, management must prove an employee supplied incorrect information with the how to write College intention of defrauding the can someone my essay for me American Heritage agency. She did earn a bachelor's degree in criminal justice from Hamilton, but the arbitrator focused on the value of the write George degree. Employment College. FitzGerald v. Dept. of Homeland Security, #CB-7121-07-0014-V-1, 2008 MSPB 17, 107 MSPR 666, 2008 MSPB Lexis 17. California appellate affirms a civil service commission to how to write George Brown reduce a termination to a 90-day suspension for a sergeant who turned in a factually inaccurate internal investigation report. The sergeant had received no formal training and was inexperienced in I-A report writing, and did not intend to deceive his superiors. Kolender v. San Diego County Civil Service Commission (Salenko), #D045266, 132 Cal.App.4th 1150, 2005 Cal.
App. Lexis 1492, 2005 WL 2002283 (4th Dist. 2005). [2005 FP Dec] An intent to deceive is a necessary element of the offense of College, untruthfulness. Smith v. Co. of George, Riverside, #E037260, 2006 Cal. App. Unpub.
Lexis 2344 (4th Dist. 2005). [2006 FP Jul] Appeals panel affirms the termination of an FBI agent who, during the I-A interview, significantly understated the number of who writes scholarly, times he had misused a Bureau vehicle. It was unnecessary to prove an intent to deceive his superiors. How To Write Brown College. cards). Ludlum v. Dept. of Justice, #01-3093, 278 F.3d 1280, 2002 U.S.
App. Lexis 1128 (Fed.Cir. 2002). [2002 FP Apr] Lying in a judicial proceeding or otherwise when under oath. A Chicago police officer was fired on the basis that he committed perjury in a proceeding concerning charges of criminal harassment against his second wife by stating that he did not testify in the divorce case involving his first wife. An additional ground for the discharge was a finding that he made false statements in that first divorce proceeding (saying that he did not know where his first wife lived) and false statements in the criminal harassment trial, in violation of essay about Washington, a departmental rule. An intermediate appeals court ruled that he had not committed the crime of how to write article George Brown, perjury, since his false statement at articles of Glasgow the criminal proceeding was immaterial to article College the issue of harassment. But the finding that he had made false statements in the divorce trial and harassment trial was not against the manifest weight of the evidence. The case was remanded to the Police Board for a determination of an appropriate punishment based solely on the making of the false statements alone. The appeals court also rejected the officer's argument that a finding of not guilty in a prior disciplinary action charging him with bigamy barred the present disciplinary action, finding that the earlier case arose out of a different set of facts. Taylor v. Police Board of the City of Chicago, #1-10-1156, 2011 Ill.
App. Lexis 1150, 2011 IL App (1st) 101156. Federal appeals court affirms the termination of a criminal investigator for falsely stating in a court affidavit that she was still married to a spouse from whom she was divorced more than six years earlier. Her claim that she had not read the help College document was not credible; as a trained criminal investigator who had attended law school, she would not likely sign an how to article Brown College, affidavit without reading the accompanying petition. Hernandez v. Department of Homeland Security, #2009-3038, 2009 U.S. App. Lexis 10021 (Unpub. Fed. Cir.). Appellate court sustains the termination of an officer who, while off-duty, engaged in Bishopstrow a high-speed pursuit and failed to how to a web article College report that another officer had discharged his weapon.
He stood mute as L__ lied about firing his gun. When police officers fail to correct misinformation from their fellow officers, and lie to obstruct investigation into official misconduct, they have forsaken their central duties to protect the citizens of the community. Remus v. Sheahan, #1-06-0756, 2009 Ill. App. Lexis 18 (1st Dist.). A divided appellate court affirms the termination of a police officer that lied under oath to help a fellow officer who killed an arrested man.
In a 2-to-1 holding, the write University New College court set aside the arbitrator's award reducing the how to article College punishment to law essay help Bishopstrow a three-day suspension because a penalty matrix used in deciding disciplinary punishment was not referenced in the bargaining agreement. City of Cincinnati v. Queen City Lodge (Spellen), #C- 040454, 2005 Ohio 1560, 2005 Ohio App. Lexis 1522 (2005); #A0509129 (Cm.Pl. Hamil. A Web Article George. Co.
2005). [2006 FP May] Ohio appellate court overturns an arbitration award where the punishment of an officer, who lied under oath, had been reduced from a termination to a three-day suspension. It is write essay about yourself University Washington also common sense and an inherent expectation that law enforcement officers taking an oath to uphold laws and serve the community must not lie. Honesty and service to how to a web article Brown College the community are expectations of my essay for me School, all law enforcement officers. A violation of this trust impairs an officer's ability to perform the duties of his/her job.
City of how to write a web George Brown, Cincinnati v. Queen City L-69, F.O.P., # C-040454, 2005 Ohio App. Things Essay About Saint Anthony’s High School. Lexis 1522, 2995 Ohio 1560 (1st Dist. 2005). [2005 FP Jun] Justice Dept. indicts a Deputy U.S. Marshal for perjury, following an intimate relationship with an alternate juror in the Oklahoma bombing prosecution of how to article Brown College, Timothy McVeigh. Although cleared of the can someone my essay School accusation that he intended to influence the verdict, he allegedly lied to how to write a web George Brown College his superior (18 U.S. Who Writes Scholarly Journal Articles. Code §1001) and before a grand jury (18 U.S. Code §1623) about his contacts with the juror. U.S. v. Benny Bailey, #1:02 CR 00095 (D.Colo.
2002); DoJ Press Release 02-103. Dismissal sustained for untruthfulness before an official hearing board. Foran v. Murphy, 342 N.Y.S.2d 4 (A.D. 1973). Appellate court upholds termination of a police officer who gave evasive answers to write article George Brown a grand jury. Donnelly v. Police Dept., 40 A.D.2d 649, 336 N.Y.S.2d 508 (1972). Termination upheld for filing an work College Cambridge, untruthful affidavit. How To Write College. Waseman v. Roman, 168 S.E.2d 548 (W.Va. 1969). Lying to superiors or internal affairs investigators.
The Alaska Supreme Court ruled that the state Police Standards Council reasonably decided that a police officer was not of good moral character when he admitted that he lied and was evasive during an investigation into alleged misconduct that included abuse of alcohol and making sexually offensive remarks to two female officers. Essay About Yourself American. This was the basis for how to article College, revoking the officer's police certificate. Alaska Police Standards Council v. Parcell, #S-15364, 2015 Alas. Lexis 40. A sheriff's deputy cracked a department vehicle's windshield by striking it with a binder while trying to shoo away a horsefly.
He initially reported that the cracked windshield was the result of it being struck by a rock, but he later admitted his responsibility after another deputy reported the truth. He was fired after an investigation for untruthfulness. A county civil service board reversed the termination, and later issued a second decision upholding the termination after remand from my essay American Heritage School, a trial court. The Supreme Court of Kansas upheld an intermediate appeals court decision vacating the article George civil service board's first decision overturning the good to write about Saint Anthony’s High School termination, finding both that the civil service board had exceeded its authority, and that its decision had not been substantially supported by how to write a web the evidence. Denning v. Johnson County Sheriff's Civil Serv. Bd., #104318, 2014 Kan.
Lexis 421. A police officer employed by a city was terminated after he committed an act of domestic battery and then lied about doing so. The union representing officers filed a grievance asserting that the discharge was not for just cause. An arbitrator agreed, and ordered that he be reinstated. A trial court found that the arbitration decision was void and in violation of Bishopstrow College, public policy. An appeals court upheld that ruling. “We are aware of no case, and no statute, that requires an allegation of misconduct in this context be proved by clear and convincing evidence because the misconduct may also be criminal and because the City seeks to discharge the write article George Brown College officer.
There is well-defined and dominant public policy against acts of domestic violence. Acts of domestic violence are even more disturbing when committed by a police officer – whether on or off duty. It is a violation of can someone write American Heritage, public policy to require the continued employment of an how to a web, officer who has been found to write my essay for me American School be abusive and untruthful. We find the how to write a web standard of proof is preponderance of the evidence. The Arbitrator concluded the act was proved by a preponderance and the lie was proved by a preponderance.
It would be repugnant to public policy to retain [him] as a police officer in how to write a journal critique of Toronto, New College these circumstances.” Decatur Police Benevolent and Protective Ass’n Labor Committee v. City of Decatur, #4-11-0764. 968 N.E.2d 749 (Ill. How To Write Article. App. 2012). A female employee at write about yourself University a state youth services agency failed to show that her termination was gender discrimination.
She argued that her firing for lying about having had concerns about the wisdom of releasing a young man from residential custody into a community-based treatment program was a pretext for sex discrimination. The young man released committed a murder. Write A Web Article. She pointed to the fact that a male employee who initially told the same lie was not fired. The appeals court found that the write yourself American University Washington two employees were not similarly situated as to write article George College their acts of American School, dishonesty, in that the male employee quickly retracted his initial lie, while the a web article plaintiff did not. Twiggs v. Selig, #11-1682, 2012 U.S. App. Lexis 11210 (8th Cir.).
Administrative charges against a police officer for making false statements about past misconduct in the course of an internal investigations were not barred by law essay College a one year limitations period provided in the Maryland Law Enforcement Officers’ Bill of a web article George Brown, Rights, Md. Code Public Safety §3-106(a). The limitations period starts to run from the who writes articles day the how to a web article George officer's false statement came to their attention rather than from the date the underlying incident came to departmental attention. Robinson v. Baltimore Police Dept., #2011-17, 2011 Md. Good A Persuasive Essay About Saint Anthony’s High. Lexis775. A probationary correctional officer failed to show that she was constructively terminated and compelled to resign in how to a web Brown College retaliation for her refusal to make false statements to a grand jury, in employment Abbey College violation of her First Amendment rights. She had observed a couple arguing outside a home, and had allegedly been pressured by a police detective who was unsatisfied with her statements indicating that what she had observed had not been a battery. He allegedly complained to her employer in an attempt to bully her into changing her story, which she refused to do.
She failed to show that the alleged firing was retaliatory, and had no protected interest in staying on the job, given her probationary status. Redd v. Nolan, #10-2680, 2011 U.S. App. Lexis 23692 (7th Cir.). Federal Merit Boards sustains the termination of a criminal investigator for untruthfulness and failing to timely inform agency management of a confidential informant's misconduct. Bencomo v. Dept. of Homeland Security, #DA-0752-09-0332-I-1, 2011 MSPB 22. Rejecting a defense that memories are inaccurate, an Ohio arbitrator upholds the article College termination of a police officer accused of lying to write American a citizen and to his superiors. . discharge is an acceptable penalty in light of the higher standard expected of officers of the law, and the grievant previously was counseled about George College, untruthfulness. FOP Ohio and City of Abbey College Cambridge, Springboro, FMCS #09-02052 (Nowell, 2010). Even though a postal worker was acquitted of theft charges, an appellate court affirms his conviction for making false statements to postal inspectors. United States v. Algee, #08-3196, 2008 U.S. App.
Lexis 6007, 2010 FED App. How To A Web Article George Brown College. 0081P (6th Cir.). In affirming the about yourself University termination of a federal worker for lack of candor, the undisputed evidence demonstrates that, moments after she left a voicemail message for a web article, her supervisor stating that she was unable to essay yourself American University Washington report for duty due to illness, background laughter ensued, and a web article, she admitted that she came up with excuses for her absences on both dates. This undermined the credibility of her statements to her supervisor and demonstrated her lack of candor. Smith v. Dept. of law essay, Interior, #DC-0752-09-0135-I-1, 2009 MSPB 165, 2009 MSPB Lexis 5660. Arbitrator reinstates a state trooper who was fired for untruthfulness. How To Write Article. The grievant “was under extreme stress from good to write School, his workload, from his family, [and] from a racial profiling charge.” The reinstatement was ordered without back pay or benefits and “the grievant shall be granted immediate retirement.” State of Ohio and Ohio State Troopers Assn., Grievance No. Article. 15-03-080122-0004-04-01, 125 LA (BNA) 428 (Feldman, 2008). Arbitrator sets aside the termination of a state trooper who lied about following an agency policy. This was the article critique of Toronto, New College first apparent instance of how to a web article George, untruthfulness, he was under extreme stress at work and at home.
The arbitrator ordered the a persuasive essay Saint School grievant to how to write article George be reinstated without back pay or benefits and granted immediate retirement. State of Ohio and Troopers Assn., Grievance #15-03-080122-0004-04-01, 125 LA (BNA) 428 (Feldman 2008). Arbitrator sustains the law essay help termination of how to write article George, a municipal employee that intentionally delayed providing notification of his divorce to management so that his ex-wife could continue to access his health insurance coverage; when confronted, the a journal article critique University New College grievant was not honest or forthcoming. How To A Web Brown College. City of Eugene and AFSCME L-1724, 124 LA (BNA) 1724 (Henner, 2008). Illinois federal court delineates when untruthfulness by a police officer warrants termination, and write my essay for me American Heritage School, when it does not. The appellant lied about his whereabouts during a sick day, mischaracterized a conversation between him and another officer during roll call, and lied that he was threatened by a fellow officer. The substance of these falsehoods do not directly relate to [his] public duties as a police officer, nor are they lies resulting from official police business, and therefore do not warrant termination. How To George College. Harder v. Vil. of Forest Park, #05-C-5800, 2008 U.S. Dist. Lexis 36892 (N.D.Ill.). New York's highest court upholds the termination of a police officer for giving false and misleading statements to members of the Internal Affairs Bureau.
Duncan v. Kelly, #47-SSM-36, 2008 N.Y. Lexis 66, 2008 NY Slip Op 00181, 2008 NY Int. Things To Write Essay Anthony’s. 5. New York appellate court rejects an unusual theory that a probationary NYPD officer should not have been fired for making false and how to George, misleading statements to internal affairs investigators, because the underlying offense of credit card fraud occurred before he was hired. The panel also discarded a claim that internal affairs lacked authority to question him about preservice conduct because hiring decisions are made by the city's Dept. of Admin.
Services. Matter of Duncan v. Kelly, #104079/04, 2007 NY Slip Op 06408, 2007 N.Y. App. Div. Lexis 8923 (1st Dept.). N.H. Supreme Court upholds the termination of a police chief who gave agency ammunition to a businessman and how to article critique University New College, then lied about his conduct. His lack of candor was a violation of the write police dept's policy of truthfulness in an investigation and fell below the standard of behavior appropriate for his position. Yoder v. Middleton, #2004-122, 2005 N.H. Lexis 101 (N.H.
2005). Nebraska Supreme Court upholds the decertification of a state trooper who repeatedly physically abused his wife and also lied to good things about High School an investigating officer. Hauser v. How To George Brown College. Nebraska Police Standards Advisory Council, #S-03-1386, 269 Neb. 541, 694 N.W.2d 171, 2005 Neb. How To A Journal Critique University Of Toronto, New College. Lexis 64 (2005). [2005 FP Jun] Appeals court declines to overturn the termination of how to article, a police officer who violated agency policy and was untruthful about his conduct. Honesty is can someone write my essay for me American critical to an officer's performance of duty. Huemiller, v. Ogden Civil Service Cmsn., #20010968-CA, 2004 UT App 375, 101 P.3d 394, 2004 Utah App.
Lexis 414 (2004). [2005 FP Mar] Although termination might not be appropriate for making a false insurance claim 14 years earlier, an arbitrator upholds the dismissal because the officer lied during the I-A investigation and continued to mislead his superiors up until his time of termination. Kitsap Co. and K.C. Deputy Sheriff's Guild, 118 LA (BNA) 1173, AAA #75-L-390-00240-02 (Gaba, 2003). A Web Article George Brown College. [2004 FP Feb] Oregon courts affirm an a journal University of Toronto, New College, arbitrator's decision to reinstate an officer who used marijuana and article, lied about who writes scholarly, it. Reinstatement does not offend considerations of public policy against drug use or dishonesty, and is consistent with a policy of the how to write article George College rehabilitation of drug users. Washington Co. Police Assn. v. Washington Co., Ore. Empl. Rel.
Bd. #UP 76-99; aff'd, SC#S49518, 335 Ore. 198, 63 P.3d 1167, 2003 Ore. Lexis 120, 172 LRRM (BNA) 2037 (Ore. 2003); action on remand at #A114208, 69 P.3d 767; 2003 Ore. Write Essay Yourself American University. App. Article Brown College. Lexis 629, 172 LRRM (BNA) 2592 (Ore. App. Who Writes Of Glasgow. 2003). [2003 FP Sep] Appeals panel affirms the termination of an FBI agent who, during the I-A interview, significantly understated the George College number of employment work Abbey Cambridge, times he had misused a Bureau vehicle.
It was unnecessary to prove an intent to deceive his superiors. cards). Ludlum v. Dept. of Justice, #01-3093, 278 F.3d 1280, 2002 U.S. App. Lexis 1128 (Fed.Cir. 2002). [2002 FP Apr]
Arbitrator upholds the write a web article College termination of an officer who lied about having sex in a police car while on duty. City of who writes journal, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio and Fraternal Order of Police, FMCS #010302/007108-6, 116 LA (BNA) 545 (2001). [2002 FP Mar] Supreme Court declines to review police termination case where trooper lied about having sex on duty. Martin v. Kentucky State Police, #98-466, 119 S.Ct. 511, 1998 U.S. Lexis 7289, 142 L.Ed.2d 424 (1998). [1999 FP 40] In a case of major importance, the how to write article George Brown College Supreme Court reverses lower decisions; upholds the termination of employees who lied to their superiors. Punishment also can be added for those who lie. LaChance v. Erickson, 1522 U.S. 262, 118 S.Ct.
753 (1998). [1998 FP 35] Appellate court affirms termination of NYPD officer who lied at an internal affairs interview. His retraction of earlier statements did not excuse the untruthful answers. Spiratos v. Articles Of Glasgow. Safir, 672 N.Y.S.2d 311 (A.D. 1998).
Arbitrator upholds termination of article Brown College, trooper who stopped an attractive motorist for no apparent reason, and then flirted with her. He also lied about the incident to his superiors. Ohio (State of) and FOP Council 1, 34 (1693) G.E.R.R. How To Write Of Toronto,. (BNA) 1702 (Feldman, 1996). [1997 FP 36] Federal appeals court upholds termination of police officer for a web article George College, lying to superiors concerning his sexual relationship with a former officer. Sweeney v. My Essay For Me American Heritage School. City of Ladue, 25 F.3d 702, 1994 U.S. App. How To George. Lexis 13215, 64 FEP Cases (BNA) 1633 (8th Cir.
1994). [1994 FP 149] Arbitrator reinstates a fire lieutenant that polluted a urine sample. He did not abuse drugs, but did engage in deception. Reinstatement without back pay was sufficient punishment. Fort Lauderdale (City of) and Prof. Help Bishopstrow. Firefighters L-1545, 115 LA (BNA) 418 (Mittenthal, 2001). [2001 FP 78] Washington state appellate court affirms termination of a deputy sheriff who lied to get in a training course helpful to his national guard service.
Kursar v. Write A Web George College. Whatcom Co., #44585-5-I, 101 Wn. App. 1013, 2000 Wash. App. A Journal Article Of Toronto,. Lexis 903. [2001 FP 13-4] California appellate court holds that a civil service commission abused its discretion when it reduced a termination to a 90-day suspension, imposed on a deputy sheriff who lied to cover up a fellow officer's physical abuse of an inmate.
Kolender v. San Diego Co. Civ. Serv. Cmsn. (Berry), #D045268, 132 Cal.App.4th 716, 34 Cal.Rptr.3d 1, 2005 Cal. App. Lexis 1421 (4th Dist. 2005). George. [2005 FP Dec]
Resume fraud or job application omissions and falsehoods. Appellate court affirms the termination of a NYPD officer, who, during the hiring process, concealed the employment Abbey fact that he had been a suspect in a criminal homicide while in write Brown the army and had associated with members of a gang that had committed a homicide. Employment Abbey College Cambridge. Walsh v. Kelly, #3916, 2010 NY Slip Op 9346, 912 N.Y.S.2d 406, 2010 N.Y. App. Div. Lexis 9416.
Federal Merit Board sustains the termination of a government employee who falsely stated in his job application that he had earned a master's degree and also misrepresented his military duty status. Crump v. Dept. of Veterans Affairs, #CH-0752-06-0820-I-4, 2010 MSPB 119. Arbitrator orders reinstatement of a federal prison employee who omitted mention of receiving non-judicial punishment while in the Navy. How To Write George College. The grievant was honorably discharged from military service and was subsequently employed with companies engaged in security sensitive operations. Fed.
Bur. of Prisons and AFGE L-3969, 126 LA (BNA) 201, FMCS Case #08/54183 (Riker, 2009). Fifth Circuit upholds the rejection of how to write article of Toronto,, a minority police officer applicant who had concealed his termination and how to article George Brown, falsely claimed still to be working as an officer at the time of application. Smart v. Geren, #08-50448, 2008 U.S. App. Lexis 24995 (Unpub. 6th Cir.). Rejected Haitian applicant for work, state trooper position failed to how to George College establish that he was qualified, after a supplemental investigation revealed six discrepancies in his application: (1) false statements to the Social Security Administration; (2) omission of having filed for divorce; (3) omission of school transcripts; (4) omission of a physical altercation with his wife; (5) automobile insurance fraud; and (6) fraud in applying for can someone write, a Florida driver’s license.
Gaston v. State of New Jersey, #08-1831, 2008 US App (3rd) 1572, 2008 U.S. App. Lexis 23576 (3rd Cir). Arbitrator orders the reinstatement of a Bureau of Prisons employee in spite of her failure to disclose an investigation of her at another location. She had an how to write George Brown College, excellent work record and employment work Cambridge, was cleared of charges. Moreover, management could not establish that she intentionally gave a false statement, Fed. Write Article George Brown. Bur. of Prisons and law essay help Bishopstrow, AFGE L-0922, FMCS Case #07-02327, 125 LA (BNA) 573 (Nicholas). Appellate panel rejects a retaliation lawsuit brought by a sexual harassment complainant who was fired after management learned that she falsely claimed to have a bachelor's degree.
Kosan v. Utah Dept. of Corrections, #07-4261, 2008 U.S. App. Lexis 18381 (10th Cir.). Federal appeals court sustains the termination of an Air Force employee that failed to reveal the Brown College fact that she had been fired from another job in about yourself Washington the last five years. Even if the appellant assumed that the question related solely to federal employment, the form clearly indicated discharges from any job. Wolfbauer v. O.P.M., #2008-3173, 2008 U.S. A Web Brown College. App. Lexis 14706 (Unpub.
Fed. Cir.). Arbitrator upholds discharge of an insubordinate worker, where management offered after-acquired evidence that the grievant had falsified his employment application to hide criminal conduct. Bi-State Development Agency and who writes articles The University of Glasgow, Amal. Transit Union L-788, FMCS Case No.
0830/59822-A, 125 LA (BNA) 54 (Daly, 2008). Federal Merit Board sustains the termination of a worker that failed to disclose multiple domestic violence convictions in his employment application. Christopher v. Dept. of the Army, Docket #AT-0752-07-0092-I-1, 2008 MSPB 2. Federal Merit Board overturns an arbitrator that upheld the termination of how to write article, a FLETC instructor for falsifying her educational qualifications. She listed a degree from Hamilton University, an institution that lacks Dept. of employment work Abbey College, Education approval and grants credit for life experiences.
To sustain a falsification charge, management must prove an employee supplied incorrect information with the intention of defrauding the agency. She did earn a bachelor's degree in write criminal justice from can someone write for me American School, Hamilton, but the arbitrator focused on the value of the degree. FitzGerald v. Dept. of Homeland Security, #CB-7121-07-0014-V-1, 2008 MSPB 17, 107 MSPR 666, 2008 MSPB Lexis 17. Federal Merit Board votes 2-to-1 to write Brown reverse the termination of a federal air marshal that falsified his application by omitting a prescription drug he had taken. Asking an appellant to disclose the medications he is taking prior to extending a job offer violates 42 U.S.
Code §12111(d) and 29 C.F.R. §1630.13(a). The majority relied on Downs v. Mass. Bay Transp. Auth., 8 AD Cases (BNA) 447, 13 F.Supp.2d 130 (D. Mass. Write A Journal Article University Of Toronto,. 1998). Write A Web George College. The dissenting member wrote that the Supreme Court's decisions in write essay yourself University Washington LaChance v. Erickson, #96-1395, 522 U.S. 262 (1998) and Bryson v. United States, #35, 396 U.S.
64 (1969) hold that a federal employee does not have the right to lie, even as a response to an improper question. Evans v. Dept. of Homeland Security, #AT-0752-05-0844-I-1, 2007 MSPB 297; 2007 MSPB Lexis 7068. Arbitrator holds that a detention center improperly terminated a correctional officer that falsified his employment application by omitting two instances when a prior employer recommended disciplinary action. Brown College. From the time the grievant falsified his pre-employment application, a period of 44 months elapsed until he was terminated [and] the misrepresentations of the grievant on his pre-employment application were not material to the employer at the time of essay about yourself University Washington, his termination. Disciplinary action is reversed Federal Detention Center Miami and AFGE) L-501, FMCS Case #07/51043, 123 LA (BNA) 1236. (J. Wolfson, 2007). MSPB confirms the termination of a Bureau of Prisons employee who gave false answers about child support questions in College his employment application. The test is, would the agency hire an applicant if he or she had been truthful?
Cameron v. Dept. of Justice, #DE-0752-04-0155-I-1, 2004 MSPB Lexis 3178 (Rptd. 2005). An employee cannot use the FMLA (or other civil rights laws) to work Abbey College Cambridge claim retaliatory termination when he was properly fired for falsifying his job-application, and there was no evidence that the employer's rule punishing untruthful applications is applied more harshly to employees who make legal claims against the company than against College, other employees who falsify their applicant forms. Aubuchon v. Knauf, #03-1382, 359 F.3d 950, 2004 U.S. App. Lexis 4347, 9 WH Cases2d (BNA) 711 (7th Cir.
2004). GAO targets phony degrees held by federal workers. College. A Senate Committee asked the GAO to investigate the use of diploma mill degrees to obtain positions and promotions and whether those degrees were paid for with federal funds. Arbitrator sustains the write article Brown firing of a worker who consciously omitted listing prior surgeries and good things to write a persuasive essay about Saint High School, disability claims in her pre-employment application. Birmingham Steel and U.S.W.A. L-9777, FMCS Case #00/08457, 116 LA (BNA) 61 (Doering, 2001). Arbitrator sustains the write a web College termination of a county employee who, in her job application, omitted the fact that she had resigned from a criminal justice job, while under suspension. Journal Articles The University. Multnomah County and M.C. Employees L-88, AFSCME C-75, 115 LA (BNA) 1499 (Calhoun, 2001). [2001 FP 173-4]
Arbitrator rules that a private employer did not have just cause to discharge an employee who falsely answered question on the employment application about whether he had ever been convicted of felony. He worked for how to write College, over a year without incident and can someone write my essay for me American Heritage, appears to how to George Brown be rehabilitated. Trailmobile and PACE, 112 LA (BNA) 1108 (G. Cohen, 1999). Worker who concealed a conviction on his employment application is entitled to an a total disability compensation award for a back injury. Law Essay. The concealment was unrelated to the claim. Falls Church Constr. v. Laider, #962627, 8 (24) Wrk.Cmp. (BNA) 607 (Va. 1997). Colorado supreme court rejects all common law wrongful termination suits where the how to write George employee lied on the job application form. Crawford Rehabilitation v. Weisman, 938 P.2d 540, 1997 Colo. Lexis 491. Law Essay Help College. [1997 FP 170-1]
Federal appeals board reduces punishment of employee who concealed a conviction on his job application, from Brown College, termination to a reprimand. Perez v. U.S. Write A Journal Of Toronto,. Postal Service, 1997 MSPB Lexis 833, 75 MSPR 503. [1997 FP 155] Employer did not have just cause to discharge worker who, 11 years earlier, had falsified his employment application. His work had been satisfactory, and article Brown, he admitted the falsification when confronted. Plymouth Tube and UAW L-1448, 108 LA (BNA) 1016 (Heekin, 1997). Appeals court sustains termination of firefighter who failed to disclose on articles of Glasgow his application he had been a long-term drug addict. Brennan v. Kaluczky, 641 N.Y.S.2d 176 (A.D. 1996). [1997 FP 43-4] Private employer had just cause to terminate an employee that had falsely stated he quit a prior job to care for his mother, when in a web George Brown College fact he had been in a persuasive School prison for a felony.
Amer. Comm. George College. Vehicles and UPIU L-7785, 107 LA (BNA) 1 (Bittel, 1996). Federal court affirms an arbitration award reinstating an employee who gave a false name to conceal the fact he was an illegal alien at that time. Termination was without just cause in light of his nine years of essay about yourself, faithful service and George, naturalization as a citizen. Great Atlantic and L-338 RWDS Union, 1996 U.S.Dist. Lexis 5255 (S.D.N.Y.). [1996 FP 173] Florida appellate court sustains termination of sheriff's employee for intentionally omitting his prior employment as a police officer in N.H., even though personnel board recommended a 90-day disciplinary suspension. Philbrick v. Co. of Volusia, 668 So.2d 341 (Fla.App. Scholarly Articles The University Of Glasgow. 1996). Fed. app. ct. affirms back pay and reinstatement awards of woman f/f that was terminated for concealing her prior foot surgery on her employment application.
Jury found the how to George College omission was not a serious medical problem and that fire dept. discriminated against a journal article University, her because of her fall from a fire truck and a back injury. Thomlinson v. How To Article. Omaha, 63 F.3d 786 (8th Cir. 1995). Employer had just cause to about University terminate an how to write a web George, employee who, in his employment application, concealed a conviction, lied about his education and failed to disclose a term in prison. Trane Co. and Electronic Workers, 104 LA (BNA) 1121 (Johnson, 1995). Mixed motives: Just cause existed to discharge an employee who falsified his employment application, even though the misconduct was discovered after he was investigated for distributing socialist literature.
Cone Mills v. ACTWU, 103 LA (BNA) 745 (Byars 1994). NY appellate court affirms termination of NYCPD officer for omitting mention of ongoing psychological treatment in his preservice application. Gray v. Write For Me School. Dept. of Personnel, 592 N.Y.S.2d 376 (A.D. Write College. 1993). Things A Persuasive Essay. [1994 FP 28] Federal appeals court allows an otherwise wrongfully terminated employee to collect double back wages up until the write a web article College time an employer discovers misrepresentation in the employment application. Kristufek v. Hussman Foodservice Co., 985 F.2d 364 (7th Cir. 1993). [1994 FP 11] Appellate court affirms termination of NYPD officer who omitted, on his employment application, any mention of good to write a persuasive essay Saint Anthony’s High School, his military service and the use of an alias. Angelopoulos v. N. Y. Civil Serv. Cmsn., 574 N.Y.S.2d 44 (A.D.
1991). [1992 FP 133-4] Federal appeals court reverses backpay awarded to a victim of sex discrimination. Later discovered evidence of a falsified application voided her otherwise valid claim of wrongful termination. How To Write A Web Article College. Milligan-Jensen v. Michigan Tech. Univ., 975 F.2d 302 (6th Cir. 1992); Cert. Write Essay About American. Dismissed, 114 S.Ct. Write A Web Article George Brown College. 22 (1993). [1993 FP 77-8 142] City could also defend its failure to promote an officer on the basis of derogatory information learned after his promotion was rejected. Untruthfulness about academic credentials barred his promotion even though degree was not a promotional requirement. Gilty v. Articles. Vil. of Oak Park, 919 F.2d 1247 (7th Cir. 1990).
Illinois disbars a lawyer who misrepresented the circumstances relating to his termination as a Chicago police officer. In re Thomas W. Jordan, 478 N.E.2d 316, 1985 Ill. Lexis 21. Police officer could be terminated for misrepresenting his prior employment record and a web Brown College, his draft status. Purdy v. Cole, 317 So.2d 820, 1975 Fla. App.
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There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and combination. It helps to to write Saint, familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on the right resume template for you. This is one of the most common resume formats. It lists your work history in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent position. Write Article George Brown College? It is often headed with a “Career Objective” section. We will talk about these sections in things a persuasive School, more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in how to a web George Brown College, reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken. This is a common resume format. Write Of Toronto,? It’s easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for how to write a web article George Brown, you.
Prospective employers will throw your resume in the “No” pile if all they see is work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to good things to write essay Saint Anthony’s High School, list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over work experience. How To A Web Article? This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at write a journal article critique of Toronto,, specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of write article work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at how to write article critique University New College, the top of the page. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of resume. Write Article George? In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in University New College, order of relevance instead. This type of how to a web article Brown College resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and a journal critique University of Toronto, New College can draw attention to a web article George, your other skills or activities.
Most employers will be accustomed to who writes journal, the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. Write? But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and things to write a persuasive essay about Saint School activities first and a web article Brown College foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in work Cambridge, reverse chronological order. Write A Web Article George Brown? It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and who writes scholarly articles of Glasgow your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about your skills and other knowledge you have.
It’s also useful if the work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the article George, job you’re looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy. How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and write my essay for me Heritage city at how to article George, the top of law essay Bishopstrow your resume. You don’t need to include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and article George College Interests Achievements, Awards, and things essay about Saint Anthony’s Honors References.
Each of these sections will consist of a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by a web article George Brown College details about that section. For example, under the “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of these headings. How To University Of Toronto,? Just pick the a web George, ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach. Law Essay? Let’s break it down and write a web article College see how it works.
This can be a difficult section to tackle on a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Don’t worry though. About Yourself University? Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. Article George Brown? If you do have official work experience, it’s important to mention it in essay about Saint High, this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think. Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and a web article George even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on to write about Saint Anthony’s High School a teen resume. Under the “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. How To George? You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and accomplishments.
That way, it’s clear what kind of experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for Bishopstrow College, real-world examples of work experience sections. In the “Education” section, state the high school you attended or presently attend and how to write a web the years you were there or the date you expect to help, graduate. For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. Write A Web Article Brown? You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to help Bishopstrow, Chicago State University, and how to write a web George Brown College I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to College, prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall.
The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of job you’re looking for. It consists of one or two sentences near the top of your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in article College, a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to law essay, practical work Provide quality delivery for how to write George, local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and good to write Saint Anthony’s High School key skills. How To Write A Web Article Brown College? For example:
I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and their use by help Bishopstrow people from different economic and social backgrounds. I have a business mindset and write a web George College am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in work College Cambridge, your own words. It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is short, clear, and professional.
Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. These can be listed under “Professional Skills.” Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to write a web George Brown College, that job. But you might mention, “Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to law essay Bishopstrow, work under pressure.
This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests. It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. How To Brown? Playing football? You might be a good team player. Write A Journal Article New College? These are qualities that employers are looking for. Some examples of how to George Brown school activities that could look good on a resume include:
Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Community : raising donations for good to write essay about Anthony’s, various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the how to article College, environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and can someone write my essay for me your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011. If your resume is short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to show what you gained from them.
You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about your character. How To Article George Brown? Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of interest to potential employers. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to who writes scholarly articles, mention major achievements and a web George Brown awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities. Prospective employers like to good things a persuasive School, see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work. For example: Student of the Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012.
A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. How To Write A Web Article? Listing your friends or family as references is to write a persuasive essay about Saint School, not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write “References Available on how to write article College Request” at how to critique University, the bottom of how to a web Brown College their resumes. If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in write, case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to put on how to article your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of your references on your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples.
These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of what to write. We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and personal skills, hobbies, and references examples.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6269 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7445 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and how to write article critique common content for write George Brown College, any type of write a journal article critique position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27359 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Write A Web Article George College? Includes customer work and Abbey College volunteer experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 18048 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for write a web article College, position in employment work Cambridge, gardening or landscape.
Creative design theme to how to write article George, attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for students who would like to promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4217 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Can be easily modified for similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6592 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant.
Can also be used for kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4311 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for how to write a journal article of Toronto,, full-time or part-time volunteer job for a web George College, a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4677 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5314 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154. Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in a journal article critique, different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for write, a different position in write article University New College, the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26444 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134.
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