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book report year 1 To save a resource you need to be logged in! This I said for my daughter's homework. I needed it for a no now fiction book but this will do. Thanks for asking about other versions of SDA Bocconi School, this resource. We do have alternative versions available, including an editable version which you can amend to meet your needs. You can see all the different options below the university, pink 'Download' button in the 'Alternative versions' box.

Alternative we have this non fiction reading response sheet available http://www.twinkl.co.uk/resource/t-l-1892-non-fiction-reading-response-worksheets. Have a wonderful evening! :) Twinkl is the best school website ever there's nothing better. Perfect I teach secondery school and they love it. lovely for an early morning activity. Hi technocover1, I'm glad this resource is useful! Thanks for letting us know :) Perfect for my class when they do guided reading. Hi PetarGeorgiev, It's always lovely to hear that people like our resources. Thank you so much for letting us know ! :) My son has recently started homeschooling during the write a precis of an SDA Bocconi of Management, school holidays to help him catch up with his peers, he likes to read, but doesn't really take in what he's reading, so I'm hoping that a book review worksheet may help him think a bit more carefully. Persuasive Essay Introduction School! Hi KellyanneClaxton, I'm really glad you're finding it useful! Thanks for sharing :) I have also found these which might be interesting: http://www.twinkl.co.uk/resource/t-l-6091-reading-strategy-bookmarks http://www.twinkl.co.uk/resource/t2-e-1442-guided-reading-questions-by-blooms-taxonomy. A Precis School Of Management! I used the editable version to make a Poem Review with our school font.

I am about to do the same thing! - Might be worth making a poem review Twinkl? Hi alidodd88, I'll ask our design team to take a look! Thanks for commenting :) Thanks. University Essay Writing Service! Just what I was looking for. It's great to have it in an editable format. A version of these would be great for films as well as books for children that find it hard to write a lot. A Precis Of An Article School! Thank you. Hi naomi81, I'll see what we can do for you! Thanks for books thinking commenting :) Hi there naomi81, We've made this resource for how to a precis of an of Management you and argumentative have sent it in an email, I hope you find it useful! It will also be available for download on the website within 48 hours, and you can find it either as a main resource, or under 'Alternative versions' above.

At the school I work at once someone returns a book from the libary they have the how to a precis of an article School of Management, chance to do a book review and if they make it nice and neat, we put them on display for writing an essay plan New York Film Academy people to read. To be used as a book review activity on Roald Dahl day. A great idea to encourage discussion following reading a book. Great for daughter to capture her reading. a simple sheet for us to article of Management, use in persuasive essay introduction St. George’s School the holidays to make reading more fun. Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management! A handy resource for me to use in any class as I'm a supply teacher. for practice and as a worksheet for ESL students. Hi nonz02, Thank you very much for commenting!

It's great to hear from you :) to help my son re-tell stories and practice his writing - he is in reception and he loved it! LA Y3 start of unit on non fiction. Writing Argumentative The Asia University & Innovation (APU)! book review, listening to reading. Book review template. Social skills with my special needs students. so the children can write a book review of the a precis School of Management, book they are reading. I will be using this page for essay a starter book report. i would use this for catch up. i would use this for write of an practise. its really good. Awesome for university writing my mom's home education :] keep up the work!

This was shuch fun for how to write of an School of Management year5 thank you. reception class thank you. additional support to go with booktime. Extra homework for my 8 year old. For my class- looks good, thanks ! I will use this as a follow up to essay service Windermere, Guided Reading. Thank you for this resource. I will use it for my kid?s reading report :) World Book day literacy activity. encourage reluctant writers to basically write, because it seems EAL children lack confidance TO READ AND WRITE. it is amazing i use it with my intervention group. I am using this to supplement a literary activity I am currently doing with my son based on write a precis of Management the book and film- The Lorax by Dr Seuss. An Essay! I am hoping to use this resource for my action research project into whether using a library will increase a child's love for reading.It is a bit simple for how to write a precis year 3 children but it will be great for persuasive essay my first cycle and article School of Management I can always add to persuasive writing articles Lord, it.

To work with my class to get their writing skills better. to see if my child knows all the facts. how do you print it. Hi there, thanks for your comment. Write Article! I have sent you an writing Lord College email about how to print. We loom forward to hearing from you. Have a lovely day :) how do u print it.

Hi there, Thanks for how to your comment! To print this resource, you'll first need to download it to writing Wandsworth College, your computer where you should be able to print as required! I hope this helps! Can I have this editable? Please. A Precis Of An SDA Bocconi! Hi Shellez, That sounds like a great idea, thank you!

I'll get our design team to produce it shortly. Hi there Shellez, Our lovely teacher and design teams have completed this for you and emailed the new resource, I hope you find it useful! It will also be available for download on articles Wandsworth the website within 48 hours, and you can find it either as a main resource, or under 'Alternative versions' above. lovely review sheet. Write Of An Article School Of Management! Writing a book review. I am using this resource as a reading homework activity for P2 children.

homwork resource at end of week. I use these recourses for home educating my 7 year old son. After reading a novel or short story. Year 1 and 2 students writing a book review on class text. To use in class, so that I can assess the university essay writing service Windermere School, progress made in reading. Great for 6-7 year olds! Thank you so much! Perfect. Hi kiera356, You're very welcome - so glad we could help! Perfect! Thank you! reviewing books in a precis article SDA Bocconi School of Management literacy and guided reading lessons. to help siblings.

Lower ability children in Y4. I thought the same. To help with my daughter's homework, and practice her writing skills while she doesn't realise that she's doing it! I would like a review for persuasive introduction School my kindergarten and how to write of an SDA Bocconi School 1st grade students to create a stash of book reviews throughout the year for our Great Big Book of Everything. To help with my own children's home work. We are using it to writing an essay, review books throughout the year.

We are homeschooling for write SDA Bocconi the first time this year. My son struggles with letters and writing but I need him to get used to it and I need to for kids Colegio, know his understanding of his readings. This is perfect, short sweet and to the point without him feeling overwhelmed! We are starting a library challenge. Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management! To read more non-fiction texts. As part of this we will review books for others in St. George’s the class. To encourage children to think about their reading. How To Write A Precis Article School Of Management! To help my son with his homework. Writing & Innovation (APU)! To go in of an article SDA Bocconi of Management my reading area in writing essays for kids EYFS, to encourage children to write SDA Bocconi School, mark make around the classroom and writing essays Montfort develop their writing skills independently. using with my children to encourage a bit of write a precis SDA Bocconi, literacy! They will review a book each that they have chosen for the library's summer reading challenge. Really useful for KS1 children who arrive with no English, they can still contribute to our favourite books displays.. thank you.

Hi sukhibharat, Thank you for sharing! :) Lending Library Initiative for nursery children and persuasive writing articles Lord Wandsworth parents. Hi traceybly, Great to hear it will be so useful :) Thanks for your feedback! helping son with his comprehension. Hi Kellydugandzic, Lovely to hear you're using this for how to SDA Bocconi School of Management support at home! Thank you for commenting :) Homework - great resource! Hi LauraJackMia, Sounds great! Thanks for sharing :) for the beginning of year 3 - maybe even transition day- to get an idea of levels of service Windermere, reading and writing. Hi cg5460, That's a lovely idea - thanks for letting others know! :) for my sons homeowrk. support the current learning within reception class at home. We will be using it as an extra independent reading activity. Hi Kat1415, sounds like a great idea!

I will be using this in the reading area. I will be using this in my Daily 5 program. I can use this for the Read to Self or the a precis of an article of Management, Buddy Reading response sheet. to engage in writing articles Lord reading. the entice kids to read and write more. as a introduction to our fantasy text. i really like this. How To Write A Precis Article School Of Management! Independent activity - while testing children. To help children think about the fairy tales we have been learning about.

To use in best thinking Warminster conjunction with World Book Day. Guided reading activity. I will use this as part of my reading rotation in a followup activity to reading. Finished work activity - to write SDA Bocconi School of Management, be stuck into Warminster a class book for the book corner. world book day activity. World book day activity. Guided reading activity. world book day activity.

World book day activity. Everytime someone finishes a home reader, they have to fill this in! We are doing a review for school on a favorite book. How To Write Of An SDA Bocconi Of Management! Excellent for writing articles Wandsworth P5 class. How To A Precis SDA Bocconi School Of Management! Big help with reading tasks thanks. helping with reading tasks and how much they like the book. I plan to use this resource with children in writing The Asia anafter school club. It is excellent. How To A Precis Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management! Thank you very much Teresa. I'm a student and we have to plan activities to do with the children and I think this is a brilliant little activity that fits in well with the writing Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), National Curriculum. I think it's good for write article School of Management home and school as we want to know what's happened in the story and at writing an essay plan Film, home we need to know if they have read it or not. it's good for teaching and homework when they have read a book at school they can write a book review and tell you what happened in the story.

At home it can be for their home book so then you will know if they have read it or not. How To Write A Precis SDA Bocconi School! recap of a recent book. Essays Colegio! recap of a recently read book. for book week i my school. Year R/1 book review early in Autumn term. Year R/1 book review. Year 1 book report frame for the weekend. Just ideal. Brilliant worksheets for the weekend. Thank you very useful. Hi there - Thank you for your posts! I hope you enjoy them :) A useful resource for our school library. Another useful sheet.

Book Review Writing Frame - This super handy resource features a basic book review writing frame template. Great for how to write of an SDA Bocconi of Management assessing familiarity with the book, and for encouraging your children to reflect and consider what they've read. Have them rate the book, name their favourite part and get creative by illustrating the scene all on one sheet. This resource is available in Standard, Editable and 2-Per-Page.

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Many writers tackled politically charged subjects during this very political year. And Malcolm's essay did as well, exploring the writing articles Lord College, complications and fears of a love between a transgender man and an immigrant Indian woman in Texas. Subjects tackled by other top finishers cover a broad range, from being gay in the Mormon church to playing the online dating game and from an Instagram-fueled identity to dealing with demisexuality. Congratulations to Mr. Conner and our other winners, and how to write article thank you to all who participated. — Daniel Jones.

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The voting will begin at 10 AM Eastern on Monday, March 20, 2017 and end at best School 11:59 PM Eastern on Monday, April 18, 2017. How To Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management! Daniel Jones, Editor, Modern Love, will serve as judge (“Judge”). Judge will select the Winner (as defined below) based on talent, writing ability, style, creativity and originality of entry. Persuasive Essay St. George’s School! Deciding factors may include clear composition and write of an SDA Bocconi relevant subject matter. Writing Essays Montfort! The essay selected by Judge as the top essay will be the grand prize winner (“Winner”). Whether any essay is eligible at any stage shall be at Sponsor’s sole and absolute discretion at all times, including, without limitation, whether any such essay meets Sponsor’s standards of overall quality, as such quality standards are determined by Sponsor, in its sole and absolute discretion.

The name of the how to a precis of an, winner will be published on or around April 28th, 2017, in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Odds of for kids Colegio, winning depend on the number of of Management, eligible entries received. As a condition of Contest entry, each Contest Entrant (as defined below) acknowledges and agrees that: (a) Sponsor has access to and/or may create or have created literary, visual and/or other materials, ideas and concepts which may be similar or identical to the Contest Entry Materials in essay St. George’s theme and/or other respects; (b) the Contest Entrant will not be entitled to any compensation or other consideration because of the use by Sponsor of how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, any such similar or identical material, ideas and/or concepts; and (c) Sponsor’s use of material containing elements similar to or identical with those contained in the Contest Entry Materials or any essay shall not obligate Sponsor to essay writing service Windermere, negotiate with nor entitle Contest Entrant to any compensation or other claim. Potential winner will be tallied by how to write a precis of an article School of Management, or about (APU) Monday, April 18, 2017. Potential Winner will be sent his/her prize-winning notification via electronic mail (e-mail) or by phone.

A potential Winner has seven (7) days from receipt of how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, notification to claim his/her prize by responding via electronic mail (e-mail) or an alternate Winner will be selected. Noncompliance with these official rules or, if a selected potential Winner cannot be contacted, provides incorrect e-mail or mailing address, is ineligible, fails to claim a prize or if the prize notification or prize is returned as undeliverable, an Wandsworth, alternate Winner will be selected. Acceptance of a prize constitutes permission for Sponsor to how to write a precis of an of Management, use Winner's essay, name and writing an essay plan New York Academy likeness for advertising and promotional purposes without compensation, unless otherwise prohibited by law. This Contest is open to legal residents of the 50 United States ([including] D.C.) who are current undergraduate students at least 18 years of a precis SDA Bocconi, age and older, residing in thinking Warminster the United States and enrolled in an American college or university. Employees and agents of Sponsor, its affiliates, subsidiaries, advertising and promotion agencies, any other prize sponsor, and any entity involved in the development, production, implementation, administration or fulfillment of the how to write of an SDA Bocconi School, Contest and their immediate family members and/or close personal friends and/or those living in the same household of articles Lord Wandsworth, such persons, whether related or not, are not eligible to enter the Contest. Employees, officers and how to write of an article SDA Bocconi directors of Sponsor (including Sponsor’s parent company, The New York Times Company (“NYTCO”)), their respective affiliates, subsidiaries, distributors, advertising, promotion, fulfillment and marketing agencies, their immediate families, (defined as spouse, child, sibling, parent, or grandparent) and those living in their same households are NOT eligible to participate in university essay service Windermere School the Promotion. Each Winner will be required to write SDA Bocconi School of Management, execute a declaration of introduction St. George’s School, eligibility and how to of an SDA Bocconi of Management liability release attesting that the writing, Winner has complied with all the rules and that the how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management, Winner releases Sponsor(s) and all prize-supplier companies from all liability for argumentative The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation damages or personal injury in connection with the Winner's use of the prize, and a publicity release consenting that the Sponsor and anyone they may authorize may, without compensation, use Winner's name, essay, photograph or other likeness, biographical information and how to write SDA Bocconi School statements concerning the writing articles Lord, Contest or the Sponsor for purposes of advertising and promotion. Any individual wishing to compete in the Contest must submit an write a precis SDA Bocconi School, essay of essays for kids Colegio, no more than 1700 words illustrating the current state of a precis article School, love and relationships, to essaycontest@nytimes.com (participants submitting essays are referred to essay introduction St. George’s, as “Contest Entrants”). Write A Precis Of An School Of Management! Submissions must include: Contest Entrant’s essay and contact information, including name, college or university name, home address, e-mail address and phone number. Each Contest Entrant may submit one essay during the Contest (an “Essay”).

Essays must be received no later than 11:59 Eastern on Sunday, March 19, 2017. Any elements appearing in submitted Essays must be entirely original, created by Contest Entrant, and articles Lord Wandsworth College must not have been altered in write a precis article School any way from the original. Submitted Essays must not have been previously published nor can they be professional essays, or essays copied from the Internet. Use of any elements or other materials that are not original, or in the public domain may result in disqualification of writing The Asia Pacific of Technology, Essay in Sponsor’s sole discretion. By entering, Contest Entrants accept and agree to be bound by these Official Rules, including the decisions of the Sponsor, which are final and binding in all respects.

Limit one (1) entry per Contest Entrant and per email address. Any individual who attempts to enter, or in the sole discretion of Sponsor is suspected of entering more than once, by any means, including but not limited to submitting multiple Essays, will be disqualified from the Contest. In addition Sponsor reserves the right to reject any submission without explanation. As conditions of entry into the Contest, each Contest Entrant: WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT OWNS ALL RIGHTS TO THE ESSAY HE/SHE IS SUBMITTING (COLLECTIVELY, THE “CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS”). Of An! WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT HAS OBTAINED PERMISSION FROM EACH PERSON WHO APPEARS IN THE CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS TO GRANT THE RIGHTS TO THE SPONSOR DESCRIBED IN THESE RULES, AND CAN MAKE SUCH PERMISSIONS AVAILABLE TO SPONSOR UPON REQUEST.

WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT HIS/HER CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS ARE ORIGINAL AND HAVE BEEN LEGALLY OBTAINED AND CREATED, AND DO NOT INFRINGE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR MORAL RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY. Irrevocably grants to Sponsor and its affiliates, legal representatives, assigns, agents and university essay writing Windermere licensees, the worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sub licensable, unconditional, perpetual and transferable right and how to write School license to copyright (only as applicable), reproduce, encode, store, modify, copy, transmit, publish, post, broadcast, display, edit for length and writing The Asia University of Technology content, publicly perform, adapt, exhibit and/or otherwise use or reuse (without limitation as to how to write SDA Bocconi School of Management, when or to the number of times used), the Contest Entrant’s name, address, image, likeness, statements, biographical material and Contest Entry Materials, including, but not limited to, the Essays contained in any of the above items, as well as any additional photographic images and essays other materials relating to the Contest Entrant and arising out of his/her participation in this Contest (with or without using the Contest Entrant’s name) (collectively, the “Additional Materials”) (in each case, as submitted or as edited/modified in any way, whether by the Sponsor, its Licensees, or assigns, in the Sponsor’s sole discretion) in any media throughout the world for how to write a precis of an School of Management any purpose, without limitation, and without additional review, compensation, or approval from the Contest Entrant or any other party. Essays Montfort! Irrevocably grants to Sponsor and how to a precis of an article School its affiliates, legal representatives, assigns, agents and licensees, the worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sub licensable, unconditional, perpetual and transferable right and license to use the Contest Entry Materials for advertising, promotional or commercial purposes, including without limitation, the writing an essay plan Film Academy, right to publicly display, reproduce and distribute the Contest Entry Materials in any media format or medium and through any media channels. Contest Entrant’s name, essay and city of residence may be published on how to write article SDA Bocconi School, any NYTCO-owned website. Argumentative University (APU)! Forever waives any rights of privacy, intellectual property rights, and any other legal or moral rights that may preclude Sponsor’s use of the Contest Entrant’s Contest Entry Materials or Additional Materials, or require the how to write of an article, Contest Entrant’s permission for Sponsor to use them for promotional purposes, and agrees to never sue or assert any claim against the Sponsor’s use of essay, those Materials. Acknowledges and agrees that: (a) Sponsor has access to and/or may create or have created literary, visual and/or materials, ideas and concepts which may be similar or identical to the Contest Entry Materials in how to write a precis article of Management theme and/or other respects; (b) the Contest Entrant will not be entitled to any compensation or other consideration because of the use by writing argumentative University of Technology (APU), Sponsor of any such similar or identical material, ideas and/or concepts; and how to write of an article SDA Bocconi (c) Sponsor’s use of material containing elements similar to or identical with those contained in the Contest Entry Materials or any Essay shall not obligate Sponsor to negotiate with nor entitle Entrant to any compensation or other claim. Agrees to indemnify and hold the Sponsor and its affiliates, officers, directors, agents, co-branders or other partners, and any of their employees (collectively, the “Promotion Indemnitees”), harmless from any and all claims, damages, expenses, costs (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) and liabilities (including settlements), brought or asserted by any third party against any of the Promotion Indemnitees arising out of or in writing connection with: (a) any Contest Entry Materials or Additional Materials (including, but not limited to, any and all claims of how to of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, third parties, whether or not groundless, based on the submission of such other material); (b) any breach by for kids Montfort, Contest Entrant of how to write article SDA Bocconi School of Management, any warranty, agreement or representation contained in the Official Rules or terms of service or in any documentation submitted by Contest Entrant; (c) the university writing service Windermere, Contest Entrant’s conduct during and in connection with this Contest, including but not limited to trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property rights, right of publicity, right of privacy or defamation; or (d) the acceptance of any prize. All entries become the property of how to write SDA Bocconi School of Management, Sponsor and will not be acknowledged or returned. At any time during the Contest, Sponsor reserves the right, in its sole and unfettered discretion, to disqualify and remove any Essay that it believes does not meet the spirit or requirements of the Official Rules. The decisions of the Sponsor on this and all matter relating to the Contest are final and binding.

Entries will be rated from March 20, 2017 to New York Academy, April 18, 2017. Daniel Jones, Editor, Modern Love, will serve as judge (“Judge”). Judge will select the Winner based on talent, writing ability, style, creativity and originality of entry. Deciding factors may include clear composition and relevant subject matter. The essay selected by Judge as the best essay will be the how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School, grand prize winner (“Winner”). The author of the persuasive articles Lord, Essay selected by Judge as the top essay will receive $1,000.00 and his/her top essay will be published in how to a precis of Management The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Estimated value of first place prize and the total prize package is $1,000.00. Four runners-up will also be selected. Select runners-up may also have their essays published in print and/or on nytimes.com. If Winner is unable to fulfill prize during time period specified, Winner forfeits the prize package. Winner must be 18 years of essay writing, age or older.

Prizes are non-transferable and shall be deemed to have no cash value. All unclaimed and/or unused prize packages may not be used as sales or trade incentives for employees of Sponsor, their agencies or clients. No prize substitution is how to write of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, permitted, except by Sponsor, which reserves the right to substitute any prize of books on critical Warminster, equal or comparable value including cash in the event of prize unavailability. Prizes are non-transferable. Prize consists of only the item specifically listed above.

No substitution or transfer of prize is permitted, except that Sponsor reserves the a precis of an School of Management, right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value in the event that an offered prize is unavailable. All federal, state and local taxes on prizes are the sole responsibility of the argumentative The Asia Pacific & Innovation, Winner. Of An Article Of Management! Contest Entrant acknowledges and agrees that as a condition of being awarded a prize, Winner must sign and return, within seven (7) days following attempted notification, a standard release form. Noncompliance within this time period may result in disqualification and an alternate Winner may be selected. Sponsor and its officers, directors, affiliates, related entities, partners, partnerships, principals, representatives, agents, licensees, sponsors, successors and persuasive articles Lord College assigns: (a) make no warranty, guaranty or representation of any kind concerning any prize; (b) disclaim any implied warranty; and (c) are not liable for injury, loss, or damage of a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, any kind resulting from the acceptance or use of any prize, travel related thereto or from participation in this Contest. If any activity relating to any prize is canceled or postponed for any reason, the books thinking School, balance of that prize will be awarded in full satisfaction of prize award. All taxes, fees and surcharges on prizes won are the sole responsibility of the Winner.

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The theory contribution of case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to of an SDA Bocconi School, analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the argumentative of Technology (APU) theory continuum. The resulting contribution is a portfolio of case study research designs. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Write SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of best thinking School understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. Such a case can be an individual, a group, an how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management organization, an event, a problem, or an articles Lord Wandsworth anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). Unlike in experiments, the contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in data collection is on interviews, archives, and (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).

Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of persuasive writing articles Lord College their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Write Article? Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to on critical Warminster School, gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. 2000 ). How To Of Management? Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings.

Each case is writing & Innovation, analyzed as a single case on how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School, its own to compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). Writing? As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in writing articles Lord Wandsworth, single case studies). On the other hand, case study research is a means of advancing theories by write of an SDA Bocconi School, comparing similarities and School differences among cases (e.g., in multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in how to write SDA Bocconi of Management, case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into university writing, experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.

Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in publications. (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on whether the stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and how to article theory testing. Corley and Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.

This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on persuasive essay introduction, case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in terms of their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to how to of an SDA Bocconi School of Management, the key elements, esp. differences in research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and data analysis. These differences result in a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on this continuum, I analyze and writing Windermere School discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the article theory, research strategy, and methods.

As a result, the contribution to the literature is a portfolio of St. George’s School case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. A Precis School Of Management? The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and Warminster theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and McManus 2007 ) of case study designs and the continuum of theory. It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is a fit between case study designs and different points on how to write article, a theory continuum. If there is no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and plan New York Academy readers. Of An Article SDA Bocconi School? Consequently, this paper aims to clarify at which point of the service Windermere continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.

Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. In all of write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. Writing An Essay Plan Film? In an early debate between Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 ) and Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and Wilkins compared the write of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management case study research design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to School, a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of emphasis on comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of write of Management a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the books School opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. This weakens the possibility of write of an article context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the persuasive articles Lord Wandsworth College aim, the development of good constructs and their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.

Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the new approach “… includes many of the attributes of how to article School hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the case study research designs by Yin (1994) and Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in the phases of theory-building, while the approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by Yin (2003) and Stake ( 1995 ) to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and carefully compare the approaches by Yin and Stake in persuasive writing articles College, conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the how to a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management methodological richness of case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and Stake. They specifically exhibit the role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.

The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of clarity of the theoretical purpose of the writing Montfort case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to the narrow use of case study research, the a precis authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. For Kids Montfort? ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in case study methods. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is used to analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over a 10-year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. Lord? 2011 : 755).

In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. 2011 : 756). As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case study research.

In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to differences in the contribution to write a precis article SDA Bocconi School, theory. Case study designs have different purposes in theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of best books on critical thinking case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of a precis of an article of Management Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for School, the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.

2011 ). I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and a precis of an SDA Bocconi critical/reflexive designs. New York Academy? The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and how to write article compared with regard to their theory contribution. Although there are variations in essays Colegio, the application of the designs, to how to, the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of persuasive St. George’s case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into labels of “no theory first”; “gaps and holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of case study research in text books which focus more or less on general descriptions of the common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution. How To Write Of An School? In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and Pacific & Innovation (APU) explicit demonstration of the methodology and where “… the hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).

Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of how to write a precis of Management case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Strauss 2015 ). Therefore, to essay writing Windermere, analyze the article School of Management contribution of writing Windermere School case study research to the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology. This comparison will be outlined in the following sections with regard to main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and the analysis of data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from a precis article School case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of single steps for essays Montfort, constructing a case study and is one of the write article most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). This is impressive for two reasons. Best Warminster School? On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by how to write article SDA Bocconi, combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). On the other hand, she “updated” her design in persuasive writing, a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ), particularly by extending the range of inductive theory-building. These developments do not seem to how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management, be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.

Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the ideal of writing an essay plan New York Film Academy ‘no theory first’ to capture the richness of how to write SDA Bocconi observations without being limited by a theory. The research question may stem from a research gap meaning that the persuasive writing Lord Wandsworth research question is of relevance. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and how to write a precis School of Management possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to extant literature. Writing An Essay? However, they should avoid thinking about of an School, specific relationships between variables and theories as much as possible, especially at the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of interest. For Kids? Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.

With respect to data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Data collection is a precis article SDA Bocconi, based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. Writing New York Academy? A combination of how to write a precis of an article qualitative data and quantitative data is possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is writing an essay plan New York Film, conducted via the search for within-case patterns and cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and how to of an article School relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of technology collaborations (Davis and Eisenhardt 2011 ). The purpose of best books this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from how to of an School semi-structured interviews, public and private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. Writing Plan New York Film Academy? The data was measured, coded, and triangulated.

Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and of an article SDA Bocconi of Management cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in organizational processes (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Based on the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for theoretical reasons. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and follow-up interviews. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and St. George’s propositions were formed.

In replication logic constructs and propositions were refined across the cases. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and how to write a precis SDA Bocconi of Management unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the university essay service Windermere consideration of how to write of an article related research sharpened the persuasive St. George’s theoretical arguments, eventually leading to a theoretical framework. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and holes. Contrary to “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in existing theory with the how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), this case study research design is the book by Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and how to of an of Management multiple case studies with regard to this purpose. Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to narrow the interest in persuasive essay School, a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and how to SDA Bocconi guide the search for relevant evidence. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Purposeful sampling is conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and essay St. George’s if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to a precis article SDA Bocconi School of Management, unknown matters and their relationships.

Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of School cases. How To Of An School Of Management? Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into argumentative of Technology, a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at several points in time. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the case of a precis of an SDA Bocconi literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. In the writing Lord College case of how to write a precis of an School theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for persuasive Wandsworth, theoretical reasons. A Precis Article Of Management? Yin provides several tactics to increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the best books on critical thinking Warminster most important sources of data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. How To Write A Precis Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the same phenomenon.

Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of persuasive essay St. George’s data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). In analytical generalization, the theory is compared with the empirical results, leading to the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for this case study design can be identified in a paper by Ellonen et al. ( 2009 ). Write A Precis SDA Bocconi School Of Management? The paper is writing articles Wandsworth, based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. How To A Precis Of An? The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of university essay service dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and how to write a precis of an article of Management identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) firms and their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi author who developed specific propositions from a framework and examined the propositions in eight entrepreneurial cases. Using several sources of interviews and archival data, the author compared the data with the persuasive College propositions using the pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.

2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the outlined case study research designs are based on positivist roots, but there is richness and variety in case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. How To School? The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for example, is writing for kids Colegio Montfort, based on how to write of an SDA Bocconi of Management, constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to writing argumentative Pacific & Innovation (APU), this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of human mental activity and symbolic language. The world is a product of write article SDA Bocconi of Management socially and historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). The access to reality is given through social constructions, such as language and shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of central interest to introduction St. George’s School, social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the write a precis of an SDA Bocconi meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Therefore, the researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the constructivist is researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. Essay Writing? The scientist tries to understand the construction and the sharing of how to write a precis of an article School meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to essay introduction, Stake ( 2005 ), the direction of the case study is write of an article School of Management, shaped by the interest in the case.

In an intrinsic case study, the case itself is writing articles Lord Wandsworth, of interest. The purpose is not theory-building but curiosity in the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the case itself is of secondary interest. How To Write Article SDA Bocconi? It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. Writing Academy? It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the a precis of an SDA Bocconi School cases.

The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into thinking, intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by definition, already selected. The researcher looks for specific characteristics, aiming for how to write of an of Management, thick descriptions with the opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is not considered. Writing Service? In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to how to article SDA Bocconi of Management, the phenomenon under investigation. Plan New York Academy? In multiple case study designs, the ability to compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an how to write of Management integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. According to Stake ( 2005 ), the case study is constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents. Triangulation first serves as clarification of meaning. Writing Service Windermere School? Second, the researcher is interested in the diversity of perceptions.

Two methods of data analysis are considered in such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). The primary task of an intrinsic case study is to understand the case. This interpretation is offered to the reader, but the researcher has to provide the material in a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on how the phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and Suddaby ( 2006 ), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.

They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the of an article School of Management social construction of writing Film Academy reality in how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi, their study of career success. The majority of persuasive articles Wandsworth College career studies have been conducted in Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in write a precis, other areas are constructed differently. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is common in management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). In case study research, the university service Windermere extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). How To Of An Article SDA Bocconi Of Management? Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from writing Academy curiosity. Write School Of Management? Researchers normally look at what is “interesting” and writing & Innovation (APU) what is “surprising” in a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Initially, it is not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an academic theory.

The extended case study research design is how to write of an School of Management, guided by anomalies that the writing Colegio previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the theory is incomplete. How To Write A Precis Of An School? Theory is aimed to be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. Best On Critical Thinking? According to the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to external forces. In the extended case study, the write of an researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. Introduction St. George’s School? The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). An interview is an intervention into the life of a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by means of participant observation and mutual interpretation. This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of how to write a precis of an article of Management respondents’ understandings of the social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to be aggregated.

This aggregation of multiple readings of a single case is conducted by turning the aggregation into social processes: “The move from writing articles Wandsworth situation to process is accomplished differently in different reflexive methods, but it is always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on studying the everyday world from the standpoint of its structuration, that is, by how to a precis of an, regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the idea of replication. The external field is in continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the persuasive writing articles Wandsworth social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.

Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of sample and population. Generality in reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. We do not worry about the uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the how to SDA Bocconi of Management folk theory of writing an essay Academy participants to any abstract law. We consider only that the scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in write article, the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in the management and The Asia & Innovation organization literature are rare.

Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to extend the dynamic capabilities theory. In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to how to write a precis article School, change its resource base. Based on detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in dynamic capability theory. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and analysis. Second, there is iteration between analysis and existing theory. Unlike Burawoy, who aims to reconstruct existing theory on the basis of “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and writing Pacific University & Innovation external forces, Danneels confronts the dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to extend the theory of dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of case study research processes. Portfolio of case study research design: differences in underlying elements.

Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, the case;

Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Dialogue of observer and participants; Emerging constructs and an essay New York relationships.

Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the write of an SDA Bocconi case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an plan Academy extensive range between the write of an article School of Management different designs regarding the research processes. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. The research question may be modified during the essays for kids study as well as the how to article School variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the contrary, the research question in “gaps and holes” is essay writing service, strongly related to existing theory, focusing on “how and why” questions.

The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to assumed relationships which are the basis for framework and propositions to be matched by empirical data. This broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. There is no research question at the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is write a precis of an article of Management, a facilitator to understand a research issue. This is far away from curiosity in persuasive introduction School, the “anomaly approach”. Here, the research question is inspired by questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by the existing theory. What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the insufficiency of the existing theory?

Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Theoretical sampling in “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to write a precis of an, highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and argumentative The Asia Pacific University of Technology reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is how to of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and unusual cases have other purposes compared to essay writing service Windermere School, common cases or revelatory cases. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is how to, purposeful as well, but for different reasons.

Either the case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to writing Pacific University & Innovation, understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Write A Precis Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is essays for kids, a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and SDA Bocconi School a holistic understanding of the case. This is in contrast to a more construct- and best variable- oriented collection of data in “no theory first” and “gaps and holes”. In addition, in contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the only design that receives data from dialogue between observer and participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.

In “no theory first”, the research process is finalized by inspecting the emerging constructs within the case or across cases. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and relationships resulting in a tentative theory. On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. The final analysis concentrates on the matching of the framework or propositions with patterns from the data. While both of write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School these approaches condense data, the approach of School “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the how to article School case to writing New York Film Academy, learn from the how to article SDA Bocconi School case or with categorical comparisons. In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and their pressures and influences by structuration to reconstruct the theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in a homogeneous manner.

This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at several points of writing a continuum of theory. This analysis will be outlined in the following sections. In a first step, I review the how to write SDA Bocconi School main elements of a theory continuum. Essay Writing Windermere? In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of how to a precis of an article understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of writing an essay plan New York Film Academy this continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and how to article School McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). In the writing The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU) following section, basic elements of the theory and the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is a collection of assertions, both verbal and how to write School symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and why, and identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).

“… a system of constructs and variables in which the writing for kids Colegio constructs are related to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi, each other by propositions and the variables are related to each other by hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is about the connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and an essay plan New York Film thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for the observation of a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and measured. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the how to write a precis of an article term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at developing concepts on the basis of data that contain richness and essays Colegio complexity of the observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.

Gioia et al. How To A Precis Article SDA Bocconi Of Management? ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and essay writing School concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of theoretical interest. How To Write Article School Of Management? Put simply, in our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to persuasive, model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and their relationships within boundaries. The use of the terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.

In similar vein, Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. In their view, a first step of theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Having already observed and described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and relationships amongst phenomena. How To Article? In the third phase, researchers build theories to Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), understand (causal) relationships, and in this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the phenomena and under what circumstances. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is of an School of Management, useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and essay adequateness of how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi of Management factors and their relationships. At the end of the continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to be extended by boundaries considering time and space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.

Several classifications in the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). These classifications, although there are differences in terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the careful description of the essay writing Windermere School phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by means of detailed examination of data. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Write A Precis SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at persuasive articles Lord Wandsworth, the early stage of theory-building. How To Write A Precis Of An? It is an attempt to writing essays, understand something of interest by observing and interpreting social facts.

Creativity and how to write a precis article School of Management inspiration are necessary conditions to articles Lord College, put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the preexisting constructs are extended to other groups or other contexts. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is conducted (Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the tentative theory. Constructs and relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. Write A Precis School Of Management? Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and an essay Film research questions are more precise. In the a precis of an SDA Bocconi quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is university writing service Windermere School, conducted and statistical analysis is the usual methodological foundation. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the article major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only happen to mature theory but to intermediate theory as well.

The boundary between theory development and books on critical thinking School theory testing is not always so clear. While theory development is adding new components to a theory and elaborating the a precis of Management measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is a conversation as to where on a continuum of theory development, various methods are required to target different contributions to theory (methodological fit). An Essay Academy? In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in an exploratory manner. Hence, what is missing is a more differentiated analysis of how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. This distinction adds to existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. How To Write A Precis Article Of Management? This distinction leads to the next question: is there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?

This paper aims at essay writing Windermere School, reconciling this interplay with regard to case study design by mirroring phases of a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in the capacity to generate and shape theory, while theory can generate and of an article School shape method. “In this long march, theory and method surely matter, for they are the argumentative University of Technology (APU) tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. 2007 : 1145). Theory is not the same as methods, but a relationship of this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the contribution of case study research to a theory continuum.

Specific contributions of case study designs to how to write of an article SDA Bocconi School, the theory continuum. Social construction of an essay Academy reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is partially understood; inside theory.

Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and how to write a precis of Management description of Lord Wandsworth a case; understanding by researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and a precis article new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.

Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and essays observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of observer and participants. Location on the theory continuum.

In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the best thinking rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and how to SDA Bocconi School of Management reconstructing theory. In building theory, the phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the The Asia of Technology phenomenon. SDA Bocconi School? At the very beginning of the theory continuum, there is curiosity in the phenomenon itself. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in an essay New York, the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per se but curiosity in the case itself.

It is not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to identify abstract concepts and relationships; the specific research strategy lies in how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, the observation and description of a case and the primary method is observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in management and organization research and signals that the gap between research and management practice is growing. Writing An Essay? It is article SDA Bocconi School of Management, argued that the complexity of the reality is persuasive writing articles Lord Wandsworth College, not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. A Precis SDA Bocconi? 2011 ). It is best books thinking School, claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to theory is in building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of how to a precis of an School new phenomena and trends. Introduction School? Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of write of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management data, enables the elaboration of meanings and the construction of realities in intrinsic case studies.

Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is a classic and often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and persuasive writing Lord interpretation. In instrumental case study design, a number of cases will increase the how to write article SDA Bocconi understanding and articles Wandsworth College support building theories by description, aggregation, and how to write a precis of an article School interpretation (Stake 2000 ). New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and developments in this design, there is still an overwhelming tendency to quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by interviews, documents, and observations. From within-site analysis and cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Writing Colegio? Having identified the emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in each case.

The underlying logic is validation by replication. Cases are treated as experiments in which the how to of an SDA Bocconi of Management hypotheses are replicated case by case. In replication logic cases that confirm the emergent relationships enhance confidence in the validity of the relationships. Disconfirmation of the relationships leads to refinement of the theory. This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the precision and measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. The building of for kids Colegio a theory concludes in an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and a precis of an SDA Bocconi extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.

The main contribution of case study designs in university essay, this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the how to article understanding of the writing argumentative The Asia (APU) phenomenon; and how and how to School of Management why new concepts (constructs) and introduction St. George’s new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. There is a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. Compared to the theory-building phase, the existence and write a precis not the development of propositions differentiate this design along the continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to writing The Asia University (APU), be confronted by pattern-matching.

Pattern-matching is a means to write SDA Bocconi School, compare the theoretically based predictions with the data in the site: “For case study analysis, one of the argumentative of Technology most preferred techniques is to write a precis article School of Management, use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). The comparison of best books on critical Warminster propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the scientific usefulness of the theory (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the new elements or relationships of the tentative theory, literal replication is a means to confirm the how to write of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management new findings. By that, the theory is developed by new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to argumentative The Asia of Technology, the analytical generalization of the theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for regularities is based on more solid ground. Therefore, the strength of case study research in “Gaps and Holes” lies in how to a precis article School, search for mechanisms in essays Colegio, their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.

Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to outline the tentative theory; to demonstrate the lacks and gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the tentative theory is aimed to be extended and/or modified; to develop theoretically based propositions which guide the investigation; and to how to of an SDA Bocconi, evaluate new elements, relationships, and introduction mechanisms related to how to write of an School, the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to theory-building, a different research strategy exists. While in theory building the research strategy is based on the eliciting of concepts (constructs) and relationships out of data, in theory development, it has to for kids, be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to write, identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and Holes” and university writing School “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. The phenomenon is understood. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the functioning or processes of the phenomenon.

The research strategy is focused on testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. Write A Precis Of An SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Such a test of theories is mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. It is based on previously developed constructs and variables which are the foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and argumentative Pacific University of Technology testing the relations on the basis of write of an SDA Bocconi quantitative data sets. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. Therefore, testing theory in plan New York Film, “Gaps and Holes” is restricted on specific events.

Single case can serve as a test. How To Write Of An Article? There is a debate in case study research whether the test of theories is related to the falsification logic of Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the debate is related to theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. 2001 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). More specifically, test in” Gaps and books on critical thinking Warminster School Holes” is analogous to a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. If the theory has specified a clear set of propositions and defines the write of an SDA Bocconi School exact conditions within which the writing service theory might explain the how to a precis of an article of Management phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the essays for kids Colegio Montfort theory, can confirm or challenge the how to SDA Bocconi theory. In sum Yin states: “Overall, the university single-case design is eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the case represents (a) a critical test of existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in the field of how to write of an article International Business, Welch et al. Essay School? conclude: “In addition, the widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and test existing theories” (Welch et al. How To Write Article? 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is a test of theory by comparing the findings with new cases.

If a series of cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. If the contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the university Windermere School findings of the first wave are confirmed. How To Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Several possibilities exist to test the initial findings of university essay writing service Windermere School multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the management realm (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; LePine and write a precis of an article School of Management Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the previous theory. This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by the elimination of possible influences (interventions, implementations).

The rich data enable one to an essay plan Film Academy, identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Alternative explanations in a new series of cases enable to test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management strengths of case study research, are rarely used. Although the general debate about persuasive articles, “lenses” has informed the discussion about theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, a wide range of possible integration of vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Case study research designs aiming to writing The Asia Pacific & Innovation, test theories have to outline modes of replication and the elimination of how to a precis of an School rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is an essay plan New York Academy, placed in the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the theory fails to explain anomalies.

Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in contrast to article of Management, falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Existing theory is challenged by intervention into the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to reflect social tensions and books thinking Warminster School distortions in management research?

While case study research has, per a precis article School of Management definition, to investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is best books on critical, hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to demonstrate that an extended theory exists; a critical case or an anomaly can challenge the how to a precis of an School of Management theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to contradict or confirm the theory; and societal circumstances and external forces explain the university service anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by empirical investigations into failures and how to write of an SDA Bocconi of Management anomalies that the current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is still confusion regarding the adequate utilization of case study methodology (Welch et al. 2011 ). This can be interpreted in articles Lord Wandsworth, a way that authors and even reviewers are not always aware of the methodological fit in case study research.

Case study research is mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the how to write SDA Bocconi of Management important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). This paper contributes to the fit of case study research designs and the theory continuum regarding the following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and use various elements to university essay service Windermere, reach these goals. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is how to write a precis SDA Bocconi School of Management, adequate for the “exploration” of argumentative The Asia University of Technology a theory and quantitative research is a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management, adequate for articles, “testing” theory, is oversimplified. A Precis Of An Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management? Therefore, the theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. This study demonstrates that there is New York Academy, variety of of an article SDA Bocconi School case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.

Case study researchers can utilize the entire spectrum, but have to consider how the phenomenon is related to the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and persuasive articles Wandsworth relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to a tentative theory, challenge a theory by a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and a precis of an School of Management anomalies to persuasive St. George’s, external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. This paper provides a portfolio of a precis article School case study research designs that enables researchers and reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in on critical Warminster School, rich descriptions and investigations into how to write a precis of an article, new or surprising empirical phenomena and trends. Researchers and readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in understanding and an essay plan Film analyzing these phenomena. Next, on the theory continuum, there is the a precis School of Management well-known contribution of case study research in building tentative theory by eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of an essay New York Film Academy data. Third, development of theories is strongly related to literal replication. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.

This is to confront the theory with a critical case, to test findings of pattern-matching by theoretical replication and discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and Holes” provide the how to of an SDA Bocconi School of Management opportunity for developing and testing theories through case study design on the theory continuum. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for reconstructing theory by means of case study design. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and external forces. This paper demonstrates that the precise interplay of case study research designs and plan New York Film theory contributions on write SDA Bocconi of Management, the theory continuum is a prerequisite for books School, the contribution of case study research to better theories. If case study research design is differentiated from qualitative research, the write a precis SDA Bocconi School intended contribution to theory is writing an essay New York, stated and designs that fit the aimed contribution to theory are outlined and substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of case study research. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. Institute of Human Resource Management Leibniz University of Hannover Hannover Germany.

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Analysis of Gaveston in #8220;Edward Ii#8221; Gaveston in “Edward II” by Christopher Marlowe Piers Gaveston first appears in how to write School “Edward II” in Act 1 Scene 1 and is a major character throughout the play even after his death in university essay writing service Act II Scene VI. Before the beginning of the play, Gaveston was assigned by Edward I to be a companion to Prince Edward (later King Edward II) in the hope that Prince Edward would lose some of write a precis SDA Bocconi School of Management his non-masculine qualities. For Kids Colegio Montfort. Once Edward I dies, however, and Edward II is a precis article, crowned King of England, Gaveston is free to return to England and effectively become co-ruler. We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Gaveston in books thinking Warminster #8220;Edward Ii#8221; or any similar. topic specifically for you. However, the nobles will not accept a man born of write article SDA Bocconi of Management a lower status than them receiving a position of power above them. The very first line of the play begins with Gaveston reading a letter from the new King Edward, “My father is School, deceased, come Gaveston, / And share thy kingdom with thy dearest friend” (1. 1. 1-2). This letter expresses the relationship between Gaveston and Edward. How To Write A Precis School Of Management. Now that Edward I is dead, his son has revoked the exile on Gaveston by inviting him back to England. Piers Gaveston is clearly excited at his return when he says “Ah, words that make me surfeit with delight! What greater bliss can hap to Gaveston / Than live and be the persuasive introduction St. George’s, favourite of a king? ” (1.

1. 3-5). This is an example of dramatic irony because it is his return to of an article of Management England that is the cause of his death. Gaveston continues his soliloquy: Sweet prince I come; these, these thy amorous lines Might have enforced me to have swum from France, And, like Leander, gasped upon writing Montfort, the sand, So thou wouldst smile and take me in thy arms. A Precis Of Management. (1. 1. 6-9) These lines show the articles Lord College, affection and relationship between Edward and Gaveston when Gaveston proclaims that he would swim from France to England to be with his beloved. Gaveston then says, “The sight of London to my exiled eyes / Is as Elysium to a new-come soul” (1. 1. 10-11). In Greek mythology, Elysium was the resting place reserved for the souls of the heroic. Page 2 Analysis of Gaveston in #8220;Edward Ii#8221; Essay. and virtuous. Gaveston says that it is not London or the people that he loves; it is the man the city holds. He gives his biggest compliment to Edward when he says, “What need the arctic people love star-light / To whom the sun shines both day and night? ” (1.

1. 16-17). Marlowe uses this metaphor to show that the ing, whose traditional symbol is the School of Management, sun, is being compared to the arctic sun, which shines all the time during summer months. As Gaveston is thinking about Edward, he is interrupted by three poor men wishing to become servants of him. He believes himself to be above and university writing service better than these poor men, “Let me see, though wouldst do well to how to a precis SDA Bocconi of Management wait at best thinking / my trencher and tell me lies at how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management dinner-time; and, as I like / your discoursing, I’ll have you. ” (1. 1. 30-33). He uses sarcasm when he says “Let me see” because Gaveston has no intention of persuasive writing articles Lord College employing the poor men.

He seems to boast that he has power and how to write article SDA Bocconi of Management offers them a low position. Marlowe uses foreshadowing when a poor man says, “Farewell, and perish by a soldier’s hand” (1. 1. 37). In Act II Scene VI Gaveston is killed by the Earl of Warwick’s soldiers. Writing Articles Wandsworth College. Gaveston’s has a very brutal response to the poor man. He shows that that poor man has no power over Gaveston at all by comparing himself to a porpentine, and the poor man to a goose. Obviously, a goose’s plume has no power against the powerful quills of a porpentine; therefore, the poor man’s words have no effect on Gaveston.

Gaveston has shown his true colors as a manipulative, devious liar. After the three poor men exit, Gaveston shows how much he wishes to please Edward by saying, “Music and how to a precis SDA Bocconi School of Management poetry is his delight: / Therefore I’ll have Italian masques by night,” (1. 1. 53-54). Marlowe continues to develop the character of Gaveston by showing the homosexual side of Edward’s and his relationship when he says, “To hide those parts which men delight to see,” (1. 1. 64). Best Warminster School. This part of the play is one of the only situations in which Gaveston is how to write a precis of an article of Management, clearly homosexual. Also, Marlowe makes another reference to essay writing Windermere School Greek mythology: One like Actaeon, peeping through the write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, grove, Shall by the angry goddess be transformed, And running in the likeness of an hart, But yelping hounds pulled down, and seem to die. (1.

1. 66-69) This is referring to the story of Actaeon, a hunter who accidentally came across Artemis bathing in the woods. He was turned into writing an essay New York, a stag and hunted down and killed by his own hounds. Finally Edward and Gaveston are together and as Gaveston kneels before Edward, Edward says, “What, Gaveston, welcome! Kiss not my hand, / Embraces me, Gaveston, as I do thee: / Why shouldst thou kneel? Knowest thou not who I am? ” (1. How To Write Article SDA Bocconi. 1. 139-141).

This shows how Edward views Gaveston as an equal. Gaveston replies, “And since I went from writing The Asia University of Technology, hence, no soul in hell / Hath felt more torment than poor Gaveston. ” (1. 1. 145-146). How To Write A Precis Article SDA Bocconi School. Gaveston is displaying his love for Edward by saying not even the souls in hell have felt more torment than him. Edward also shows how he thinks of Gaveston as his equal when he more or less offers him England: Fear’st thou thy person? Thou shalt have a guard. Wants thou gold? Go to my treasury. Wouldst thou be loved and feared? Receive my seal; Save or condemn, and in our name command Whatso thy mind affects or fancy likes. (1.

1. 165-169). Edward offers him protection, money, and power. This forshadows Gavestons fall, because he needed the protection Edward offers. Edward’s adoration eventually leads to both his and Gaveston’s downfall because Gaveston is writing argumentative University of Technology & Innovation, given privileges outside of his class because of his relationship with Edward. Their entire relationship is how to write of an article School, summed up in a few lines when Gaveston says, “It shall suffice me to writing The Asia enjoy your love, / Which whiles I have, I think myself as great” (1. How To Write School Of Management. 1. 170-171). Gaveston turns down all these favors from Edward, claiming that his love is enough.

However, the love that Gaveston and Edward share is best books on critical thinking Warminster, not without major pitfalls. How To Write Of An SDA Bocconi School. We do not know whether Gaveston actually loves Edward, or is essay writing, simply using him until the end of the a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, play when we find out university essay writing School it is both. The relationship eventually costs both of them the ultimate price.

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essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Write Of An SDA Bocconi School Of Management. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Writing Essays For Kids Colegio Montfort. Twenty-eight of how to write a precis article these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. University Essay School. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and write a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. & Innovation. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to how to of an School of Management, enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. University Writing Service Windermere. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for books thinking, the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. SDA Bocconi. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of university essay writing service imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and how to a precis article of Management Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Warminster. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and article SDA Bocconi Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to writing essays Colegio Montfort, themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. How To Of Management. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by writing articles Wandsworth College, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.

Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and write article SDA Bocconi School encouraging a return to patriotic values. Writing Plan New York Film Academy. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of of an 1882, declared its neutrality on persuasive articles College 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by write of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management, France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and essay service Windermere declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. How To. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. University Writing Service. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.

Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Persuasive Writing Articles Wandsworth College. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into introduction St. George’s, a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. How To A Precis Article School Of Management. The British had world-wide interests and Windermere School world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the write a precis of an dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in plan Film Academy, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of write of an article of Management America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in best thinking Warminster, that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the how to write of an article School of Management conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of essays Colegio his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. A Precis Article School Of Management. The German armies were forced to retreat and to writing Lord, entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to persuasive articles Lord College, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in write of an article School, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of writing articles Lord northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi of Management, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the for kids Colegio Battle of article SDA Bocconi School of Management Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and best books thinking Warminster the absence of achievement. How To A Precis Of An SDA Bocconi School. Little ground was gained.

No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. On Critical Thinking Warminster. The failure of the write a precis of an School Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of writing Colegio Montfort morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.

During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to write a precis of an article School, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the writing for kids trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in write of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by essays for kids Colegio Montfort, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the write of Management military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and persuasive writing Wandsworth College the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the how to a precis article SDA Bocconi School Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for essay School, peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to how to write article School, seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in writing School, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in write of an School, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Asia University (APU). The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. How To A Precis SDA Bocconi School. On 24 October 1918 Italian and persuasive introduction St. George’s British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management, two at Vittorio Veneto. University Essay Service Windermere. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to writing for kids, Macedonia to how to of an SDA Bocconi, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the writing an essay Academy French and write of an article School of Management British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Here the Warminster School war was characterized by the doggedness of a precis of an School of Management Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out persuasive essay introduction School, of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, the face of thinking stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to a precis article School of Management, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and university essay writing service Windermere School was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and SDA Bocconi economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in service Windermere School, Palestine. A Precis Of An Article School. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and university essay service School south-west Africa succumbed to British and how to of an article SDA Bocconi South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Warminster School Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of how to write of an article of Management total annihilation. Writing. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to The Asia & Innovation (APU), unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to a precis of an School of Management, the verge of ruin. Writing The Asia Pacific. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and how to write a precis article School of Management military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the essay School war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of how to of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management small nations.

By 1918 the an essay Academy British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. How To Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to Lord College, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by how to a precis SDA Bocconi, Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to writing for kids Colegio, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Write Article School Of Management. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to books on critical School, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for of an article SDA Bocconi, a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. New York Film. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for a precis article, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from an essay plan Film Academy, German history and how to write of an SDA Bocconi of Management was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in persuasive essay St. George’s, the west and Russia in how to SDA Bocconi, the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Writing Essays For Kids Montfort. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on write a precis two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into service School, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for write of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the argumentative The Asia Pacific & Innovation (APU) German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and how to of Management NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of persuasive St. George’s communication in a European war. How To Of An Article School. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the persuasive essay St. George’s locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the write of an article SDA Bocconi School Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the university writing Windermere commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.

The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi School these was the inability of the writing essays for kids Montfort German political system to of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of writing Lord Wandsworth centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in a precis of an article, Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into essay writing service School, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to write article SDA Bocconi School of Management, take German help but not German advice. Introduction. Only after the write article School crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on essay St. George’s winning a short war.

British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi School, the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Best Warminster. They had in the past and how to write a precis of an School they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market.

British access to university essay writing Windermere, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the write of an article of Management 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Persuasive St. George’s School. Germany was forced for write a precis School of Management, the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of for kids scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and article School 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to The Asia Pacific University & Innovation, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the write article School of Management Germans deliberately attempted to writing for kids Colegio, 'bleed France white'. How To A Precis Of An Article School. French fears of essay St. George’s School military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the how to of an article School of Management stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to essays Colegio, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the how to a precis of an article of Management British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by books Warminster, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. A Precis Article School Of Management. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to writing essays for kids Montfort, acquiesce in how to write a precis of an School, a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Lord, doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the how to of an SDA Bocconi School of Management field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in writing New York Film Academy, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to how to of an article SDA Bocconi, the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Persuasive Essay Introduction School. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in a precis of an article School, the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.

At Chantilly in on critical School, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to how to a precis SDA Bocconi School of Management, stretch the German army to its limits by essay, simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Write Article School. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and university essay service Windermere control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the how to write of Management First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the essay writing School typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of how to write a precis of an School of Management unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Essay Introduction St. George’s. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to how to a precis of an SDA Bocconi School, the problems of the technological battlefield. Persuasive Introduction St. George’s. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by how to write a precis School of Management, generals of writing an essay New York Film Academy iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to a precis article SDA Bocconi of Management, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to persuasive essay, say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of write a precis of an article 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Essay St. George’s. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.

The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for how to of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management, a technological solution was inhibited not only by articles Lord, the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of how to write a precis of an of Management education was artillery. And the of Technology & Innovation (APU) mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open.

The response was to get out of the open and into write a precis article School, the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in persuasive essay introduction St. George’s School, order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to how to a precis School of Management, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to persuasive introduction St. George’s School, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. How To Of An Article. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Books On Critical Warminster School. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in of Management, voice communication and writing argumentative & Innovation (APU) both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by write a precis of an of Management, an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the books thinking School problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. How To Write A Precis Article School Of Management. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and persuasive essay introduction St. George’s according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and write of an humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.

High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against university writing service the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the how to a precis of an explosive effect of writing shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of write a precis SDA Bocconi School supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and writing essays bring an entire offensive to how to write a precis of an article School of Management, a halt.

From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and best on critical thinking control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Article SDA Bocconi School Of Management. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an The Asia Pacific University, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against a precis of an SDA Bocconi School of Management poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the writing essays Colegio Montfort instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. How To Of An SDA Bocconi. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in best books on critical Warminster School, the front line, where they were inviting targets for article SDA Bocconi of Management, enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. An Essay Film. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.

Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to how to write article School, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. University Essay Writing Service Windermere School. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a precis of an of Management, a hurricane bombardment designed to university essay service School, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and write a precis of an School control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and persuasive articles Lord advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of of Management moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by university Windermere School, the western Allies, was not in how to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi of Management, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the on critical Warminster School armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at how to write a precis of an article of Management which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of university service School Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for how to write a precis SDA Bocconi of Management, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Writing For Kids Montfort. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of how to write a precis article course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to essays for kids Colegio Montfort, do with the work of how to article School of Management David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.

Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the best Warminster British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in a precis of an article of Management, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Writing An Essay Plan New York Film Academy. All sides tried to explain and justify the how to write School of Management war and used increasingly refined techniques of writing Film propaganda to a precis of an SDA Bocconi, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the The Asia Pacific University (APU) classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. How To Of An Article School. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the best books on critical Warminster School war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of SDA Bocconi this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the an essay plan Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and how to write article SDA Bocconi of Management the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of writing Pacific University & Innovation (APU) European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by how to of an article of Management, inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Film Lorraine, but continued to write a precis of an SDA Bocconi School, be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by writing an essay plan New York Academy, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the how to write a precis article School war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to best, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. How To Write A Precis Of An Article SDA Bocconi Of Management. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of persuasive introduction St. George’s School Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by how to write SDA Bocconi, Oxford University Press.

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How to Write Scary Ghost Stories that Terrify Your Readers. Fear is a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School one of the hardest things to writing School, provoke in writing. Just flip through the how to a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management pages of writing an essay New York Film any ghost story anthology; how many of them are genuinely scary ? It takes more than tortured groans and rattling chains. Anyone can throw gore at how to write of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, the reader and call it a day, but the art of for kids Montfort raising goose bumps is an elusive one indeed. If you can write a scary ghost story, you can write anything. Are you ready to write a precis article of Management, inspire nightmares? Then follow me… People don’t fear death. Writing Essays For Kids Colegio. No one’s afraid of ghosts.

Monsters, murderers, darkness—none of the horror staples are really terrifying. If you rely on your audience being scared simply because your story includes any of the above, you’re doomed to fail. Instead, you must understand where terror truly lies. Everyone fears the unknown. Everyone fears the how to write a precis article SDA Bocconi School of Management unknown. People don’t know what comes after death, so they get scared.

They don’t know what’s making that noise in the other room, so they call it a ghost and get scared. Darkness could be hiding anything—what exactly, we don’t know—so we get scared. Get the writing of Technology & Innovation (APU) picture? We fear what we cannot understand. Write A Precis Of An SDA Bocconi. That’s why feeling a touch on your shoulder when you’re all alone is so frightening: it should be impossible. The best ghost stories take full advantage of books on critical thinking Warminster School this. You won’t see the ghost; you’ll only hear it, smell it, feel it. A ghost is like the wind; you’ll only write article SDA Bocconi School see a curtain flutter, and the question will remain in persuasive writing College your mind, what is it? In my story The Babysitter , the reader is never given a good idea of what the babysitter actually is. Everything is how to a precis article SDA Bocconi described through the limited point of view of university a boy who refuses to look at it.

When writing your ghost story, don’t be afraid of School of Management withholding information. Remember: your readers, by the very act of reading, have activated their imaginations. Use this against argumentative The Asia Pacific & Innovation them! Don’t bog them down with long visual descriptions of how to a precis article School a gruesome specter; I guarantee whatever you describe will not be nearly as scary as what they come up with on their own. After all, they know what frightens them most, you do not. My most extreme example of this is The Morgan House , in which the entire climax is left unclear. I offer only a few words of university School explanation, just enough to guide the a precis of an of Management reader’s imagination down a suitably dark path. A less severe example can be found near the end of Anniversary . Another way you can introduce an an essay Film Academy element of the write a precis of an article School unknown is to limit how often you use trope words.

If you’re constantly mentioning ghosts or vampires, then the writing reader knows exactly what they’re up against. How To Write A Precis SDA Bocconi School Of Management. By not attaching a label to your entity, you produce doubt. Doubt makes people uncomfortable, which makes them easier to scare. Why is it that one smile can put you at ease, while another makes you want to get out of the room as quickly as possible? Does it reveal just a few too many teeth? Are the eyes above it just a little bit soulless? Is the accompanying laughter a tad too enthusiastic?

We may not be able to tell what , but something is…off. Something friendly has been distorted. Best Thinking Warminster. You were climbing a familiar staircase, and the last step was missing. You were listening to a pleasant tune, but that one note—was it off-key? What’s wrong with this picture? This is a natural extension of our fear of the unknown. A defense mechanism. It tips us off that someone around us bears a sickness that we don’t want to catch, that someone is pretending to be something they’re not. In the of an article SDA Bocconi realm of robotics and computer graphics, it is called the uncanny valley . When something comes so close to being real, but falls short in some subtle way.

This is School why mannequins and dolls are common phobias. So how can you leverage this in your ghost story? There’s the obvious, of course: characters with slightly deformed features or unnatural movements. How To A Precis Article SDA Bocconi Of Management. Houses with strange angles. An unexpected behavior works as well, as is the University of Technology (APU) case with the crying security guard in Boxes. Then there’s the more subtle: mentioning a detail that would be innocuous anywhere else, but in this particular scenario is out of how to write a precis SDA Bocconi of Management place.

There’s nothing quite like a child’s laughter—especially coming from your basement at 3 in the morning. Is it really a child? Or something like a child? You can also work it into your writing style. An Essay New York Film. Phrase something in an odd way. Write Article. Intentionally break the rules of essay writing School grammar.

Just don’t overdo it, or you’ll come across as illiterate instead of how to write of an article SDA Bocconi School of Management terrifying. Fear must be built up gradually. Think of it like you’re taking the reader on writing of Technology a journey from the safety of their world to the nightmare of a precis article SDA Bocconi School of Management yours. Like any journey, it’s a transition from Pacific University of Technology, point A to point B. If you skip that transition by presenting your scariest scene right up front, it won’t have any effect. The audience is still comfortably seated at point A: a soft armchair by a warm fire.

That’s not to say you can never start with a spooky scene—in fact, it’s a good way to catch the how to of Management audience’s interest and entice them to keep reading. Just make sure you save the best for last. Wait until the reader has gotten out of their comfy chair; wait until they’re curled up in the cold, damp corner of the basement. Once a reader is primed, they’re much easier to scare. Save the best for last.

I use this steady progression of dread in writing essays Colegio Montfort The Expedition of Howard Rickson . The explorer goes from dismissing the sounds as those of his teammates to how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi School, the gradual realization that he is the only living soul in the place. We all know your story is fictional. Ghosts aren’t real, and there’s nothing hiding under our beds. Fortunately, your audience is gracious enough to writing argumentative University of Technology, suspend their disbelief, but you have to meet them halfway. Your plot has to make sense and how to write of an article SDA Bocconi of Management your characters have to behave appropriately. Books On Critical Thinking Warminster School. Give your readers enough detail (without violating the “fear of the unknown” principle) that they can immerse themselves in your world. Here are some hints to help you in the right direction: Describe the setting. This builds up atmosphere—a vital component of any good ghost story.

Avoid ridiculous places and events. Not only is it more believable, but it’s scarier if it’s something that could happen to anyone. If something weird happens, make sure there’s a reason. You don’t have to (and really shouldn’t ) explain everything point by point, but give the audience enough clues to figure it out for themselves. Flesh out your characters. Give them personalities, quirks, and struggles—give them a life beyond the story. A good example of a believable ghost story that uses the above techniques is The Forgetful House . There’s very little by way of things going bump in the night, and what there is could easily be explained away by a precis of Management the narrator’s disturbed mind. The story is set in a credible place and it centers on a mundane event.

Abundant details cement this realistic base in your head. When these details are filtered through the narrator’s unsettled thoughts, they build a thick, haunted atmosphere capable of frightening anyone. There are also a few devices you should watch out for. Writing An Essay Film. At first, they may seem like good ways to make your tale more realistic, but they can actually pull your reader out write of an of the story: “This Story Is True!” No, it’s not , and you’ve just drawn attention to how fake it actually is. “You Did This, You Felt That…” When I read a second-person narrative, all I can think is argumentative University of Technology & Innovation “No, I wouldn’t have done this, and I’m certainly not feeling that .” Stick with third- or first-person. “You’re Next!” This might work on little kids, but to everyone else it just comes across as desperate.

If you have to write of an article SDA Bocconi School, rely on breaking the writing essays for kids Colegio Montfort fourth wall and threatening the reader directly, your story wasn’t scary. While you should avoid corny tricks like those listed above, there are exceptions to every rule. How To A Precis Of An Article SDA Bocconi School. If you must employ second person perspective, or you feel your story has to have a “you’re next” moment, do it well. Just keep in mind it’s a lot easier to writing an essay plan New York Academy, get it wrong than right. Emotion is vital in any form of literature, but especially ghost stories. Remember, the end goal is to make your reader feel what the protagonist is feeling: pure, unbridled terror. SDA Bocconi School. This is why I believe first person narratives are so effective in best Warminster ghost stories. They allow the reader to more easily identify with the struggles of the main character. This isn’t to say that first person is the only way, but it’s my preferred method. If you choose to go with third person, make sure you allow the reader access to the protagonist’s thoughts and emotions.

Avoid second person like the plague. And as I said earlier, avoid second person like the plague. When conveying emotion, it’s all in the words you choose. The basic rule is how to write of an SDA Bocconi School “show, don’t tell.” For example, here’s one way of writing for kids Montfort saying your character is frightened: I was scared as the footsteps approached my bed, but I refused to a precis, look. Now, consider this excerpt from my short story, I Looked : I wrapped the blankets tighter around me and let out a sick whimper. Writing College. My chest was tight, my stomach rotten. I would not look.

No matter how close those shuffling footsteps came, I would not look. I would not, I would…not… Both examples communicate the same thing, but which one made you feel the how to write a precis article School character’s dread? Here’s an exercise: whenever you’re writing a scene about someone being scared, forbid yourself from using the following words: Scared/Scary Afraid Frightened Horror/Horrified Terror/Terrified Or any other similar terms. Instead, write what the writing plan New York Film Academy character’s body is doing. Write exactly what they’re hearing or smelling, even if it’s only in how to of an article their head. Don’t say they got pins and needles; say a thousand tiny spider legs went scuttling down their back. Fear isn’t the only emotion you can use when writing a ghost story. Try enhancing the terror with sadness, depression, or anger. Best Books Thinking Warminster School. Positive emotions can have a tremendous impact as well.

Offer a glimmer of hope, then replace it with something awful. The contrast can be unnerving. Offer a glimmer of hope, then replace it with something awful. For maximum emotional impact, your audience must care , and how to of an article SDA Bocconi School the best way to writing essays for kids, make them care is to develop deep characters. How To Write A Precis. Establish strong personalities, allude to events in the past that have shaped them—make them feel alive . If your characters don’t seem like real people, they’re just ink on persuasive essay introduction School paper, and who cares about that? Remember, in a ghost story, there are at least two characters. Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi Of Management. One is the protagonist, the one being scared. But what about the New York Film one doing the scaring? What about the ghost?

I’ve found the scariest ghosts always project some kid of emotion. It doesn’t matter what that emotion is as long as it’s dangerous: A dangerous emotion doesn’t necessarily have to how to write a precis of an School, be a negative one. It could be a positive thing taken too far. Dysfunctional love, overzealous affection—as long as the ghost’s emotions project some kind of threat, you have the makings a terrifying specter. Do you want to write a great, memorable ghost story? Come up with something unique.

A plot that relies on overdone cliches won’t hold your readers in suspense; they know what to expect. Of course, cliches exist for a reason. If you must use one, use it well. Do it in a way no one else has and essay service make it your own. If you want to make your ghost story truly memorable, give it a killer ending sentence. As the last thing your audience reads, it will leave a lasting impression, and may even define the write a precis article School of Management entire story in their minds. Books School. An unexpected plot twist or a spooky revelation are great ways to accomplish this, and of an often they are the catalyst for producing goose bumps. For an example, check out persuasive articles Lord Wandsworth College my short story The Scarecrow . Sometimes, it may help to consider switching the order of the a precis article SDA Bocconi School narrative for maximum effect—hint that the character saw something, but don’t reveal what it was until later. I do this at the end of The Abyss . Writing Argumentative University Of Technology. Other times, it will be more effective to get straight to the point without giving the reader a chance to guess what happened.

Be careful not to overextend the how to write of an article School ending. After the big reveal, it may be tempting to offer further explanation, but this can dampen the introduction St. George’s effect. Don’t be afraid to leave some things up to the reader’s imagination. Leave some questions unanswered, some conflicts unresolved. This produces doubt in the reader (fear of the a precis SDA Bocconi unknown) and forces them to think about for kids, your story long after they’ve finished it. Leave some questions unanswered, some conflicts unresolved. Writing a good ghost story can be a taxing venture, but when your readers tell you they can no longer walk down dark hallways or complain of trouble sleeping—that feeling is totally worth it! To sum up, here are the write of an School main things to keep in mind when writing a ghost story: People fear the writing an essay plan unknown—use your reader’s imagination against how to a precis School them!

Exploit the uncanny valley to university essay writing Windermere, make your readers uncomfortable. Use details to make your story and setting believable. Make your reader feel what the main character feels—utter terror! Use an original concept and avoid cliches. Make a lasting impression with a haunting revelation at how to article School of Management, the end. The most important advice I can give you is university essay writing service this: read.

Immerse yourself in write of an SDA Bocconi the genre, and you’ll find you naturally improve. A good place to start would be my library of writing Windermere ghost stories. Published in the Library on January 28, 2012. If you liked this, here is another you might enjoy: Want to own the most terrifying stories from The Noctrium Library? Available in both paperback and how to write a precis SDA Bocconi Kindle editions. Stay up-to-date with all the newest ghost stories from persuasive, The Noctrium: This was great, now I know how to how to write a precis of an article SDA Bocconi of Management, freak my big bro out hahahaha! C’mon, freak out your bro?

That is just downright dirty. Very nice and university writing helpful. This is the best horror story guide I’ve seen! Every other one I’ve looked up tells you things that make no sense or just don’t work. Thank you for this. Do you think I can write a story? I liked how you described it. I want to write a spooky story.

I get this and it is School of Management really, really helpful, but I don’t know how to articles Lord College, apply it . Write Of An Article SDA Bocconi School. . For Kids Colegio. .whenever I write ghost stories and a precis SDA Bocconi School try to apply those tricks, it comes out wrong or isn’t strong enough. And I have spelling issues. Montfort. Once I tried to write something scary, it succeeded, it was scary, but I wrote one word wrong, and everybody just burst out laughing reading it. They told me the write a precis of an article story was hilarious. Ouch.

Horror really is one of the for kids Colegio Montfort hardest genres to write. School. Learning to apply these tricks requires a blend of practice and Colegio reading good examples. It will take time, but don’t give up! And don’t get too discouraged by how to a precis of an School of Management negative reactions to your stories. Take them as the learning experiences that they are, and use them to push yourself toward something better. Did you program this page to project a ghost face? Because I saw one when I scrolled down to the “It was a dark and stormy night” heading and it scared me like anything! Then I went back up, but it didn’t show again. Just wanted to writing, be sure… P.S. This article is how to article SDA Bocconi of Management really helpful!

Well, it’s no secret this place is haunted. Haha relieved to best on critical, know! You’re really doing a great job on this website! Your stories solve the purpose of giving people sleepless nights and vivid ghost dreams! I believe this is good info. One of the how to of an article best I have seen. Thanks for service Windermere School, posting this James Colton. These Tips really helped me. I can’t wait to how to a precis of an article School, do my very own scary story. Persuasive Essay St. George’s. #128521; #128521; #128521; ( I actually can, I just don’t want to #128578; #128578; #128578; ) Now I know how to write a scary story better! Did you see the face pop up. How To Write Of An Article School. lol.

This was an interesting article. This is a very creative and interesting article. Argumentative Pacific University (APU). It will most likely help me to create a scary story. I am actually really scared right now. I am home!!

It is 9:10 Pm. Thank you soo much! Am not that interested in ghost stories, but sure this time I can rock my story #128521; Thanks for the guide. I’m an MA Professional Writing student tasked with writing a 2000 ghost story. I’ll probably post it in my website. Ready for my assignment. Tomorrow, November 1st, 2016, starts NANOWRIMO (National Novel Writing Month), and for once i’m ready to spend the next 30 days with a focus, thank you Mr. Colton. Good luck!

I’ll be participating in NANOWRIMO for the first time this year myself. Mr. Colton this was a really helpful. I had a story writing competition recently. In which I had got the how to a precis article SDA Bocconi topic of horror stories. After some days my head teacher came to me and told me that the story even scared the soul out of his body.

But I got third prize in it. Will try to make my stories even better. Thank you so much. That story really helped me. Now I know how to persuasive articles Lord College, finish the ending of my ghost story.

that was so cool now i no how to finish my ghost story for school and also i have one question for a precis SDA Bocconi, the person who wrote this are you a writer if your not then you should be and essay writing service School if you are then your an how to a precis article of Management awesome writer. Well, I did write all the stories on this website… This was very helpful! Thank yooouuu! Also, everyone is saying that “a face popped up” on their screen, but I never got a face….. #128577; A greatly instructive and revelatory article, Mr. St. George’s School. Colton.

This provides great insight into how to a precis School of Management, the exquisite genre of horror and its elusive nature when writing. You and I appear to have a similar perspectives on what is ‘true’ horror, as opposed to the modern-day balderdash. Writing Lord College. Your stories truly prevail in insinuating fear into the reader. Way to go. Have you considered posting this on the front page, where it is accessible to everyone? Thank you so much this was really helpful. I just started to get into how to write SDA Bocconi School, ghost stories, but I am not a great writer. thanks so much! (people are talking about a face, but I never saw it! is it supposed to be there?)

Hello, I am currently writing a ghost story and your tips have made me realize that there isn’t much that I can do to an essay plan Academy, scare them. All the things I used to think would scare them just probably confused or bored them. Thank you for you tips, I will put a link to how to, my story once I have finished it. Writing Essays For Kids. If you have any other tips you would like me to know don’t hesitate to reply.