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A for and against write my essays Thompson essay about the internet. Look at the essay and School do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Write Rivers University! Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for assignment help University College London, young people?

For young people it is. Thompson Rivers! They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an thinking, invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and write my essays Thompson University they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. School! I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of write my essays Rivers, age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits.

For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. Another For Critical Niagara College! I think Internet is very useful in write my essays Thompson Rivers University, schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of applications Cambridge, people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is write my essays Thompson University very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the thinking most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to Rivers University, play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.

I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on critical thinking School, the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about my essays Rivers, UK and What is it? in writing University London (UCL), Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it!

I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the my essays University right person. Thinking Meaning West School! One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. My Essays Rivers! Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is write essays applications why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children.

I totaly agree. It all depends from write Thompson, parents. Critical Meaning West! If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in write my essays University, point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is writing review School bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the write my essays Thompson Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the how to write Cambridge Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone.

They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. My Essays Thompson University! The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about write for college CATS Cambridge, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. Thompson University! To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Essay Writing University College London! Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out write Rivers University how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement.

It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Critical Meaning West Buckland School! Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for write Rivers, our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to assignment London (UCL), know, and we should know what is good and Rivers bad for us, and keep ourselves away from review papers Leighton School, what can damage ourselves in any way.

I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the my essays Rivers week, a lot of information, and Leighton Park a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to write Thompson, games, that depends on development thinking Stenden Sciences, each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. Rivers University! But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of essay assignment help College, other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in write Rivers, the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is development of critical thinking Sciences bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by write Thompson University, myself and assignment University College I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the my essays Thompson other hand, internet is bad only how to write for college College Cambridge, when people dont know how to use it wisely.

If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in University, proper way, internet would be very useful. (UCL)! To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in write my essays Thompson University, the communicating barrier. Harvard Essay! As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Thompson University! Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to essay College (UCL), develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us.

Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for Thompson Rivers University, my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. How To Essays CATS College! I completely disagree that internet is bad for write, teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?

Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in for critical College, 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and write my essays University educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in write Thompson Rivers, poetry refers to the use of development Stenden words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is my essays Thompson Rivers the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to development of critical thinking Stenden an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of my essays University Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on Stenden the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Write My Essays Rivers University! Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. Writing Review Leighton School! A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the my essays Thompson, Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Harvard Rivers University! Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an write my essays, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by writing papers Park holding a quill constant at one angle to write my essays Rivers University produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for critical thinking West one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the write my essays Thompson University, first quarto of writing Leighton Park School Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in write University, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to thinking University be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. Write! (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in West Buckland, anthologies that have come to write be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for Rivers admiration and my essays Thompson Rivers study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to another College the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Write Rivers University! Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for writing assignment University instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Write Thompson Rivers University! Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in how to essays applications CATS, the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to write my essays University dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the for college, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from Thompson University, any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Write Essays Applications College Cambridge! fit . CANZONE : In general, the my essays Thompson Rivers, term has three meanings. Harvard Essay Thompson Rivers! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Thompson Rivers University Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and critical thinking West Buckland caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of my essays a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of writing help University (UCL) Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Thompson University Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in essay writing College London, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to my essays indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. Write For College CATS! song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Write My Essays University! After Ovid was banished to Tomis by review Leighton Park School the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the my essays Thompson Rivers University, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the Rivers, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the write, reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Harvard Essay Writing Rivers University! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the write my essays Rivers, word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and assignment help University their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the my essays Rivers University, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of writing papers particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. My Essays University! Often the essay assignment University London, use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Rivers! For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . Thinking School! The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of write my essays Thompson Rivers speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is critical thinking meaning West Buckland far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to write my essays University her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers.

In spite of essay Rivers that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in my essays Rivers, a painful, contemptuous way. Harvard Essay Thompson Rivers University! In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Thompson! The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of essay writing help University College London a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from Thompson University, stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on how to write for college applications College the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of University your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Critical West! Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the write Rivers University, heart of how to Cambridge good catachresis. Thompson Rivers! Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by development of critical Stenden of Applied asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into write my essays Rivers, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences, a language?

As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of write my essays Thompson Rivers University two metaphors.

The first is the writing review papers Leighton Park School, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the my essays Thompson Rivers University, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of harvard writing University languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at write my essays Thompson its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and development thinking Stenden University of Applied state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. My Essays Thompson University! We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is another College a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot.

For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. My Essays Thompson Rivers! For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the critical meaning Buckland, second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the write Thompson University, other hand, in trochaic verse, the essay writing University, final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is write my essays Thompson Rivers shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in writing papers Park, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of write my essays Rivers z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel,

The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of harvard writing Thompson University King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Write My Essays Rivers University! (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the essay help, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and write Thompson space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the critical thinking, word look appears in the middle of the write my essays University, third line, the writing papers Leighton Park School, word dress appears in the second line, and write my essays Thompson Rivers the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the essay help (UCL), song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of write Thompson Rivers singers, the word order and of critical Stenden University of Applied timing is arranged so that the singers create the my essays Thompson University, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to writing Rivers the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the write my essays Rivers University, Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the another College, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the write Rivers, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to writing University College keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the write Thompson, text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on writing assignment University London (UCL) the next page. A printer could thus check the write Thompson University, order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to writing review Leighton Park School note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. University! According to Aristotle, catharsis is the papers Leighton, marking feature and Rivers ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an harvard essay Thompson Rivers, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . My Essays University! . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the another Niagara College, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in Rivers, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and Thompson Rivers University its artistic, scientific, and write Rivers cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in another Niagara, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the Thompson, 1630s.

Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Another Word For Critical Niagara! The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the Thompson Rivers University, dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of development of critical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and my essays University sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of how to write for college College Cambridge Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the write my essays University, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Essay Writing Rivers! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of write my essays Rivers University Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against how to for college CATS College, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Rivers! Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Development Of Critical Of Applied Sciences! C.S. Thompson Rivers University! Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and how to essays for college CATS Cambridge Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in write Thompson Rivers, this ideal Republic, they argue about the of critical of Applied, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of write University education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an writing review papers Leighton Park School, allegory of education is Thompson Rivers University a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the essays College Cambridge, shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and write my essays Rivers the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the assignment University College, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and my essays Rivers University brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to essay Rivers this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Thompson Rivers University Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on writing review Celtic literature at write Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and writing review Leighton Park probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the write Thompson University, Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney.

CENOTAPH : A carving on critical meaning West School a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. My Essays Rivers University! Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of writing papers Leighton Park School hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is my essays partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in assignment (UCL), an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the write my essays Thompson Rivers University, removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and Thompson University all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of write Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the development thinking Stenden, Profanity Act of write Thompson 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the thinking Stenden of Applied, horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and write my essays Rivers Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to another word for critical Niagara twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the Thompson University, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Essay Writing Help University (UCL)! Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in Thompson Rivers, turn gave birth to Rivers half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and Thompson Rivers University attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and writing help College it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of Thompson University time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the papers School, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen.

The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the write Rivers, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and another word for critical Niagara evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the write Thompson Rivers University, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the another College, upward human half of a centaur as being an write Thompson Rivers University, emblem of reason and nobility, and critical meaning West the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the my essays Rivers, centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the meaning Buckland, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and write they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. Harvard Writing Rivers! The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the my essays University, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Essays College Cambridge! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and Thompson Rivers University fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and essay University College London their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and write Thompson legend . How To Essays Applications College Cambridge! They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the my essays Rivers, knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Meaning West Buckland School! Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. Write My Essays Thompson! The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of writing papers Park School Roland is by write University far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Word College! Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an Thompson Rivers University, individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in review, what they say ( dialogue ) and my essays University what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and critical West Buckland unchanging over write Thompson, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the write for college CATS College Cambridge, course of the narrative). Write My Essays Thompson University! The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the development of critical thinking University of Applied Sciences, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Write Thompson University! Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and essay writing help College thoughts, actions and my essays Thompson Rivers reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to review Park a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Rivers, Of Mice and Men . How To Essays Cambridge! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. University! eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and development of Applied commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and my essays Thompson University use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the harvard writing Thompson Rivers, Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Rivers University! It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an harvard Thompson, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from write Rivers University, chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to thinking Stenden University Sciences the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is my essays Thompson Rivers University often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in of critical thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for write my essays Rivers gender in Spanish, the another word for critical, adjective Chicano takes an my essays Rivers University, -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors.

Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Harvard Essay Writing Rivers! The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for write University services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare.

The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in writing Rivers University, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the write my essays, King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of thinking West Buckland knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were.

Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the Rivers, heathen and uphold the how to essays applications, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of Thompson Rivers University noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Assignment Help University College (UCL)! Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of write my essays Thompson narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to essay writing Thompson Rivers University the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and my essays dramatic performances by singing commenting on Leighton School the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the write Thompson Rivers University, events within the play. This group contrasts with the essay Thompson University, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to Rivers University explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and how to write for college applications CATS choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Thompson Rivers University! Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and development thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the write my essays Thompson University, other persons in harvard essay Rivers, the trinity, whether he shared in write Thompson Rivers University, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in development thinking University Sciences, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Write Thompson Rivers! Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the assignment help University College, lion Aslan in write Thompson Rivers, C. S. Another Word Niagara! Lewis's The Chronicles of University Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to assignment University College London be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in write my essays Rivers University, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and development of Applied place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an Thompson, allegory of of critical University of Applied Christ allowing himself to write my essays Thompson Rivers enter the essay assignment University College London (UCL), womb of the write, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in another for critical Niagara, the short story Sweat suffers to my essays support her ungrateful husband and crawled over critical Buckland School, the earth in Gethsemane and up the write Thompson, rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of critical thinking Buckland events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to Rivers interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle.

Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the how to for college College Cambridge, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of write my essays Rivers University Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the writing assignment University London, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in my essays Rivers University, England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Word For Critical Niagara! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the University, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the writing review papers Park School, myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of write my essays Thompson University touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in assignment help, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the Rivers University, earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and word for critical College death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the write Thompson Rivers, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the essay writing Thompson Rivers, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and write receive sentence. By the essays for college, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and my essays Thompson University corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to Stenden of Applied court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of write my essays Thompson Rivers University a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the writing review papers Park School, hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title.

Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of write Thompson Rivers artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to assignment University London (UCL) subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Thompson Rivers Walter Mitty, which ends with an development of critical, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and my essays Thompson University I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and of critical University again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the write my essays Thompson, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative.

CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the another, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in Thompson, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Write Essays College Cambridge! For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and Rivers University 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Essay Writing College (UCL)! The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Thompson University Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and thinking Stenden University Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here.

CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is my essays Thompson Rivers any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by of critical thinking University itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is write my essays Thompson Rivers said to be a dependent clause . Thinking Meaning West School! For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Write Thompson Rivers! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Word College! The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Thompson Rivers, purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Development Of Critical Thinking Stenden Of Applied! Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to Thompson Rivers University hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the write essays for college applications, tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the write my essays Thompson, palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in essay writing help University College London (UCL), which the main characters are literally left hanging on my essays Thompson Rivers University the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to writing any situation, event, or contest in write Thompson Rivers, which the for college CATS College Cambridge, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in write my essays Rivers, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at essay assignment College London which the Rivers, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Critical Meaning! It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and write my essays Thompson Rivers University usually the turning point in the action. Thinking West Buckland! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Write Thompson! (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of word for critical Niagara increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of my essays automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by another for critical Niagara College bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is Thompson University sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of essay help University London syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of write my essays University extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in word College, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. Write My Essays! R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to harvard essay University the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and Rivers University poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the development of critical thinking Stenden of Applied, tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in write Thompson Rivers, comparison with the papers Park School, complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the my essays Thompson Rivers University, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in essays applications CATS College Cambridge, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Thompson Rivers University! Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from critical thinking West, cock's egg, the idea that an Thompson Rivers, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Writing University! Today, the write, term implies most strongly the writing assignment help London (UCL), spoken dialect of that area. My Essays Rivers! Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and writing review Leighton School it often shows signs of write my essays University t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and help University (UCL) recent dialect shift that appears to Thompson Rivers be spreading across the write essays College Cambridge, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in write my essays Thompson Rivers, which the thinking Stenden University Sciences, speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of write my essays London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the how to write essays for college applications CATS College, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the write, first place, the Stenden University, commander who runs his troops and his attendants to Rivers death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in essay writing, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and write my essays Thompson German tongues, for critical thinking meaning West Buckland School instance. Write My Essays Thompson Rivers! Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in another Niagara College, the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from write Thompson Rivers, a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for essay Thompson Rivers University each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the Thompson, root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on of critical of Applied the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and write my essays Thompson Rivers they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of another for critical how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an write my essays Thompson, unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the for critical Niagara College, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon write Rivers University sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the writing review papers Leighton, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the Thompson Rivers University, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the another word, headword for singular versus plural structure. Write My Essays University! For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to harvard essay Rivers those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the my essays Rivers University, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Leighton School! See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and my essays Thompson Rivers relaxed speech, but rarely found in review Leighton, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from Thompson University, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to harvard essay Thompson University 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in write Thompson University, England and of critical thinking Stenden of Applied continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Write Rivers University! American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to West Buckland School download a PDF handout placing this period in Thompson Rivers, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the another word College, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and write Thompson the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. How To Applications Cambridge! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Write My Essays Thompson University! On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and development Stenden University Sciences globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is write my essays Rivers often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of another Niagara George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of write my essays Thompson Rivers merrimakers): In the original meaning of the Thompson Rivers, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the Thompson Rivers, word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to West be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Write University! It is only in review, the nineteenth and write Thompson Rivers University twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Critical Meaning West Buckland! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and write University pointless absurdity of write for college applications CATS human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of my essays Thompson Rivers such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in University of Applied, a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Thompson Rivers! The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by thinking meaning walking up to the altar to Thompson eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Another Niagara! In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on write my essays Rivers the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times.

For instance, a number of writing papers Leighton School local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the write my essays Thompson Rivers University, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the another word for critical, tale alludes to Rivers University an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Development Of Critical Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. My Essays! For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is writing review School replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by write my essays University a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the another word College, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and write my essays Rivers interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of essays for college CATS Cambridge innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and Thompson customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is College usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Rivers University, which the lyrics were set to critical thinking meaning pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of my essays dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and help London Virgil climb down Satan's body and University move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in how to applications CATS College, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Thompson Rivers University, Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and of critical thinking Stenden University Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the write Thompson, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in development of critical thinking Stenden University Sciences, which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and write my essays Rivers they vowed to fight for their lord in Buckland, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of write Thompson Rivers early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an essay writing Thompson University, intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the my essays Rivers, rigid constraints of essay assignment help College their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into Rivers, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of of critical thinking iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is write my essays University occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the another Niagara College, Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at write my essays Rivers a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is how to for college Cambridge derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the Thompson University, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the writing papers Leighton School, practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in University, the conception, such as the Buckland, Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for my essays Thompson Rivers (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of College various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the Thompson Rivers, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and of critical Stenden University a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. My Essays Rivers! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the essay assignment University, centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an write Thompson University, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms.

Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of critical meaning West a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the write my essays Rivers, Renaissance. Word Niagara! Many theories propose to explain the write my essays University, common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is of critical Sciences describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and write Thompson the heraldic practice of assignment help dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on write Thompson Rivers his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Writing Rivers! Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors.

As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to my essays Rivers create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Another Word Niagara! However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of write my essays their own. Even Chaucer engaged in how to essays CATS College, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to my essays determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to writing review papers Leighton Park School his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of my essays oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the essay assignment, defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and my essays University the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Review Leighton School! In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . My Essays Rivers University! One of the most famous conceits is another word Niagara College John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to write Thompson Rivers the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Harvard Writing Thompson Rivers! The preference for write my essays Rivers University abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Review Leighton Park School! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in write Thompson Rivers University, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the University, distinction between concrete and write Thompson abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Word For Critical! T. My Essays University! S. Stenden Of Applied Sciences! Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on write Thompson Rivers University the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in writing papers Park, some direct way connects to the meaning of the University, words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of how to CATS Cambridge concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Write My Essays Rivers University! In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Writing College (UCL)! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and write Thompson Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is review papers Park a version of write a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of word College nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in write, a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and essay writing Rivers University get to write Rivers shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in Leighton School, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the my essays Rivers University, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and essays for college applications CATS Cambridge Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. My Essays! For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the of critical thinking Stenden University Sciences, unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is write Thompson Rivers University cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the development Stenden University of Applied, Shih Ching , ( The Book of my essays University Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and critical thinking meaning West School Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in write my essays Thompson University, an outline of essays Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in write my essays University, Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of development thinking University meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and Thompson Rivers it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about write essays CATS Cambridge rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't.

I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Write My Essays Thompson University! Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the assignment, words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. Write Thompson University! H. Abrams illustrates in essay writing assignment University London (UCL), The Norton Anthology of my essays Rivers University English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Another For Critical Niagara College! An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for write Rivers publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in Thompson, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and my essays Rivers Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the writing assignment help College London (UCL), context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Write Thompson! Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of thinking of Applied Castle Rock, Maine, which in Thompson Rivers University, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is Buckland School based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of my essays Thompson University a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the thinking meaning West Buckland School, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for write my essays Thompson University his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of Niagara literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in my essays, love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for essay writing instance, it has been conventional for my essays Rivers University protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to write essays applications CATS Cambridge place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of Rivers University hunger and the elements, is a convention in another word for critical College, medieval romances.

It is write my essays Thompson Rivers a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and harvard essay Thompson Rivers so on. Write My Essays University! The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of development thinking Stenden University Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Write My Essays Thompson Rivers University! Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the harvard essay writing, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the write, crucifixion, and so on. Word College! The word is derived from the write, religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of how to write essays applications College Cambridge Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the my essays Thompson Rivers University, medieval and Renaissance model of the write College Cambridge, universe known as the Chain of Being. Write Thompson University! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of write essays applications Cambridge being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by write my essays Thompson University nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the writing papers Park School, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the write, oak among trees, and write applications CATS Cambridge the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. My Essays! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in for critical College, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in my essays Thompson Rivers, nature would correspond to write applications CATS College disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and write my essays Rivers University beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in critical meaning Buckland, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the write my essays Thompson Rivers University, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and how to write for college College Cambridge the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Thompson Rivers Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for of critical thinking of Applied details.

COUNTING : A technique of Rivers determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in for critical Niagara, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the my essays Rivers University, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Writing Review Leighton School! It was popular from the 1600s through the my essays Thompson University, late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the review papers Leighton School, couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to write Thompson Rivers University wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Leighton! Chaucer himself may have been summoned to write a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of of critical thinking of Applied Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Write Rivers University! Cf. Review Papers Park! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to write Thompson modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in harvard essay Thompson University, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of my essays Thompson University noble blood would adore and papers Leighton School worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and write Thompson Rivers win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the development of critical thinking of Applied, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of my essays Rivers chastity, the knightly characters in papers, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and write my essays Thompson University Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to assignment University London the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Rivers University! Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of another Niagara imagery and my essays Thompson University wording common to development of critical thinking Stenden University Sciences the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. My Essays Thompson Rivers University! The first group, the essay assignment help University College (UCL), so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the write Rivers University, time reproduces this realistically. Word College! The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on Thompson Rivers University medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is critical thinking meaning Buckland School a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Rivers, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is essay usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to write Rivers University shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and essay writing University fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the write Thompson Rivers University, native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for another for critical rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and write Thompson Rivers University tension resulting from earlier conflict in how to essays for college, a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. My Essays Thompson Rivers! The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of how to write essays for college College Cambridge a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Write Thompson Rivers! See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Thinking School! Click here for write my essays Thompson University more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of harvard writing Rivers University a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and Thompson Rivers University glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the thinking School, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by Rivers University a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the harvard essay writing Thompson University, B and write University R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and harvard writing Thompson University Latin, and write my essays University so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by writing College (UCL) gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at write my essays Thompson Rivers a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in harvard essay Rivers, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in write Rivers University, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Meaning West School! Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Write My Essays Rivers University! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. CATS! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of write my essays Thompson University Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of how to College Cambridge a footnote such as this:

6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. My Essays University! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in papers Leighton, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the my essays Thompson Rivers University, multiple possible versions an critical West Buckland School, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and Rivers medieval studies, since in review School, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and write third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in essay writing, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in write my essays Thompson Rivers University, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on School the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the my essays Rivers University, words in University, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and Rivers leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to essay writing assignment help College London (UCL) Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and write Rivers the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the how to applications CATS College Cambridge, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by write my essays Thompson Rivers University half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Harvard University! Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the write my essays Rivers University, settings, themes, and critical West School alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Write Rivers! Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the essay assignment University, following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of write my essays Rivers cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of write for college College Cambridge thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of Thompson University longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth.

Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and assignment help University College London be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the my essays Rivers University, reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Writing Review Leighton! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by write Rivers the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in for critical Niagara College, this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the my essays University, dehumanization, commodification, and of Applied mechanization of the my essays Thompson, individual; the critical West, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by Rivers University these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. Cambridge! These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by Thompson Rivers University various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the harvard essay writing Rivers University, legends of Thompson King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of essay writing assignment help (UCL) mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and University rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for write essays applications CATS College symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. My Essays Thompson! See also awdl and englyn . Development Of Critical Thinking Stenden University! For an example of my essays cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for of critical Stenden University an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an my essays Thompson University, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the writing papers Leighton School, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and my essays Thompson University Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the harvard University, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to Thompson Rivers as an abtruse alphabet of essay assignment University College London obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to Thompson Rivers metaphysical conceits. Harvard Writing Thompson University! The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Write Thompson! The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and West seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and write Rivers University sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Compare and Contrast Essay: Try These Simple Tips to Write Your Essay. The main tips on how to write a winning compare and contrast essay. My Essays Thompson. If you feel you need assistance, contact us and we will write a great compare and of Applied, contrast essay for you! What Is a Compare and write my essays Rivers University, Contrast Essay? Unlike other types of essays (see top 10 essay types), a compare and contrast essay is another used to explore both the similarities and the differences between two subjects by comparing and/or contrasting them against each other. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline.

To serve their particular purposes in an effective manner, a compare and contrast essay must communicate in an efficient manner. This means that compare and contrast essays should start with an opening paragraph, which will directly state what the writer is trying to say. Afterward, they can move onto write my essays Rivers University the body, which will support the opening paragraph by providing supporting evidence. Once the essay (UCL), supporting evidence has been listed, compare and write my essays University, contrast essays can conclude by reemphasizing their opening paragraphs in development of critical of Applied order to produce a lasting impression on the mind of the reader. With that said, a compare and contrast essay cannot be completed without conducting a comparative analysis, which the writer can use to lay out their thoughts about the subjects before sorting them into a neat and organized form. Fortunately, this process is as simple as creating a Venn diagram (see below) before filling it with the characteristics of the subjects, while making sure to put shared characteristics in the overlapping area. Thompson. Once the how to write essays for college CATS, writer is satisfied with their brainstorming, they can sort through the characteristics for the ones with the most relevance to the point that they are trying to make, which is important because weaker arguments can actually drag down their stronger counterparts when placed in the same essay. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. How to my essays Rivers start a compare and another for critical Niagara College, contrast essay? Students are normally assigned a topic to write on, yet sometimes professors give their students the write my essays Thompson Rivers University, freedom of selecting the topic on their own.

In the latter case choosing one out of top compare and contrast essay topics can become a challenge. While working on the topic selection it is another word for critical Niagara important not to write my essays Rivers choose two totally unrelated subjects, otherwise finding similarities can get problematic. Start out with a subject that has some basic similarities, e.g. two novels, two paintings, speeches etc. Looking for the things to compare and contrast? Here is a list of top 30 compare contrast essay topics:

TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and try to write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to essay writing the topic. You might want to divide your sheet of paper into two main sections and start jotting down everything that comes to Thompson Rivers your mind, including similarities and differences. An effective technique for finding similarities and differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the area denoting similarities, while the parts that do not overlap, are the differences (see Fig.

1). Fig. 1. How To Write Essays For College CATS. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and my essays Rivers, Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in another Niagara writing an effective compare and contrast essay is a correct selection of the lines of comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against one and the same parameter. Write My Essays Rivers University. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc.

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This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about one subject, continue with a similar number of paragraphs about the other subject, and then finish with a crucial paragraph that will use the listed characteristics to compare and my essays University, contrast the two subjects. The second way: a writer can list the similarities between the subjects and then the differences between the same. This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about their similarities and finish with a number of paragraphs about essay writing assignment help University their differences. With this structure, there is no need for an analysis at the end because its content is spread throughout the preceding paragraphs. Another mode of organization, although less common, is called block comparison. According to this pattern, you will be required to write my essays separate the how to essays for college applications, body of your compare and write my essays University, contrast essay in two parts. The first part of the body will be dedicated to essay assignment help College Object A, while the other half will be centered around Object B. Together with the introduction and the conclusion, the write my essays Thompson, overall essay length will be 4 paragraphs.

In case of block comparison the overall essay structure will take the following form: Once the writing, body of the essay is complete, its conclusion should restate the write Rivers University, thesis statement but in a more confident manner because it has proven its point. How To For College Applications College. Sometimes, a conclusion will summarize the preceding paragraphs for a bolder and blunter emphasis, while other times, a conclusion will let them provide their support in a more implicit manner. HOW TO WRITE A COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY. Additional Tips on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing. Fig.

2. Rivers. Comparison and Contrast Signifiers. An important thing about writing any essay is essay College using special cue words that will make your essay more coherent and logical. In the case of a compare and contrast essay you will need to use cue words signifying comparison, for example: Words to compare: like, compared to, similar to, similarly, by analogy, likewise, in the same way, as well as, both, too, at the same time, correspondingly, in my essays addition, same as, etc. The cue words signaling contrast are: Words to contrast: unlike, conversely, however, nevertheless, still, although, while, but, even though, although, despite, yet, regardless, on the one hand one the other hand, etc. Once the first draft of an essay is complete, it is time for writing help University the writer to put the finishing touches: Proofreading is a key factor because errors can break the reader from the flow of the essay, thus robbing it of its power to persuade. Writers should always read through their own work to check for typos, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, as well as lines that should be rephrased for a better result. However, they should also get other people to proofread for them because their closeness to their writing can make it hard for them to pick up on its problems. After all, they already know what they are trying to say, meaning that they are not looking at their work with the same perspective as the reader.

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