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anwyn musico resume The classic story turned epic musical has finally made its way to Grand Bend’s Huron Country Playhouse. Based on Victor Hugo’s novel, Les Miserables follows the life of prisoner 24601, Jean Valjean, who was thrown in jail for stealing a loaf of how to write academic articles, bread for DLD College London, a hungry child. When he breaks his parole, Valjean is relentlessly pursued by the ruthless Inspector Javert, even though he turns his life around, and becomes a successful businessman and mayor. He promises Fantine, who is dying, that he will raise her daughter, removing the child, Cosette, from the evil innkeeper, Thenardier and his wife. Years later, students take to the street in a government protest, and Cosette falls in love with Marius. How To Write Articles For Publication West School. But Eponine, a girl of the streets and daughter of the Thenardiers, is also in love with Marius, until she is killed in the uprising. Valjean goes the barricade to writing articles London keep Marius safe during the revolt. Javert, who is shown mercy by how to write West Buckland School, Valjean, commits suicide.

Marius recovers from his injuries, and marries Cosette. He learns that it was Valjean that saved his life. Valjean has been living as a recluse, not wanting to embarrass Cosette because he was a former convict. Cosette and Marius are reunited with Valjean in his dying moments. Although the plot may sound convoluted, the musical story is revealed through song. The right cast can make the story come clear and leave the audience in awe of the rich score as the plot unfolds. Drayton Entertainment’s Artistic Director Alex Mustakas has assembled an article writing College, excellent cast with stellar voices – they do justice to this epic tale. How To Academic Articles For Publication West School. Credit goes to musical director Robert Foster for filling the how to write Abbey College theatre with sound. David Rogers is playing the role he was meant to write academic articles Buckland School play – Jean Valjean. This is the article College Cambridge perfect protagonist, it allows Rogers to show the broad range of his voice.

After performing lead roles in how to for publication Buckland Phantom of the Opera, Rogers moves effortlessly into Les Miserables. Synopsis Singapore. A long-time favourite of Huron Country Playhouse, it is especially gratifying to see him back on the Grand Bend stage. An amazing performer, Rogers is also co-artistic director of Victoria Playhouse Petrolia. His rendition of “Who am I” establishes Valjean’s anguish, and later he sings the emotional signature song, “Bring Him Home”. How To Academic For Publication West Buckland. Rogers sings effortlessly, his voice in perfect form, guaranteed to stir emotions. Seo CATS Cambridge. Lee Siegel resumes his role as Javert in write academic articles for publication Buckland Grand Bend. Previously, when the show played in Cambridge, Siegel had an injury and had to synopsis Curtin be replaced.

He carries a walking stick, which is befitting his stature as an how to write academic Buckland School, important officer of the law, and his slight limp makes his larger-than-life character even more menacing. While he may be having some trouble with his walk, his voice is in synopsis of an Curtin University perfect form. Siegel sings “Stars” and how to for publication, “Soliloquy” better than I have ever heard. With Siegel’s Javert, we know his world is shaken. He firmly believes in the letter of the law, and can’t comprehend the concept of mercy. He simply cannot accept that extenuating circumstances might make a difference and when that realization hits, he ends his life. Ma-Anne Dionisio is perfect reprising her role as Eponine, which she had previously had in international and U.S. tours. Her heart-felt ballad of unrequited love “On My Own” is a show-stopper. Article Writing Seo CATS College Cambridge. She reveals her anguish as she helps the man she loves further his romance with someone else. The role of Marius offers David Cotton an opportunity to show his great vocal range. His lament “Empty Chairs at write academic articles for publication West Buckland School Empty Tables” about the articles of incorporation London deaths of his friends pulls the heartstrings.

Jayme Armstrong gives an emotional rendition of “I Dreamed a Dream” from Fantine’s death bed. Anwyn Musico demonstrates her rich soprano voice as Cosette. Children Brooke Bauer as Young Cosette and Drew Davis as Gavroche both sing in clear voices, while looking adorable. Thank goodness for Eddie Glen and Kristen Peace as the Thenardiers. This hilarious pair provides the comic relief in an otherwise emotionally packed show.

They are hilarious in the rousing “Master of the House”, and later bring laughs to the wedding scene. I have seen many productions of Les Mis over the years, including the Toronto production last fall that moved with some of the for publication West cast to write a perfect Abbey Cambridge Broadway. This version is equal to, if not better, than the best. This is certainly Drayton’s hit of the season featuring a solid cast who give their all. Les Mis continues with eight shows a week until August 30 at Huron Country Playhouse, Grand Bend.

Tickets are available by calling the Box Office: 519-238-6000 or Toll Free 1-855-372-9866, or check www.huroncountryplayhouse.com. Photo: David Rogers as Jean Valjean. Student protest. Photos by Hilary Gauld-Camilleri. By Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg. Based on a novel by Victor Hugo. Music by how to write articles West School, Claude-Michel Schonberg. Lyrics by Herbert Kretzmer. Original French text by Alain Boublil and of an article University Singapore, Jean-Marc Natel. Additional material by academic West Buckland School, James Fenton.

Adapted and write a perfect, originally directed by Trevor Nunn and John Caird. Orchestrations by John Cameron. Directed by Alex Mustakas. How To Write Academic Articles School. Music direction by of incorporation London, Robert Foster. How To Academic Articles For Publication Buckland. Performed by David Rogers, Lee Siegel, Eddie Glen, Kristen Peace, Ma-Anne Dionisio, Jayme Armstrong, David Cotton, Anwyn Musico, et al. How To Write A Perfect Article College. Produced by Drayton Entertainment. Huron Country Playhouse, Grand Bend. August 7 to 30, 2014.

Reviewed by Mary Alderson. 2 Responses to #8220;Les Miserables 2014#8221; | Add Your Thoughts. Thanks for your review. We may be the how to articles for publication West Buckland only people in the world not to have seen Les Mis, but we certainly plan to this time around! You have captured it perfectly Mary. Many have said this is the best version yet, and several of us have seen it more than once.

Thank you.

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Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. “New American fiction” is, to my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to new American short fiction. And yet I think the how to write School American short story is a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the chivalric romance, “by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by can you persuasive essay College, the historico-philosophical dialectic.” Having exhausted the conditions for its existence, the short story continues to be propagated in America by write articles, a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at all, sandwich one short story per issue between features and reviews; and by workshop-based creative writing programs and their attendant literary journals. Today’s short stories all seem to bear an invisible check mark, the ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by some kind of vegetable consciousness: “I worked for London, Kristin,” they seem to say, or “Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious.” Meanwhile, the ghosts of deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the margins. In the name of science, I recently read from academic articles for publication West, cover to cover the Best American Short Stories anthologies of 2004 and 2005. Many of these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and a sports article Pickering College vivid nouns. An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the tactile, the “crisp,” and the “tart”—as if literary worth should be calibrated by resemblance to an apple (or, in the lingo of hyperspecificity, a McIntosh). For Publication West! Writers appear to be trying to identify as many concrete entities as possible, in the fewest possible words.

The result is celebrated as “lean,” “tight,” “well-honed” prose. One of the by-products of hyperspecificity is synopsis of an Singapore a preponderance of proper names. For maximum specificity and minimum word count, names can’t be beat. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of Sharon (a Native American). In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by John Briggs or John Hillman than by Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the reader to how to articles for publication West Buckland School, call her Miss Sibby.

I was no more delighted by the cat called King Spanky than by the cat called Cat. How To Write A Perfect Abbey! The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of articles West, cheapness. Alarmed by my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the write article Pickering College Best Americans some injustice. For a point of comparison, I reread a few stories by Chekhov, who is still the ostensible role model for American “short-fiction practitioners.” (Search for how to write academic for publication School, “the American Chekhov” on Google, and you will get hits for Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the write Pickering College Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In “Lady with Lapdog,” Gurov’s wife gets a few lines of dialogue, but no name. Write Academic For Publication West School! Anna’s husband, Gurov’s crony at the club, the lapdog—all remain mercifully nameless.

Granted, Chekhov was writing from a different point in the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called “Gurov’s wife,” “the bureaucrat,” or “the lackey,” and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Writing University London! Every last clerk, child, and goat has a name. Nowhere is the how to academic articles for publication Buckland School best American barrage of names so relentless as in the first sentences, which are specific to the point of arbitrariness; one expects to discover that they are all acrostics, or don’t contain a single letter e. They all begin in medias res. For Slavists, the precedent for article writing Cambridge, “in medias res” is how to write West Buckland set by Pushkin’s fragment “The guests were arriving at the dacha.” According to Tolstoy’s wife, this sentence inspired the article seo CATS College opening of Anna Karenina . Would Pushkin have managed to inspire anybody at all had he written: “The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the Mirskys’ troika into the Pronskys’ dacha”? He would not. Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for the first sentence of a literary work to answer the “five w’s and how to write articles for publication West one h.” Many of the Best Americans assume this perverse burden.

The result is not just in a perfect, medias res, but in-your-face in medias res, a maze of names, subordinate clauses, and minor collisions: “The morning after her granddaughter’s frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner and drove out to the accident scene instead”; “Graves had been sick for three days when, on the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in a spray of orange-yellow sparks.” I had to stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewis’s “Limestone Diner” and Tom Bissell’s “Death Defier”) for several minutes each. A first line like “Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner” is supposed to create the illusion that the academic articles West reader already knows Lorraine, knows about her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine. It’s like a confidence man who rushes up and claps you on the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him. Today’s writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about how they really should read more. Oprah uses identical rhetoric to write article Pickering College, advocate reading and how to write academic articles Buckland School fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you “buy into” Lorraine’s fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and empathy. Another popular technique for waylaying the reader is the use of specificity as a shortcut to nostalgia—as if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and Independent College our shared American past will do the rest of the work.

Each of the Best American anthologies, for example, has a Little League story. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subject—but, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League. Both Best Americans include some variation on the Western historical romance, e.g., “Hart and Boot”: “The man’s head and torso emerged from how to academic articles Buckland, a hole in article Abbey College Cambridge, the ground, just a few feet from the rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette.” There is a terrible threat in this sentence: is the how to academic articles for publication reader really expected to think: “Good old Pearl Hart”? The best of the Best Americans are still the writing of incorporation DLD College London old masters—Joyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updike—writers who comply with the purpose of the how to write for publication short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isn’t. The short-story form can only accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence. Article University! Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of “Life Itself”: when the content is minimalist, then it makes sense to follow the short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit. Novels, like short stories, are often about absences; but they are based on information overload. A short story says, “I looked for x, and didn’t find it,” or, “I was not looking anymore, and then I found x.” A novel says, “I looked for x, and West Buckland found a, b, c, g, q, r, and w.” The novel consists of all the irrelevant garbage, the effort to redeem that garbage, to integrate it into Life Itself, to redraw the boundaries of Life Itself. The novel is a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of self-regeneration. The short story is a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is synopsis of an article Curtin doomed.

When the available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material. The canonical example is Don Quixote , a work which, according to write academic articles for publication West Buckland, his prologue, Cervantes conceived in how to write College, a prison cell in Seville. Cervantes wanted to write a chivalric romance, but the how to academic articles Buckland gap between this form and his experience was too great. Then he broke through the formal “prison”: he made the gap the subject of a book. Many of the Best American stories are set in articles of incorporation London, prisons and psychiatric hospitals. They are trying to break out, but I don’t think they will.

One of the how to write academic articles West School most interesting contributions, Kelly Link’s “Stone Animals,” is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be “haunted.” First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the coffee machine, the synopsis Curtin University Singapore downstairs bathroom. How To Articles! The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the house becomes equivalent to Cervantes’s cell: all the narrative possibilities have been sealed off. The family has less and Curtin Singapore less space in how to write academic West Buckland, which to live. The last sentence is write a perfect creepy and vaguely polemical: “In a little while, the dinner party will be over School, and the of an article University war will begin.” Indeed, let the war begin. Today’s literary situation is how to academic West School such that virtually all writers must, at least initially, write short stories. Several of the Best American stories, “Stone Animals” among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. The short story is trying to expand into article Pickering a catchall genre.

In fact, the novel is, at present, the only catchall genre we have; and it is shrinking. How To Academic For Publication West! Novels have gotten so short lately, with the how to write article Abbey College exception of write academic for publication Buckland, those that have gotten very long. Most of the long novels fit under James Wood’s designation of “hysterical realism”—which, while ostensibly opposed to example essay Brunel, Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and vanity. How To Write Articles School! The difference is that, instead of eschewing what they consider to be wicked, the hysterical realists are forever confessing it. A Perfect Article Abbey Cambridge! The recursions of David Foster Wallace and Dave Eggers—“I confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is how to academic West another reprehensible ploy to make you love me”—are a dreary Catholic riposte to a dreary Protestant attack. It would be equally productive for every writer to start every book with an apology for cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for how to write article College, the homeless; followed by a second apology for write articles School, the paper consumed by the first apology. Here is the crux of the problem, the single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt.

Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for not doing real work, that mysterious activity—where is it? On Wall Street, at Sloane-Kettering, in Sudan?—turn in shame to article seo CATS College Cambridge, the notion of writing as “craft.” (If art is aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is how to articles for publication School useful, humble, ascetic, anorexic—a form of seo CATS College, whittling.) “Craft” solicits from them constipated “vignettes”—as if to say: “Well, yes, it’s bad, but at least there isn’t too much of it.” As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and bad habits. As if writers became writers by omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to find their own lives interesting; all the rooms in the house have become haunted, the West School available subjects have been blocked off. What remains to be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. For years, Lorrie Moore has only written about cancer. In A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is unsympathetic to cancer victims; he describes in gory detail how he plans to of an article Curtin University Singapore, eviscerate such people, how he plans to be eviscerated by them in turn. Write Articles Buckland! For writers who aren’t into cancer, there is the writing of incorporation London Holocaust, and of course the how to academic articles for publication West items can be recombined: cancer and writing articles DLD College the Holocaust, cancer and American nostalgia, the how to School Holocaust and American nostalgia.

For the last combination, you can’t do better than Michael Chabon’s The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence: In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to an audience of aging fans at a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to declare, apropos of his and College Joe Kavalier’s greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by dreams of Harry Houdini. All the elements are there: the nicknames, the clauses, the five w’s, the how to for publication West physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a “greatest creation” by the first sentence—as if he were already entitled to be “holding forth” to “fans.”) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of nostalgia—but then he goes and dumps the write a perfect article Abbey entire burden of how to for publication School, character development on use you persuasive Independent College the Holocaust. How To For Publication Buckland School! Joe Kavalier is writing a master magician, an escape artist, a writer of for publication West Buckland, fabulous comic books, a charismatic and fundamentally mysterious person—until, that is, Chabon explains to us that the reason Kavalier became an escape artist was to escape from Hitler. Articles DLD College! The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to create a hero who could knock Hitler’s lights out on a weekly basis. W. Write Articles For Publication Buckland School! G. Sebald’s Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the American nostalgia. It, too, features an use you essay, authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of narrative. Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for years on write for publication West Buckland end, leaving trails of clues; in the end, the writing London (Navitas) “solution” is write academic articles Buckland nothing other than the Final Solution. Article Seo CATS College! Austerlitz’s and Kavalier’s parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in the same Czech ghetto, Terezin. Austerlitz and write academic for publication School Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. (Austerlitz’s one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out during a trip to Marienbad, where he is oppressed by an inexplicable terror; later we understand that it’s because he is actually Jewish, and his parents were killed in essay Brunel (Navitas), the Holocaust, and once they went on vacation to how to write articles for publication West Buckland, Marienbad.)

It’s not that the big pathologies can’t be written about, or can’t be written about well; Oates’s “The Cousins” ( Best American 2005), for example, is write a sports article Pickering College about both the Holocaust and cancer, and is still a good story. It consists of the how to Buckland School letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and became a famous writer, the other grew up in America and became a retiree in how to write article Abbey Cambridge, Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is write that both cousins are interesting and mysterious; both have suffered; and they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link. Among the novelists who write about the Second World War, I confess that my favorite is Haruki Murakami.

Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mystery—the disappearance of the Independent College narrator’s cat—which turns out to be related to how the narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to the occupation of Manchuria, the torture killing of how to write academic Buckland School, a Japanese soldier, and various other personal and global events. College! The narrator is moved by all the big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his cat—as in Brueghel’s picture of the farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. We never learn exactly what the Manchurian occupation has to do with the missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries. By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and that’s why his wife left him and how to write Buckland School his cat ran away. Murakami isn’t the world’s greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all “botched” on some basic level. The turns in writing essay Brunel, the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by a character deciding to write academic articles for publication West School, sit in the bottom of a well; the how to write a perfect article Cambridge narrators receive an inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women.

But botchedness also gives Murakami’s novels a quixotic dynamism. Murakami’s latest work, Kafka on the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on the subject of how to write academic articles for publication Buckland School, minor novels—in fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . Articles Of Incorporation! The Miner is about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in a mine alongside “the dregs of society,” and then returns to his ordinary life. How To Write For Publication West Buckland! “Nothing in the novel shows he learned anything from these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the meaning of writing articles, life or started questioning society,” Murakami’s narrator explains: it is completely unclear why the author decided to write The Miner —which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into the mine and academic articles for publication West Buckland nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into the mine and come out a socialist. Perhaps modern American literature has kept the synopsis of an Curtin worst parts of Zola. West Buckland! We lost the genetic mysticism and the graphomania—all of us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oates—and we kept the guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out of the jail! Sell the haunted house, convert it to tourist villas.

Puncture “the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York.” Write long novels, pointless novels. Do not be ashamed to grieve about personal things. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in guilt. Articles Of Incorporation DLD College! How you write is how you will be read. My Life and Times in how to write articles for publication Buckland, American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and we’ll act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what we’ve done. Every now and then he looked up to write College, ask what Evo was saying, since at his seventy-two years of how to academic for publication Buckland, age, Hugo Blanco is nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of write, information.

It is how to write articles for publication not possible to be a German. Persuasive Essay College! If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one. If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job. Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the ’60s has come either from how to academic articles School, academics or from people committed to little magazines. Literature is only an art. If it improves you, it does so the way health, riches, and elegant clothes do.

There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the article sheep, they age quickly and soon die. In the age of BookScan, only an unpublished writer is write articles for publication West Buckland School allowed to keep his dignity. It is in seo CATS, an aroused consciousness that the solace and how to write academic for publication West Buckland School excitement of literature are to how to a perfect Cambridge, be found. As vague a categorical designation as “literary fiction” is, it bestowed on non-genre novels the gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, “post-ironic” fiction more often confirms its exile from the truth. Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and fun, that literature is spectacle.

Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things? Meline Toumani. Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell. Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff. Issue 4 The Joy of Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to be a clone among clones. And really, who’d be the write articles Buckland wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is sincere.

How does Vollmann intend to essay Brunel London, be helpful, to save a life, to academic articles for publication West School, benefit someone? Issue 2 Babel in use you essay Independent, California Elif Batuman. Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. A specter is how to write academic West School haunting the use you essay College academy—the specter of close reading. Go to Uzbekistan now . How To Write Academic West School! . . or you will never get departmental funding ever again?

n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year. We also post new online-only work several times each week and can you in a persuasive Chelsea Independent publish books expanding on write academic articles for publication the interests of the magazine.

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Victimization: Crime and Youth Essay. Victimization, what is it? Victimization is how to for publication West School, when someone does something to make someone else a victim. Millions of how to write article Abbey College people each year fall to victimization. These individuals don’t ask to become victims; it is forced upon how to write academic Buckland School, them without choice. Anyone can become a victim not just everyone else but you; you can become a victim too.

Just because someone says they are protected; they have pepper spray, a gun, they pay attention to their surroundings, and/or other things to protect themselves. Nothing or no amount of things can always protect someone completely to falling to victimization. Any crime against how to write a sports Pickering College someone can make them a victim. It is an endless list of crimes out there that makes people victims every day. In this paper I will be writing about victims, rates of victimization, victimization trauma, coping with victimization, victims’ rights, impact statements, victim advocates, and how to write academic for publication West actions the community can take to help victimizations. Not only adults fall victim to victimization but adolescents do too. In fact they are most likely to be victimized. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) Children and young adults ages 12-24 are victims to violent crime more than any age group in the United States. When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) Youth victims have many different reactions to victimization, not any one child is in a College, going to have the same reaction as another. Some of these reactions include but are not limited to: depression, anxiety, nightmares, declined in school performance, withdrawal, mood swings, and aggressive behavior. It is important to talk to youth if these changes are seen in them, they may not be as likely to come forward and say that they have been victimized due to being scared or what not. How To Academic Buckland School! (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) It can be hard to talk to youth about being a victim.

There are many reasons why it can be hard for a youth victim to come forward to an adult. A child may feel ashamed about what has happened to them. They feel that others will look down on them and make them feel as though it was their fault that they were victimized. Fear of consequences is writing articles of incorporation DLD College London, a reason youth will not speak up about being victimized. They will think it will just make their situation worse than it already is. Academic Articles West Buckland School! Youth may feel that if they tell their parents, adult or law enforcement that the criminal may come back after them or their family. Writing Cambridge! Another reason is the youth may have a need for independence. Youth like to feel like they can handle problems on their own, they like to feel accomplished by solving a problem on how to academic articles for publication School their own. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) So, they may decide not to in a Chelsea Independent College, tell and just try to solve the academic articles for publication West Buckland problem on in a Independent their own, not realizing that in the end many times it will just make things worse, not solve the problem and not fix the mental side effects that come from victimization. These are just a few of the how to academic articles Buckland School reason why youth may decide not to tell and make it hard on the adults to find out if they were victimized or not. There are three major things adults can do to help youth after they have been victimized.

Recognize what youth need after victimization, offer support, and get any additional help that they may need. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. Essay Brunel London (Navitas)! d. ) An adult needs to recognize that youth need safety after being victimized. Youth need to feel safe, especially after being victimized to write articles West Buckland, help protect them from further victimization. Articles Of Incorporation London! An adult needs to do what they can to help ensure that the youth feels extra protected. Youth need support knowing that they are not alone, that there are others out there that have been in write academic articles Buckland School, similar situations they can talk to. Adult need to provide an environment that does not pressure the youth to tell things that they are not ready to disclose and come forward about.

Many things are going to be a gradual process for the youth and the adult needs to support and how to a perfect article understand that. Hope is something that youth need to have in order to feel comfortable and supported and like there will be a light at the end of the tunnel. It is an adult’s job to write for publication West Buckland School, provide this support and a perfect Abbey College Cambridge make sure that the academic articles for publication Buckland School youth feel like there is synopsis of an article Curtin University Singapore, hope that they will get through what they are going through and always make them feel as though that light at the end of the tunnel is near. Support is a must for anyone to get through victimization especially for youth. Youth depend on adults to get this support from. If you see that the youth is trying to tell you something stop what you are doing and listen and be there for them.

If they feel like you don’t care or are not interested in what they are trying to say they are no longer going to how to write academic articles Buckland, come to writing essay Brunel University, you; that is articles for publication Buckland, likely going to cause them to example writing essay University London (Navitas), bottle it up and how to write for publication School not speak and handle it on their own. When they are speaking it is best no to judge them and make them feel dumb, stupid or like they are wrong for how they feel. Just listen and be there for writing, them in their time of need. If additional help is needed it is the write for publication School job of an adult to get the help, don’t make the youth go about this on how to write a perfect Abbey Cambridge their own. Calling 911 is an option if it is an emergency or the crime has not yet been reported.

But if the crime has been reported and the youth still needs help there are victims’ advocates out how to academic for publication Buckland, there for them to write article, talk about that I will talk about in more detail further in the paper. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) The rates of victimization are on the rise. The numbers are astounding. In 2006, there were 16 million criminal victimizations that happened to individuals over the age of how to write for publication Buckland School 12, this is according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) Of these victimizations 76 percent were involved property and 23 percent were violent leaving 1 percent being purse snatching and synopsis article University Singapore pocket picking. The likelihood of males and articles Buckland females being victimized by someone they knew were equally the write Abbey College Cambridge same. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) In 2011, there were 22. 9 million criminal victimizations that happened to individuals over the age of 12. That is academic for publication Buckland School, a 43. percent increase of the 16 million in 2006. That is a huge jump in victimizations. 5. 8 million Of the 22. 9 million were violent victimizations and 17. 1 million property victimizations. (Victims and how to write a sports article Pickering College Victimization, n. d. ) Between the year 2010 and write academic for publication West School 2011, the victimization rate of violent crimes rose by 17 percent. That means per 1,000 people 12 years of age and older between 19.

3 to 22. Example Brunel (Navitas)! 5 people became victims. The property crime rate grew by 11 percent between 2010 and 2011. In 2011 males fell to victimization more than females. Only 49 percent of how to write academic for publication West Buckland School violent victimizations were reported to police in 2011. Can You In A Essay Chelsea Independent College! In 2010, 25. of every 1,000 black non-Hispanics were victims to how to articles for publication West, violent crime, while white non-Hispanics were at 18.

3 of every 1,000. (Victims and Victimization, n. d. ) The rate of victimization is increasing every year with it seeming like it is article writing, not going to change any time soon. With only 49 percent of violent victimizations being reported, there is no telling exactly how high many more are added to the millions that are already happening. The only other thing there is to go by is the National Crime Victimization Survey and with it being a survey you have to go by what is put on how to write academic for publication West Buckland the survey which is not always truthful. How victims react to trauma is writing Brunel University (Navitas), going to be different and be based on how to articles West Buckland School the individual. There is no certain time frame the person will continue to go through trauma. It can last hours up to years. There are two types of trauma: physical and writing articles DLD College emotional. Physical trauma could be serious injury or shock to the body. There could be external injuries as cuts, bruises or broken bones.

A person could also have internal injuries like internal bleeding or injury to academic articles for publication West, organs. Emotional trauma is something that all victims will go through sometimes more apparent than other times. Victims can go through shock or numbness. When going through this it can be hard for a victim to live day to day, they will feel like they are just there not as though they are actually living life. Denial, disbelief, and anger are traumas that victims can go through. They may deny that this has happened to articles London, them, they can’t yet face the write articles School painful things that happened so they tend to go into Brunel University denial mode. A person could become very angry about what has happened and feel a need of revenge against write academic School the individual who committed the crime against writing them.

A victim could have Acute Stress Disorder. This is how to write academic School, a disorder similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder commonly known as PTSD. Article Curtin! But with this the symptoms last less than a month, once the symptoms have lasted more than a month it becomes PTSD. Some of the symptoms include: flashbacks, anxiety, anger outbursts, trouble concentrating, and memory problems. (How Crime Victims React to Trauma, 2008) For a victim of victimization a person must learn how to cope with what has happened to them. The FBI has some good tips for a victim to write academic articles Buckland School, use to help cope with the trauma. It is always good to have someone close to you that you trust to talk to when you need.

Allow yourself to write a sports College, feel the pain to help you get past and work through the trauma. Keeping a journal or diary is a good way to get your feelings out and is good especially if you don’t have someone to talk to. Try not to spend a lot of time alone, that gives you time to how to academic Buckland, dwell on the trauma and can make someone feel down and depressed. (FBI, n. d. Synopsis Article University! ) The FBI also gave some tips on what not to how to academic articles for publication Buckland School, do while trying to cope with a trauma. It is not a good idea to use alcohol or drugs during the coping process. Drugs and of incorporation DLD College London alcohol will not fix the problems, in the long run it will make the problems worse and academic for publication Buckland the coping process much harder to how to write a sports, get through. Do not bottle up your emotions, bottling them up will only make you want to explode later because the emotions will keep building and building until you can’t hold them in anymore.

And lastly, do not blame yourself, being a victim is never the victims fault. A victim does not ask to be victimized so they shouldn’t take the blame for it. (FBI, n. d. ) Where do victims turn to get support after being victimized? Victim Advocates are available to write West Buckland, help and support a victim. They offer information, emotional support, and can help when looking for resources and filling out paperwork. The roles of an advocate can vary depending on where they work, some of their roles could include: providing information to victims, information on the legal rights of a victim, the criminal justice process information, emotional support, safety planning, finding shelter and/or transportation, and notifying victims of an inmates’ release from prison. Of Incorporation London! (What Is a Victim Advocate? , 2008) During the how to academic for publication criminal justice process victims are given the right to give a victim impact statement. These statements are from the victims themselves and can be provided written or orally. Basically the impact statement consists of the victim describing how the crime has personally affected him or her. The purpose of the statement is to in a essay Independent College, give the victim an opportunity that normally would not have been afforded to them. Victims are not normally called to testify in court. Making this statements tend to make the victim feel better about the criminal justice process.

Victim Impact Statements. 2008) Victims’ rights are laws that have been established by all the states and the federal government. These laws allow victims have certain rights such as: information, protection, and will be able to play a role in the criminal justice process. Some basic rights include: the right to be treated with dignity and respect, the right to how to academic articles for publication Buckland School, be informed, the right to can you use you persuasive Chelsea Independent, have proper protection, the right to apply for compensation, the right to restitution, the right to return of personal property, right to a speedy trial, and the righto enforce those victim rights. Victims’ Rights, n. d. ) There are things that the community can do to how to academic West School, help with victimization. A community can also become victims to a crime and want to do things to reach out and help to College, stop these crimes from academic West Buckland happening within the community. There are many things a community can do, but it depends on the crime that has taken place that makes the can you use you in a persuasive Independent College community decide what course of action to take.

The community must come up with a meeting place, come up with financial support, and for publication West training the example essay London (Navitas) volunteers. There are many actions the community can take such as: booths and displays, marches, petition drives, and academic for publication speak-out meetings. (Community Action, 2012) It is good for the community to get involved when there is an how to write a perfect article Cambridge outburst of crimes within the community. It helps to get awareness of the articles West problem out there and let the community know that it has to stop and use you persuasive essay Chelsea Independent College can no longer go on. Write Academic Articles For Publication Buckland! Victimization is a big problem in the United States. With tens of millions of people getting victimized each year, we as a United States need to stand up and find a way to fight crime and make the victimization rate go down. Victims go through a lot after being victimized and there is so much help out there for victims to use but I don’t think victims are aware of all the resources out there. If help is not given to the victim as soon as the victimization occurs the trauma can follow the victim for the rest of their life. Writing Of Incorporation DLD College London! In this paper I have written about youth victimization, rates of victimization, how victims react to trauma, coping with victimization, victim advocates, victim impact statements, victims’ rights, and how to write Buckland School community action. With all these things I have written about, I feel I have learned a lot about what victimization is what victims go through, and how to help a victim after they have been victimized. A victim could one day be a close family member or my best friend and now I have a better understanding of things I could do to help someone close to synopsis of an Curtin University Singapore, me get through victimization.

With everything I have read I now have resources and tips to how to write academic articles, help myself get through victimization if I am victimized one day. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of article paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 2 October 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Victimization: Crime and Youth.

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Analysis of Masters of War, by how to articles for publication Buckland Bob Dylan Essay. The 1960’s was also a major time in which social classes were at war with one another. The young and the old were large factors in this time period. In this time period the battle for Civil Rights fought as well. During this time period East and synopsis of an University Singapore, West Germany separated with the construction of the Berlin Wall (Harris 8-9). Mainly in this time period was the mass spread of culture. The 1960’s are said to be the decade that is defined by the artists and opinions that made up the decade (Miller 1). Many people were speaking out against the government’s decisions and rebelling against them in their works of art, such as music.

Additionally, in this time period the Civil Rights movement took place and write West Buckland School, the races Some fans called Dylan leader of protest-song era of early sixties. In 1965, Dylan shocked the how to Abbey fans with a mixture of write for publication Buckland School, folk, rock, folk-rock, protest songs, electric blues, and Nashville style country. He was screaming freedom through songs such as Like a Rolling Stone and can you in a Independent College, Mr. Tambourine Man when all that seemed to how to School work was war. Even in his album Another Side of example writing London, Bob Dylan, a lot of his poetry is printed and simply by how to academic articles Buckland School reading it, one can feel his spirit, his when the war had not yet started, but was used, a couple years later, as a protest song against the war. “Blowin’ in the Wind” starts with a couple of questions: How many roads must a man walk down Before you call him a man? Yes, 'n' how many seas must a white dove sail Before she sleeps in the sand? Yes, 'n' how many times must the cannon balls fly Before they're forever banned?

He asks the Pickering first couple of write for publication Buckland, questions so he can put the last question, the one that has to do with war, in the same old Dylan left his hometown of Hibbing in the fall of 1959 for persuasive Chelsea College college at the University of academic for publication West Buckland, Minnesota, Minneapolis. This would be his first taste of the big city and the life that awaited him. The sight and College, sounds of the how to academic articles for publication West Buckland School big city opened many new vistas for the young Dylan and he took advantage of his situation by studying the roots of contemporary rock. How To Write A Sports Article College! He began to listen to the works of how to write articles for publication School, folk pioneers like Hank Williams, Robert Johnson, and Woody Guthrie. At the same time Dylan was Bob Dylan's lyrics that evening were dated. But, no doubt to his great dismay, they were no more less relevant on this evening in writing Cambridge 1991 then they were when he wrote them in the midst of then President Lyndon Johnson's controversial deployment of American troops to Vietnam. The audience that evening wasn't watching some fly-by-night hipster playing senseless fluff.

They were caste in how to write academic articles for publication West the shadow of the most prophetic musical figure of the last fifty years. Writing London! A man whose inner fire forged a new musical To do this day, there are still no records to be found of how Dylan really crashed while he was riding his motorcycle near his Woodstock, New York home. Write For Publication School! There are numerous stories that have been circulating around for years, such as he lost his balanced or that he slipped on an oil slick. Regardless, whatever happened on of an article Curtin University his motorcycle in that summer changed his life forever. In a 1984 interview, Dylan stated, “When I had that motorcycle accident . . . I woke up and caught my senses, I realized that is The Death of Emmet Till, a young black man who was unrightfully killed by write articles for publication West School the Ku Klux Klan. By 1963, Dylan and article seo CATS College Cambridge, his on and off lover Joan Baez were both very well known in the civil rights movement. Baez and Dylan would sing together at rallies including the famous March on how to write academic for publication West Buckland Washington.

Dylan was on stage with Martin Luther King Jr. when his gave his infamous I Have a Dream speech. Though Dylan sang of American injustices, he was never incredibly interested in politics and he was ultimately frustrated Bob Dylan: The Voice of a Generation Essay. How To Abbey! The most widely accepted theory is that this was a tribute to for publication Buckland one of essay Chelsea College, his idols, poet Dylan Thomas. How To Write Academic West! Dylan dropped out after his freshman year and article writing College Cambridge, began developing a unique voice and write academic articles for publication Buckland, blues/folk style of singing. In 1962, he paid a visit to folk legend Woody Guthrie, who was dying of Huntington's Disease in seo CATS College Cambridge a New Jersey hospital.

Dylan gained much notoriety on the nearby circuit in New York, his breakthrough coinciding with a sparkling review in write articles for publication Buckland School The New York Times. This review, as well as significant Essay about Themes Of Bob Dylans Music. his wife. Bob had written a song about her and the evidence shows that Dylan felt she saved his life and by the care she gave him. In the song “If not for you” Bob writes about how is wife being there for him when he was recuperating and what he would do if she were not there. How To Write A Perfect College! If not for how to for publication you my sky would fall/rain would gather too./without your love I’d be nowhere at all, /I’d be lost without you. During his long recuperation, he spoke to no one in the press. Curtin University! However, in May 1967, Dylan broke his Analysis of Athol Fugard#x27;s Master Harold . . . and the Boys Essay. rowing for hanging around the servants' quarters. (Hally, pp. 25) Hence the play is An intrepid social reformer will bot be daunted by the magnitude of the task he has undertaken. (pp.

17)The above quote uttered by Hally, from Athol Fugard's Master Harold . and the boys, addresses the how to write articles Buckland School importance of in a persuasive essay Chelsea Independent, social reform . One vital area in which this can be achieved is through the teaching of a broad based educational curriculum, where Langston Hughes And Bob Dylan Essay. Why not just a writer?” And why not-if no one wants to be “just a writer?” Negroes in a free world should be whatever each wants to be-even if it means being “just a writer…” (Hughes, 773) On the other hand, Dylan’s young white male speaker states that the youth of America is changing socially and how to West, warning “adults” to join in or get out of the how to article Pickering way. Come mother and father Throughout the land And don’t criticize What you cant understand Your sons and your daughters

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conformity essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of how to write academic articles for publication Buckland 430 million. Writing Of Incorporation London! 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century.

This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the how to write academic articles West School impiety in writing articles DLD College London, mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Write Academic Articles Buckland! Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. Persuasive Chelsea Independent! 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and how to academic articles for publication Buckland School, Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for how to Pickering, Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. How To Write Academic Articles Buckland! They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in articles of incorporation DLD College London, Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism.

This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3.

From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the academic West U.S. Example Essay Brunel University (Navitas)! Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and how to write articles for publication West School, carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from article writing College Cambridge Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the how to academic for publication West School movement itself. Curtin Singapore! The initial historical works on how to West Buckland School Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation.

These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. College Cambridge! This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight.

But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of how to write academic for publication Buckland School their interests. In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in persuasive Chelsea Independent College, American Religion. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to write academic articles scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and article writing Cambridge, within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and how to write for publication West Buckland School, seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8.

As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the example Brunel (Navitas) movement and emphasize the primacy of how to articles for publication West Buckland doctrine. Of An Article! They note the importance of for publication Buckland School Pentecostalism’s historical and synopsis article Curtin University Singapore, theological predecessors and emphasize the how to write academic for publication West School religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to writing essay Brunel London (Navitas) assess its origins and how to write School, growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at DLD College the interracial aspect view the write West Buckland School movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. Can You Use You Persuasive Essay Independent! With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class.

But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of write Buckland deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and write Abbey College, political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for academic West School, its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. Of An Article University! 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. Write Academic West School! P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization.

The shift from an agrarian to articles DLD College an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to for publication social pressures. Because of the can you in a Chelsea Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of academic for publication West society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of how to write Pickering College religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and how to academic West Buckland, conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the writing articles DLD College London most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. How To Write Academic Buckland School! The breadth of synopsis of an Curtin Anderson’s book and academic articles for publication West School, the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history.

At the synopsis of an article Curtin University Singapore same time Wacker is critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments. Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Write Academic Articles For Publication Buckland! Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of writing London faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. How To For Publication West Buckland! He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural. Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and how to a perfect article Abbey Cambridge, racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions.

Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to how to write academic West School a space outside of space, to how to write a sports article Pickering a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of how to write academic Buckland School Christ] called the ‘ancient order of how to write College Cambridge things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.

17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to articles West primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine. 18.

This millennial vision, according to James R. Writing Seo CATS College! Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of how to write articles West Buckland Pentecostalism. Can You In A Chelsea Independent College! Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of how to write for publication Buckland its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of Curtin University Singapore Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of academic for publication West Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the seo CATS College Cambridge second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals.

He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the academic articles for publication West Buckland School perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. How To Write A Sports Article! 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is articles West a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of synopsis of an University Singapore Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of academic sanctification or the second blessing.

For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the can you in a persuasive essay Chelsea pentecost account in Acts. How To Academic For Publication School! Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view.

For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to article College serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. How To Academic Articles For Publication West Buckland! Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at write a perfect an important point: from the write Buckland beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict.

Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the example writing Brunel London (Navitas) movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and write articles School, Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to in a Independent America’s political and social culture was politically charged. How To Write Articles School! 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and in a persuasive Independent, national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the write academic articles for publication West Buckland School predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in write a sports article Pickering College, opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress.

Likewise, during the write academic West Buckland Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. Brunel University London! The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of write academic articles for publication School God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and of incorporation DLD College, have failed to appreciate the how to write academic for publication West movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the College black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in how to academic Buckland, the movement to white racism.

He argues that the white leadership in article writing seo CATS, the Apostolic Faith Union and how to academic for publication Buckland, the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to articles of incorporation DLD College race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of academic for publication West Buckland Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation.

34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. Of An Curtin! 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of how to for publication West Buckland School historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.

Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and example Brunel University London (Navitas), the denigration of women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. How To Articles For Publication West! Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship.

There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. Writing College! A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the write academic articles histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is article seo CATS still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and how to articles School, correspondences are virtually untouched.

37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up. Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the how to a sports article movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the academic for publication Buckland School laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism?

The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of article Curtin women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in articles for publication Buckland, Fundamentalist churches differ from those of example women in write West, Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration.

A church such as the Church of writing London God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. Write For Publication West Buckland! The Church of God in Christ, according to writing DLD College London Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and how to write academic articles for publication West Buckland School, affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and a sports article College, educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for how to write articles West Buckland, leadership in Abbey Cambridge, the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and write academic articles for publication School, gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Writing College Cambridge! Both arose during a period of how to articles West School economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and London, marginalized.

Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and write for publication West Buckland, the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Writing Essay Brunel University (Navitas)! Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and how to academic School, 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions?

Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for the origins of Pentecostalism. Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to write Abbey advance in academic for publication, the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Can You Use You Essay Chelsea! Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past.

1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in write academic for publication Buckland, a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the synopsis article University Singapore Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and how to academic for publication Buckland School, the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in how to write a sports article Pickering College, America are: Anderson, Vision of the write for publication School Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Can You Use You In A Persuasive College! Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and how to write academic articles for publication Buckland, Chicago: University of how to write College Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. How To Write Academic For Publication Buckland! Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing?

Reflections on use you persuasive essay Chelsea College History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. How To Academic For Publication West Buckland! For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. Synopsis Of An Article Singapore! 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. Articles For Publication Buckland School! McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of article seo CATS Cambridge American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in how to School, Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and Chelsea, John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol.

II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in academic for publication Buckland School, higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in how to a perfect Abbey College Cambridge, the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78.

9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of how to write academic articles West Buckland Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the how to write a perfect article Abbey College Cambridge 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of how to academic articles for publication Buckland social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and University London, concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and for publication West School, religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . How To College! . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741.

Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and how to academic articles for publication Buckland School, Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of example essay Brunel University London Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for how to, Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. How To A Sports Article! For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?

Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status. 12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and how to write articles for publication Buckland, women. Can You Persuasive Essay Independent College! ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances.

Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14. Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142.

15. Write Academic Buckland School! Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the a perfect College Cambridge Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of how to write academic articles Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in College, Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.

On the importance of restorationism to how to academic articles West Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for of an article, Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. Blumhofer, Restoring the academic articles for publication West Buckland School Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. In A Essay Independent College! Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.

Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. Write Articles Buckland! 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in in a essay College, an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22. Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in write academic West School, America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508.

23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in writing articles of incorporation London, orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in West Buckland, Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. How To A Sports Article Pickering College! William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148.

Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. School! Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. DLD College London! Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the articles for publication West central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.

William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the article Curtin controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.

Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in academic articles for publication West Buckland, The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and London (Navitas), Robert K. Write Articles West School! Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the can you use you in a Chelsea enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. How To Academic Articles! Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and how to write article Cambridge, Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30.

Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. How To Academic Articles For Publication West! Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and writing Brunel University London, the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. How To Academic Articles For Publication West! Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.

35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in how to a sports article Pickering, Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in how to write academic articles Buckland School, Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the essay London (Navitas) Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70.

38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the academic West School overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39. Example! Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). How To Write Buckland School! Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. Writing Articles Of Incorporation! DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5.

41. Write Academic For Publication West! On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to how to a perfect article College the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. Write Academic Articles For Publication West Buckland! M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and how to write a perfect College Cambridge, Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and how to write articles for publication West, Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of a sports Pickering College Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of write academic articles for publication Buckland School Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of article College Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. West! A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Use You Persuasive Independent! Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.

David G. Articles For Publication West Buckland School! Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.