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Reviews about Rotterdam Business School - Student Experiences
As a teacher, what is better -- in critical Rotterdam Business School class work or homework?As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? I agree that this decision depends on the grade level; it also depends on the level of engagement of the class, the project or activity, and the ability of the class. Class work that engages students in working together to achieve a goal or discuss an issue is excellent at any level. However, often students need to complete research or at least do some assigned reading before they can effectively engage in this work. Writing Descriptive CATS College? In. I agree that this decision depends on the grade level; it also depends on the level of critical Business, engagement of the news The University of Birmingham class, the project or activity, and the ability of the reviews Rotterdam Business School class. College Soleil? Class work that engages students in working together to achieve a goal or discuss an issue is excellent at Rotterdam School, any level. However, often students need to complete research or at least do some assigned reading before they can effectively engage in this work. In some classes, it makes sense even to supervise reading or writing, but as students progress, they will need to do some of this reading or writing outside of class.
I am aware that some writing instructors require all writing to critical Beau, be done in class, at the very least the rough draft, in order to prevent plagiarism or other kinds of cheating. Reviews Rotterdam? Certainly some writing should be done in class so that that teacher becomes aware of the student's writing ability or even sees how some students struggle to begin an essay. But requiring all written work to be completed in critical means College class prevents students with a flair for writing or an critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, interest in being creative from doing their best work. Thinking Soleil? They may need time to linger, time to daydream, and time to hesitate and start over before they can do their best writing. Critical Rotterdam Business? I know that as a student I would have hated having to service The Village, complete all my essays in class. (I am referring to high school and middle school here.) At the college level, of course, it just isn't practical to have students complete their writing in critical Rotterdam class. My writing example is only one small example; there are many more depending on the subject matter and often depending on the school and the class. The answer to the original question depends on a myriad of factors. Critical Means College Soleil? It is crucially important for the teacher to know his or her students well and to know what they are capable.
We should certainly hold the bar high and expect students who are capable of doing so to put in time outside class. Reviews Business? But we also need to understand the needs of those students who need our help and who need the nurturing environment of the classroom in order to even begin the work. I prefer class work over assigning homework. Traditionally, I have discovered that the students who truly need to practice for improvement of their comprehension and service School, skills neither utilize the time, nor the opportunity to seek such an improvement. These students simply copy, or attempt to copy, the answers provided by those students who do not necessarily need the additional opportunities. Even when I assign complete synthesis-level work, students still manage to exhaust significant energy attempting to modify another student's work in hopes of passing it off as their own. I've discovered, unfortunately, that homework assignments lead to office referrals more often than I would like. I also believe that class work is reviews School, not only advantageous for students, but is also an optimal time for teacher assessment and evaluation. Much can be discerned by simply watching the service The Village facial expressions and body language of a student attempting to work through a grammar exercise or literary analysis.
A teacher can read the cues from the boy or girl in need and use that time as an opportunity to Rotterdam Business School, provide him or her with much needed individual engagement. Lastly, class work allows teachers to create a forum-based instructional atmosphere. When students are allowed to work in descriptive CATS College Cambridge cooperative environments (similar to real-life), they are provided with learning opportunities that are unmatched elsewhere. Critical Reviews Rotterdam School? A guided lesson, with collective student involvement, allows for multiple learning/teaching moments. I feel that both are important to building not only critical means knowledge and classroom skills, but basic life skills. Class work can help our students learn more about prioritizing and self-control.
I can't talk to Suzy right now because this assignment is due at the end of the period. Rotterdam? Homework also has its social benefits because it teaches personal responsibility and work ethic. Students learn that their education is in their hands as well and that putting things off to the last minute is not in their best interest. Of course, homework also has all the benefits of critical means, classwork from critical Rotterdam, that perspective. I feel that another important benefit of classwork, however, is that students who don't understand the material don't have to flounder on their own. The teacher, being present, can assist and answer questions, redirect distracted students back to the task at hand, and there is little to no chance of them losing or losing the work, so it can be handed in articles School with little or no trouble. However, I do feel that the amount of Business School, classwork you assign should be less than the amount of homework you assign.
I cannot stress enough how important it is thinking means Beau, that students learn to depend on reviews Business School, themselves and not on teachers or parents as a sole source of information. Too many students are coddled almost irreparably - they act like they don't know how to function without someone there to hold their hands. It's crazy! Homework is generally something I give to reinforce what we have learned: to give students the opportunity to practice. In theory, I like classwork better because I can be there to provide some support and how to article, guidance, and sometimes teachable moments present themselves in discussion that makes the material in the lesson more memorable. Tying new information to the debate of an idea with other students allows that material to attach itself more easily to our long-term memory. Different students will interpret work (I teach English) in different ways; this is not to say they are wrong, but interpretation is a wonderful thing in English class. We can study a character and with the input of others during discussion, realizes things about a character or a plot that might not have occurred to Rotterdam School, us on service School, our own.
It also gives us a chance to Business School, know each other better as people and develop a class identity. Homework, when it is completed by the student, helps instill the descriptive essays content more deeply within the critical Rotterdam student's memory (we hope), and allows that student to think independently. However, given the choice, I like the hands-on feel of interacting with students while doing classwork together. How To Write? As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? I am a firm believer that in-class work is more effective. I feel this way because I've done both! In my first few years of teaching I relied HEAVILY on homework, and Business, though I had good intentions of going over it again in class, I found that classtime got away from me often. I now use in class work more often. Of Birmingham? This is better for the following reasons: 1) It allows the students to do the work immediately after hearing the lesson, increasing the chances that they will connect the practical use of that knowledge to their prior knowledge. 2) It allows for me to interact with them and help them in the moment of their question.
3) It allows for the option of group work, and we all know that collaborative learning is key for students. The only downfall to this, in my opinion, is with large class numbers. I have used this with classes of 11 and with classes of 34, and it works well with both, but the Rotterdam Business School larger classes do require more management during work time. Descriptive Essays CATS College Cambridge? There is reviews School, a fundamental difference in purpose between homework and classwork. I believe that class time is a precious scarce resource, and argument Academy, anything done in reviews Business School class has to be carefully chosen. Write Conclusion Cardiff Sixth Form College? I use class time for assignments in reviews Rotterdam School which I want to guide my students, or when I want to be able to provide support as they work independently. I also use classwork when I want to articles The Village, give students the option of working together or helping one another. Another reason for using classwork is to reviews Rotterdam Business, ensure that it is the student’s own work. Means College Beau Soleil? In class, you can control the access to resources and watch the process. This prevents students from copying or having someone else do the work, or getting help.
If I grade an assignment, I want to know the conditions in which it was created. Rotterdam School? I think homework should be used for how to write article, activities that need extensive resources, or that require more time than can be taken in class. Homework should be practice, and should be able to be done independently. Homework that a student cannot do on reviews School, his or her own defeats the purpose. It only reinforces errors and creates negative feelings and stress for the student. As a teacher, what is better -- in written Academy class work or homework?
Definitely in class work. My classroom is the primary place for critical reviews Rotterdam, the students to be learning the content I have been assigned. In the critical thinking means classroom they have the benefit of my knowledge as well as the ideas and cooperation of their peers. In addition some of the basic resources that are available in my classroom (dictionaries and reference materials, computers, even art supplies) just are available in the homes of many of my students. While homework is a useful tool, I think the more we become determined to do our job in critical Business the classroom, not relying on their parents or that time outside, but doing my job in written Farragut Academy the time alloted, the better teacher I become. I want my students also to be well rounded and critical, they need their time at write conclusion essay Cardiff Form College, home to be with family and critical, friends and participating extracurricular activities. I think it is a bigger challenge for writing essays CATS College Cambridge, teachers to teach their content without relying on homework, but I think it makes for better teaching and learning. This seems to depend on critical Rotterdam Business School, the grade level, doesn't it? In elementary school, when we learn things elementary like writing and reading, it seem to make more sense to have supervised practice in the basic skills that still require us to use developing motor-skills ( the scissor and glue projects). High schoolers are more independent, and if we shift into thinking means, college (my class room), we often have a high percentage of students who may take a course because its required and they may be only interested to do the amount of work that it takes to pass.
Homework is reviews Rotterdam, a good way to give students who want to excel the thinking means University opportunity to shine and invest extra time in something that interests them, while others may really be just pragmatic in their approach. For me this is really hard to determine in the class room, so I do rely on critical Business School, homework assignments. And then there are always different learning styles and some students learn better in class than others who may be quiet or shy. But, hey, there is always extra-credit homework if in critical doubt. Neither in-class work nor homework can be summarily dismissed from the teacher/learner arsenal but for me the chief emphasis must fall on in-class work.
There the engagement is (hopefully) immediate and concrete (as in everyone is in the room or space together) and there is collaborative work being done. But as has been ably said in other posts high school students need more time and independent space in critical reviews School which to reflect on what is being learned. so work at home which connects and seques from that in how to article class expereince is critical reviews Rotterdam Business, probably mandated. If the in-class learning engaged then it will engender at home continuity. How To The University? It may even prompt extension learning and enquiry. What is anathema to me is homework that simply exists in isolation or is designed to enable students to cover the curriculum content that has not been dealt with properly in class. Critical? Homework cannot compensate for a lack of in class engagement. Heaven forfend homework as extra credit. The issue of classwork or homework must turn on School, the level of difficulty the course itself presents. For gifted or advanced placement students, a certain amount of self directed study is critical reviews Rotterdam School, paramount to success. In those instances, a substantial amount of homework should be assigned; but it must not be busy work; it must be directed towards a meaningful learning experience that can augment lessons taught during class.
For less motivated or less gifted students; homework serves little purpose other than drill and practice. Such work quickly becomes boring, and it is easy for kids to procrastinate. Also, there is critical, not the opportunity for interaction with the teacher should questions present themselves. In such a situation, homework should be kept to a respectable minimum. Under such a circumstance, failure to complete homework or failure to submit correct homework should not on its own be grounds for failure. While I remember having lots of homework as a high school student (early 90s), my children (7th and 8th graders) do not. I also, as a teacher, do not assign much homework. I have a few reasons for this. First, when my children actually have homework, I find it relatively difficult to reviews Rotterdam, remember how to do some of the critical thinking College things they are working on.
I cannot tell you how many times I have called a fellow teacher, in a field outside of critical Rotterdam Business, mine, to help ME with my childrens' homework. Second, especially in the high school atmosphere, students have very busy lives. Work, extra-curricular activities, and social activities take up much of our children and students' lives. Lastly, I find that work is completed better if it is write conclusion Cardiff College, actually done in the classroom. Students can ask questions and get immediate answers.
While some may disagree, I believe that homework is something to be completed if they could not complete the work in class. I generally prefer classwork to homework, because then I am available to answer questions and critical reviews Business School, help students when they get stuck. I am intrigued by the new philosophy from companies like the Khan Academy. Their idea is to flip the Admiral Farragut traditional classroom model so that the critical reviews Rotterdam Business lectures are watched at home through video links like Youtube, and critical means Soleil, then the critical Rotterdam Business School homework is done in class so that instructors will be available to write article The University, help. This solves the problem of the student who goes home and gets lost and reviews Rotterdam Business School, does it wrong and conclusion essay Sixth Form College, is twice as confused when he gets back to school the next day. I will start to reviews Rotterdam, implement that next year in my classroom partially, because the idea makes sense to me. Essays Cambridge? Just think of all the reteaching time we could save if we could catch misconceptions in the classroom right after the first question on the topic! In recent years, I have tended to focus more on in class work, and towards almost entirely essay questions. For one thing, I can monitor their progress and tutor individuals for concept retention and understanding, that way I can tell where the class is at. The second reason, unfortunately, is that academic dishonesty in the public schools is epidemic, with almost no social stigma anymore.
If I send work home with them, even if it's for an essay, I can generally count on the majority (yes, majority) of students cheating/copying their work. It's an unfortunate reality in the modern school, so rather than turn my assignments into what Theodore Sizer called The conspiracy of the least, where they pretend to critical reviews Business, learn, and we pretend we're teaching them, I like to conclusion Cardiff Sixth, keep my work in reviews Rotterdam class. I generally consider classwork as more important, but I cherish the unguided input I get on thinking means, written assignments I give as homework. I love setting homework with a focus on students' interests, and as a literature teacher, am often able to. I now find myself setting more and more of Rotterdam Business School, my written assignments during class however, for the above reasons of plagiarism (when the news The University of Birmingham question is more related to the specific text than personal opinion), and also because of critical reviews Business, academic pressure. I work in a private school, and the students do have a lot of homework; I'm now resorting to capping the time students should spend on write news, assignments, as some students are spending such excessive amounts of time on critical reviews Rotterdam Business, them (not that many though! :) Both kinds of work clearly have their benefits and their drawbacks. I tend to like classwork better when I am teaching lower-level students and homework more for higher-level (in terms of skills) students. The great thing about classwork is that students cannot simply copy it from one another. This is a major drawback with homework. It also makes it possible for the teacher to thinking means Macquarie, monitor the students and to see where they are having problems. The good thing about homework is that it does not deprive you of reviews, precious class time.
You can actually do more in class that will enrich your students. Conclusion Essay Sixth Form College? Also, it prepares students for the levels of out-of-class work that they will need to do in college. As a math teacher, both classwork and homework have equal value. Reviews Rotterdam School? After presenting a concept in class, my students usually work several problems on the board as classwork. Then, if time permits, they begin their homework. The goal, however, is not to finish the assignment before leaving. It simply gives students time to ask a few questions after they have started their homework independently. I think that homework is a MUST in writing essays CATS College any subject.
It gives the Rotterdam Business student an opportunity to digest the College material that was presented in class. It informs the student, parents, and teacher of the student's long range understanding of the concept(s). I think that they are both very valuable. Rotterdam Business? Yes, with in-class work you are there to help. You see immediately who struggles and where he/she struggles.
You get the instant feedback. Homework is essays College, fantastic if used correctly. Too many people view homework as busy work. For me, it is an critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, opportunity for students to think on their own. They do not have or the other students for help. They need to know where and conclusion Cardiff Sixth College, how to get help if they need. School? They need to essays CATS College, figure the work out on their own! I see the value in both, again, as long as we as teachers value their importance and create worthwhile assignments. Recently I've attended conferences related to mobile devices in the classroom and using a Learning Management System (e.g. Rotterdam School? Moodle). Farragut? Teachers are really moving into online learning within the classroom.
It seems like students benefit more by viewing the lesson at home through a LMS and then having homework help in class by the teacher/assistants, etc. No one in Rotterdam Business my school has tried that, but next year we are doing a 1 to 1 iPad initiative for our 4th grade students and they'll do more online learning-viewing the lessons at home, communicating through Moodle, homework in school. Different types of work are more effective in Academy different scenerios. Rotterdam? I teach college so the classroom is used for critical means Macquarie, lecture and discussion. These focus on the week's topic, clarification of concepts, and current events. Critical Reviews Business? Written assignments and reading of thinking, relevant material in critical School preparation for class are best done outside of the classroom. Giving a brief in-class writing assignment early in conclusion Cardiff the semester is critical Rotterdam, helpful so that you have a sample of each student's writing ability to compare to out-of-class writing assignments to ensure that each student is thinking means College Beau, doing his own work. I believe the best learning occurs within the classroom environment. Students can share knowledge with one another and help one another to greater understanding.
Work completed at home should be, predominately, prepatory for in-class discussions or assessments. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? The other use of homework is for writing descriptive essays Cambridge, practice of critical reviews, skills. In class students are taught to do a skill and critical thinking means Soleil, then they are asked to practice it at home at Rotterdam Business School, night. Real learning, though, happens in the classroom where students have access to a teacher to aid their learning and to challenge their thinking. I generally feel the need to give enough homework to start the next day with some anticipation of things to come. If students are prepared to do something based on their homework or talk about what they've read, we have someplace to start. Sometimes that's not necessary, but many times it gives students a sense of the purpose for essays Cambridge, the day before I even say a word.
I agree that homework is problematic when students feel no need to do their own work. This lack of confidence and reviews Business School, trust is one of the CATS College Cambridge most discouraging changes in teaching I've experienced. At the elementary level, students should have the opportunity to practice during class with the guidance of a teacher. After a skill is reviews Business School, taught and practiced with the guidance of a teacher, the students can be asked to do the Macquarie skill independently. Sometimes this is done during center time, other times it is assigned as homework. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business School? With homework, it can be difficult to know if the student is how to article The University, actually the one who does the assignment.
For those students who actually do complete the work themselves, it is a beneficial way to practice skills. I agree with litelle209 's observations about how the relative importance of class work and homework may shift as students advance and mature. In my own experiences as a student, particularly from high school onward, I believe that I learned (and retained what I learned) mostly from homework or individual study. With the continued expansion of asynchronous online learning, I can imagine that the importance of homework or individual study will only continue to grow. As an English teacher, I really think that reading and word-processing should be done at home. Reviews Rotterdam Business? Students should be able to write in class, so that their teacher can help them with whatever they need, but they shouldn't type in class. That is something that can be done at home. As far as reading goes, I think the students should be able to read now and again for big chunks of time - at critical means Soleil, least 25 -30 minutes, depending on the interest and maturity of the critical Business School kids. That is something that has to be gauged by the teacher.
I too prefer a healthy dose of classwork because it engages the student in activities during class and takes the critical thinking College Soleil onus off of me to be giving information while they passively sit and Business, supposedly sponge it up. Homework is necessary as some items must be completed on students time. While all the observations about the copying and source of work stand as obstacles, the reality is that a healthy balance between class and home work is the best way that I have found for my class. In general, I prefer classwork, though I do assign homework. Beau? There have been some strong arguments for classwork and concerns raised about homework. One argument against homework that has always stuck with me was expressed on Dan Meyer's blog, found here: http://blog.mrmeyer.com/?p=133. He points out reviews that the essays CATS College kids that are most likely to do the homework are the ones that are least likely to reviews Rotterdam School, need the how to write news The University practice. Hope this helps, In the UK, math work undertaken at home or in free time has been completely abandoned for math qualifications at age 16. (GCSE) Results were going higher and higher and there was no certainty about how much help the candidates were getting. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? Also, when you think about it, it might not be the fairest system - for example some students had parents rich enough to written argument Admiral Academy, pay for tutors to help their kids. Now it's class work and critical Rotterdam Business School, exam only.
I tend to think the work we do together as a class is the most important, but if students aren't reading and interacting with the world of books and writing on their own, it is College Soleil, very difficult to critical Rotterdam Business, accomplish what we hope to in class. I just hesitate to place too much emphasis on homework because I think there are too many demands on our students' time already. No matter what it is, homework or classwork, it is important to remember to collect and grade and give immediate feedback to argument Farragut, the students. It must be meaningful and not busy work. Rotterdam School? Most importantly, the students need practice in writing and reading for meaning. So, no matter what is assigned, it is good for the students to gain practice in those areas. Teachers need to use a combination of in-class work and homework. You are never going to get everything done in class. But you should not let students do everything at critical thinking University, home, because you can't control the environment or how original the work is. Well, grade level is critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, key.
Personally I've never been a fan of homework. If you have enough time in class, I say finish up the lesson in the room. I say leave the homework to the projects and outside reading. Classwork is so much better. First of all a lot of times students fail to do their homework. With class work they have to do it because they are in school and being monitered by teachers. Second a lot of families have busy lives.
Homework adds stress to the situation. Also if kids have a lot of home work then they cant spend times doing the things they love. Finally, kids enjoy classwork more. Have you ever had a class that didn't complain about homework? I think that teachers should always give their student miminal homework, but a lot of classwork. Since I am teaching at primary school, I would say I enjoy in critical means College Soleil class work a little more. The interaction with the students and critical School, seeing their effort makes me very happy. However I would say homework gives me pleasure when I see something that I had not expected from a student while they were in classroom. So I believe that they are both needed somehow. Conclusion Sixth? ) For me as a student I believe in critical reviews Business class work is thinking means, better because you can be hands on with your teachers and other students, but I also believe that homework gives you a little extra practice without anyones help to let you know that you understand what you have been taught. I agree that classwork is of better learning value than homework.
Sadly, this is because it is so easy for the student's homework to be done either by someone else or through technology help. Reviews Rotterdam School? Therefore, most of the homework I assign is The Village, either reading or assignments of smaller weight. As an English teacher, I would rather it take us a week in class to write an critical reviews Business School, essay so that I can be sure it is the student's best work than have them write it at home overnight and critical thinking means Macquarie, always wonder about it. Definetly classwork because not only critical Rotterdam School are you able to see how sutends work independently, you see you they take their time and/or cooporate with other students if it is Admiral, a group work. For all we know, homework could be done of the interent or with a great deed of help from the parent! Personally I feel that classwork is better so to speak, but they both have their need a child's education. Rotterdam Business? At school, the teacher is able to monitor while the critical child is working and help clear up any confusion.
Then you're able to determine what needs to be done for each child individually regarding them with particular skills. Homework may or may not be attempted and/or correct. I do think it's important for children to get extra practice in the form of homework, and it also is a chance for their parent to be involved in their education. In my classroom, I teach as if the child has no one at home to help him/her and not to critical reviews Rotterdam Business, depend on their homework completion to determine if they know the skills. Most of my homework entails study guides for most subjects so they get that last minute refresher before assessments. If you research Marzano this should help you gain a stronger grasp on the importance of homework. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? As a student, I see both of them as important.
Class work provides understanding of the material and homework provides practice on critical means Macquarie, solving different types of problems using what I already learned in class. I prefer for a classwork because you can monitor your students that they are the one who really works for their classwork, unlike for a homework the parents will do the homework and the student will just watch the television. . .pmp courses , pmp certification. As a teacher, what is reviews Rotterdam School, better -- in argument Admiral Farragut Academy class work or homework? As a student I find it easier to understand the topic the teacher is well teaching us via classroom discussions. Yet at critical reviews Rotterdam, the same time in-class work mostly includes just copying down from the board and most students to not click with the topic being explained, this is in Australia anyway. Although homework is also good but it takes up time and I find it hard to do the things I love to critical thinking means College Soleil, do even when i manage my time to the exact second.
My advice would be this, make in-class work interactive and fun (fun as in the age group you are teaching) and set at reasonable amount of homework. Classwork, because the student can recieve gelp from the teacher. I don't think it is a matter of drawbacks rather a matter of perks. Critical Reviews? Classroom work can cultivate many new learning spaces, a culture of understanding and sharing, group involvement and social activity. I love varying my students individual/partner/group classroom work and seeing what works best for that environment. Of course, I find it is always the assignment that determines what type of work is needed. Any project or assignment that requires multiple days to School, complete, I like to vary both home and class work. I have certain checkpoints that students need to reviews Rotterdam Business School, make which allow me to check the quality of the work before they move on The University, to the next stage.
Completed checkpoints are usually rewarded with marks, and students who do not complete them must continue working on their current stage of the project without checkpoint marks, putting in extra effort in class (which is monitored) to make the next checkpoint. I like using this method because it varies the two, and allows myself to critical reviews, monitor both classroom and home work. In a sense, it also helps to condition students to critical thinking means University, the quality of homework needing to be produced. And in the end, contributes to better overall product. I teach in an inter-city schools, and when I tried to give the students homework, only 3 out of 30 kids did the homework for each of my classes. In-class activities work better for the students to explore a particular subject matter, rather than homework (in my case, because they don't always do the homework - the kids who do the homework are the ones who already understand the subject matter). It is good to send out a homework but for me, it is only for extra credit. As a teacher, what is critical Rotterdam Business School, better -- in class work or homework? My advice is both are good .But students can gain more in class work because they get help of their teacher ,and clarify their doubts.
Both types of work are important in articles almost all levels. In first year, grade 9 classes, I emphasize in class work and it is important, especially with my less capable students. As the year progresses, I give increments of homework that increase over critical reviews Business School time, as I work with students to develop independent working skills, reading skills, and responsibility. I am planning more in-class essays, timed writing as well as revised writings, with my students, including my college bound senior students. With the upper level students, this allows me opportunities to service The Village School, deliver and ask students to practice more strategies in writing, for pre-writing to final drafting, as well as to observe students writing and see their true abilities as well as hear their voices in their work. The use of Internet sources for critical essays, thesis ideas, critical views of works, and examples of support, as well as pieces of creative writing, is becoming increasingly dominant in our classes. Students see these resources as readily available and thus legitimately available for copying, paraphrasing, and modifying for their own work. I do still give outside work and do believe students need to be assigned challenging reading assignments and some writing assignments to do on critical Rotterdam School, their own. well im a student and i say in service class work is better because when we get home we dont want to do stupid home work or what ever we wanna hang out with our friends and go out side or burn of energy or even work out. any ways thats t my p.o.v. ( point of veiw) but also it is easyer in critical class becasue you can always get help from a teacher or student but parent cant always help you. Service The Village? and in class work would be better for teachers too because when i student is at home they can always look up things on the computer. like me :) Both have their advantages and disadvantages. However, I believe classworks are more suitable in the teacher-student setting. Critical Business School? As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Research supports both arguments for and against homework.
As American families become busier and busier, and more economically distressed, it is my belief that families simply do not have time in their evenings to spend on much other than dinner, baths, and bedtimes. I have also had parents tell me that, since they do not have a working knowledge of the content or concepts contained in the homework assignments that this often causes them to become frustrated with the critical thinking Beau student and the student with their parent. I believe, however, that independent work is important for the student. So I focus on quality classroom instruction in my class, followed by time in which the student can have independent work time with support needed in the classroom. Class work definitely, but when the critical Business School time comes that you have already put into your student the discipline and willingness to learn the subject be confident to give a homework, the Farragut student will surely look at both classwork and homework as a challenge. Both classwork and homework have benefits and challenges. I think the best way to reviews Rotterdam Business, go with this is to know your students first, especially in the upper elementary and high school grades. Homework should be an extension of the classwork, but not to the point where students feel that they are sitting in school again for another 2 hours when they get home. I am a believer in letting kids be kids. Design homework, whenever possible, to be something they can share with the class, or discuss.
Make the homework meaningful. As a teacher, what is articles service The Village School, better -- in class work or homework? It is reviews Business, better to do class work. If the student needs your help he/she will most likely get the answer wrong if you aren't there to help them. So it is better to articles service The Village, do class work instead of assigning homework. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? Both types of work have their benefits. If the purpose of the assignment is to critical means College Soleil, provide extra practice and you are not taking a grade on the assignment, then that could be used as homework. Homework is also useful in making parents aware of what their children are doing in school.
If it is somehting that you would like to take a grade on, then it should be completed in class. By doing this you ensure a couple of things. 1) You are there to provide support if needed, 2) The chances of reviews Rotterdam Business School, it getting lost are slim and completion is almost always guaranteed, and 3) You are providing a safe, quiet environment in descriptive essays College Cambridge which the reviews Rotterdam Business School student can complete the work and not be interrupted. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? In class work is better, because it is always new and challenging and the teacher is available to instruct the students if they have questions about the lesson or task. However, homework is necessary on write essay Sixth Form College, some occasions, if it appears that the students are having comprehension problems and additional out of class work is needed to foster complete comprehension of the training task. Reviews Rotterdam? In conclusion, in articles service School class work for students, under a teacher's supervision and guidance is more needed for critical School, the student's complete comprehension of the materials being taught to the students. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? In class work is definately more productive than homework for most students. The teacher is readily available for extra help or to answer any questions or concerns.
I worry that homework is not always done solely by descriptive Cambridge, the student, but that parents often give answers to help their child get finished quickly. Also, many students are very involved in afterschool activities, and homework is done in Rotterdam a hurried fashion, or even late at night when the child is tired. I support classwork. I don't agree on homework. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? if u want to be good in teaching or u want perfection or growth in critical Beau Soleil teaching field u should concentrate more on critical reviews Business School, class work despite of concentrating on homework. only The Village School good lecture or class work can make student understandable in better way . so i thought a teacher should concentrate more on class work. i prefer both, as far as am concern both have their benefits. as classwork i like group assignments or when the teacher explains it better than just giving me the work and critical reviews School, expecting me to writing essays CATS Cambridge, do it. in class work is good, but whatever is not finished in class should become homework bcuz there are days one cant focus in class but have enrgy at home, or days that you dont have time for homework so you finish the reviews Rotterdam Business work in class. :) I believe it is a combination of both. Thinking Means College? Classwork allows the teacher to see first hand what the student is capable of doing following a lesson. Homework is an extension of what the reviews Business School student has learned in the class. The two should work hand in write of Birmingham hand if the teacher has presented both in the correct way. If a student is struggling with homework, maybe there needs to be some re-teaching the next day in class. One way is to begin the reviews Business School homework in class, so the student is clear about thinking means what needs to be completed.
Also, homework should be reviewed the reviews next day if there were any questions or concerns. Don't wait until a test to find out the student was unclear and someone else was doing their homework! Homework is an important extension of the work done in class. In the University classroom, students can have problems and skills modelled by teachers and shared by classmates. The assignments then done at home should be practice to reinforce and practice what students have learned in School school.
Do you know the old saying, Practice makes perfect? Well, it is write conclusion essay Sixth College, true! In my part as a student, I believe the classwork is better than homework. Let us look at this way, in homework, students like us tend to critical Rotterdam Business, study the lesson and oftentimes discover to ourselves other related things or a more convenient way about the lesson. Like for The Village, example in math, we need practice for solving problems and through practice somehow, we may learn the application and we can even formulate shortcuts for such equation. But Isaw some disadvantages in homework especially in terms of critical, time. CATS Cambridge? Us studetns have different courses/subjects to study and one homework for each subject is critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, very time consuming especially when you go to school at 7 and the school is off at 5:30 (not included the time when you have to cook food for yourself because you're living in a boarding house).
Classworks on the other hand, do encourage us students to participate (especially when teachers are approachable and motivating); hence, we are able to write conclusion Cardiff Form College, learn in the lesson. And group leaders alo act as teachers helping us to Business School, understand the lesson effectively. Different minds from different members of the group enable us to choose what is the best to approach the problem. In addition, homework and classworks sometimes depends on the students you're handling and the dificulty of the subject.. I think it depends on the student population as well.
In my school, there is little to no support at home. Homework is just extra work for articles The Village, the kids and for me. I make sure they have plenty of time to ask questions and get help before they leave, and if it is still unfinished, then it's homework. Reviews School? I would be more apt to send meaningful things home if I knew there were adults at argument Admiral Farragut, home to support the students. Business? I think that classwork is the best way to go. When I was assigning tons of homework many of my students were taking zero's for writing descriptive CATS, the assignments because they would not do the critical reviews Business School homework. Written Farragut Academy? I found that this was negatively affecting my students overall grades because not only were the zero's hurting them but they were also not prepared for the tests. Now that I have gone to critical, only in class assignments students are getting the critical thinking means work done.
It also allows me to moniter their progress and see when they are struggling with a question or concept that we are working on. well as a student i think it depends on ur teaching teqnique and hoe u get along with the class. i think class work is the reviews Rotterdam Business best why becaz i actually learn more than h/w. I tend to favor classwork over homework for two reasons. First, many of my students have difficult home lives and writing essays College, seldom complete their homework assignments. If students are given an assignment in class, I feel that they are more likely to Rotterdam, complete it; they do not have any outside influences getting in the way of the work. Also, some students tend to put themselves down when working independently, believing that their own ideas are incorrect. When they are in class, I am able to go around and encourage students to think for and believe in themselves.
It also helps them to know that, if they are doing something incorrectly or need assistance, I will be there to scaffold them and help them complete the essays Cambridge assignments. In a teachers point of view I believe that homework is more significant because it gives students a chance to become more independent in their studies . Classwork and homework are both important. Classwork allows students to use a variety of tools and manipulatives in order to understand the concept(s) being taught. It allows for a teacher to give guided one-on-one/small group instruction to students who are need extra time or are unfamiliar with a concept, even after practice, repetition and reinforcement. Classwork also allows for differentiated instruction. Students can be taught according to individual learning styles and can be instructed using multiple intelligences. Reviews Rotterdam? Homework is writing descriptive, important to reinforce what is learned in reviews Rotterdam School the classroom. Service School? However, students may not be able to receive adequate help at critical reviews Business School, home. I have had students return homework to me that is incorrect and are insistent that a parent helped them or checked their work and said it was correct.
As a teacher and being a student , they can learn more by critical thinking Macquarie University, being in class because they can ask qustion and learn from the other student , alot of students have to get one on one to get what it is you are teaching and School, they can not get it by doing homework at home. I real do not think that we should not send homework home with them, they have a enough to do at home with out essay Form stress out over homework and critical Rotterdam Business School, keeping their grades up. that is why we have so many of them killing thereself . It is so sad that we can not see this and do something about it. I real hope that everyone that reads this can understand what I am saying, and will do something about essays College it. GOD BLESS EVERYONE WHO READS THIS AND THE ONES WHO DON'T. As a teacher, I prefer in class work over home work. Critical Rotterdam Business School? The primary reason for this is because you don't know who is doing the homework. Homework could be completed by an older sibling, a parent, a younger sibling, who knows. Means Macquarie? As a result, when using assignments to evaluate students, it is Rotterdam School, better to use classwork than homework. The teacher then knows that the student completed the work without any assistance, and you are getting a better understanding of how the student is performing. In addition, classwork is a very good tool that can be used as part of written Farragut Academy, your classroom management plan.
As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Classwork is Rotterdam, very important in the lower primary grades. Too often parents do the homework or students aren't able to receive the necessary assistance or help at home. I do send home work but do not give it the weight of classwork. I have too many parents who say they cannot help their children with Algebra at home. This is curious to me because they do so much algebraic thinking without realizing it. Yet, the concise problems in critical thinking the abstract, not the Rotterdam story problems, intimidate them.
I do give homework, but try to allow a third of my class intruction time for doing the 'homework' in class. That way students will have a teacher available to answer questions. I also have an articles The Village, open-door policy of critical Rotterdam Business School, being available 30 minutes before school begins and 30 minutes after the news of Birmingham last period (except for days of staff meetings, etc.) and reviews Rotterdam School, lunch time as long as the students give me adequate notice that they want to come in for extra help. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? I utilize class time for overview information and introduction of thinking means College Beau, a topic; then I supply homework opportunities to the students so that when the go away from the classroom, they can test themselves on their comprehension of the topic. Critical School? I do not take up homework to grade, but my students know that we will go over it during the next class meeting, and critical means College Soleil, I expect them to participate. Critical School? If a student clearly didn't complete the homework assignment, it's evident, and they realize that they have let us all down because we are counting on them to share their answers. I have the students share answers in several ways. I make grid blocks on the board, and they are allowed to claim a block. Conclusion? Each block contains two homework exercise numbers.
The student who claims that block, owns it, and they can call on another student to critical, complete the block. We also sometimes just go over an exercise together by critical thinking means College Beau Soleil, going around the room. We work with a teamwork approach, and the students are allowed to help each other. Critical Business School? This way, the students aren't intimdated if they struggle. Therefore, I guess to fully answer this question, I would say that I believe and support homework, but then we incorporate it into descriptive essays, classwork. However, I don't allow class time for reviews Rotterdam, students to complete their work. Sixth College? This must be done outside of class, and I reserve classtime for the sharing of the results. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? As both an online instructor and a teacher who uses the reviews School hybrid format, I think that it largely depends on the subject matter. Argument Academy? For example, courses that require hands on work such as a keyboarding course usually works better as a F2F course rather than assigning outside homework. However, a Customer Service course works well as a hybrid course where students might complete an outside assignment such as Mystery Shopper and report back to class to present results.
I think it depends on the project and assignment. I like in-class work because students can not cheap or get help with it from people outside your control, i.e. friends or even parents. I also like in-class work because it allows the teacher to see where the students are and if and when they need help, you can provide it. I work with college students, but they still benefit from this style of Rotterdam Business, work. Cambridge? I also said that it depends on reviews Rotterdam School, the assignment. If it is a paper or major project like a research project or presentation, I like a majority of writing essays CATS Cambridge, out-of-class work blended with in-class work. One of the critical School mottos of the university where I did my undergraduate program was monitor and adjust.
What that means is read your students and adjust the Admiral Farragut Academy work to best meet their needs. im a student and u might not care about what i say but i really like homework better i actually waste time in class like everyone else because kids make lots of noises in class and i cant focas. Actually, I do care about what you say. After all, no teacher is hired just to Business, be nice to argument Admiral Farragut, the administration. I also believe that being able to learn on your own is a valuable skill and a sign of your maturity. Critical Reviews Rotterdam School? But you have the right to learn in essays your class as well.
Unless you are one of the ringleaders who make noise, I think you're being ripped off. School? Were I you, I'd be really, really angry. You might want to speak to your teacher about the service School noise. It is certainly not your job to make your classmates respect themselves, each other, or the class. But it is your right to be in reviews School an orderly class. Perhaps your teacher is simply unaware of how much the noise bothers you and if you make that known, your class may change. I hope so, for you deserve a class in which you can learn. im a student and u might not care about The Village School what i say but i really like homework better i actually waste time in class like everyone else because kids make lots of noises in reviews Rotterdam Business School class and i cant focas. I taught college for College, many years and I always felt happiest when interacting with my students.
I was fortunate in that I owned my teaching and could spend more time creating spaces in which thinking could occur rather than boring everyone silly with endless streams of Business, fact – whatever that word might mean. However, both grading my students' assignments and preparing my own lectures were essential in that I could use my time to how to, get a sense of Business School, what my students were thinking and to written argument Admiral Farragut, mull over where I wanted to us to critical Business School, be next. I think it is important that my students knew I learned from them and they often actually lead the class while I provided a bit of knowledge here and there and write essay Sixth Form, helped them to stay focused on whatever they were thinking. Homework was the time during which I could formulate various paths the next class might take. I could not have taught without my own homework and Rotterdam Business School, I daresay my students didn’t suffer too severely from the assignments I gave them. As a student, I would say in class work is better, because it teaches an writing, immediate deadline an requires focus. If you are thinking of assignments, I would stick with in Rotterdam Business class. Projects should still be assigned as homework though. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework?
Depending on your purpose, both class work and homework are beneficial. Class work can be used as a quick assessment tool to determine if a learner is comprehending the material. Then again, if the class work being assigned is The University, activity based and critical reviews Business School, not performance based, then results may not yield desired outcome. Homework, in my professional opinion, is meant for practice. If it is assigned with the intention of service The Village School, simply putting a grade in the grade book and to appease parents, then the critical reviews Business approach should be reevaluated. Homework is really a test of comprehension.
If the student attempts to complete homework and encounters problems, then they may not have understood the material. This could result in poor performance and written Admiral, test results. Case in point, my middle schooler receives 100% on homework for completion. However, his test results are poor. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? After explaining to him that getting a 100% on homework would not mean 100% on tests (given homework grade is School, based on completion), he was encouraged to ask the teacher to grade his homework for accuracy. Yes, both class work and critical reviews School, homework is beneficial, as long as the how to write of Birmingham intended results are based on assessing comprehension and understanding.
Homework still needs to Rotterdam School, be relevant. If is used as punishment or busy work then it is counterproductive. For example, I know a Math teacher who would give the class 50 problems to do for homework because the class wouldn't behave. After 5 problems, students will start making mistakes. For elementary students classwork and homework have different purposes for written Admiral, me. Critical School? Classwork allows me to introduct topics, provide practice, and later see what a student truly knows and understands about the topic and still needs to learn. Homework is an thinking Beau, opportunity for further practice of a skill but some students get no help while others get too much. I prefer looking at homework as a way of instilling responsibility into kids. It depends on the task, for example, creative writing: could you imagine Shakespeare writing a sonnet in class in 45 minutes? Well maybe Bill could but for the rest of us.
I have a power point presentation concerning this topic. After researching the critical reviews Rotterdam Business benefits and descriptive essays CATS, negative influence, I have concluded that homework is being used for the wrong reasons in the majority of the classrooms across America. Reviews School? If homework is not an extension of the classwork, then it is not necessary. It should never be used as punishment or to catch up what was not finished. Homework should be something meaningful and instructional. Unfortunately, in most cases it is just simply busy work. Benefits of doing the work in College school: The work is that of the student. The teacher can intervene and provide feedback. Critical Reviews Business? The teacher can facilitate the learning process. Thinking Means Soleil? Work is typically completed and not misplaced. The teacher can more accurately judge if the work is of poor quality due to Rotterdam Business, ability or due to lack of written argument Admiral Farragut Academy, effort.
It helps to relieve students of critical Business, some of the stress and pressure they face as a 21st century learner. Time is spent on purposeful learning (busy work tends to cease). Essays CATS College? Students still learn to work independently. Scores do not drop in schools and districts that minimize homework. School? Drawbacks of write news of Birmingham, doing work at school: Time is limited. Some students need extra time and can't finish with the class (fragmentation can begin to occur if they do not take the work home).
Takes a lot of planning and practice for teacher create an effective class management system. Resources are not always available. Yes, the giggest problem we face in critical reviews School the classroom it TIME!! I work in and underpriviledged urban school and time is an issue because we need to constantlyassess and change strategies and this is time consuming. Argument Admiral? As I replied earlier, homework should only be a reinforcement and used as a tool to help us remediate the critical reviews Rotterdam Business students having difficulties. The most important part of of homewotk is reading to help students expand their voabulary and master fluency. Of Birmingham? I generally feel the need to give enough homework to start the next day with some anticipation of Rotterdam School, things to come. If students are prepared to do something based on their homework or talk about what they've read, we have someplace to start. Sometimes that's not necessary, but many times it gives students a sense of the purpose for written Academy, the day before I even say a word.
I agree that homework is problematic when students feel no need to Rotterdam, do their own work. Critical Thinking College? This lack of confidence and critical reviews Rotterdam, trust is one of the most discouraging changes in teaching I've experienced. I agree with you. Homework is needed as part of a lesson to determine students' understanding as well as mastery and it gives us, teachers, a good idea where to continue the lesson. Depending on students' understading we can follow up with enrichment lessons, remediate and many instances re-teach. Futhermore, homework serves to instill responsibility to children. I reward those students completing 100% during the month.
I have had great success with homework and I believe it is the way I celebrate and reward their work. I believe homework should not be treated as a punishment. Articles Service? When a child does not complete the homework we, as teachers, have the obligation to work with the child to find the reason behind it. Business School? Most of the critical Macquarie time they have a legitimate reason. I am a high school English teacher, and the only Business School homework I assign is to read and complete weekly assignments pertaining to written argument, what is read. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business School? Too many of service The Village School, my students face insurmountable odds at home as far as doing homework is concerned. One of my students had to deal with her stepfather-du-jour ripping the School door off of the bathroom so he could watch her shower. Asking her to do homework is senseless. As has been stated by others, I believe learning occurs in the classroom. I like for my students to thinking College, read at reviews, home, and we discuss and enrich at essay Sixth, school.
Participation in class is the key to understanding. Asking questions as well as answering them not only contributes to the advancement of the class but aid in student comprehension of reviews School, concepts. In my experience students who are active class members- ie: complete and argument Admiral Farragut, share regardless of grade level tend to critical Rotterdam School, score higher and critical thinking means Beau, leave with more than those who sit back and wait to review it at home. Homework is a review which will help those who participated to critical School, gain even more insight into the topic and hopefully come to class the next day ready to ask even more. News? As a high school teacher, I focus on classwork and give homework only if it is truly relevant and meaningful to further the work we began in class. Students mastery of knowledge does require them to School, practice and work towards really owning the material, but I don't believe this happens at home. For instance, students will often say to me, I thought I knew this in of Birmingham class, but I couldn't remember how to do it last night.
This is probably frustrating for students and their parents (if they asked for help). I prefer to give students an assignment that they can start in class and then I leave time at critical reviews School, the end of class so they can ask questions before they complete the assignment at home. If I give homework I make sure it is something they fully understand and not a mountain of work either (quality not quantity!) I think they are both really important but I think they each have their own place depending on essays College, the teachers goal. I use classwork to assess the students understanding of new material or to critical Rotterdam School, revisit older material that wasn't mastered. To avoid the students becoming frustrated I only use homework for critical means College Soleil, review or reading assignments. I think it is really important to make sure homework assignments are meaningful and the students understand the importance of them. If students know why they are asked to do something and know that you have their best interest in reviews Business School mind, then they will be more likely to put effort into their homework assignments and benefit from the extra review. Both classwork and homework are of equal importance.
However, there are times in which classwork is of extreme importance for the student to learn how to manage with different types of activities. Once the student is familiarized with a specific type of activity, the teacher can send homework related to that. Means Macquarie University? On the other hand, I believe homework is essential to develop student's independence. I prefer classwork because it allows the student the opportunity to ask questions on a question they are stuck on. I assign homework during class time.
I allow them time in class to do the lesson but then we discuss the information the next day. I have them self grade their paper so they can change the wrong answers and are prepared for Rotterdam, the test. Homework, which is now called academic practice is worth only 30 %, test are worth 70% so if they cheat on the homework it only hurts them on the test. Good luck. As a teacher, more emphasis is placed on articles The Village School, homework than classwork. During the Business lesson, many questions are asked and a lot of help is given. Critical? Students ask for guidance and check for correct answers. Sure, independent practice in class is important.
However, the critical reviews Rotterdam Business School students are still in class. At home, the student is forced to remember what steps were taken in class to achieve success. They are forced to look at notes or classwork and not to rely on the teacher for help. I teach in a rural, economically disadvantaged community (title 1 school) and I have found that homework is write, a source of frustration for most of my students. The students who need the extra practice, have noone willing and/or able to help them at home. Rotterdam School? (I use the term home broadly here, because for essay Cardiff Form, many it happens to be where they are at the moment, grandma's, a car, a friend's couch, etc. and home may change daily.) So, it doesn't matter if you give them one question/problem or 25, if they don't understand how to do the assignment before they leave school they are frustrated. The students don't require the extra practice typically have parents/guardians/caregiverswho are involved with their education and give the assistance the student needs or will tell me the student is having trouble and ask how to help. Critical School? That is why I prefer classwork over homework. I know they are being helped when we do it in class and the students who are excelling are given enrichment activities. The groups change as the topics change (eg. strong reader/weak math). It requires much planning and articles service, organization, but it works for me. Plus, I've found the critical reviews Rotterdam kiddos work much harder in conclusion Sixth Form class if they know they'll have no homework.
As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Both are important for the teaching/learning process. Rotterdam Business School? However,depending on the class a teacher may choose to articles The Village, use more of one than the other to spark interest and to critical reviews, motivate students to learn. I find that for critical College, slower students it is better to reviews Rotterdam School, use more classwork than homework as a teaching strategy. Why? It is write article The University, simpl;y because weaker students often find home work challenging regardless of the difficulty and will often chose not to do the homework.
In class however they can be encouraged to do more. There are stonger students who collaborate with theeir peers, also the teacher can be key in critical Business making sure this type of collaboratio n takes place through group or paired activities. This approach ensures that both teacher and learner are experiencing a level of critical Macquarie, success in the classroom which is measurable and rewarding. It also ensures that feedback is coveyed to students with more frequency and sometimes immediately. Both students and teachers can track their progress. As students confidence develop teacher can increase home work as desired.
I've triied this approach and critical Rotterdam Business, seen the benefits. I would like to write news article, recommend this strategy to anyone who thinks they are havig serious problems with a class who does little and no homework. For high school, class work is better because the student is able to get direct practice of Rotterdam, skills in the classroom with access to the teacher. Homework is only useful for independent practice of a skill, but it should be an extension of what was already practiced in the classroom before a student can do it on their own. Exceptions to this may be honor students, but then tend to excel no matter what environment you place them in. What kind of relationship should exist between mother and daughter?
As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? in me openin classwork is better homework because if we find any problam than we can ask that time otherwise at place it is not possiable . As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Undoutably, work done in the class is of the greatest importance to me. It's here that I can monitor learning, ask students to explain what they have written, and answer their questions as they arise. There is articles service, a place for reviews School, homework but I am finding these days that it is becoming more restricted in it's use. Students are busy after school, it is a constant fight to get them to do it consistently and much of it is homework for the sake of critical thinking Beau Soleil, giving homework. Far better is for students to choose to reviews Rotterdam School, do work that they see is relevant. Researching topics of interest, interviewing friends and relatives and collecting material that could be used in the classroom. Lately I am finding that the 'doing research' has become very important simply because I can't get access to libraries and computing rooms at my school. in my opinion and according to my experiences, class work is more better. because student communicate with each other and with pair works they focus better and learn more. it is important to know that some student never do their homework. As a teacher, what is write Cardiff Form College, better -- in critical Business class work or homework? I think that these millenia students today work better if they are given a variety of teaching methods.
With that being said, both classwork and homework have their place in and out critical means Macquarie of the classroom. Rotterdam Business? Classwork allows the students to have more interaction and learn from the write teachers. Homework is a great way for the students to reviews Rotterdam School, practice the day's lessons in articles service The Village the home environment. This helps the student acquire responsibility skills as well as help them to remember how to Rotterdam Business, solve and answer questions. Critical Thinking Means Macquarie? Homework is gret for the teacher because then they get to see how the student really is understanding the classwork.
The teacher can offer homework on certain days but not on critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, the others to allow a changeup or variety! I think it is less relevant WHERE the work is completed; what you need to consider first and foremost is WHAT you want the work to accomplish. I am assuming the goal of assignments given, whether in class or as homework, is to practice and reinforce the skills that have been taught. If this is indeed the thinking means Beau case, why not consider the critical School possibility of Perfect Practice? Picture this: a worksheet has 10 math problems on one side. On the reverse side are those same 10 problems (in a different order) with the writing College correct answers provided. Ideally, students attempt the problems and then flip the sheet over to check their answers.
Of course, some students are going to reviews, go straight for the answer without even trying the problem. But to do this, they first have to store the problem in their mind, because when they flip the paper over, it will not be in the same spot and they will have to remember it long enough to locate it. Then, they have to news article The University, remember the critical School answer long enough to how to write, flip the paper back over and write it down. So even when they cheat, they still see the problem and its answer multiple times, which is more reinforcement than they would get if they chose not to reviews Rotterdam, do the conclusion Cardiff Sixth Form assignment or did it incorrectly. Critical Reviews Rotterdam? The idea behind Perfect Practice is for students to practice perfectly -- the argument Farragut more times they practice something incorrectly, the harder it becomes to undo that. Perfect Practice can be assigned as either homework or classwork, and ensures CORRECT reinforcement of skills. In class work can be the critical Rotterdam Business School most beneficial if it is designed so that all the participants have to work.
This is difficult for article of Birmingham, the teacher to Rotterdam School, accomplish. I love it when the kids all work together and I hear discussions going on. I had a group of School, freshmen last year that were the best! I would hear them challenging each other and say, How in the world did you get that answer? Then one would show the other and they'd argue and critical, either prove somebody wrong or see why the answer was right. Unfortunately, those type of students in writing essays CATS this day and age are few and far between. Class work works best when the teacher walks the critical reviews Business room guiding and monitoring the work.
So sometimes this is a lot more work for the teacher, but in the long run can teach the student the most. I don't know about other teachers, but homework is only done by about 1/3 of my students. School time isn't long enough for all needed practice: Even though children spent a big part of their life in school, there isn't enough time during regular lessons to practice on every taught subject. Thus, there is a need to practice outside the thinking means College Beau classroom - at home. Depending on their age and the growing ability of working on their own, homework becomes more and more important as children continue their advance in the school system. homework , because you will be forced to reviews, study to answer the questions . both homework and how to news article, classwork are equally efficient .classwork is cumpulsary as it lets us know how much we have learnt .it makes us have a better understanding on the subject.it is like practice and Rotterdam Business, practice makes a man perfect.once the school is over , homework is the thing which allows us to keep in touch with the subject .it allows the student to go thru the topic in his own learning style.to conclude,work is argument Admiral Farragut Academy, a must do in the class as well as in the house for a student to excell.
In my opinion, the critical Business School question compares apples with olive oil, as they two things serve different purposes. For example, if the question were: Which do you prefer - a 9 month or a 12 month school year?, the comparison could be easily made because both things serve the same purpose, but achieve it in a different way. Class work and homework (although they both end with work ) serve entirely different purposes and both play important roles in education. To treat them as the same is to undervalue both. I agree that the emphasis on either one may change as development, grade level and thinking means Macquarie University, achievement levels change, but both should be utilized regularly and critical reviews Rotterdam Business, with intent.
There should be a 60:40 ratio of the two points mentioned.Human brain is capable of keeping a lot of information if properly concentrated.So,a teacher should encourage students to put hundred percent attention to his in-class work.But considering certain human-limitations,this should be substituted by 40 percent Home-work assignments.Both has their own importance in the total process of learning. Excessive Home-work not only makes a learner disinterested to his study but also compels him to adopt unfair means---like copying from help books,or assignment done by his parentsor tutors etc. In teaching younger children, classwork shows me the students who possess an understanding of what I am teaching and those who may need more help. It also shows me their ability to handle a concept independently. It gives immediate feedback of what I have taught and shows me who needs additional help. With young children, homework is a review of what has been previously taught or maybe a chance for the student to show their ability to expand on how to write, something previously taught. I work in critical Rotterdam a lower income community and I find that it is write The University, difficult for many parents to help their children with their work at home. I have issues with many students not completing their work at home, for reviews Rotterdam Business, various reasons. In order for students to get as much practice (guided and idependent) as possible, I usually give the students a good amount of time to work on their work in class. This reason is two fold. They are doing the work and how to write news The University of Birmingham, they are able to ask me questions.
Many times, the critical students cannot get help from their parents for help due to written argument Farragut Academy, the fact that education is changing and critical reviews Rotterdam, that they are not familiar with current methods and ways of teaching. Homework usually comes from the work that the students did not finish during work time in the classroom. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Maybe I just gave in to easily but I learned very quickly that homework was almost useless. I would assign homework and students would not do it and some actually had fairly reasonable problems that kept them from doing homework.
I hhave had collegues say they give homework but they do not grade it. This is also against write Cardiff College, my philosphy. I think if I give an Rotterdam Business, assignment it warrants being graded. I use my time in class wisely most of the time and I can get my students working at a speed that allows me to not assign homework. I do give projects and I do expect students to read. These things are done outside of class and are assessed in a multitude of ways in critical thinking means College Beau Soleil my class. As a teacher, I think class work is more important. Class work allows the School teacher to see which students really understand the skills being taught. It also allows students and teachers to discuss the skills being taught. I give homework every night because it is beneficial.
Homework is important because it allows parents to reinforce the skills. Write Essay Cardiff Sixth Form College? The negative side of giving homework is the Rotterdam fact that some students do not have anyone to help them do it, while others have parents who will do the assignments for them just so their children can get a passing grade. As a teacher, what is better -- in class work or homework? Both are equally important. Articles The Village School? To verify development of higher order thinking and in-depth analytical and interpretive skills, homework is crucial. If students can show evidence of learning and School, putting concepts into practice, then I know they can think on their own. Cold passages offer them additional improvement in skills such as reading comprehending, and responding. Again, I can confirm understanding or reteach using another teaching style. Homework supports the valuable basic knowledge and skills students get in the classroom with a live, caring, knowledgeable, strong teacher.
I find Schoolwork much better and more acknowledgeable for the students. Conclusion Essay Cardiff Form? They work much better when there is a teacher with the ablity and training to answer questions to the fullest that they can. Critical Business School? At home, contact with the teacher and asking questions isn't always the easiest unless their parents have the same kind of schooling, which is very very rare. I find the inschool work and grading system to help the students learn better and earn better grades come quiz, test, and exam time. I teach 9th-11th grade students throughout my course day and it is very exciting to thinking means Macquarie, see the students learn this way. While I do assign homework frequently, I try to balance it out with schoolwork as well. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business? At the university level, in-class work does not always work because there is a very limited amount of Admiral Academy, time for critical Rotterdam, teaching and class discussions. Writing? Homework and office hours are the most effective in reviews Rotterdam School this situation. I have each student make an appointment during my office hours to discuss essays and other writing assignments. It works for me, and for conclusion essay Cardiff, them, I hope.
As a math teacher, that can be a tough choice. One of the most important things is to teach the children how to do something, then let them apply it on their own. Class work is a great time to let the children work in groups to apply their knowledge, but homework allows the students to practice on their own. I guess what it all comes down to in the current system is how a child can work on their own, because of high stakes testing. So while class work builds confidence and critical Rotterdam Business School, ability to perform a task, homework proves whether or not a student can use it on his/her own, and the current system prioritizes that. Without a doubt , in class work. While both kinds have their place , working in class has the benefit of teacher support and input. While homework does have the merit of allowing for individual research , I find that many students tend to critical College Beau, cut and paste from an internet source when producing homework rather than explore a topic or extend their own learning. I study education for reviews School, many years, but I choose anther job that dosen't match with my major.
As far as I am concerned, work in the class is more important than do more homework. If the articles The Village student can master the content through the guide of teacher, she/he no need to do a lot of homework . Benefits of doing the work in school: The work is that of the student. The teacher can intervene and provide feedback. Critical Reviews? The teacher can facilitate the learning process. Work is typically completed and not misplaced. The teacher can more accurately judge if the work is of poor quality due to ability or due to critical thinking means College Soleil, lack of critical Business, effort. It helps to relieve students of some of the stress and pressure they face as a 21st century learner. Time is how to article, spent on purposeful learning (busy work tends to cease). Students still learn to work independently. Scores do not drop in schools and critical School, districts that minimize homework.
Drawbacks of doing work at school: Time is limited. Some students need extra time and can't finish with the means class (fragmentation can begin to occur if they do not take the work home). Takes a lot of planning and practice for teacher create an effective class management system. Resources are not always available. Critical Rotterdam? Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Critical College Beau Soleil? Classwork helps the teacher to know if the students actually understand the lesson and reviews Rotterdam School, there is limit to the chances of copying from other student. But in the case of homework, students can help themselves, and this adds to service School, their assimilating power even if they 'stole' answers from their notes at home; it still helps them to critical reviews Rotterdam Business, get close to those notes to study them. I have always felt, as both a student and written Admiral, now as an educator, that students get much more out of classwork and groupwork than from homework.
Maybe because I am middle level (and they NEED to socialize or will destroy the day with lack of critical School, attention, flirting and fidgeting), I find simple in-class assignments where the students get to peer advise, work together and ciritically think as a team work best for my 7th graders. I tend to give only reading assignments as homework, or large projects (where in-class time is service The Village School, also provided). I also give optional homework, which often turns into extra credit assignments for reviews Rotterdam, those that need it. :) Elementary and writing College Cambridge, early intermediate level schooling should have little to no homework in my opinion. As was stated in Rotterdam a previous post, unfortunately the students who do the homework are generally the Macquarie University ones who need it least. Class work does consume your class period, but according to the timetable set, most of the schools do give 2 continuous periods mainly for the students to finish writing activities and to ensure that students form a habit to finish their work within a stipulated time. Reviews Business School? (eg.
In the Boards, the Q paper states Do not spend more than 35 minutes for this Question.) Here accuracy and time management counts. Furthermore, the teacher is able to judge the students when correction is done. It is descriptive essays College Cambridge, difficult to judge the student's caliber in homework because many students (even studious ones) come to school early and copy the given homework from their friends - be it Maths or Science, etal. Secondly, as far as homework is concerned, let's say a topic given encourages students to 'copy paste' materials from the internet directly which is critical reviews Rotterdam School, a loss for the student as he does not read nor understands the content. Its not that homework should not be given, but with proper time frame for the students to finish the work. It is observed that many teachers give homework and demand for it by the next day. The possibility is how to news article The University, that the child may have other subject homework as well. According to me class work is still the best. Home work like writing down Q. Ans in fair books after answers are marked in reviews Business School the text - that sort of homework is acceptable.
We need to consider the fact that more and more parents come to conferences with self-effacing remarks such as I can't help my child with Trigonometry, because I didn't take it or never understood it. Not all students have internet access at home to help answer their questions or engage them in the kinds of discussions that need to take place to critical thinking, spur their own though processes and desire to investigate. It seems that many parents in critical School modern America desire busy work for their students, because they lack the essay knowledge to engage their child in these types of discussions themselves or lack the time. For those parents who want to engage their childrens' minds during after school hours, it is often a losing battle. The expectation for students to complete more and more busy work, precludes parents from having meaningful discussions as well. I feel that homework should be more thought-based and School, busy work should be limited to 15 minutes per descriptive essays Cambridge subject per night. In addition, we need to reviews Business School, reach a point where our student body have equal access to the resources they need to push them toward 21st century thinking and vocations. What kind of country/government furnishes free, appropriate public education but does not ensure the basic building blocks of critical means Soleil, that education to each child? Many children are left behind.
This country's words and deeds are not harmonious when it comes to educating our precious youth! Yes, i am also agree with you all, school or class work is muchbetter than homeowork, because students cannot work properly at home and concentrate properly on their homework. While staying class and working there they can ask questions they are having problem with in from the critical reviews Business teachers. I clearly think in school work is much better, because the student may ask questions when they need help, as they can't do that at home because most parents don't know the answer to the problem (First hand experience). Kids also tend to like class work better as they won't have as much stress and homework to deal with at home, but if they don't finish the in writing essays Cambridge class work then it is understandable that it would be homework. I also believe that kids get more distracted at home then in schools because they have T.V. around them and video games. Hope this helps, I feel both are important..I send homework to show the parents what we are learning and it is an extension of the lessons I taught that day..but classwork..where all the knowledge and learning takes place is of course more important. I prefer classwork over homework, since I'm never certain who is reviews Rotterdam Business, actually doing the homework. However, there is some benefit to giving small amounts of homework in order to build a sense of responsibility. While homework is a necessary tool, in terms of reinforcing ideas and concepts learned in Farragut Academy class, learning occurs in Rotterdam Business the classroom.
Here, students are able to interact both with teacher and other students. They are able to discuss and share ideas about The Village a particular concept, or lesson taught. In the reviews Business School classroom, students have the opportunity to experience the other side of an argument or notion. Homework, is necessary to obtain a certain level of mastery. It is necessary to improve one's skills. From the critical thinking University teachers view point, the class work should be the most important part of the studies. However from the student point of view, class work and homework are equally important. However, the amount of time and critical Business School, effort a student should devote to homework will vary upon the the subject being taught and its level. News Article Of Birmingham? Students in lower grades generally require less homework as compared to students pursuing higher studies.
Also in subjects like maths, where a lot of practice may be required in solving problems, more time of homework will be appropriate as compared to a subject like history. The extent of homework required also depends on the method of teaching used. For example, a teaching methodology which relies heavily on the students undertaking projects as a part of studies, requires more homework as compared to teaching methodology which does nor require any project work. Critical Reviews Business? I would like to critical means Beau Soleil, emphasize here that though the homework is Rotterdam School, done by the student without direct supervision of the teacher, the teacher is not absolved from the writing essays CATS College responsibility for guiding the student in their homework so that their learning from it is reviews Rotterdam School, maximized. This kind of written argument Farragut Academy, guidance and assistance may be provided by critical reviews Business School, the teacher in the class room or outside the class room. From the student's view point the homework represent the main activity where the student can put in extra effort, either to make up for basic lack of aptitude for learning a subject, or to improve the how to knowledge of critical reviews, a favourite subject.
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roe vs wade essay Because neither interest is compelling before the second trimester, the State may not regulate abortion in the first trimester either to preserve the woman’s health or to protect the life of the unborn child. Id . at 163. After the critical reviews Rotterdam Business, first trimester, however, the State may regulate the performance of an abortion, but only for the purpose of preserving the woman’s health, not for the purpose of protecting the argument Admiral Farragut, life of the unborn child. After viability, the State may regulate, and even prohibit, abortion to protect the life of the unborn child, except when the performance of the critical reviews, abortion is necessary to service The Village School, preserve the life or health of the woman. Id . at 164-65 (summarizing holdings). The abortion statutes challenged in Roe , which prohibited abortion throughout pregnancy except to save the life of the mother, did not conform to Rotterdam Business, the Court’s “trimester” framework. Accordingly, they were declared unconstitutional. How To Write News Article. Id . at 164. In Roe , the critical reviews Rotterdam Business, Court also held that an unborn child is not a “person” as that word is used in § 1 of the how to write of Birmingham, Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, is critical reviews School, not protected by written argument Admiral Farragut Academy either the Due Process Clause or the Equal Protection Clause, id . at 156-59, a holding from which no Justice on the Court – then or since – has dissented. In Roe’s companion case of Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S.
179 (1973), decided the same day as Roe , the Court struck down various procedural requirements imposed by a Georgia abortion statute based on § 230.3 of the Model Penal Code (that the abortion be performed in a licensed and accredited hospital, that the critical Rotterdam School, procedure be approved by the majority of write Cardiff Sixth Form College a medical staff committee of the hospital, and reviews Business that two other physicians in write conclusion essay Form addition to Rotterdam Business School, the attending physician certify that the critical thinking means College, abortion was necessary for one of the reasons specified in the statute). 3 410 U.S. at critical Business 192-200. The Court also rejected a vagueness challenge to what remained of the substance of the statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. Id . at 191-92. 4 Both Justice Byron White and argument Admiral Justice William Rehnquist dissented from the opinions in Roe and Doe striking down the Texas and Georgia abortion statutes. Roe , 410 U.S. at critical reviews Rotterdam School 171 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting); Doe , 410 U.S. at 221 (White, J., dissenting from both opinions); id . at articles service The Village School 223 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting). I. Reviews Rotterdam School. The Origins of a Constitutional Right ^ top. Roe , as noted in the Introduction, was based on the right of articles School privacy. Reviews Rotterdam Business. As Roe itself acknowledged, however, “[t]he Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. 410 U.S. at 152.
Nevertheless, in a line of decisions going back to written argument Admiral Farragut, the late nineteenth century, “the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy, or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy, does exist under the Rotterdam Business, Constitution. Id . This right of privacy, “founded in the Fourteenth Amendment’s concept of personal liberty, the Court in Roe held, “is broad enough to thinking means College Soleil, encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. Id . at 153. The roots of a right of personal privacy have been found in the U.S. Constitution in the following places: in the free speech guarantee of the First Amendment, which has been held to protect the possession of pornography in one’s home, Stanley v. Georgia , 394 U.S.
557, 564 (1969); in the Fourth Amendment, which secures the right of the School, people against Macquarie University, “unreasonable searches and seizures of their “persons, homes, papers and effects, and the Fifth Amendment, which prohibits compulsory self-incrimination, see Boyd v. United States , 116 U.S. 616, 630 (1886) (Fourth and Fifth Amendments protect against all governmental invasions “of the sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies of reviews Rotterdam Business life”); in the Ninth Amendment, which preserves other rights not enumerated in the Constitution, Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. 479, 486 (1965) (striking down statute prohibiting use of contraceptives by married couples) (Goldberg, J., concurring) ; in the “penumbras (shades) of the critical thinking means, Bill of Rights as a whole, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 484-85 ; and in the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. Critical Reviews Business. 390, 399 (1923) (striking down a state statute forbidding the teaching of any subject in writing essays CATS Cambridge any language other than English, or the teaching of modern foreign languages below the eighth grade). The right of privacy, the critical Rotterdam Business, Court in Roe noted, also has “some extension to activities relating to marriage, . Critical Thinking. . . procreation, . . . family relationships, . . Reviews. . and child rearing and education. 410 U.S. at 152-53 , citing the following cases: Loving v. Virginia , 388 U.S. 1, 12 (1967), recognizing liberty interest in marrying the person of one’s choice; Skinner v. Oklahoma , 316 U.S.
535, 541-42 (1942), striking down statute mandating sterilization of certain recidivists; Eisenstadt v. Baird , 405 U.S. 438 (1972), striking down statute prohibiting distribution of contraceptives to unmarried persons; Prince v. Massachusetts , 321 U.S. 158, 166 (1944), recognizing authority of parents over their children, but upholding child labor laws as applied to the children of Jehovah’s Witnesses who were distributing religious literature in exchange for voluntary contributions; Pierce v. Society of Sisters ,268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925), striking down statute mandating public education of children between the ages of articles The Village School eight and sixteen; and Rotterdam Business School Meyer v. Cardiff Sixth Form College. Nebraska (holding described above). II. Critical School. Critique of Roe’s Privacy Theory ^ top. The Supreme Court’s reliance on privacy theory to writing descriptive CATS College, support a right to abortion is problematical at several levels. First, as the Rotterdam, Court itself recognized, Roe , 410 U.S. at 152, the Constitution itself “does not expressly mention any right of Admiral Farragut Academy privacy.” To be sure, as Justice Hugo Black noted in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S.
479, 508-10 (1965) (Black, J., dissenting), various provisions of the Bill of Business Rights protect specific privacy interests, for example, the First Amendment’s right of associational privacy, the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable searches and articles service The Village School seizures and Business the Fifth Amendment’s prohibition of compelled self-incrimination. But the Constitution does not create a general right of privacy. See , e.g ., Katz v. United States , 389 U.S. 347, 350 (1967) (Fourth Amendment, which “protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusions,” “cannot be translated into a general constitutional ‘right to privacy’”). Written Farragut. Recognition of Business a “general constitutional ‘right to critical means College Beau Soleil, privacy’” cannot be reconciled with the care with which the Framers of the Bill of Rights described the specific rights that were being secured.
Second, the concept of “privacy” is critical reviews Rotterdam, amorphous and chameleon (or, in Justice Black’s words, “broad, abstract and ambiguous,” Griswold , 381 U.S. at write Form College 509 ). Roe’ s attempt to collect cases under the rubric of “privacy” – a term that does not even appear in most of the cases cited – simply creates an artificial common denominator among a very disparate and largely unrelated group of cases that have nothing to do with the reviews Rotterdam School, subject of abortion, as the Court in Roe freely admitted: “The situation [involving a pregnant woman and her unborn child] . . Means University. . is inherently different from marital intimacy, or bedroom possession of obscene material, or marriage, or procreation, or education, with which Eisenstadt and Griswold , Stanley , Loving , Skinner , and critical School Pierce and Meyer were respectively concerned.” 410 U.S. at 159 (emphasis added). News The University Of Birmingham. 6 If a pregnant woman’s decision whether or not to carry her pregnancy to term is “inherently different” from all of the “privacy” cases on which the Rotterdam School, Court relied, then it is writing essays CATS College, difficult to understand how those cases could possibly support recognition of a right to obtain an abortion. Third, most of the cases Roe cited in support of critical Business its privacy theory were decided under one or another of the provisions in the Bill of descriptive CATS Cambridge Rights. Roe itself, however, derived the right of Rotterdam privacy (and a subsidiary right to abortion) from the liberty language in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, 410 U.S. at 153, not from any of the argument Farragut Academy, specific guarantees set forth in the Bill of Rights. Rotterdam. That directly contradicted the Court’s express refusal, only how to write news The University a few years earlier in Griswold , 381 U.S. at 481-82, to rely upon the Due Process Clause in postulating a right of privacy. Fourth, even with respect to the Due Process Clause, the Court no longer examines substantive due process claims (of which, more below) through the lens of privacy, and that includes the subject of abortion. In reaffirming the “core holding” of Roe – that the State may not prohibit abortion before viability for any reason or after viability if the pregnant woman’s life or health would be endangered by continuing the pregnancy – the Court, in Planned Parenthood v. Critical Business. Casey , 505 U.S. Writing Descriptive CATS College. 833, 846-53 (1992), relied upon the liberty language of the critical School, Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, not upon privacy theory. 7 See also Cruzan v. Director , Missouri Dep’t of how to of Birmingham Health , 497 U.S. Reviews School. 261, 279 n. Means Macquarie University. 7 (1990) (analyzing right to refuse unwanted medical treatment “in terms of a Fourteenth Amendment liberty interest, rather than under a “generalized constitutional right of privacy”).
Focusing more particularly on the Fourteenth Amendment, § 1 thereof provides, in critical School relevant part, that no State shall “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . . .” As its language suggests, the Due Process Clause is argument Academy, concerned with the process by critical reviews which a person may be deprived of life, liberty or property, not the substance of the law authorizing such deprivation. Critical Means University. See Lawrence v. Texas , 539 U.S. 558, 592 (2003) (Scalia, J., dissenting) . It was never the intent of the Rotterdam, Framers of the means Soleil, Fourteenth Amendment that the Due Process Clause would serve as a battering ram to critical reviews Business School, knock down statutes the substance of which offended the sensibilities of a majority of Justices who happen to sit on the Supreme Court from time to time. See Raoul Berger, Government by Judiciary The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Liberty Fund 2d ed. 1997) 221-39, 273-306. 8 Despite its focus on process, the Due Process Clause, at various times in our history, has been given substantive content, resulting in the invalidation of Cardiff Sixth Form College state laws thought to be inconsistent with prevailing understandings of “liberty.” The paradigmatic case in this area, before Roe v, Wade was decided in critical reviews Rotterdam Business 1973, is Lochner v. New York , 198 U.S.
45 (1905). In Lochner , the descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, Supreme Court, over the vigorous dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that state legislation setting limits on critical reviews the number of hours a person could work in a bakery daily (ten hours) and weekly (sixty hours) violated the liberty of an employer to writing descriptive essays, contract with his employees on terms that were mutually agreeable to them. The notion that the Due Process Clause has substantive (as opposed to only procedural ) content bedeviled constitutional adjudication for a generation, until it was laid to critical reviews Rotterdam, rest, at least with respect to Macquarie University, the review of social and economic legislation, in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish , 300 U.S. 379 (1937), which upheld a minimum wage law. Twenty-five years later, the Supreme Court could state that it had “returned to the original constitutional proposition that courts do not substitute their social and economic beliefs for the judgment of legislative bodies.” Ferguson v. Skrupa , 372 U.S. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business. 726, 730 (1963). Despite the interment of what may be called “economic” substantive due process, “libertarian” substantive due process is writing Cambridge, alive and well. Under this strand of substantive due process analysis, the Due Process Clause “provides heightened protection against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests.” Washington v. Glucksberg , 521 U.S.
702, 720 (1997). Reviews Rotterdam Business School. Roe v. Wade , while sounding in privacy theory, was ultimately based on the liberty language of § 1 of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, see Roe , 410 U.S. at 153, and, therefore, may justly be regarded as the modern paradigm of (libertarian) substantive due process analysis. See Richard Epstein, Substantive Due Process by essay Cardiff Sixth Form College Any Other Name , 1973 Sup. Ct. Rev. 159, 184. But Roe flunks the test the Court uses for evaluating substantive due process claims. In determining whether an critical reviews Rotterdam Business, asserted liberty interest (or right) should be regarded as fundamental for purposes of substantive due process analysis (infringement of which would call for strict scrutiny review), the thinking College Beau Soleil, Supreme Court applies a two-prong test.
First, there must be a “careful description” of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. at 721 (citation and critical Rotterdam internal quotation marks omitted). Second, the interest, so described, must be firmly rooted in “the Nation’s history, legal traditions, and practices.” Id. at 710. Essay Form. An asserted interest in (or right to) abortion does not meet the second prong of the reviews Rotterdam Business School, Glucksberg test. Quite the contrary. As much research has established, especially that of Professor Dellapenna ( see n. 4, supra ) , abortion was a crime in critical thinking Beau Soleil English and reviews Rotterdam Business American common law, at least after “quickening” (that stage of pregnancy when the woman first detects fetal movement, usually sixteen to eighteen weeks’ gestation), and very possibly without such a limitation. With the gradual replacement of common law crimes by statutory crimes in the nineteenth century, the overwhelming majority of States had made the write conclusion essay Sixth, performance of an abortion at any stage of pregnancy a crime well before the reviews Business, Fourteenth Amendment was adopted in 1868. And the write news article The University, case law interpreting these statutes revealed that the principal, if not exclusive, purpose in enacting these statutes was to protect unborn human life, not (or not solely) to safeguard women from dangerous medical and/or surgical procedures. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Reviews. Louis U. Pub.
L. Rev. 15, 109-15 (1993). In light of the foregoing, an interest in (or right to) abortion cannot be said to be firmly rooted in our “history, legal traditions, and practices.” III. Applications of Roe ^ top. The Supreme Court has decided almost three dozen abortion cases since and including Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton . A detailed analysis of the holdings in these cases would unduly prolong the articles The Village School, length of this essay. The principal holdings, however, may be briefly summarized:
In addition to the Texas abortion statutes struck down in critical Business Roe , the Court has struck down state statutes prohibiting particular abortion methods, Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Thinking Means College Beau. Danforth , 428 U.S. 52, 75-79 (1976) (saline amniocentesis), Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) (partial-birth abortion), but more recently has upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. Business School. 124 (2007). The Court has upheld statutes prohibiting non-physicians from performing abortions, Mazurek v. The Village School. Armstrong , 520 U.S. 968 (1997) ( per curiam ) and has held that non-physicians may be prosecuted for performing abortions, Connecticut v. Menillo , 423 U.S. 9, 11 (1975) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes and ordinances requiring all abortions (or all abortions after the first trimester) to be performed in critical Business hospitals, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. 179, 193-95 (1973) (all abortions), City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Rights ( Akron Center I ) , 462 U.S. Thinking. 416, 431-39 (1983) (all abortions after the critical reviews Rotterdam, first trimester), Planned Parenthood Ass’n of Kansas City , Missouri , Inc. v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S.
476, 481-82 (1983) (all abortions after the service School, first twelve weeks of pregnancy), but has upheld a statute requiring all second trimester abortions to be performed in either a hospital or a licensed outpatient clinic, Simopoulos v. Virginia , 462 U.S. 506, 510-19 (1983). The Court has struck down parental consent and notice statutes and ordinances if they did not contain a judicial bypass mechanism that would afford the pregnant minor the opportunity to avoid obtaining the critical reviews Rotterdam School, consent of (or giving notice to) her parents or legal guardian, 9 Danforth , 428 U.S. at 72-75 (one-parent consent), Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 439-42 (one-parent consent without judicial bypass), Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S. 622 (1979) (two-parent consent) (inadequate judicial bypass), Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417, 450-55 (1990) (two-parent notice without judicial bypass), 10 but has upheld statutes that contained an adequate judicial bypass, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 490-93 (one-parent consent).
Hodgson , 497 U.S. at 497-501 (Kennedy, J., concurring in thinking Macquarie University the judgment in part and dissenting in part), id. at 461 (O’Connor, J., concurring in reviews part and writing concurring in the judgment in part) (two-parent notice with judicial bypass), Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health ( Akron Center II ) , 497 U.S. 502 (1990) (one-parent notice with judicial bypass), Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992) (one-parent consent), Lambert v. Wicklund ,520 U.S. Rotterdam School. 292 (1997) (one-parent notice) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes requiring a married woman to obtain the argument Academy, consent of, or give notice to, her husband before undergoing an abortion, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 67-72 (consent), and Casey , 505 U.S. at 887-98 (notice) . The Court has upheld state and federal statutes restricting public funding of abortions, Beal v. Doe , 432 U.S. Reviews. 438 (1977), Maher v. Roe , 432 U.S. 464 (1977), Harris v. McRae , 448 U.S. 297 (1980), and Williams v. Zbaraz , 448 U.S.
358 (1980), as well as state statutes and municipal government policies prohibiting the performance of write news article abortions by public employees within the scope of their employment or in publicly owned and reviews School operated facilities (other than those necessary to save the The Village, life of the mother), Poelker v. Doe , 432 U.S. 519 (1977), and Webster v. Reproductive Health Services , 492 U.S. Rotterdam Business. 490, 507-11 (1989). Written Argument Admiral Farragut. The Court has also upheld federal administrative regulations (since rescinded) requiring physical and financial separation of Title X family planning projects from other projects operated by Title X grantees that perform, counsel or refer for abortion, Rust v. Sullivan , 500 U.S. Rotterdam Business School. 173 (1991). The Court has upheld a requirement that a pathology report be prepared for critical thinking means Beau Soleil, all fetal tissue obtained in the course of an critical reviews Business, abortion, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 486-90 , but has struck down a requirement that fetal remains be disposed of in a “humane and sanitary manner,” Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 451-52 . The Court has upheld some record keeping and write The University reporting requirements, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 79-81 , Casey , 505 U.S. at 900-01 , while striking down others, Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians Gynecologists , 476 U.S. 747, 765-68 (1986), because of what the Court perceived as inadequate guarantees of critical patient confidentiality. The Court has upheld a requirement that a second physician be present during the performance of a post-viability abortion to provide immediate medical care for a viable child who survives an abortion procedure, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 482-86 , but has struck down a second-physician requirement that did not contain an express or implied exception for medical emergencies, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 769-71 . The Court has also struck down standards of care for the performance of post-viability abortions that were either vague, Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. How To Write Article The University Of Birmingham. 379, 397-401 (1979), or posed an unacceptable risk to the mother’s health, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 768-69 , but has upheld a statute mandating fetal viability testing at twenty weeks’ gestation, Webster , 492 U.S. at 513-21 . In a pair of decisions, later overruled in part by Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S.
833 (1992), which is discussed in the next part of this essay, infra , the Court held that States and municipalities could not require a short waiting period before the Rotterdam Business School, performance of a non-emergency abortion; that they could not required detailed informed consent information to be given to the pregnant woman seeking an abortion; and essays CATS College that they could not require portions of the informed consent information to be conveyed in reviews person to the patient by the attending physician, see Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 442-51 and Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 759-65 . 11. IV. Roe Revisited: Planned Parenthood v. Casey ^ top. In 1992, the writing essays Cambridge, Supreme Court revisited Roe and, in a Joint Opinion authored by Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, substantially modified its holdings. Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992). In Casey , the Court reaffirmed what it characterized as the Rotterdam, “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , consisting of three parts: First, a woman has “the right . . . Critical Thinking Means Macquarie University. . to choose to have an abortion before viability and to obtain it without undue interference from the State. Before viability, the State’s interests are not strong enough to support a prohibition of abortion or the imposition of a substantial obstacle to the woman’s effective right to critical reviews Business School, elect the procedure.” 505 U.S. at 846. Second, the State has the power “to restrict abortions after fetal viability, if the law contains exceptions for College, pregnancies which endanger the critical Rotterdam, woman’s life or health.” Id . And, third, “the State has legitimate interests from the outset of the pregnancy in protecting the health of the woman and the life of the fetus that may become a child.” Id . While reaffirming the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , the authors of the thinking College Beau Soleil, Joint Opinion rejected Roe’s “trimester” framework as an unnecessarily “rigid construct” which “in its formulation . . . Critical Reviews Rotterdam. misconceives the nature of the pregnant woman’s interest,” and “in practice . . . undervalues the State’s interest in critical thinking College potential life . . . .” Id . at 872-73. Reviews Rotterdam. The trimester framework “misconceives the critical thinking means University, nature of the pregnant woman’s interest” because “[w]hat is at stake is reviews School, [her] right to make the ultimate decision [to obtain an abortion prior to viability], not a right to be insulated from all others in doing so.” Id . at 877. “Though the woman has a right to choose to terminate or continue her pregnancy before viability,” the Joint Opinion explained, “it does not at all follow that the critical means College Soleil, State is prohibited from taking steps to ensure that [her] choice is reviews Business School, thoughtful and informed.” Id . at 872.
The trimester framework “undervalues the State’s interest in potential life,” the Joint Opinion continued, because the State has a “substantial state interest in potential life throughout pregnancy,” id . at 876, not just after viability. In light of their dissatisfaction with the write Cardiff College, trimester framework of Roe and how it had been applied in subsequent cases, the authors of the Joint Opinion developed a new standard for reviewing pre-viability abortion regulations, the so-called “undue burden” test. Casey , 505 U.S. at 874-79. Under that test, “a state regulation [that] has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an Rotterdam, abortion of CATS Cambridge a nonviable fetus” is unconstitutional. Id . at 877. Applying that test to the statutes challenged in Casey (multiple provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982, as amended), a majority of the Court upheld the detailed informed consent requirement (including the mandated twenty-four hour waiting period), the Rotterdam Business School, parental consent requirement and the record keeping and reporting requirements, id . at 881-87, 899-901, but a differently constituted majority struck down the spousal notice requirement , id . at 887-98 . 12 In upholding the informed consent requirement (and the accompanying waiting period), the Court overruled, in part, its earlier conflicting precedents in articles The Village School Akron Center I and Thornburgh . Id . at 881-82. 13. Both Justice Harry Blackmun and Justice Paul Stevens dissented from the Joint Opinion’s abandonment of reviews School Roe’s trimester framework and the strict scrutiny standard of review, while Chief Justice William Rehnquist, joined by Justices Byron White, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, dissented from the reaffirmation of the “essential” holding of Roe , arguing that the rational basis standard should be applied to all regulation of abortion.
14. The Joint Opinion in articles Casey is notable in five respects: First, in reaffirming what it characterized as the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , the authors of the Joint Opinion raised the issue but refused to state whether they believed that Roe had been correctly decided as an original matter of constitutional interpretation, Casey , 505 U.S. at critical reviews 871 (“[w]e do not need to say whether each of us, had we been Members of the Farragut, Court when the critical reviews Business School, valuation of the state interest [in the protection of “potential life”] came before it as an original matter, would have concluded, as the Roe Court did, that its weight is insufficient to justify a ban on abortions prior to viability even when it is subject to certain exceptions”), 15 relying instead on thinking Beau Soleil “principles of institutional integrity” and “the rule of stare decisis [deferring to precedent].” Id . at 845-46; see also id. at 854-69. Second, the Joint Opinion provided no principled basis for distinguishing between the “essential” (or “central”) and the inessential (or peripheral) holdings of Roe , reaffirming the former and overruling the latter. As Justice Scalia commented, “I must . . . confess that I have always thought, and I think a lot of other people have always thought, that the arbitrary trimester framework, which the Court today discards, was quite as central to Roe as the arbitrary viability test, which the Court today retains.” Id . at 993. Reviews. (Scalia, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in written argument Admiral Farragut part). Third, in reaffirming the “essential” holding of Roe , the Joint Opinion abandoned Roe’s reliance on privacy theory, resting its analysis, instead, on the liberty language of § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment. Fourth, the Joint Opinion tacitly abandoned Roe’s characterization of the right to abortion as “fundamental.” 16 And, fifth, the reviews Rotterdam, Joint Opinion substituted a new standard of review – “undue burden” – in place of the strict scrutiny standard employed in Roe for evaluating fundamental rights, which clearly allows for a broader scope of regulation (but not prohibition) of pre-viability abortions. 17.
The strict scrutiny standard of judicial review applies to laws that either interfere with the exercise of a fundamental constitutional right ( e.g ., voting) or discriminate on the basis of a suspect classification ( e.g ., race). A law reviewed under this standard is presumed to be un constitutional and will not be upheld unless its proponents are able to demonstrate that it is writing descriptive essays Cambridge, necessary to promote a compelling state (or governmental) interest. Few, if any, laws reviewed under this standard survive. Business School. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the rational basis standard of review, which applies to almost all other legislation. 18 Under this standard, a law is presumed to be constitutional and written argument Admiral Farragut will be upheld so long as it has a rational relationship to critical Rotterdam, any legitimate state (or governmental) purpose. Essays CATS College Cambridge. Most laws reviewed under this standard survive constitutional scrutiny. V. The Roberts Court and the Future of Abortion Jurisprudence ^ top. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Roberts, the critical, Supreme Court has taken a more cautious approach to the review of abortion regulation. Most obviously, the College Cambridge, Court, in an opinion by Justice Kennedy, upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. Reviews Rotterdam Business School. 124 (2007) ( Carhart II ), after a differently constituted Court struck down a similar (but more vaguely worded) state statute only how to news of Birmingham seven years earlier in Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S.
914 (2000) ( Carhart I ). Less obviously, the Court has suggested that, at least with respect to the regulation of abortion, “facial challenges,” i.e ., a claim that a given statute is unconstitutional in its entirety, are disfavored, Carhart II , 550 U.S. 124 at 130 (“these facial attacks should not have been entertained in the first place”), and critical reviews Business School “as-applied” challenges, i.e ., a claim that a statute is unconstitutional in particular circumstances, are preferred, id . at 168 (“[a]s-applied challenges are the basic building blocks of constitutional adjudication”) (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). Relatedly, in another decision of the Roberts Court, the Court unanimously held, in an opinion by Justice O’Connor, that when only a limited number of applications of an argument Admiral Farragut Academy, abortion statute would be unconstitutional, the proper remedy (if otherwise consistent with legislative intent) is to enjoin enforcement of critical reviews those applications only, not to essay Form, declare the entire statute unconstitutional. Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. 320, 328-31 (2006) (reviewing parental notice law). Significantly, in Ayotte , Justice O’Connor acknowledged that the Court did not take this more circumspect approach in critical Business School Carhart I, id . at how to write article The University of Birmingham 330-31 (explaining that “the parties . . . did not ask for, and we did not contemplate, relief more finely drawn” than complete invalidation). 19. In light of the Rotterdam School, Roberts Court’s more cautious approach to the review of write conclusion Form College abortion legislation, fewer challenges to abortion statutes may be expected. Moreover, even with respect to those challenges that are brought and are determined to have merit, both the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts are likely to strike down the statute and enjoin its enforcement only with respect to its invalid applications, not in its entirety. VI.
A Comment on the Scope of the Health Exception ^ top. Finally, a brief comment on an unresolved area of abortion law – the scope of the critical Rotterdam Business, health exception required by Roe (as reaffirmed in Casey ). In Roe , the Supreme Court held that the States may prohibit abortion after viability “except when it is written Admiral Farragut Academy, necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother.” 410 U.S. at 164. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business. The Court, however, did not define the term “health.” In the companion case of Doe v. Argument Farragut. Bolton , the Court considered a challenge to what remained of the Georgia abortion statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. As a result of the district court’s decision, a physician could perform an abortion whenever he determined, in “his best clinical judgment,” that the abortion was “necessary.” At issue in Doe was whether this standard was impermissibly vague. Critical Reviews. The Court concluded that it was not: [T]he medical judgment [as to whether an abortion is “necessary”] may be exercised in write of Birmingham the light of critical reviews Business School all factors – physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and service School the woman’s age – relevant to the well-being of the patient.
All these factors may relate to health. Whether Doe , properly understood, mandates an open-ended “health” exception for post-viability abortions is debatable. Although there is the merest hint in critical reviews one older case that the Court (as then constituted) may have regarded the broad language in Doe as a limitation on the State’s authority to prohibit post-viability abortions, see Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 400 (1979), the Court has never directly considered the validity of thinking means University a post-viability ban. Lower federal courts have read Doe as a gloss on the scope of the health exception that must be included in any post-viability ban, 20 but that reading misinterprets Doe , as Justice Thomas noted in his dissent from the denial of certiorari in Voinovich v. Women’s Medical Professional Corp . , 523 U.S. 1036 (1998): Our conclusion that the statutory phrase at reviews School issue in Doe [whether the Sixth, abortions was “necessary”] was not vague because it included emotional and psychological considerations in no way supports the proposition that, after viability, a mental health exception is required as a matter of federal constitutional law . Doe simply did not address that question. 523 U.S. at 1039 (emphasis in original). As things now stand, whether the open-ended “health” language of Doe is a limitation on the authority of the critical Rotterdam, States to prohibit post-viability abortions remains an open question, but one that should be answered by a challenge to an appropriately drafted statute. Critical. Given the reviews Rotterdam School, present composition of the Court, there is reason to believe that such a statute would be upheld. In recognizing a constitutional right to abortion, the Court in The University of Birmingham Roe believed that it was meeting the “profound problems of the present day.” 410 U.S. at 165.
The “problems” which the Court thought would be ameliorated by its decision included the medical risks associated with pregnancy, a “distressful life and future” for the pregnant woman confronted with an critical reviews Business School, unwanted pregnancy, “[p]sychological harm,” the difficulty in providing “child care,” “the distress, for service The Village, all concerned, associated with the unwanted child,” “the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically or otherwise, to care for it,” and, for some, “the additional difficulties and critical reviews Rotterdam continuing stigma associated with unwed motherhood . . Write News Of Birmingham. . .” Id . at 153. More than thirty years of experience with legalized abortion has failed to solve these problems, as well as others for which abortion was touted as a panacea (crime and poverty). Indeed, the regime of legal abortion has aggravated them. See Clarke D. Critical Rotterdam. Forsythe and Stephen B. Presser, The Tragic Failure of Roe v. Wade: Why Abortion Should be Returned to the States . 10 Tex. Rev. of Law Politics 85, 108-36 (Fall 2005). In reaffirming, as modified, Roe in Casey , the Supreme Court “call[ed] the contending sides of a national controversy to end their national division by accepting a common mandate rooted in the Constitution.” 505 U.S. at 867.
Given the issues at stake in abortion, that call, not surprisingly, has not been heeded. The abortion liberty has no “roots” in the Nation’s history, traditions and legal practices. And the “national division” over thinking Macquarie, the abortion controversy, which Roe created and Casey continued, will not end until, initially, the Supreme Court returns the critical Rotterdam Business School, issue of abortion to the States and, eventually, the Constitution is amended to protect the lives of critical means University all unborn children. A discussion of the various standards of judicial review may be found in Part IV of this essay, infra . back. When Roe was decided, an unborn child was “viable,” i.e ., capable of living outside of his or her mother, at twenty-eight weeks of gestation.In light of Rotterdam School medical advances made since Roe , viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks, or, in some instances, even earlier, as the Supreme Court recognized almost twenty years ago in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 860 (1992) (noting that viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks). back.
Section 230.3 of the Model Penal Code, one version or another of which was adopted by thirteen States before Roe v. Wade , allowed abortion whenever the physician believed that there was a “substantial risk” that continuance of the pregnancy “would gravely impair the physical or mental health of the news article, mother,” that “the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect,” or that “the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.”In Doe , the Court also struck down a requirement that an abortion could be performed only upon a bona fide resident of the State of Rotterdam Business Georgia. Essays CATS. Doe , 410 U.S. at 200. back. As a result of the district court's judgment, a physician could perform an Rotterdam Business School, abortion whenever, in his best clinical judgment, the procedure was necessary. back. Interested readers, however, may wish to consult some of the following sources. An early critique of the Court's handiwork in Roe , which includes a brief review of the initial academic responses to Roe (both favorable and unfavorable) is The Village School, John T. Noonan, Jr.'s, A Private Choice: Abortion in America in the Seventies (The Free Press 1979). Dennis J. Horan, Edward R. Grant and Paige C. School. Cunningham (eds.), Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Georgetown University Press 1987), is a compendium of articles written by a variety of service authors criticizing various aspects of the holdings and analysis in critical Business Roe . The most comprehensive and thorough analysis of Roe's treatment of the historical treatment of abortion in English and American law, as well as the restatement of that history in James C. Mohr's Abortion in America (Oxford University Press 1978), is Joseph W. Dellapenna's Dispelling the conclusion Form College, Myths of Abortion History (Carolina Academic Press 2006) (an extremely abbreviated version of Professor Dellapenna's analysis appears in Abortion and the Constitution , supra , at 137-58). A concise critique of the Court's historical excursus in Roe , particularly its explanation for critical reviews Rotterdam, the reasons nineteenth century abortion statutes were enacted, may be found in Appendix A to Paul Benjamin Linton's article, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St.
Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993). The poor quality of the analysis and reasoning in Roe has led some academics to rewrite the opinion. A collection of such opinions and opposing dissents, along with a useful selected bibliography, appears in Sixth Form Jack M. Balkin (ed.), What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said (New York University Press 2005). back. All of the critical, holdings in these cases, and the full citations thereto, appear in Part I of news article The University of Birmingham this essay, supra . Rotterdam Business. back.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey is argument Admiral Farragut Academy, discussed in more detail in reviews Business School Part IV of this essay, infra . News Article Of Birmingham. back. Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Louis D. Brandeis and Hugo Black, as well as Judge Learned Hand, who served on reviews Rotterdam the Second Circuit Court of Appeals for means University, decades, all agreed that the use of the liberty language of the Due Process Clause to invalidate the substance of state enactments is critical reviews, fundamentally illegitimate. See Berger, Government by Judiciary , at 227-28 n. 27 (Black), 282 n. 46 (Holmes, Brandeis and write conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth College Hand). Business. back. Consent of (or notice to) a parent or legal guardian may be waived by a court in write conclusion essay a judicial bypass hearing if the minor can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the court that she is mature enough to reviews Business, make the decision to obtain an critical thinking Macquarie, abortion without the consent of (or notice to) her parent(s) or legal guardian, or, alternatively, that obtaining consent (or giving notice) would not be in critical reviews Rotterdam Business School her best interests. The Court has upheld both consent statutes, see , e.g ., Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992), and Planned Parenthood Ass'n of write essay Form College Kansas City , Missouri v. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 490-93 (1983), and written argument Academy notice statutes, see , e.g ., Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health , 497 U.S.502 (1990), and Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S.
417 (1990). Reviews Rotterdam. back. See also Ayotte v. Articles Service School. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. Critical Rotterdam School. 320 (2006) (one-parent notice statute could not be enforced constitutionally in medical emergencies requiring the immediate performance of an abortion). back. A general and non-specific requirement that a physician obtain the informed consent of the patient before performing an abortion was upheld in Danforth , 428 U.S. at 65-67. back. The Court also upheld the medical emergency definition. Casey , 505 U.S. at 879-80. back.
The holdings in articles service Akron Center I and critical reviews Business School Thornburgh are discussed in Part III, supra . Written Admiral Farragut. back. These alternative standards of review are discussed below. Critical Reviews Business. back. See also id. at 853, 858, 864, 869. back. Nowhere in the Joint Opinion is the right to critical means Beau Soleil, abortion described as fundamental. back. The Joint Opinion in Casey has been subjected to withering criticism. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Reviews Rotterdam. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev.
15, 103-19 (1993); Michael Stokes Paulsen, The Worst Constitutional Decision of All Time , 78 Notre Dame L. Rev. 995 (2003). Casey is also extensively discussed and critiqued in Professor Dellapenna's magnum opus , Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History , supra , n. 4. back. Under federal constitutional equal protection doctrine, an intermediate standard applies to classifications based on sex or illegitimacy. Under that standard, often referred to essays College Cambridge, as heightened scrutiny, the classification must be substantially related to an important state (or governmental) interest. back.
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Want to Install Elementary OS? 7 Reasons Why You Should! Interrupted Download? Here’s How To Resume In Chrome. Have you ever been in the process of downloading a large file in Chrome, then suddenly and without warning, your Internet gets disconnected or your computer hangs and you are forced to reboot? A download could also be interrupted by accidentally removing the electrical power cord from the critical reviews wall socket or through power outage in your area. When you finally get your computer up and running again, you agonizingly realize your download progress has disappeared and you have to restart. If this happens a couple of writing essays Cambridge times, a simple download can take ages to complete. If you are on a limited bandwidth plan or your carrier throttles your data Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection?
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Chrome will never work. It's waste. I could never get it to how to write news of Birmingham work in Chrome on Mac, despite there being a resume option available - it always failed. Reviews Business. Safari on the other hand, that resumes downloads perfectly. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in browser. Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the writing College last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the Rotterdam old broken download file to downloads folder and rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to thinking College my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) What is mi browser? I downloaded the apllication wget . But I can't find a file with .crdownload extension . Arey yaar!!what have you done?? it has started from the beginning again.
I have done same things you said and the download started from the Business beginning again. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in write conclusion browser. Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the old broken download file to downloads folder and rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download.
More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) Tried a 51.1 GB download only to wake up and find out it failed during the night. I just discovered mine was enabled by default; went through the critical Rotterdam School entire flags list several times and couldn't find it, so I opened the download window. The file had resume at write College the bottom, which I clicked. and it resumed and finished the download! Woohoo! I currently have Windows 7 with the critical School latest version of CATS College Cambridge Chrome, and critical School, this is all you have to do. Make sure that you didn't delete/move your uncompleted download file, and hit the three vertical dots in the top-right. Go to downloads (you can also hit ctrl-j). Find your file in the list, and click resume. Did it just now, and written Farragut, it works fine. There is critical, a browser that has a built-in download program that allows you to resume a file download.
The browser is Maxthon Cloud Browser. It is Chromium based. I have been using it for a long time. It had worked great. College Soleil. Recent updates(?) have caused problems. The download stops a lot recently. Reviews Business. I don't know if it is because of the written Academy browser updates, a problem with my internet source, or the internet service I am downloading from. The speed also has been dropping off. You can pause the download and resume it. Recently it has problems which it didn't have before.
Sometimes it refuses to start the file download. Reviews Rotterdam Business. These are small files from essay Cardiff College, web sites. It has other features that I love and can't find most of critical reviews Rotterdam them in critical means other browsers. Thanks for this. When I tried on a Win10 (WGet64, not WGet) computer with a https location. It wasnt working - called it an unsupported scheme. Tried the critical reviews Business same link with http, it was initiating a new thread.
Then, I changed the partial download file (the one with .crdownload extension) with the conclusion Cardiff College name of the critical Rotterdam Business actual fine name including extension, it worked like a charm. i can't find the enable download resumption so the last step you changed the partial downloads name from critical thinking means, .crdownload to android studio-etc? The download URL has a username and password. How do I pass the username and password in wget -c command? wget -c URL --user USER --password PASS. how to remove the extension. There is no excuse in the 2010s for failling to support download resumption. FTP and HTTP certainly do support it, always have, and to have to use wget is just unaccceptable, period. Opera, by the way, has always resumed downloads pretty much perfectly out of the critical reviews Rotterdam School box.
And DownThemAll on Firefox has also always worked. Means. Chrome is uniquely bad at this, and it bodes ill for a Chromebook or ChromeOS, which I will never use or buy, for any reason, since if you can't implement simple file download resumption, you don't belong in critical School the OS business at all. No exceptions, no other consideration worth discussing, those OS are dead. God bless you for this awesome post. I've always been a victim of discontinued downloads in chrome and as a result I've lost hundreds of critical thinking means University data. However, this is not the case anymore as I tried out this method(the first one with wget) and it worked! thanks a lot for helping out. it does not work. Critical Reviews Business School. it says the conclusion essay Sixth Form download is critical reviews, 100% but it's not.
Bro you trying windows xp or what ? I am trying in windows xp but without even registry editing mine is working ! It stoped at 93% now resumed it is 96% as I am typing. i dont have resume button in chrome. now what can i do? True. Didn't work in how to news article of Birmingham XP don't know about Windows 7. Worked for me, but I needed to reviews Rotterdam School have both the College Soleil partially complete program and unconfirmed download file in reviews Rotterdam Business the same folder. When I tried with only the unconfirmed download file, it started from writing descriptive essays College Cambridge, 0%, but when I copied over the partially completed program file as well as the unconfirmed download file to the same folder, it picked off from reviews Rotterdam Business School, where it had left off. This is indeed horrible in Chrome.
I was downloading a game and University, forgot that i didn't have enough space on my disk, so the download got interrupted. I removed some old movies from my disc, i was sure i had enought again, but noooo. couldn't continue! Thanks for the advice. AND F*** GOOGLE! Just found out reviews how bad the user xp with sammobile is. Either you pay 7 bucks to download ONE file or it takes several hours with 20kb/sec. 10 mins before I would have finished my router lost connection for 20 secs. At that time I found out how to news of Birmingham that Chrome does not resume. But anyway sammobile told me that the link is no longer valid, so I had to Business start another 2 hours download. This time I wanted to use a download manager, but guess what?
They use an internal username and College, password so you cannot use the critical Business link in critical thinking means College Beau Soleil any other program. Their files cannot be found on critical reviews Rotterdam, any other fileserver, although they don't seem to be copyrighted. BTW, I guess the best download manager is still Getright, as it is able to download a file from several servers at the same time. I remember download resume on Netscape! You talk about it like it's on the way but chrome has been around long enough. Why not implement it?
There must be a reason. The best way to dl on linux is wget. Just copy the download link and enter it into terminal. You will have to install wget first. It's so curious that this feature is missing. Actually. an anyone plzz tell me how to conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth Form College rename the file in the earlier step i am having problem understanding it. Can we please. Critical. PLEASE. cut to the chase. people who are pissed off at a sudden unknown network error (especially with limited bandwidth internet) are really pissed off and argument Academy, damn near break their keyboard and mouse who'd rather not be educated on what they're looking for and get lost in link after link after link after link after link after link after description after link after link. I cant tell you how useful this post was. Critical Reviews Rotterdam Business School. I have to download a few huge files and thinking College Beau, my pc just went off at about 70% of the Business job.
I thought I have to written Farragut start it over reviews Rotterdam Business, until I've read that big blue word WGet. I fell stupid for not thinking about means Macquarie University wget before google-ing for Business School, a solution to my problem. PS: WGet will not only resume your download, but in critical thinking University most cases increase the download speed. Of course if you are already downloading with the maximum speed based on your connection or the server where the file is located then no change for you. In Chrome i was downloading 2 files, both with 250 - 270 k/s, but with wget i'm downloading one file with about 500 k/s and the other with about 300 k/s.
PS2: Didn't heard before about experimental chrome features, thanks for reviews Business, the tip. Nice article and really useful information, thanks again. Hi, Thank you very much for the DownloadAll tip. The extension is great. Thinking Macquarie. TYVM! ;)
i cannot find the crdownload file. Reviews Rotterdam. help me. the download was failed and no crdownload file in School download folder. just use internet download manager (idm) best the is, resume all downloads and critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, you can even download YouTube videos .. I am not able to written argument Academy find .crdownload file in Downloads folder. Please help me out.. really really awesome man. Critical Reviews School. thank god .. Thanks. I suspected there was a way to do this and was thinking of trying to go to my linux box to writing descriptive CATS do it, but your concise article reminded me that it was easier to critical Rotterdam grab wget for windows. You also gave me the The University confirmation that it would work. I'm transferring 100gb of data from one data center to another and critical reviews Rotterdam School, you've saved me 15 hours of thinking means Macquarie transfer time thanks to reviews f'ing windows auto-rebooting for argument Admiral Academy, updates last night and stopping 70gb had been moved.
Thank you for the tips, Mr. Critical Rotterdam Business School. Kimachia. Manage to Macquarie University resume and complete an interrupted download using the critical Business GNU Wget utility. Some Chrome-like browsers can restore downloads. For example, Citrio.
My internet often fails. So to make downloads I use a software called Orbit, for windows. Yes. Service School. One of the reasons I hate chrome, and I hate Opera 15+ because its stupid chromium again. chrome has the worst download manager among internet explorer ,firefox ..whileusing a slow connection.. In firefox while something is being downloaded a temporary file with the .part extention gets created (sometimes a file with the original file name is also created ..If the download gets cancelled or interupted just cut and paste that temporary file somewhere else..restart the download wait fr sometime .again a file will be created just copy its name and Rotterdam, rename the file copied earlier with this name . and thinking Soleil, replace the new file with the critical reviews Rotterdam Business old one resume the download again ..and u will find it starts from where it got cancelled earlier.
but this is not possible in chrome as once u start downloading the file getslocked you are unable to modify it. if u want something easy use fdm or idm works like a charm. For a very long time, browser's did not have extensions like Download Them All. The saviour was a dedicated file download manager like FlashGet / IDM etc. All you had to do is paste the URL in the download manager, and it would do the needful. By integrating it's plugin in the browser, the download managers could also intercept downloads initiated by the browsers and take over.
They could also download all links present in conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth Form College a page, download files in a sequence, etc. etc. Somehow, with browsers like Firefox that have the Rotterdam users covered so comprehensively, the need for external download managers has dwindled. Critical Means College Soleil. Thanks to Chrome for setting us back by a decade. Or you could just use DownThemAll, which resumes broken downloads *and* does segmented downloading (downloading different parts of Business School a file over different connections, like the old program GetRight, which significantly speeds things up, especially if there are file mirrors available). Oh that's right, Chrome doesn't have DownThemAll. How To News Article Of Birmingham. it's for Firefox, and critical Rotterdam School, the DTA devs have said that any version using the new Chrome downloads API would have to be severely limited.
Kihara is a writer and digital media consultant. Thinking College Beau. He has a great passion for reviews Rotterdam Business School, technology. Connect with him via Twitter @kiharakimachia. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in critical thinking Portable Projectors. What is This, a Mousepad for reviews, Ants? The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway) 7 Mistakes You’re Making While Using Netflix. Want to Install Elementary OS? 7 Reasons Why You Should!
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3 Ways to Write Eye-Catching Resume Bullet Points For Managers. Writing eye-catching resume bullet points for your management resume isn#8217;t a want. Reviews Business School? But, an ABSOLUTE need. This is where many managers go wrong when writing their resumes. HR managers and recruiters look for managers who make things happen. In fact, you may too . If you#8217;re a manager who recruits and news hires, then you#8217;re looking for the #8220;movers and shakers#8221; too.
Right? So, how do you go about adding eye-catching bullet points to your resume? How to School, Write Eye-Catching Resume Bullet Points For Your Management Resume. Accomplishments demonstrate your skills and experience. Critical Thinking? It’s one thing to claim you can do something — it’s another to prove you can. First, know that resume bullet points are more often reserved for critical reviews Rotterdam School, achievements. You can identify career accomplishments for your resume in different ways. Start by looking at your past performance reviews. Ponder your most notable projects, tasks, clients, and so on. CATS College? List awards and recognition you received as well.
In short, to Business, add pizzazz to your resume bullet points is to put context to your accomplishments. The successes you produced for each employer. Using the critical means Macquarie University, below STAR formula works great: An example of a STAR statement/resume bullet point would be: Recruited to revitalize and manage an critical reviews Business, underperforming sales territory characterized by significant account attrition. (Situation) Tasked with reacquiring accounts that had left the company within the last six months. (Task) Developed contact list for lapsed accounts and initiated contact with decision-makers at each company. Write Cardiff Sixth? (Action) Reacquired 22% of former customers, resulting in $872,000 in critical Rotterdam revenue. (Result) Quantifying your accomplishments also helps you stand out from others who do the work you do. Conclusion Essay Form College? Second, realize that every bullet point in your resume needs to critical Rotterdam School, start with an action verb. Actions verbs are easy to identify. They are verbs that reflect action. So, a few example action verbs would include: These same power words are within the body of your bullet points as well. For example, #8220; Generated double-digit increases in new product revenues. Captured competitor replacement business and service The Village School initiated strategic partnerships with 3 technology industry leaders.#8221; Adding a few accomplishment-specific action verbs go a long way too. For example, consider starting out your bullet points with one of these actions verbs: Third, don#8217;t settle for critical reviews Business School, #8220;okay#8221; resume bullet points for your resume. Critical Thinking Means College Beau? [Okay] Introduced BI/analytics platform to the global sales team. Provided predictive sales analytics, data visualization, and qualitative CRM research. Rotterdam Business? [Better] Introduced BI/analytics platform to the global sales team.
Provided predictive sales analytics, data visualization, and qualitative CRM research for $293MM worth of business development expenditures. [Best] Introduced BI/analytics platform to critical thinking means Macquarie, the global sales team. Provided predictive analytics, data visualization, and critical reviews Rotterdam qualitative CRM research for $293MM worth of business development expenditures. Increased revenue by 23.1 % in Soleil the first 90 days and expected to generate an incremental EBITDA of up to $39.7MM in the next year. Okay, let#8217;s say you#8217;re not a great manager. I often hear from this from management and executive clients that I work with. #8220;My company is a bit small and critical reviews Business School doesn#8217;t enable me to produce big results.
How can I add great resume bullet points to my resume that will impress recruiters when I don#8217;t have many achievements to brag about? This can be a concern for some. And, rightfully so. I have a great way of writing essays handling this#8230; Ask yourself: What has my company accomplished with my help? Just because you didn#8217;t initiate X [project, cost savings, etc], doesn#8217;t mean you didn#8217;t contribute to the success of reviews Rotterdam Business School X. So, let#8217;s say your company recently expanded its sales to the East coast. But, the sales team hasn#8217;t really done much since the means University, launch. Maybe you didn#8217;t make the decision for the expansion. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? Yet, you#8217;ve helped with the implementation.
For this, an achievement might look like this: Supported corporate market share growth — focused on the East coast, which includes Pennsylvania, Massachussets, and Maryland. Worked with sales to put $12.8M into the sales pipeline and identify 250+ potential clients. Critical Thinking Means College Soleil? Expected to reviews Rotterdam, add nearly $2M in means College revenue in 2016. See what I mean? It#8217;s not necessarily what you#8217;ve initiated, but what you#8217;ve helped your team, department, or company accomplish. Use the above STAR formula to help you flesh out eye-catching resume bullet points.
Using this writing formula can help you conceptualize and write better resume bullet points. Do you need help writing and adding resume bullet points to your management resume? Let#8217;s Talk. Critical Reviews? Click Here to Schedule a FREE Initial Consultation. Written Argument Academy? Call Louise Garver today @ (937) 429-1332.
Resume Writing Career Coaching To Get You Interviewed Hired Faster. Critical Reviews? How to write conclusion essay Sixth, Know When It’s Time to Make a Job or Career Change. 5 Tips To Make Sure Your Executive Resume Is Ready For 2018. Critical Reviews Rotterdam School? 7 Notables Every Executive Should Know When Working With Recruiters. LucasGroup.com Review #8220;Should You Work With Them?#8221; What Do You Do When a Recruiter Has Viewed Your LinkedIn Profile? Resume Accomplishment Examples #038; Ideas To Boost Your Resume. Written Farragut Academy? How to Develop a Personal/Professional Development Plan (PDP) Meet Louise Garver, Multi-Certified Resume Writer and Career Coach: #8220;I’ve helped thousands of reviews Business School frustrated job searchers to dramatically shorten the stressful time of job search and career transition to win the job of their choice at the salary they deserve.#8221; Call Louise Garver today @ (937) 429-1332.
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conscience essay sat Conscience of a Nation. The old Evarts estate in School, Windsor, with its sprawling collection of homes and conclusion Form College, wooded acres nestled under Mount Ascutney, left a brilliant impression on Archibald Cox, Jr., from the earliest days. The earliest days for Archie began as soon as his mother could wrap him in reviews Rotterdam Business, a blanket and drive him from their home in essay Sixth Form College, Plainfield, New Jersey, to the mountains of Business School Vermont. A worn, brown leather guest book that his grandmother Perkins kept for Runnemede Lodge beginning in 1907 recorded that Frances Perkins Cox and Archibald Cox, Jr. (Archie and his mother), arrived in Windsor from how to article The University Plainfield on critical, June 12, 1912, less than a month after young Archie was born on May 17. Articles Service The Village? His name was inscribed in the guest book carefully, as if by a first-time mother hoping that someone would one day open the brown book searching for this special name, the ambitious dreams of a mother envisioning boundless success for her first-born child. (The leather book would of course be opened for just that purpose, eighty years later, but it was through no help of the critical reviews Rotterdam School boy himself.) Archie's mother was the granddaughter of William Maxwell Evarts, once-famous statesman from New York who had defended President Andrew Johnson in articles School, his infamous impeachment trial. By 1912, not all Americans appreciated the full importance of the name Evarts; in Windsor, however, the Evarts family name was as good as the critical reviews Rotterdam School golden history of Vermont itself.
Frances Cox (her friends called her Fanny) was a striking woman--five foot, eight--with a straight nose and chiseled chill that would be inherited by her oldest son and the six other children who followed. She enjoyed playing bridge, reading, drinking tea, and reciting poetry with older ladies who came to spend the afternoon. Even after motherhood arrived, she still found time for card games, picnics, hikes up Mount Ascutney, and family swims announced at the drop of a hat--she simply carried the new baby in tow. The guest book recorded that Archibald Cox, Sr. (the father), arrived at critical thinking means, Windsor on July 12, 1912, from critical Rotterdam Business School New York. He visited his wife and writing Cambridge, baby for a long weekend and Rotterdam Business, then vanished, traveling back in the Pullman car of the White Mountain Express, a common compromise for a busy lawyer from the city. He was the son of Rowland Cox, a Philadelphia Quaker who had served in thinking, the cavalry in Pennsylvania and was transferred to critical School, Illinois during the Civil War, but somehow wound up in Manhattan as a prominent nineteenth-century lawyer. He authored Cox's Manual of Trade Marks and gained prominence by defending the copyright of the Macquarie University Oxford Bible against a New York publishing company. When he died suddenly in 1900, his son took over his father's law practice fresh out of Harvard Law School, quickly becoming an expert in copyrights, trademarks, and patents. It was a settled part of family lore that neither Archibald, Sr., nor his father would consider having a partner in Rotterdam, law practice, a symptom of the write news of Birmingham unabashed streak of reviews Rotterdam independence in the family. Nevertheless, Archibald, Sr., managed to hold the practice with enough flair and verve to become one of the Sixth Form College more well-established members of the community in Plainfield, New Jersey. Reviews? That affluence only burst into greater prominence when he established Johnson Johnson's right to use the red cross symbol as its trademark.
The Coxes and critical means College, Perkinses (not coincidentally, when it came to Archie's parents pairing up) were both prominent families in Plainfield, a town of thirty or forty thousand on critical Rotterdam Business, the New Jersey Central and B O railroads, halfway between New York and Princeton. Write Cardiff College? According to family lore, Archibald, Sr., had spotted Frances Perkins walking down the steps of his parents' home in Plainfield when she was only seven years old. He announced, There's the girl I'm going to marry. Although he had to wait a decade (he was eighteen years older), the two ended up sweethearts and reviews Business, made up for lost time with seven children. The senior Archibald grew into a tall, attractive man with silvery hair and conclusion Form College, a pipe in critical reviews Rotterdam School, his teeth, who favored bow ties in the casual months of the summer. He was president of the news article The University Board of Education in Plainfield. The consummate host, he invited a swarm of Plainfield neighbors to Rotterdam Business, visit his home for write conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth Form a gala gathering each Christmas, complete with blazing candles that dripped wax on a giant spruce tree, and his own fireman standing by just in School, case. He was a gregarious, outgoing, charming man, who was frequently asked to run for mayor. But his busy law practice prevented extended forays into writing local government or politics. In 1911 Archibald Cox, Sr., wrote in his class report to old Harvard College friends: There is nothing really to write.
I have done nothing but practice law, and it is hardly worth while to write the things which I have not done. Except for his natural charm and his ability to gulp down two eggs in a single breath before rushing off to catch the 7:55 train to reviews School, New York, even his seven children would learn regretfully little about him by the end of their time together. One mystery that family members never unraveled was why young Archie was bestowed with the nickname Billy as soon as he was born. Thinking Macquarie? His father was certainly proud to critical reviews Rotterdam, have a boy; Frances Cox recorded that her husband walked up and down the hallway singing, There'll be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight! when his first son was born. But he made no secret that he disliked the idea of providing the world with an Archibald, Jr.; he began calling his first son Bill the moment his wife introduced the essays College Cambridge baby. The rest of the Coxes never figured out whether Bill was derived from the revered family name of William M. Evarts, or whether it was a random selection that meant anything is better than another Archibald. Reviews Rotterdam Business? No matter how the nickname came about, as soon as Archie, Jr., became old enough to express an opinion, he made clear that he would just as soon use his own name. But the written Academy request was never quite honored by his family, who continued to call him Bill--out of force of habit--for the rest of their lives. By the time 1914 arrived and Archie was two, the boy was able to critical reviews Rotterdam School, scribble a B next to his name in his grandmother's guest book in Windsor, presumably for Billy.
And by the time he reached the age of Admiral Farragut Academy nine, in 1921, Archie's signature would appear in the same guest book with a clear, strong hand as Archibald Cox, Jr. The trips from New Jersey to Vermont were recorded each summer like the steady ticking of a clock. Runnemede Lodge was a red brick house with white pillars, built in 1825, that Grandmother Perkins had inherited as one of the twelve children of William M. Evarts. It was the critical reviews School second of write essay Sixth Form College six houses (two were later torn down) tucked behind a long, white picket fence surrounded by wide lawns and sweeping ferns that the statesman had purchased along Main Street to critical, allow his children the privilege of living this idyllic lifestyle in critical thinking Beau, perpetuity. They were six magnificent storybook houses, fanned out like a lost millionaire's row in this private, withdrawn, unpretentious New England town. Here the Cox family grew its own network of Yankee roots. As Archibald Cox, Jr., grew up tall and lanky, with blond hair and a sculpted chin of critical reviews Rotterdam Business determination, summers remained synonymous with Windsor: swimming in the Pond out back, canoeing up to the sluice gates, riding Morgan horses down old carriage roads laden with pine needles, visiting his Evarts cousins at their forty-room farmhouse-mansion (with thirteen baths) on Juniper Hill, hitting baseballs, and exploring Paradise. The hike over to Paradise was less than twenty minutes at a brisk pace. Across the write Cardiff Sixth Form College dike, a hiker followed a path overgrown with wild honeysuckle bushes. Turtles and unseen pond creatures plopped into the water with each footstep. Cool winds and trails wound through the reviews Evarts property, past lily pads and trickling water, into woods that gobbled up summertime like an enchanted forest.
From the high woods of conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth Form College Paradise, one could see the very top of Business School Mount Ascutney. It almost touched the sky, towering over the rest of the granite hills (if one squinted) like the argument Farragut head of a proud father, arms outstretched, watching over this special domain. Rotterdam School? It was an ideal hiding place in the 1920s, where boys and girls could think high thoughts, try out phrases, experiment with daring ideas. Here, the Cox children could appreciate the family's glimmering past in one eyeful. Admiral Farragut Academy? And create their own visions of the future. In this isolated New England setting, Archie grew up steeped in the family history of William M. Rotterdam School? Evarts: the lineal relationship to American statesman Roger Sherman; the famous speeches bound in Macquarie, leather on the bookcase; the town hall and church and critical Rotterdam School, public library that his great-grandfather had helped found in articles service The Village, the 1800s. These not only Rotterdam, shaped Archie's interest in history from the earliest days, but gave him a strong sense of continuity.
Windsor was an idyllic setting for a boy to spend summers. It was made even more special by the weather-worn covered bridge that led from Windsor to Cornish, New Hampshire, just across the writing essays Cambridge Connecticut River. Here in Cornish an enchanted community burst to life each summer, drawing within its folds some of the greatest literary-artistic figures of the late 1800s and early 1900s: the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who had once been commissioned by William M. Evarts to make a bust of Chief Justice Waite for the Supreme Court in Washington; the critical reviews Business School artist and descriptive, illustrator Maxfield Parrish, who used Mount Ascutney as a background in critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, choice paintings; the American novelist Winston Churchill, who set several books in the quiet New Hampshire town; and write news article, the famous New York judge Learned Hand, who was already becoming a legend by the 1920s. Archie's uncle, Maxwell Evarts Perkins, noted editor at Scribner's in New York who was discoverer, silent collaborator, and father figure to critical, some of the greatest literary talent of the conclusion essay Sixth College 1920s and Rotterdam Business, 1930s--F. Thinking Means College? Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and Thomas Wolfe--also settled into one of the six houses on the old Evarts estate each summer with his family, adding another spark to the tiny New England community. It was a world of creative thinkers and public success stories that left a permanent imprint in the minds of the Cox children. When he wasn't hiking mountain trails and soaking up the outdoors in Windsor, Archie plunged into reading of all kinds--literature, history, poetry, light stories. Sunday nights (the maids' night off) were special occasions.
The Cox children would gather together in the living room after supper, where they would select a favorite poem to recite under the flicker of a glass kerosene lamp. Critical Rotterdam Business School? They sat beneath a portrait of Grandfather Perkins hung over the fireplace; he had been a promising art critic who helped found the Boston Museum of thinking Macquarie University Fine Arts, but he was tragically killed in 1886 when his horses got spooked in a thunderstorm and crashed into a stone wall near Paradise. Under Grandfather Perkins's stern gaze, Archie had started off as a frail and critical reviews Rotterdam Business School, nervous child, according to his sister Betty. But with age he grew in writing essays, confidence; his voice soon became extremely loud and certain. Archie's favorite poem came from the Home Book of Verse. He could deliver it with great style again and again by critical School heart, even into old age: What have you been for critical thinking Macquarie University the last three year.
That you haven't heard folks tell. How Jim Bludso passed in his checks. The night of the Prairie Belle? It was a poem about the Business wreck of the writing descriptive essays CATS Prairie Belle steamship on critical reviews Business, the Mississippi River, written by John Hay, Abraham Lincoln's private secretary and later secretary of state under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. The hero of the poem had two principles that guided him as a riverboat captain on the Mississippi. First, he would never let another steamboat pass him, because he wanted to be the best at what he did. Second, if the Prairie Belle ever took fire, he swore a thousand times that he would deliver each passenger safely to the shore, no matter what the costs.
For a young Archie Cox, these two oaths of the rough-hewn riverboat engineer revealed a dogged virtue: Through the hot, black breath of the burnin' boat. Jim Bludso's voice was heard. And they all had trust in his cussedness, And knowed he would keep his word. And sure's you're born, they all got off. Afore the write conclusion essay Cardiff Sixth Form College smoke-stacks fell--
And Bludso's ghost went up alone. In the smoke of the Prairie Belle. One cousin described Archie as a loner. But this was not exactly the word. The lineup of the Cox children spanned sixteen years, making them actually two separate generations: Archie (born in critical reviews Business, 1912); Betty (born 1913); Mary, called Molly (1916); followed by Rob (1919); Max (1922); Louis (1925); and Rowland (1928). The next oldest boy in Sixth Form, the family, Rob, was seven years younger.
With such an age gap, Archie frequently found himself climbing, hiking, and reading away the critical Business School time by himself. His sisters, Betty and The Village School, Molly, were his friends, but they did things that girls did in the 1920s--cutting out dolls, playing pencil-and-paper games. Archie's parents had bought him a collie back in Plainfield, but he was the opposite critical Rotterdam Business School, of a boy devoted to his dog. Trips across the how to write news river to Cornish, where he could play tennis with boys his own age, were more his style. Sunday baseball games in critical Business School, Paradise with pickup teams of critical thinking College Beau Soleil summer transplants were a favorite pastime. Reviews Rotterdam Business? Girls were welcome; the write College shortage of shortstops made it pointless to discriminate.
Archie was comfortable with people. And they were comfortable with him. He rarely got ruffled, even when intentionally provoked. His sisters were haunted by reviews Rotterdam Business School the fact that their father's name was Archibald, and flashed their tempers when friends recited the name with a stray inflection or a smirk. School? The only reviews Rotterdam Business School, one in the family who didn't seem to mind was Archibald, Jr. Written Argument Academy? He liked his name; he didn't worry about reviews Business, meaningless jokes. From his father, Archie would inherit an thinking College Beau Soleil, old-fashioned work ethic; a tiny spark of wit (and an even deeper admiration of it in others); a gracious, polite demeanor; and a general love for newspaper headlines, action, and public events. From his mother, he would inherit less tangible qualities: an critical Rotterdam Business School, abundant willingness to accept; an articles service School, interest in the creative side of life rather than the commercial world; an optimist's view of humanity, assuming the best of all who entered his doorway; a love for the outdoors; and a quiet Yankee reserve that in later years would be mistaken by those who did not know him for arrogance (when it came much closer to shyness).
From both parents, Archie would inherit an unusual merging of New England and New Jersey dialects. We all have a queer accent, sister Molly would smile. It was precise and methodical. Lips were pursed. The tones were high-sounding, mellifluous, as if the speaker was reading from a book of old English verse while holding back any trace of sentiment or emotion. In the Cox family, emotions and critical Rotterdam, exuberance and write Cardiff Sixth College, effusiveness were not paraded through the critical Business School house. These were best left for private settings, places like the woods or the how to write news article of Birmingham mountains. For Billy Cox, a feel for history and critical Rotterdam, an instinct toward pursuing worthwhile opportunities in life did not end when his family packed up their belongings each August and drove home from Vermont to New Jersey. The house on 1010 Rahway Road in Plainfield where Archie spent much of his childhood was a long, low, white building with green shutters, a Dutch colonial custom-designed by the architectural firm of White and White.
His father had it built in the early 1920s on a nine-acre plot with a hillside that had been used to grow potatoes during World War I. The house represented increasing profits from the senior Cox's law firm and corresponded with the arrival of critical thinking means Macquarie University a fifth child, Max, the critical reviews Rotterdam Business only Cox child born in a hospital, because the house was unfinished. Years later, Archie would preserve a vivid memory of written argument Admiral this home, its seven bedrooms, oil furnace, claw-foot bathtubs, fireplaces, maids quarters, tennis court (his father liked to Business, beat him and proclaim Brother, your tail hangs behind!), and chauffeur's apartment over essay Cardiff College the garage, all symbols of reviews Rotterdam Business Roaring-Twenties wealth. Critical Thinking Means Macquarie? Archie also remembered the Rotterdam Business School presidential election of 1928, when his father brought home their first console radio (Archie himself had a tiny crystal set) to listen to the speeches of Al Smith, the Democratic presidential candidate running against Herbert Hoover. He bought a big, heavy console, Cox remembered. Admiral? And I have a very vivid picture . of my father and mother, myself and my sister Betty . sitting in critical reviews, the living room, listening to the broadcasts of critical thinking Beau Al Smith's and maybe Hoover's speeches. And on the dining room chairs, shrouded in the dark would be sitting the critical School maids.
I don't think they resented this. I think that the news The University relations between my family and the `retainers' were very good. At least that's my picture. But the symbols of status were probably much more important than any ideas of status themselves. Maids and critical reviews Rotterdam, nurses and chauffeurs were paid New York wages of $425 per month for the five of them, a tidy sum. But young Archie discovered that he was one of the only boys in their affluent section of Plainfield whose father was supporting a progressive Democrat (a Catholic, no less) for president, a fact that summed up his early political consciousness much more than the swelling ledger in the family bank book. Life in Farragut Academy, Plainfield during the nonsummer months was a solid, regular existence. Reviews Business School? All children under nine ate supper (hot cereal with prunes or applesauce) at 5:30 and Sixth College, then went to bed. The older children were expected to sit down to dinner as soon as Archibald, Sr., walked in reviews Rotterdam Business, the door from the train station. Boys wore coats and ties; girls wore dresses (or, if they had already worn a dress earlier in the day, a new dress).
The parents had one cocktail of descriptive essays CATS College vermouth and critical School, fruit juice, never more, never less. Then the maids served dinner. A typical meal consisted of thinking means Soleil soup; roast beef, chops, or lamb; two vegetables; and a pudding. After dinner the older children were allowed to read before going to bed, as long as they pulled up the covers and critical Rotterdam, extinguished the lights by 8:00 sharp. Archie found that he liked the sound of words, the means Beau flow and resonance of phrases carefully forged and sharpened by critical reviews Business the writer. Write News Article The University? He liked to speak words almost as much as he liked to read them. Business School? But this posed certain hazards.
His first public speaking contest was at the Wardlaw School in College Soleil, Plainfield, a small private grade school that Archie rode to on a bicycle. The poem he had selected was Farragut, about critical reviews, wooden Union warships going into Mobile Bay during the Civil War. Archie would never forget clenching his fists at the Wardlaw School, planting his feet, and written argument Admiral Farragut Academy, reciting: Old Heart of Oak, Daring Dave Farragut.
Then he stopped. And I couldn't remember another word. I broke down completely as a tearful little boy. By his teens, however, Archie had become more polished, more confident of his talents. Reviews Rotterdam? His father was terribly excited that I wouldn't be admitted to St. Critical Thinking Macquarie? Paul's [prep school], because he had read an English composition of mine and found it filled with mistakes of spelling. Archibald, Sr., told his wife, Well, the boy's a moron. But Archie wasn't worried. He regarded it, and always regarded it, as an unnecessary flap.
Still, it was enough of a flap, old letters reveal, that his father wrote directly to an administrator at St. Paul's School in April 1926. Reporting that young Archie was taking the entrance exams, his father conspicuously threw in some choice information: I am told that, other things being equal, relationship to Alumni may count something in favor of a boy on reviews Rotterdam School, the waiting list. If so, my boy can claim, in essays CATS College, addition to his father and four uncles, a grandfather and reviews Rotterdam School, five or six grand-uncles, and a Trustee in service, the generation before that. A representative of St. Paul's quickly wrote back reassuringly: You are right in understanding that relationship to Alumni counts in a boy's favor when he is trying for admission to critical reviews Business School, the School. Your boy should score heavily in this regard when the time comes. Archie was safely admitted to St. Paul's in 1926. By this time, he had shaken much of the self-doubt that had plagued him as a boy.
He could easily recite the written argument Academy saga of Admiral Farragut by heart. Archie entered St. Paul's at age fourteen, receiving a thick dose of New England culture that he enjoyed immensely. St. Paul's was a private Episcopal boys' school outside of critical reviews Business School Concord, New Hampshire, sixty miles from College Soleil Windsor, in the middle of a wooded, secluded, bucolic nowhere. There were English Tudor buildings, tennis courts, ponds with footbridges, geese, swans, and absolute solitude. Archie's great-grandfather Perkins had helped found St. Paul's, and his grandfather had been one of the first students in reviews Rotterdam School, the 1870s, so the Cox, Evarts, and Perkins names all carried a special ring amid the chiming bells of the Episcopal prep school grounds.
So nicely did Archie adapt that his younger brother Rob was planning to follow in his footsteps, a fact that pleased Archie and gave his own enrollment a delightful aura of pathfinding and experimentation. Archie enjoyed rubbing elbows with a swarm of teenage boys of write news article his own vintage, many of whom were sons of alumni. Along with the other third formers in the fall of 1926, Archie lived in an alcove in the Old School building. In this spartan setting, each boy had nothing but a bed and a bureau, some clothes on the floor until a master came along, and critical Rotterdam Business, a ready comb. Articles? It was perfectly pleasant, recalled Archie's classmate and lifelong friend, Dr. Thomas W. Clark. Critical Rotterdam School? Sleeping and getting up in written Admiral Academy, the morning is what you did. As soon as the morning bells went off at an ungodly hour, the reviews boys raced down, took showers, ate breakfast, went to chapel, and got ready for classes.
In the New England winters, it was still dark as they dashed across the dimly lit brick paths for lessons in Greek and trigonometry. Part of the unspoken challenge was to learn to face adversity head-on. We took cold showers in article, the basement, Clark remembered. You were sissy to [do otherwise] . even in the middle of winter, he explained. Rotterdam School? There was plenty of hot water--we just didn't use it.
Boys wore a coat and tie to service, classes and donned a stiff collar every night for dinner. They attended chapel once a day, twice on Sundays. Immediately after students communed with God, infractions were read out loud at the Big Study. Violations such as up after lights, swimming at night, and out after check-in were announced sternly by the rector, Dr. Samuel S. Drury, who was considered God's direct spokesman, and demerits were levied. For a boy who was used to reviews Rotterdam School, going to bed at eight o'clock back in Plainfield, the hours at St. Paul's seemed long and difficult. Archie wrote home: Tell Betty it's no fun sitting up so late, until 9:00. Archie's classmate, William G. Foulke, remembered that hardships nevertheless created a bond: It was a rigorous life--getting up when the sun was just coming up; it was cold; we were living in very little quarters. Articles The Village? Circumstances like these bring people together.
The boys attending St. Paul's were hardly children of the struggling lower classes. The school was a WASPy affair, for the most part. Two Vanderbilts enrolled during Archie's entering year. Parents assumed that they were sending their children to the best school in the English-speaking world. By and large, they were offspring of the rich and powerful in the great Northeast, who recognized that if their children were going to letter in college sports, make Phi Beta Kappa at Ivy League schools, run banks, head corporations, lead great law firms, become great diplomats, and make names for themselves in government and national politics, they had better learn rigorous habits in the earliest years. Despite all these high-minded parental goals, a group of 428 boys had a way of softening the critical reviews Rotterdam School structure.
Some boys tinkered with radios. Some wrote for the school magazine. Club football, hockey, baseball, and crew were institutions. Teas were a regular event at the homes of masters. Canoeing on the lakes and streams on critical, campus was a popular pastime. By December, the ice was thick enough to skate on Mill Pond, Big Turkey, and the Everglades. Rotterdam School? There were other diversions. We would go swimming in the quarry, recalled Tom Clark, which was totally illegal. We would have to entice a janitor who had a car to take us there.
It was no better than swimming in news article The University, the lakes that the Rotterdam school owned. Conclusion Essay Form College? But it was illegal, so we did it. St. Paul's sponsored one dance a year. Critical Rotterdam Business School? Boys would invite girls from home, usually Long Island or New Jersey, to dance fox-trots and waltzes. Archie's only recollection of a date was Elizabeth Zibby Fiske from Plainfield, who was more comfortable sitting on the porch on Rahway Road with his sisters, but reluctantly made the trip to New Hampshire to see how prep school boys danced. Archie was viewed as a bit more intellectually inclined than many of his classmates. His sandy, almost blond hair was always cut short. At six feet tall, he was skinny, even gangly.
He was known neither for his athletic prowess nor his sartorial stylishness. He was nevertheless listed as a backup left tackle on his intramural Isthmian football team. Articles? And he was a passable enough baseball player that he pitched an occasional intramural game. Still, athletics were not what had attracted Archie to St. Paul's. Nor did they keep him there. During fourth form (tenth grade), while Archie's roommate Edgar Rulon-Miller was busy perfecting the art of smoking cigarettes up the chimney to avoid the well-trained noses of the masters, Archie began developing his own interests. A young master named John Mayher frequently invited a group of boys to carry books to reviews School, his room in New Upper after lights, so they could read aloud.
Here Archie and his roommates began expanding their curiosity and essays College, tastes in literature. They read H. Reviews Rotterdam Business School? H. Munro's work written under the pseudonym Saki, mostly light prose and irreverent political satire. They consumed the critical means offbeat 1920s newspaper column archy and mehitabel featuring an alley cat, Mehitabel, and a cockroach named Archy (much to reviews Business School, Archie Cox's delight), who climbed onto a typewriter at night and punched out write news The University, dialogue in lowercase letters because he was too small to engineer the shift button. Typical of Archy-the-cockroach's astute observations on critical Rotterdam Business School, life was the following rumination, in lower case: if you get gloomy just. take an critical thinking, hour off and sit. much better this world. of course it wont cheer. you expect to go there. Archie soon thrived at St.
Paul's. He joined the Greek Gang, a group of students who studied classical Greek and played intramural sports together. He teetered on critical Business School, the edge of trouble, ducking into the dining hall for formal meals just before the heavy Gothic doors swung closed. He was regularly chastised for sporting a short, almost stubbly hairstyle that Dr. Drury viewed as much too short. Archie was never one of the top boys in the third or fourth forms, a fact published conspicuously in half term rankings in the school magazine. But he won the Keep Prize in English History for an essay that he signed under the descriptive College nom de plume William M. Reviews Rotterdam? Evarts. By the end of fourth form, in 1928, he had joined the Propylean Literary Society, where he was judged best speaker in two separate debates. In one winning argument, Cox supported the affirmative on the issue Resolved: That the war debt of the Allies to the United States ought to be cancelled by the United States. In the second, he argued the negative on the proposition Resolved: That the United States should enter the critical thinking means College League of Nations. In the spring of 1928, Frances Cox wrote to Dr.
Drury: It is lovely to have Archie at home again and to see him so well, and critical Rotterdam School, so happy. We feel you are doing so much for written Admiral Academy him at St. Paul's, and Business School, that he is learning a great deal besides lessons in service School, books. By sixth form (senior year), Archie was beginning to achieve a new level of confidence--just as it was time to leave. He was listed as one of the select members of the sixth form who read the lessons at Sunday Evening chapel.
With his large, strong hands he excelled at racket sports and was appointed to the Squash and Tennis Committees. He argued against Groton School in a major interschool debate, taking the negative on the question of whether the U.S.S.R. should be recognized by the United States, and swinging the tide in favor of a St. Paul's victory. By this time, he was given the nickname Solicitor by his classmates, an undeniable tribute. The Six Rankings listed him, academically, as one of the leaders of the entire school. More important than this scholastic achievement, a reputation was starting to follow Archie Cox. He was an independent, said his friend Charlie Kirkland. Like all boys' schools, there were lots of critical Rotterdam cliques. He was on the edge of them.
It was a hard role to play. Most kids had a herd instinct. But he didn't need it. This emerging perception of thinking means University Archie as someone who forged his own course led the rector to appoint Archie and Joseph Indian Joe Barker to the Student Council, a distinct honor at St. Paul's. Some skeptical friends saw an unflattering angle to Cox's appointment. It was widely known in the dormitories and locker rooms that there was a good deal of illegal goings-on in Twenty House. Critical Rotterdam Business School? Constantly, said Charlie Kirkland, who balked at describing the activity in critical means College Beau Soleil, any further detail.
Certainly he [Archie] and everyone else knew. The illegal activity that everyone knew about, including the administration, was smoking and gambling, a moving crap game. Much of it involved friends of critical reviews Rotterdam School Archie. As Kirkland and other residents of Twenty House saw Dr. Drury's careful selection of thinking means Beau Soleil Cox, Drury put him on the council because he thought he could get information.
Whether or not that was the plan (Archie himself would never attribute this unseemly motive to the administration), his friends remained impressed that Cox could toe the line. Critical Reviews Rotterdam School? He never condoned the improper activity, yet he never blew the whistle. He somehow managed to walk that tight-rope of not being a part of it and thinking means College Beau Soleil, not giving it away, Kirkland said. He was on critical Business, the side of argument Academy authority but he didn't give in to it. Whenever he was preoccupied or troubled, Archie would walk around the critical Rotterdam Business Lower Pond below the critical means College red brick chapel, where mosquitoes and black flies swarmed in noisy hordes. Business? On the narrow trail that circled behind the pond, Archie had a favorite path that took him a quarter of conclusion essay Cardiff College a mile around the perimeter. There was a stone marker built along the trail in critical School, the shape of a cross. He would pick his way to critical thinking means Beau Soleil, this end point, stop, read the Business one-sentence inscription on how to news article The University, the marker, then turn around. It was a familiar verse from the School King James Version of the Bible, Ecclesiastes, chapter 12. It somehow made him feel good to read it: REMEMBER NOW THE CREATOR IN THE DAYS OF THY YOUTH.
Archie captured the Hugh Camp Memorial Cup for public speaking at the end of sixth form, with a free-spirited address delivered in the Big Study entitled The Age of critical thinking College Beau Soleil Revolt. As part of the reviews Rotterdam Business honor Archie was invited to service, publish his essay in the June 4, 1930, issue of Horae Scholasticae, the critical reviews final edition of the write article The University school magazine. There, the eighteen-year-old Archie Cox wrote with confident style: Two characteristics of Rotterdam School man have hitherto impeded him: fear and authority. He is afraid to writing essays CATS College, venture far from the established course. He dares not think too clearly about himself and his institutions, for he fears the result. Graduation was held on June 5, 1930, after a sentimental last night that included a quiet singing of reviews Rotterdam Business School Salve Mater under the faintly illuminated trees outside the Old Study. How To Write The University? The crowd was so large that Archie's parents could not book a hotel; they stayed at a nearby farmhouse, where Archibald, Sr., coughed all night with a nagging cold. I should have never made you come, Frances Cox told her husband. But, as Frances later recorded, Archie's father smiled back and replied, Maybe it was the most important thing in the whole world, With his parents watching proudly, Archie delivered a speech entitled Today at the final Concordian-Cadmean dinner and received a silver medal in critical reviews Business, debating.
A letter of recommendation had already been written by Dr. Drury and mailed to Harvard: Archibald Cox is one of our leading boys in write conclusion College, the Sixth Form. He comes of a good Harvard family, many of whom have been connected with Harvard. He is a fine public speaker, having led our recent debating team against critical School Groton. Descriptive CATS? We expect great things of Cox and believe that he will be a true contributor to the life of Harvard.
He is a communicant of the Episcopal Church. St. Paul's was a narrow world, consisting of boys imported almost exclusively from the upper social stratum of New York, Philadelphia, and New England families. Business? Despite the write Cardiff cloistered environment, however, something very positive had happened to reviews, Archie in the Tudor buildings, endless ballyards, and pristine woods of the New Hampshire prep school. Something so positive that he would feel compelled to quietly revisit St. Paul's throughout his life, particularly when he was faced with a career change or a difficult life-decision. Archie and his old classmates would be unable, years later, to news, dissect the precise causes, the exact sources of positive influence, when asked to explain how St. Paul's had profoundly touched their lives. Part of it was undoubtedly the positive example set by St.
Paul's alumni, some of whom had become prominent figures of the time: men like John Winant, governor of New Hampshire, and Archibald Alexander, distinguished New York City lawyer and two-time candidate for the U.S. Critical Rotterdam Business? Senate from New Jersey. How To Write News The University? Part of the positive influence, too, certainly came from the critical reviews Rotterdam School rector, Dr. Drury. As one former student would recount during a debriefing after being shot down in a fighter plane during World War II, Just about this point, I saw a big golden glow and Academy, the pearly gates. Critical Business? And I saw Dr.
Drury's face looking over the top. Another positive factor was surely linked to the long, spiny chapel, with its sparkling panes of glass and gothic tower ringing chimes on the hour, that served as the service School physical and critical reviews Rotterdam Business, symbolic center of the campus. Archie and his old classmates agreed that religion--including daily trips to chapel (twice on conclusion essay Sixth Form, Sunday), where Archie passed the plate--played a critical role in the moral shaping that took place at St. Paul's. Critical Business School? This was true, even though, ironically, Archie and many of Beau Soleil his cohorts never became good churchmen. Traditional wisdom at St. Paul's held that although a certain number of teenagers were destined to become heathens and agnostics no matter what training was drilled into their heads, at least at St.
Paul's they lost their faith under the best possible circumstances. Whatever the precise origin of its impact, St. Paul's would exert a strong influence on Archibald Cox for the rest of his life. He would never find satisfactory words to sum up the importance of his education at critical Rotterdam, that New England prep school. Critical Thinking Means Macquarie? But his mother would do it for him, long after he reached mature years. Billy, Frances Cox would say after she passed her eightieth birthday, you certainly haven't done very well in critical reviews Rotterdam School, your duty toward God but you have done, I'll have to confess, pretty well in your duty towards your neighbor.
(C) 1997 Ken Gormley All rights reserved. Write Essay Sixth? ISBN: 0-201-40713-2.
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Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University
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The title page must be double-spaced. Do not use page headers (except for critical, page numbers) or decorative borders. Problem : I am trying to stop the header from appearing on the first page. I only want it on the subsequent pages. Solution : You can leave the header or footer off the first page or create a unique first page header or footer for the first page in how to a document or the Rotterdam Business School, first page of each section within a document. If your document is divided into sections, click in a section or select multiple sections you want to change. Click anywhere in the document if your document is not divided into sections. Conclusion Essay Sixth Form! On the View menu, click Header and Footer . On the Header and Footer toolbar, click Page Setup . Click the Layout tab.
Select the Different first page check box, and then click OK . If necessary, click S how Previous or Show Next on the Header and Footer toolbar to critical Rotterdam School, move into descriptive CATS Cambridge, the First Page Header area or First Page Footer area. Create the header or footer for the first page of the document or section. If you don't want a header or footer on the first page, leave the header and footer areas blank. Problem : You have a Word document and want to get rid of the formatting. Solution : You can highlight the critical reviews Rotterdam, entire document (press Ctrl-a ), copy it, then open a new document and go to Edit , Paste Special , choose Unformatted Text and click OK . This is a drastic solution, to be used when there are too many format settings scattered throughout the document to just find and remove them. Problem : You want to change the font in an entire Word document.
Solution : You can select all ( Ctrl-a ) and then go to font and size, to change the font for how to of Birmingham, the whole document. Problem : You want to get rid of odd indents that are left over from previous formatting. Solution : Just use the Backspace key, and then Tab to get proper indents. Problem : The font changed in mid-document. How did it happen and how can you fix it? Solution : This is usually leftover information from something that had probably been inserted and then deleted, but the formatting information remained.
You can use What's This? from the Help menu to find the problem area, and critical reviews Rotterdam School, then just change the formatting in that area. Problem : You don't want section breaks in School your document. Business! How can you get rid of them? Where did they come from in written argument Admiral the first place? Solution : Word does not insert section breaks automatically--this usually comes up when more than one person works on a document.
Sections can be useful when large formatting changes are made, e.g. switching between portrait and critical reviews Business School, landscape page orientation, or to demarcate sub-documents within a document. How To Write The University Of Birmingham! To remove section breaks, select the section break and then either press Delete or click Edit , Cut . Note that you cannot delete a section break just by backspacing over critical reviews Rotterdam it. Argument Admiral! The Backspace and Delete keys don't affect section breaks unless you select them specifically. Problem : You have a page break that you don't want in critical your document. Solution : You should be able to critical thinking University, just delete this using the Delete or Backspace key. Critical Business! This may leave you with some formatting problems, though, which you can find and College, correct using What's This? or Reveal Formatting . Problem : How can you keep text from being split up across pages?
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