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Business Development Manager Resume Sample. 6829 Day Street A· California 91042 A· PROJECT, PROGRAM ENGAGEMENT MANAGEMENT/BUSINESS ARCHITECT. Analysis Essay Polimoda! Enterprise Solutions A· Infrastructure Management/Consolidation A· Lifecycle Project/Program Management. Of California A-g Requirements Kingswood School! System Improvement A· Risk Management A· IT Strategic Planning and Implementation A· Resource Management A· Virtualization. System Migrations Conversions A· Network Deployment A· Process Improvement A· Training/Mentoring. Senior Project Manager-Manager of writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda complex, high-value, high visibility projects implementing this software vendor's wide-range of essay School software products and tools. Writing A Critical Polimoda! VIDERE CONSULTING, La Crescent, California A· 2005-2008.

Provider of IT professional services and esl argumentative end-to-end project management solutions. A Critical Analysis Polimoda! Independent Contract Project Program Manager. Kind Writing! Lead all aspects of client engagements, including system analysis, solution design and integration, as well as monitoring and support. Craft in-depth project strategies encompassing all lifecycle phases. Evaluate systems and processes in writing essay Polimoda, light of governance standards and regulatory requirements, recommending changes and enhancements for full compliance. A· SCE-1/2006 - 12/2006 Established Data Governance Organization as part of the Enterprise Information Management program at Southern California Edison, establishing the overall Data Governance Strategic plan, directed design and implementation of all processes/procedures and defined all roles and responsibilities, from the ground up.

Lead group tasked with implementing the essay images actual Data Governance Organization, Meta Data Management, Data Consolidation/Optimization, and writing analysis essay Polimoda Data Warehousing strategies and plans as part of the early stages of the SCE SAP implementation. Kind Writing Macquarie University! A· SCE 5/2002 - 12/2005 Facilitated PMO/IT Leadership Strategic planning for 5 year IT/Business Alignment/SOX initiative. Writing Analysis Polimoda! Directed 4 major projects of Data Center Optimization Program at Southern California Edison , delivering 5-year savings of $40M, reducing number of WinTel and UNIX servers from 1,250 to 425, and my essay of Southampton virtualizing IT environment for analysis, 90% cost reduction and write my essay paper University 15-fold lab testing cycle time improvement. Writing! A· Elan 7/2007 -5/2008 Oversaw migration of more than 600 legacy databases to new technology framework , with nearly 10% running on SAP. A· Videre Consulting 8/2006 - 7/2007 Designed and incorporated rigorous dashboards for business intelligence management at Qualcomm for launch of streaming data technology valued at $100M. Created system alerts/monitors that eliminated 40% of implementation cycle time, which decreased resource requirements 42% and mean time to resolution 60%. Writing Macquarie University! A· Videre Consulting 8/2006 - 7/2007 Participated in writing essay, IT Service Management Strategic Planning Team Workshops Spearheaded ITIL/CMDB Proof-of-Concept support for major financial institution , achieving 34% reduction in level I system outages and 79% restoration time improvement. @BUSINESS, Golden, Colorado A· 2002-2005 . Stevenson Academy! Niche provider of technology project and program management services. IT Consultant Project Manager / Program Coordinator Southern California Edison. Managed high-profile projects/program activities for long-term engagement with Southern California Edison.

Crafted formal project documentation, business case and financial analyses using CMMI, ISO 9001 and ITIL within SCE PMO structure/ framework, established technical and business processes for Data Center Optimization Program. A similar process and set of tools were used for the Enterprise Information Management Program which encompassed the Data Quality and IT Data Governance Programs I managed. Planned and administered individual project budgets of up to $11.5M with average program budget exceeding $42M. Prepared and presented status and essay impact reports to senior sponsors and stakeholders as well as external business unit client leadership teams. Trained and mentored junior project managers and PMO resources. A· Transformed Enterprise Systems Monitoring-BMC Implementation Project , achieving successful integration despite 4 previous deployment failures before being selected to lead project. Slashed system outages and associated labor costs over 75%. A· Recognized Subject Matter Expert in Planiew Project Management tool and MS Project . A· Recognized SWAT TEAM member for establishment of the PMO operations and essay of argumentation School procedural guidelines including integration with exiting CMMI, ISO 9000 and ITIL initiatives. Essay Polimoda! A· Member of the DCO Strategic Planning team outlining the 5 year plan for IT/Business Alignment. COMPUTER HORIZONS CONSULTING, Marina Del Ray, California A· 2001-2002. Provider of comprehensive technology consulting, implementation, and support services. Directed business analysis as well as solution design and delivery for massive infrastructure build out and application upgrade for IT/telecom units of how to write a conclusion for an essay Abbey College cancer research diagnostic laboratory with operations nationwide. Instituted robust standard operating procedures with highly specified statements of work.

Oversaw deployment of Remedy Help Desk Management application. Prepared operating budget and directed technical support activities for LA area. A Critical Analysis! RHIC CONSULTING, Westwood, California A· 2000-2001. Provider of IT professional services, including system integration and of california a-g requirements School support. A Critical Polimoda! Assigned to Amgen Pharmaceuticals account to write my essay of Southampton lead custom development and integration of writing analysis essay Nucleas Pharma application with Siebel CRM modules and Amgen's legacy applications and infrastructure. Defined project scope, milestones, and my essay of Southampton deliverables; allocated resources as appropriate to resolve issues, manage change requests, and writing essay fulfill schedule commitments. A· Oversaw rollout of mission-critical change orders to kind writing Macquarie University enable interfacing between Amgen Sales Force Automation and CRM Systems with third-party systems . SYMMETRICAL SOLUTIONS, La Crescenta, California A· 1989-2000. Privately held IT consulting firm specializing in system implementation and support services.

Project Manager Principal Technical Consultant. Launched operations and managed all facets of IT engagements with clientele, to include relationship development, requirements gathering/analysis, and a critical analysis solution design/implementation. Planned and administered project budgets as well as key milestones and deliverables. Coordinated system conversions and infrastructure overhauls. A· Oversaw negotiation of SOW and SOP's for installation of LAN/WAN infrastructure with telephony systems and MacDuffie School custom applications for Theta Computer of America . Sources and managed subcontractors to ensure timely implementation of customer systems. A· Delivered 45% improvement in call center productivity for Apartment Owners Association of Southern California by enhancing technologies and writing analysis essay Polimoda improving call flows and call management processes . Prepared detailed specifications for ACD system RFP/RFQ and data center layout. Essay School! A· Directed all phases of LAN/WAN System 36/AS400 Gateway conversion for entire Pacific Oaks College campus . Prepared $5M grant application, developed network specifications and deployment plan, and spearheaded infrastructure and application upgrades to ensure optimal utilization of new LAN/WAN network. Helped secure $4M in incremental funding and new server/workstation deployment.

Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), Project Management Institute. Writing A Critical Essay! Member, Business Architect Association, Business Process Engineering Certification. ITIL Foundations Certification/ IT Service Management. HOBBIES EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES. A· Keyboards, Vocals, Producing - Various Bands Music Project over write my essay paper, the last 20 years. A· Volunteer Work with Various Autism Neurodiversity Awareness Support Organization.

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More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in writing a critical analysis essay, the book. Crouch down behind your character and kind of essay writing Macquarie University describe yourself as the writing analysis essay Polimoda character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of writing Macquarie University, a character.

Use any combination of writing Polimoda, soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into images Stevenson Academy, the book should accompany the sculpture. Interview a character from your book. Write at least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about writing essay, his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the write University of Southampton book’s events. Remember that the character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary.

If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Prepare an oral report of 5 minutes. Give a brief summary of the plot and describe the personality of one of the main characters. Be prepared for questions from the class. Give a sales talk, pretending the students in the class are clerks in a bookstore and you want them to push this book. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene.

Make several sketches of some of the analysis scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the write a conclusion College Manchester book you have just read. Suddenly the a critical essay book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in how to write a conclusion for an Abbey, making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. A Critical Essay. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES.

Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. (Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the essay of argumentation Sevenoaks main events of the book. Include a written description of the analysis essay Polimoda scene. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the how to write for an Abbey Manchester book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. This must be done in the correct letter format.

Read the writing analysis essay Polimoda same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of how to for an Manchester, three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to writing a critical Polimoda, accompany each description. Essay Academy. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Read two books on the same subject and compare and analysis essay Polimoda contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must hve been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book.

Create a mini-comic book relating a chapter of the of essay writing Macquarie book. Make three posters about the analysis Polimoda book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for of argumentation School, dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and analysis Polimoda perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an university of california a-g requirements original poem; 3)act out writing analysis essay a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Design a book jacket for essay of argumentation, the book. I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this.

Create a newspaper for your book. Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in another, do a feature story on one of the writing analysis essay more interesting characters in another. Include an editorial and a collection of ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to show its significance. Do a book talk. Talk to the class about your book by write University of Southampton saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to read. Analysis Essay. Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book. Stop reading at a moment that leaves the audience hanging and MacDuffie School add If you want to know more you’ll have to read the book. If the writing a critical analysis essay book talk is writing images Academy, well done almost all the students want to read the book. Construct puppets and writing a critical analysis present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Make a book jacket for the book or story.

Draw a comic strip of write paper of Southampton, your favourite scene. Make a model of something in the story. Polimoda. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the story. Make a mini-book about the story. Practice and the read to the class a favourite part. Retell the story in your own words to the class.

Write about what you learned from the story. Write a different ending for your story. Write a different beginning. Write a letter to a character in the book. Write a letter to the author of the book. Make a community journal.

Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall (your teacher can make a brick-like master and kind of essay Macquarie then run this off on red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and glue them on the wall. Compare and contrast two characters in the story. Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in the book. Sketch a favourite part of the book–don’t copy an already existing illustration. Make a time line of all the events in the book. Make a flow chart of Polimoda, all the events in the book. Show the events as a cycle. Kind Of Essay Writing. Make a message board.

Make a map of where the a critical essay Polimoda events in the book take place. Esl Argumentative School. Compare and contrast this book to another. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to writing analysis essay, events and changed. Make a list of character traits each person has. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in paper of Southampton, the story. Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in your story.

Make an action wheel. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Remember that the character’s thoughts and writing analysis essay feelings are very important in a diary. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene. Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to read it. Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in a conclusion for an Abbey College, your story. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place. Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspaper’s parts–comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc.

Interview a character. Writing A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda. Write at least ten questions that will give the character the University of Southampton opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to writing Polimoda, present your interview is up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in my essay paper University of Southampton, the parts. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth. Choose a quote from a character. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by which to analysis essay Polimoda, live your life Learn something about the environment in which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the esl argumentative story from a different point of view Choose one part of the story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the a critical essay Polimoda characters in writing Stevenson, your story. Writing Analysis. Write about one of the character’s life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from write a conclusion essay Abbey one of the characters.

Draw a picture on one side, write the message on the other. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in the book Plan a party for a critical analysis essay, one or all of the how to write for an essay Manchester characters involved Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved. Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the setting of the climax. Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the writing analysis essay Polimoda setting of the story. Choose five artifact from the write Abbey College Manchester book that best illustrate the happenings and writing analysis Polimoda meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one.

Stories are made up; on conflicts and School solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in the story and give the solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda, the story. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is kind of essay Macquarie, no going back home to get something! Make up questions–have a competition. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told.

Each child illustrates a part. Writing A Critical Analysis. Put on the wall. Each child rewrites the write paper University story, and divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda unused part with a square for later illustrations. Of California. Outline the story, then use the outline to expand into paragraphs. Writing A Critical Essay. Teacher chooses part of the text and deletes some of the words. Students fill in the blanks. Make a chart of how to a conclusion for an essay Manchester, interesting words as a whole class activity. Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to a critical, get ahead or to be put back.

Groups exchange boards, then play. Create life-sized models of two of your favourite characters and dress them as they are dressed in University, the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and essay Polimoda how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Make several sketches of of essay writing University, some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read.

Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Analysis Essay. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to how to write essay Abbey College Manchester, get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the writing analysis essay Polimoda story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and essay School the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene.

Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. A Critical Analysis Essay. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to Kingswood School, accompany each description. Read two books on the same subject and compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an writing a critical essay comparing the movie version with the esl argumentative essay MacDuffie book. Make three posters about the writing book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story.

Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Write a one sentence summary of each chapter and illustrate the write a conclusion for an essay College sentence. Writing Polimoda. Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on back after listing the title and author. Write a multiple choice quiz of the book with at least ten questions.

Make a life-sized stand-up character of esl argumentative, one of the people in the book. On the back list the analysis Polimoda characteristics of the person. Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from how to for an essay Abbey people in the classroom. Tell what you think the main character in the book would like for writing a critical analysis essay, a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in a conclusion, the story. A Critical Analysis Essay. Do some research on essay Stevenson a topic brought up; in writing analysis essay Polimoda, your book.

Write an obituary for one of the characters. Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for one of the write my essay of Southampton characters in the book and writing write letter of application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the characters in the book. Which character would you choose? Why? Invite one of the characters to dinner, and plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the kind of essay writing meal. What will you serve, and why? Write an ad for a dating service for writing analysis essay Polimoda, one of the characters.

Nominate one of the university of california characters for an office in local, state or national government. Which office should they run for? What are the essay qualities that would make them be good for that office? Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the characters. Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to this book.

Add another character to the book. Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for younger children in picture book form. Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on essay Sevenoaks the evening news Make a gravestone for one of the characters. What other story could have taken place at this same time and setting? Write the plot and about 4 or 5 characters in this new book. Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. Tell about the most interesting part of the book.

Write about the most interesting part of the book. Tell about the most important part of the book. Writing Essay. Write about the essay Stevenson most interesting part of the writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda book. Read the essay School interesting parts aloud. Write about writing analysis, a character you liked or disliked. Write a dramatization of a certain episode. Demonstrate something you learned. Make a peep box of the most important part. Paint a mural of the story or parts of it.

Paint a watercolor picture. Essay School. Make a book jacket with an inside summary. Make a scale model of an important object. Writing A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda. Draw a clock to show the time when an important event happened and write about it. Write another ending for the story. Make up a lost or found ad for a person or object in of california, the story. Make up a picture story of the most important part. Draw a picture story of the most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. Write a movie script of the story. Gather a collection of objects described in the book.

Draw or paint pictures of the main characters. Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Make a poster to advertise the book. Give a pantomime of an important part. Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Make a map showing where the story took place. Tell about the author or illustrator. Make a flannel board story. Make a mobile using a coat hanger.

Give a chalk talk about the writing a critical essay book. Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture. Make a scroll picture.

Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the write paper of Southampton story. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the writing essay story. Write a book review. Books about how to do something- classroom demonstration – the directions can be read aloud. Write the essay Sevenoaks pros and a critical analysis Polimoda cons (opinion) of a book after careful study. If a travel book is read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to why one should visit this place. A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages.

Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of new and unusual words and expressions. A pantomime acted out for a guessing game. Write a letter to a-g requirements Kingswood, a friend about the book. Polimoda. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the same book should be able to answer.

Make a time-line for MacDuffie, a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Research and essay tell a brief biography about the author. Make models of my essay University of Southampton, things read about in the book. Make a colorful mural depicting the book. A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda. A picture or caption about laughter for humorous books. Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for the main character. Write a script for an interview with the main character. Essay Images Academy. Retell the story to a younger grade. Choral reading with poetry.

Adding original stanzas to poetry. Identify the parts in the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior. Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the main character. Parts of the story which compare the actions of two or more characters. A part that describes a person, place or thing. A part of the story that you think could not have really happened. A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold.

A part which you believe is the climax of the story. The conversation between two characters. Pretend you are the a critical essay main character and retell the story. Work with a small group of students. Plan for one to read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Write a biographical sketch of one character.

Fill in what you don’t find in the text using your own imagination. Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the characters. Construct a miniature stage setting for part of a story – use a small cardboard box. Children enjoy preparing a monologue from a story. Marking particularly descriptive passages for kind of essay, oral reading gives the reader and his audience an writing a critical essay opportunity to of argumentation Sevenoaks School, appreciate excellent writing, and gives them a chance to a critical Polimoda, improve their imagery and enlarge their vocabulary.

The child who likes to make lists of new unusual and of california a-g requirements interesting words and expressions to writing analysis essay Polimoda, add to his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in a conclusion essay Abbey Manchester, the context of the story. Giving a synopsis of a critical analysis, a story is an my essay University excellent way of gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in a book to a critical analysis essay, make a scrapbook about the write University of Southampton subject. A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the writing a critical analysis same book can make up a set of questions about the book and then test each other. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the person. Preparing a book review to present to a class at a lower level is an kind Macquarie University excellent experience in writing, story- telling and gives children an understanding of how real authors must work to prepare books for children. Have the students do an author study and university a-g requirements Kingswood School read several books by the same author and then compare. Writing A Critical Polimoda. Cutting a piece of paper in the form of a large thumbnail and placing it on the bulletin board with the caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the children put up drawings about the books they’ve read.

Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from which is hung paper illustrated with materials about kind of essay Macquarie, various books. Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of analysis, modeling media is purposeful when it is used to make an illustration of a book. Constructing on a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for a group. A bulletin board with a caption about laughter or a picture of someone laughing at excerpts from funny stories rewritten by the children from material in humorous books. Esl Argumentative. Visiting the children’s room at the public library and telling the librarian in a critical, person about the kinds of books the children would like to have in Macquarie University, the library. Video tape oral book reports and then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to writing analysis Polimoda, share. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in another school. Of Argumentation Sevenoaks School. Do a costumed presentation of your book.

Dress either as the author or one of the characters. Write a letter from one character to writing essay Polimoda, another character. Write the first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Outline what would happen in the rest of book. Write a new conclusion. Esl Argumentative School. Write a new beginning. If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of essay Polimoda, significant places. Make a diorama and explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the setting or a main event from the book.

Make a new jacket with an original blurb. Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the book. Participate with three or four classmates in for an essay College, a television talk show about the a critical analysis Polimoda book. With another student, do a pretend interview with the author or with one of the characters. Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the book. With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the essay School book. Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book. Writing Essay. Focus on a specific topic and kind Macquarie University report your group’s conclusion to the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of writing analysis essay Polimoda, reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book.

Explain the similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School characters. Write a paragraph telling about the a critical title. Is it appropriate? Why? Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book.

Why is it appropriate? Is it better than the one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the book. What types of activities would there be for them to how to write Abbey College Manchester, attend?

Write a letter to the main character of the a critical analysis Polimoda book. Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write the letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the a-g requirements Kingswood School characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to tell the story to the class. Writing A Critical Analysis Essay. Write a description of one of the main characters. Essay Images Academy. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description.

Make an analysis Polimoda ID card which belongs to one of the characters. Be sure to esl argumentative essay MacDuffie, make the card look like the cards for that particular state. Include a picture and all information found on and ID card. Writing A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda. Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the character–especially the signature. I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of essay writing images, 15 to 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the characters and tell the story from a first person point of a critical analysis essay, view. Esl Argumentative Essay MacDuffie School. Rewrite the story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students.

Write a diary as the main character would write it to analysis, explain the events of the story. Sevenoaks School. Must have at a critical essay, least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in the book. Tell how the conflict was or was not resolved. Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in essay Stevenson Academy, the book. Writing Analysis. Make a collage representing some event or part of your book.

Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book. Of Argumentation. Need at least 25 entries. Writing A Critical. Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the paper material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story. Make a display of the time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book.

Create a movie announcement for a critical analysis Polimoda, your book. Create a radio ad for Macquarie, your book. A Critical Essay. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in your book. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object.

Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to promote the sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the top 10 web sites a character in images Stevenson Academy, your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for a critical essay Polimoda, each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didn’t. After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the images Stevenson Academy outcome of the book. Create a board game based on events and characters in the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book.

Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the story. Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for writing a critical, the book you read. Cast the major character in the book with real actors and university of california School actresses.

Include a scene or dialogue from the book in a critical Polimoda, the layout of the poster. Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on a map. Make sure the map is large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Write University Of Southampton. Attach a legend to your map. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map.

Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in writing, the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Select one character from the book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. Essay Sevenoaks School. List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Writing Analysis Polimoda. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the of california a-g requirements novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and a critical Polimoda tell why you selected each person for esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, a given part. Writing A Critical Analysis Polimoda. Plan a party for the characters in the book you read.

In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to all of the characters. Of California. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to writing Polimoda, the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of images, what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an writing a critical Polimoda employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the Sevenoaks characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed. Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to analysis Polimoda, help you. One of you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the university of california a-g requirements School other is the defense. If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on a critical analysis essay your own.

Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and its effect in the book on for an essay your title page. Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Writing Essay Polimoda. Tape a monologue of MacDuffie, that character telling of a critical analysis essay Polimoda, his or her experiences. Be sure to write out a script before taping. Kind Of Essay Writing University. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of ten scenes in the order that they occur in the book you read. Writing A Critical. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in opposite sides of the box. Slide a butcher roll on kind of essay writing Macquarie which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to write out a script before taping or performing live.

Tape an interview with one of the characters in the book you read. Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter. You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to do a live version of this. Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the writing analysis Polimoda author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it.

Imagine that the author of the book you read is of essay University, a terrific friend of yours. Writing Essay. Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the two of you in which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Imagine that you have been given the essay MacDuffie School task of conducting a tour of the town in which the book you read is writing a critical Polimoda, set. Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to use a musical background for paper University of Southampton, your tape. Do some research on the hometown of writing a critical Polimoda, your book’s author. Paper University. You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. What else is writing a critical analysis essay, of interest in the town?

Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on the tour. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why.

Write the copy for a newspaper front page that is essay of argumentation School, devoted entirely to Polimoda, the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in the book you read. Use pictures and words cut from write my essay paper University of Southampton magazines in your collage. Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. A Critical Analysis Polimoda. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in the plot. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the of california Kingswood School book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and analysis affect characters.

Make a paper doll likeness of one of the characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for this character. Esl Argumentative Essay MacDuffie School. Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to be given on that topic by a critical essay one of the major characters in the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in a third-grade reading book. Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for university of california a-g requirements Kingswood School, that age group. Tape your storytelling. Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher.

Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a critical analysis essay, a logical order. Essay Images Stevenson Academy. You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear.

If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the lesson. Look through magazines for words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Analysis Essay. Make the bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Write the title of your book. Decide on some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style.

Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to ask questions about the a-g requirements Kingswood book. After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the Polimoda character’s personality, likes and dislikes. Decide on university of california a-g requirements Kingswood School a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and writing a critical essay Polimoda use. Of Essay Writing. Design a greeting card to go along with your gift.

In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to advertise your book. Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book.

Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself. Make the analysis Polimoda group feel they would like to know you better. Organize your best points into an introduction to present to the class. Be sure to wear your cover! Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like.

Cut out the classified. Essay Of Argumentation Sevenoaks. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the sketches on a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to analysis Polimoda, the author of your novel and for an Manchester explain how you feel about the book. Prepare and present an oral interpretation to the class.

Create a poster that could be used as an a critical analysis essay Polimoda advertisement. Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to university a-g requirements, “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the first half of the list. We’ll take a look at writing a critical analysis, editing out some obvious duplicates.

There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to Stevenson Academy, send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for essay, the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to university of california School, Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. Essay Polimoda. I Love you Mrs. Raider and of california a-g requirements Kingswood School Mrs.

Moore(: 3. xD. hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to a critical analysis Polimoda, show my creative and kind writing Macquarie University artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is just about to come in theaters. Essay Polimoda. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in my essay paper University of Southampton, the book. I also think that you can put an idea of writing a critical essay Polimoda, having to do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. Write Paper University Of Southampton. They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to graduate.

Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to choose! Act out the a critical analysis essay entire book in esl argumentative MacDuffie School, a two hour movie! That is such a good idea. AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over 300 of them.

You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in writing, order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in order to GAIN. Because life’s greatest lessons. are learned through PAIN.

Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.

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action speech topics Arguing Either Side of an writing a critical analysis Polimoda Issue. Esl Argumentative Essay School! Doctor-assisted suicide should (or should not) be legal. Spammers—people who bombard Internet users with unsolicited e-mail—should (or should not) be allowed to a critical analysis essay, send their junk mail. Every automobile driver should (or should not) be required to writing University, take a new driver's test every three years. Electroshock treatment is (or is essay Polimoda, not) a humane form of therapy. Every student should (or should not) be required to learn a foreign language. Solar power is (or is not) a viable alternate energy source. Drug addicts should (or should not) be put in hospitals for medical treatment instead of in prisons for punishment.

American workers should (or should not) be guaranteed a three-day weekend by law. All health professionals should (or should not) be tested annually for Sevenoaks HIV infection and AIDS. Self-proclaimed militias should (or should not) be closely monitored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Essay! Assault weapons should (or should not) be outlawed. All owners of kind writing firearms should (or should not) be required to register their weapons with the police. Writing A Critical Analysis! A two-week waiting period should (or should not) be required for anyone attempting to University, purchase a firearm. Analysis Essay! The death penalty for murderers should (or should not) be abolished. The death penalty should (or should not) be imposed on juveniles. University Of California A-g Requirements! Drug dealers convicted of distributing large quantities of drugs should (or should not) receive the death penalty.

The U.S. military should (or should not) be used to curb drug smuggling into the U.S. The U.S. Writing Analysis! should (or should not) cut off all foreign aid to dictatorships. Smoking should (or should not) be banned in public areas such as restaurants and airport terminals. State and local governments should (or should not) operate lotteries and gambling casinos. The U.S. should (or should not) remain in a conclusion for an College Manchester, the United Nations. A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda! Immigration into write paper the U.S. should (or should not) be restricted.

Churches should (or should not) be required to pay taxes. A Critical Polimoda! Federal funding for the arts should (or should not) be provided. The present-day tax system is (or is not) unfair to middle-class and lower-income Americans. College athletes should (or should not) be required to meet the academic requirements of their schools. Sex education should (or should not) be a required course in all schools as early as sixth grade. Everyone should (or should not) be required to pass a competency exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. Essay Writing Images! Chronic mental patients should (or should not) be housed in halfway houses or residences in writing a critical, the community, rather than in esl argumentative, remote mental hospitals. Writing A Critical Polimoda! The President should (or should not) be limited to a single six-year term. Billboards should (or should not) be outlawed on interstate highways. Businesses should (or should not) be permitted to make unsolicited telephone calls to citizens. IQ tests are (or are not) valid measures of human intelligence.

Psychologists and how to a conclusion essay, psychiatrists should (or should not) testify in court on behalf of the not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity plea. Regardless of income, all Americans should (or should not) be guaranteed basic medical care under a national health insurance program. Heredity is (or is not) a more powerful influence on personality development than environment. ESP (extrasensory perception) is (or is not) a demonstrable scientific fact. Scientific experimentation on animals should (or should not) be outlawed. Heroin should (or should not) be legal as a pain reliever for terminally ill patients. Acupuncture is (or is not) a valid medical technique. Beauty pageants do (or do not) debase women. The minimum wage should (or should not) be waived for adolescent and young adult workers. Despite their legal tax deductions and loopholes, all millionaires should (or should not) be required to pay federal income tax. Police should (or should not) be allowed to writing analysis Polimoda, set up roadblocks to isolate and arrest impaired drivers.

Athletes should (or should not) be allowed to use steroids. Students need to School, be more vigilant and observant to avoid becoming victims of campus crime. Citizens should resist efforts being made to shut down zoos and aquariums. Steps must be taken to reduce contaminants in the nation's water supplies. Children and a critical analysis, teenagers need to esl argumentative MacDuffie School, be educated on the dangers of huffing (sniffing solvents and aerosols).

Lawmakers need to pass tougher legislation to discourage the writing a critical growing number of stalkers. Every person should stipulate that in the event of death, he or she is willing to donate organs. People of all races and ethnic groups should be aware that overexposure to the sun can cause skin cancer, regardless of a person's skin color. Dog and cat owners should have their pets spayed or neutered. Citizens with cellular phones can help thwart crimes and assist in esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, the capture of criminals. People wanting cosmetic surgery should investigate the essay risks before submitting to surgery. MacDuffie School! Riders of essay bicycles and motorcycles should be required by law to always wear helmets. Every person who dines at a restaurant needs to know when and how to a conclusion essay Manchester, how much to tip. Hotels and motels should increase security to counteract the rising number of crimes against guests. Taxpayers should subsidize therapy sessions for victims of violent crimes. Sellers of used automobiles should be required by law to tell prospective buyers if a car is a rebuilt vehicle that had been wrecked.

Child care authorities should carefully screen prospective foster parents to prevent child molesters from becoming foster parents. Analysis Polimoda! Everyone should take classes in CPR and first aid techniques. Consumers who routinely run up credit card bills that they can't pay should seek guidance from esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School credit counselors.

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essay on passivity Lillian Ferrari, Reading Group first meeting. Thursday, September 24, 2015. 8:30 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. LOCATION: Please contact Lillian Ferrari for writing a critical analysis essay the location. The True Imaginary: Constructing the Phantasm.

Paula Hochman Vappereau, Foundations of essay Sevenoaks School Psychoanalysis. Friday, September 25, 2015. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Joyce Historical/Hysterical: The Know-how of writing essay Polimoda Lalangue. Jean-Michel Vappereau, Workshop.

Saturday, September 26, 2015. 10:30 a.m. Writing Images Academy! - 2:00 p.m. Sunday, September 27, 2015. 10:30 a.m. - 2:00 p.m. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Daniel Heller-Roazen, Foundations of writing analysis Psychoanalysis.

Friday, October 9, 2015. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Savoir-faire and the Frame of the Cure, Part III. Paola Mieli, Seminar. Friday, October 16, 2015. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts.

136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Savoir-faire and kind of essay, the Frame of the Cure, Part III. Paola Mieli, Seminar. Friday, November 13, 2015. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Patrick Landman, Workshop. Saturday, December 5, 2015.

10:30 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street. Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. Savoir-faire and the Frame of the Cure, Part III. Paola Mieli, Seminar. Friday, December 11, 2015. LOCATION: School of Visual Arts. 136 West 21st Street.

Ask for the Room Number at the Front Desk. 2007 Après-Coup Psychoanalytic Association. Activity versus passivity - Verhaeghe, Paul. Boston, Harvard University, 28 Oct. 99. New York, Apres Coup, 6 Nov. 99.

Activity versus passivity: beyond the question of gender. It is writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda, well-known that Freud’s’ first steps in essay of argumentation Sevenoaks the field of hysteria brought him the discovery of traumatism and the seduction by the father. A Critical Analysis Essay! Right from the start, the question of gender and the relationship between man and woman is also one of his main worries, with a special accent on femininity. During the development of his work, he will produce several answers, but they will never be very satisfying. Different as they may be, there is one constancy in it. Indeed, right to the end, Freud will stick to essay writing Academy the idea that there is a certain equivalence: masculinity equals activity, femininity equals passivity. E.g. the libido for him is active-masculine, meaning: phallic.

He will stick to this idea even in a critical analysis Polimoda his last papers, but at the same time, he is of argumentation Sevenoaks, never satisfied with it because he feels that something doesn’t fit. My thesis can be summarised in three points: the primary opposition is the one between activity and passivity; the opposition between man and woman is writing a critical analysis, only one possible implementation of this primary opposition, the main one being the opposition between the subject and it’s own body; it is this primary opposition that grounds the statement there is of essay writing, no sexual relationship In order to demonstrate my thesis, I will start with Freud’s theory and continue with Lacan’s elaboration that Lacan gave to it. Freud’s Studies on Hysteria introduce us immediately into writing a critical essay, the heart of the matter. He presents us with a remarkable description of what he calls the psychical material of hysteria.

Based on his clinical experience, he concludes that this material is arranged around what he considers the nucleus in my essay paper University which the traumatic factor had culminated or the pathogenic idea has founded its purest manifestation (SEII, 288). The aim of his hypnocathartic technique is to bring this nucleus back into essay, consciousness and university of california School, abreact it, but time and again, this fails. Freud has to conclude that the analysis, essential characteristic of this nucleus is precisely the fact that it can never be put into words, because the defence is such that the words for it are lacking forever (GW 1, 291-294). He assumes that the how to write a conclusion for an Abbey Manchester, basic aetiology of writing a critical analysis hysteria goes back to writing Macquarie University a primary experience of anxiety that arises in the confrontation with something for which the psyche does not have an essay, appropriate answer and leaves us with a lack in this respect. Quote: This first stage of hysteria may be described as fright hysteria; its primary symptom is the manifestation of fright accompanied by a gap in the psyche (Manuscript K, SEI, p.228). So, right from the start, we can already come to MacDuffie a kind of conclusion. This traumatic, fright -inducing nucleus that cannot be put into words, ex — sists outside the Symbolic and must necessarily belong to a critical Polimoda the Real. As a consequence, it can only be approached by sideways, by its borders, meaning the formations of the how to a conclusion for an essay Abbey, Unconscious, and that is precisely what Freud has done. At the end of essay Polimoda 1895, he sends a manuscript to Fliess in which we find a very good summary of his ideas at that time. Quote: Hysteria necessarily presupposes a primary experience of unpleasure — that is, of a passive nature. The natural sexual passivity of women explains their being more inclined to hysteria (Draft K, SE1, p.228).

We need to how to a conclusion Abbey Manchester deconstruct this quote. Firstly, we have hysteria and passivity. This idea is a essential: the primal experience leading to hysteria is a passive one against which defence is only possible in a further development. Writing Essay! Freud will extend this idea to essay Sevenoaks hysteria in man and to obsessional neurosis as well. So, the proposition can be generalised: every psychoneurotic development starts with an unpleasurable traumatic experience of passivity. Secondly, we have passivity and femininity, the writing Polimoda, natural sexual passivity of women. Freud is aware of the fact that something is wrong with this idea, and he will try to reformulate it several times during the later development of write my essay paper University of Southampton his work, but he will never find a satisfactory answer. Anyhow, he is certain about a critical analysis essay Polimoda, one thing: independently of the gender, every neurosis starts with a sexual trauma that is experienced in a passive way. The psyche cannot cope with it, reacts with anxiety and leaves us with a lack.

From a lacanian point of my essay paper University of Southampton view, this trauma can be understood as the lack of the Other, that is, that part of the Real that is excluded from the Symbolic. Of course, this idea of the writing, Other is of argumentation, something that we add , but it can be argued from Freud’s theory as well. If you are acquainted with his early writings, you will probably know that at a critical analysis essay, that time he was convinced that most sexual traumata were caused by the father who seduced his child. Later on, he had to revoke this idea, but it is a mistake to think that it disappeared altogether from his work. On the contrary even, it returns in a very particular way and moreover, linked to the concept of passivity. In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Freud already mentions two forms of jouissance and these two forms can be interpreted with the activity-passivity polarity. The passive form refers to what the writing Stevenson, child has to undergo from the mother.

Initially, every child is reduced to writing a critical analysis the passive object of the jouissance of the mother, she is the active party of the paper University, two. The child itself wants to leave this passive position and exchange it for the active one, meaning the phallic position. Writing A Critical Analysis! Freud discovers this transition from passive to active firstly in the oral field, from of essay Macquarie being suckled to active sucking (GW V, p.82-84), but later on, he will recognise this transition in every drive. As a result, he will consider this transition as one of the writing a critical essay, basic vicissitudes of the drive as such, meaning that there is always an active and a passive version to it (SE 14, p.126). Kind Writing Macquarie! Lacan will retake this idea even more generally by recognizing two versions of each partial drive: to see and to writing essay make oneself seen, to hear, and to make oneself heard, to eat and to how to a conclusion College Manchester make oneself gobbled up etc.(sem.XI, Les quatre concepts, p.177 ff.; English version, The four fundamental etc., p.195 ff). Twenty years later, when Freud is trying to elaborate the feminine version of the writing a critical essay Polimoda, oedipal complex, he returns to his original seduction theory, albeit with an MacDuffie School, important correction. Indeed, the study of the female Oedipus complex demonstrates that it is the mother, and not the father, who seduces the child, and this simply because of her way of handling the child’s body during the mothering.

The pampering process reduces the child to her object of jouissance, and a critical analysis essay, it is first of write Manchester all the mother who enjoys this process (GW. XIV, 351 en GW XV, 128-29). Considered in this way, the child functions as a plug, it fills the lack of the Other and provides this Other with jouissance. The very fact of being reduced to this position of passive object functions as a trauma for every subject. Essay! The paternal seduction comes later and is normally nothing but a defensive phantasmatic elaboration directed against this traumatic experience.

Finally, Freud will stumble over this lack of the Other, or, to be more precise, he will stumble over his own interpretation of this lack. Indeed, for Kingswood Freud, every lack has to be interpreted in terms of castration, with its two different expressions depending on the gender. For a masculine subject, it is castration anxiety as such, for a female subject, it is the a critical analysis Polimoda, penis envy. In his paper on Analysis terminable and interminable, he writes about a biological rock that he assumes to meet beyond the castration complex. Write A Conclusion For An College! For him, this rock puts an end to all the therapeutical hope concerning the castration complex. As this means the writing a critical analysis essay, impossible end of esl argumentative MacDuffie School analysis, the reader usually stops his lecture of this paper at that point, but it is worthwhile to continue one’s reading (GW XVI, 96-99). As a matter of fact, Freud discusses the idea of a critical analysis essay a general principle that finds a different expression depending on the gender in which it appears. To be sure, this principle concerns castration, but right from the start, Freud remarks that it expresses something else as well, I quote: (…)from the start, repudiation of femininity would have been the writing images Academy, correct description of this remarkable feature in the psychical life of human beings. (SE23, p.250).

And in the very last paragraph of the paper, we read: The repudiation of femininity can be nothing else than a biological fact, a part of the great riddle of sex. (SE 23, 252). Instead of rejecting these ideas as being totally obsolete and a critical essay Polimoda, anti-feminist on writing, top of that, again, it is much more rewarding to ask oneself the question what Freud understands with this signifier of femininity. If one studies the last pages of his paper, the answer is quite clear: femininity equals passivity, especially passivity towards an Other. If one thinks this through, then this theory is a critical analysis essay, not very surprising. The idea that a child has to Macquarie liberate itself from the original symbiosis with his mother, that it has to fight for its autonomy, these ideas are already present in what I consider to be the Anglo-Saxon psychoanalytical psychology. The lacanian theory, at least in writing a critical Polimoda my interpretation, provides us with a different answer that will permit us to go beyond this two bodies-psychology. This part of the esl argumentative essay School, lacanian theory is to be found in what I consider to a critical analysis be the of argumentation, second Lacan, the one of the Real and the Jouissance.

With the first Lacan, everything is supposed to fall under the determination of the signifier, i.e. the Symbolic Order. Writing Analysis Essay! This overdetermination enables us to essay of argumentation make predictions (cfr the seminar on the Purloined Letter) and to practice analysis. Most of you are probably familiar with the keywords from that period: parole vide, parole pleine, la realisation symbolique (full speech, empty speech, the symbolic realisation) etc. Analysis! Well, in the first chapter of seminar eleven, Lacan introduces his audience to kind Macquarie University the idea of causality as something that lies outside this determinism. Ultimately, this cause is to be considered as un-determined, not subjected to and even in opposition with the deterministic laws of the symbolic order.

In the further lessons of seminar eleven, this in — determination will be interpreted as the traumatic Real, that is to say, that part of the a critical Polimoda, drive that resists to kind of essay Macquarie University the process of symbolisation and that operates in a traumatic way for the subject. It is important to understand that this trauma takes place even before whatever intervention of the Other . Much later, in his last seminars, Lacan will talk about the identification with the real part of the symptom and this will enable him to open a new theory on the (in-)terminability of an analysis Polimoda, analysis — this is his theory on the sinthomme. So, from seminar XI onwards, the body takes a completely different place. Operating as a cause, it obliges the subject to a Real that escapes us , the Real that is situated beyond the automaton of the symbolic Order and that resists to of argumentation School its assimilation in writing Polimoda this Symbolic Order. Writing Macquarie! Considered from this point of view, the idea of causality implies the idea of a failure, of writing essay something that did not succeed, thereby leaving the place open for something else.

It is at this point that I recognise the fundamental lack, Freud’s nucleus of the unconscious. For Lacan, the body will operate through the essay School, drive as the writing Polimoda, cause for essay of argumentation Sevenoaks the Unconscious as such. It is important to understand that this new theory on causality is not introduced in writing a critical Polimoda an isolated way, on the contrary even. This new theory enables Lacan to provide the essay Stevenson, Unconscious with a new status, and this status is grounded on what happens on the level of the subject and its body. This can be summarised by what he denominates as the pulsating movement of the unconscious. He describes the unconscious as a border process with a typical movement of opening and closing. During this double movement, time and again something fails to be realised. That is the writing analysis Polimoda, reason why Lacan considers both the subject and the unconscious to be pre-ontological. Indeed, something misses continuously its materialisation, all the accent should be placed upon this double movement of opening and closing and this goes for the subject and for the unconscious as well.

This has a very important consequence: the write my essay University of Southampton, aim of the treatment can not be considered any more in a critical Polimoda terms of symbolic realisation, because that is precisely impossible from a structural point of view. If one tries to do this, one ends inevitably with Freud’s version of the interminable analysis. As said above, in his later theory, Lacan will try to provide us with a different aim for the treatment. So, with this new theory on essay images Stevenson, causality, it is the Real that operates in a causal way and the determinism of the analysis Polimoda, Symbolic is not absolute anymore. The question is: what Real are we talking about?

Or, to university of california a-g requirements Kingswood School be more specific: which lack are we talking about, because the Real always implies a lack in writing the Symbolic. In Lacan’s preceding theory, the accent was on desire and the lack of the esl argumentative School, Other to which the subject tried to produce an answer. Initially, Lacan followed Freud and a critical analysis, the hysterical subject, meaning that he also interpreted this lack in write University terms of castration and phallus. His new theory starts when he introduces the Real of the body as the basic causality. We have to a critical essay be even more specific: it is not so much the body he is referring to, no, he is talking about the organism and the organs. Indeed, in his lesson of the 27th of May 1964, Lacan surprises his audience by introducing them to another lack, another loss. This lack precedes the well-known lack in essay of argumentation Sevenoaks School the chain of signifiers, the one that determines the desire of the subject in the dialectical exchange between mother and child. The least that can be said about this new lack is writing a critical analysis essay Polimoda, that it is indeed a very fundamental one, because it concerns the loss of the eternal life.

Paradoxically enough, this lack is installed at essay images Stevenson Academy, the very moment of the conception, that is, at the moment of the birth of a sexually differentiated life form. In order to a critical Polimoda explain this unexplainable fact, Lacan provides his audience with a myth, that is, he tells them a story about something that flies away at the moment of birth, a kind of lamella. This thing lost forever is object (a) in its purest form as life instinct. For Lacan, the loss of eternal life goes back to a biological fact, and in writing this way, he will reconsider Freud’s biological rock. In opposition to Freud, he will interpret this biological fact not so much as a stumbling rock, but as something that permits the writing a critical, subject to escape from the write my essay paper University, all embracing determinism (of the Symbolic). Lacan’s explanation of the lamella myth runs as follows. Organisms that reproduce themselves in writing analysis a non-sexual way — bacteria’s, viruses, prions, and today clones as well — can in principle live forever, because their reproduction comes down to a replication. Stevenson! In these cases, death is purely accidental and not inevitable as such. This is not the case with sexually differentiated organisms, because these life forms have to die.

The cell division that characterises these sexual life forms — the analysis Polimoda, meiosis — causes not only the loss of half of the genetic material, it excludes these life forms from the eternal life as well. Indeed, the chip that governs the process is programmed to destroy itself after a certain time. In contemporary biology, this is how to Abbey College, coined as the apoptosis. It is a critical essay, interesting to note the analogies with Freud’s commentary on the Weissman’s theory in Beyond the pleasure principle. The non-sexual life form contains the possibility of eternal life. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, implies automatically the death of the individual. The story does not end there, on the contrary. Of California A-g Requirements School! In one way or another, each organism tries to escape from this loss, and yearns to return to the situation from before the sexual differentiation. Writing Analysis Essay Polimoda! Freud had already recognised this tendency to return to a previous state of being as a basic characteristic of the essay images Stevenson, drive.

By the way, in this respect, we are still talking about the drive, meaning before any social determination of gender and before any division in analysis partial drives. We will return to this with Freud’s idea of life and death drive, albeit that we will have to reinterpret his denominations. It is of essay Macquarie, important to acknowledge the fact that the reaction to this primordial loss — that is, the defensive elaboration and the attempt to return to the previous state — that this reaction takes place on writing a critical essay, the symbolico-imaginary scene, meaning the scene where the gender identity will be acquired. Because of the specifics of the oedipal structure, this gender identity comes down to a phallic one. This means that the attempt to return — that is, the answer to the primordial lack, the lack in the Real — will be produced on the level of the second lack, the lack in the Symbolic. Hence the fact that this fundamental lack on the level of the organism is reinterpreted as a phallic lack in how to College Manchester the relation between subject and Other — this is first of all the case in hysteria and in neurosis in general, which explains Freud’s obstinate clinging to this phallic interpretation. During this reinterpretation, object (a) becomes associated to the borders of the body, the writing a critical, orifices through which the secondary losses take place: mouth, anus, eye, ear and genitals. This phallic interpretation of the object (a) also implies the fact that the lack and original loss are introduced into of essay writing Macquarie University, the relation between child and first Other, the mother, and writing a critical essay Polimoda, from there onwards, in the relationship between man and woman. The Freudian Oedipal complex can very well be summarised like that. From that moment onwards, the drive is turned into partial drives and presents always a fusion between life and death drive.

Following Lacan, this fusion between life and death amounts to a circular but non-reciprocal interaction. The loss at the level of the Real transforms individual life into one elongated attempt to return to the preceding eternal life. From a structural point of view, this leaves us with two elements, of whom one operates as a force of attraction, whilst the other wants to return and to esl argumentative School move forward at the same time. This is the Philia and Neikos to which Freud refers (GW XVI, 92). Their interaction is each time staged on writing Polimoda, a different level, which installs and endorses the fact that there is no relationship between them — the two borders can never meet. As early as 1948, Lacan had already written that in mankind, there is a dehiscence, a cleft in the very core of the organism, a primordial discordance (Ecrits, 96). The final result of this primordial cleft is the university of california a-g requirements School, fact there is no sexual relationship. The last scene of the interaction concerns the advent of the subject, the opening and closing movement takes place through the processes of separation and alienation. Nevertheless, I am convinced that the scope of this interaction goes way further.

I will present you with an overview of this range. Firstly, we have the already mentioned advent of the living at the moment of birth. The advent of sexually differentiated lifeforms implies the loss of the eternal life. This loss is summarised by Lacan in his concept of the object (a), meaning the pure loss of the writing essay Polimoda, lifeinstinct. This eternal life, the Zoe of the classical Greek, functions as a force of attraction for the individual life, the Bios, that tries to a-g requirements return. The price to pay for this return is the loss of this individual life as such, and this explains the other tendency, the one that flees from it in the opposite direction. A Critical Analysis! The so-called solution implies and Macquarie University, endorses a structurally defined impossibility of the relationship. Indeed, the bios tries to join the zoe through sexual reproduction, thus entailing a necessary failure and even repeating and Polimoda, endorsing the original loss. This is the essay of argumentation, first version of the already mentioned circular but non-reciprocal interaction.

From this moment onwards, life and death drive are fused. From the above, it is clear that the idea of life and essay, death has to be applied in a balanced way. How To Write A Conclusion Abbey Manchester! The death of the individual implies eternal life, the loss of eternal life implies a limited individual life — life and death have a different meaning, depending on the point of essay view that is taken. Write My Essay University! This is probably the reason why for Freud both drives were indeed always fused. Secondly, we have the writing essay, advent of the I, that is, the primary alienation of the mirror stage. The living being acquires a first mastery, a first identity because of the unified image of his body through the master signifier, the I. To be sure, this image comes to him from outside, it is imposed upon him by the Other. This I will never cease to try to join its body, that is, the being of its body, but then again, the price to pay for this joining is the disappearance of this I — hence the tendency to flee in of california Kingswood School the other direction as well. Finally, this solution will provide the I only with the body of the Other, thus endorsing the loss of writing a critical essay Polimoda its being. Thirdly, we have the advent of the subject. The subject wants to join the (m)Other, but if it would succeed, the result would imply a total alienation, meaning the disappearance of the subject. Hence the other tendency for separation.

Again, this solution implies a structurally impossible relationship, because the attempt of the subject to esl argumentative join the Other, must necessarily pass through the signifier, thus repeating and endorsing the original division of this subject. Thus considered, the subject enters the essay, scene as the last implementation of this structure and contains all the previous ones as well. Each one of these three levels implies a structural misfit between the two poles and an obligatory choice — the famous vel of the university of california School, alienation process, the either — or, for analysis which Lacan presents us with the classic choice of the write my essay of Southampton, robber: your life or your money!. It is a forced choice because if one chooses the other alternative (the money) ,the consequence is that one disappears, i.e. you lose your life. One of the poles is the active attracting pole, the other is the passively resisting one. These ideas of passivity and activity should not be interpreted in terms of hyperactivity versus immobility. Indeed, sometimes a lot of activity is necessary if one wants to a critical reach a passive position, and the active pole may very well wait passively for the other party to join him — Freud himself said already that the death drive operates in total silence.

The opposition between activity and passivity amounts to a structural inequality between a forever lost totality on the one hand and its product on the other hand, in which the lost totality tries to recapture, to regain its product, thereby reducing it to a passive object of its jouissance. This serial of advents demonstrates that the original cleft between the psyche and the Real of the organism will be repeated in the cleft between the subject and its symbolico-imaginary body, meaning his gender identity body. If one continues this serial, one would indeed expect a fourth advent, in which the subject and the object (a) would be integrated in a particular gender identity. This is what the Oedipus complex does, in its own particular way, that is: by interpreting the original loss in terms of castration. The result is of essay writing, that the oedipal structure inaugurates a gender differentiation which is analysis essay Polimoda, not a genuine one, because it is solely based on the presence of absence of the write paper, phallus. This phallic interpretation will retroactively be applied to all preceding advents, meaning that each loss becomes interpreted in a phallic way. It is writing analysis essay, during this process that the body is constructed, the a-g requirements School, body that we have (not the body that we are), clothed in a gender identity. The thing that is important for us, is that this gender identity is a secondary construction, based on preceding different binary. The original cleft between life and death, between psyche and organism, is reproduced and worked over in the cleft between man and woman. Thus considered, the cleft between body and Other, between being and writing a critical, sense, is reproduced in university of california a-g requirements School the cleft between woman and man. Moreover, this repetition produces the writing a critical essay, same effect: whatever the efforts of the subject to join his body by way of the Other of language, he will never succeed, because the cleft is precisely due to this Other of of argumentation Sevenoaks School language.

Whatever the efforts of the masculine subject to join woman by way of the phallic relationship, he will never succeed, because the cleft is precisely due to the phallic signifier. The impossible relationship between the subject and the drive reappears in the impossible relationship between a man and writing a critical Polimoda, a woman. Beyond this homologous structure that never stops to be never written in order to attain an ever-impossible return, we meet with the beyond of the Freudian pleasure principle. This beyond is at the same time a beyond of the gender principle, meaning it confronts us with the jouissance. Indeed, simultaneous with the development of his new theory on esl argumentative School, causality and determinism, Lacan elaborates his concept of writing Polimoda jouissance. Of course, the idea as such is university of california Kingswood School, older, but it will receive a whole new meaning. To be more specific: from seminar XI onwards, Lacan will assign the writing essay, jouissance to the body, that is, to the body as an organism. I can’t elaborate his evolution in this respect, but I will present you with one essential point.

In my reading, the dichotomy between the phallic jouissance and the jouissance of the body does not cover the binary between male and University, female. Writing A Critical Analysis Essay Polimoda! One could have had this impression from a certain reading of the Encore seminar, in particular the chapter on the other jouissance). It does not cover this binary, but another one that is precisely situated beyond the gender identity. By way of conclusion, I’d like to give you an of argumentation Sevenoaks School, idea of this binary. Already in his paper on Subversion du sujet et dialectique du desir, Lacan stated that the essay Polimoda, phallic jouissance operates as a defensive device on this other jouissance, I quote: Le plaisir marque la fin de la jouissance (Pleasure marks the end of jouissance). Later on, he wiil say that this phallic jouissance operates as an obstacle: Phallic jouissance is the obstacle owing to which man does not come to essay of argumentation Sevenoaks enjoy woman’s body, precisely because what he enjoys is the jouissance of the organ (Lacan, On Feminine Sexuality, p.7) (la jouissance phallique est l’obstacle par quoi l’homme n’arrive pas a jouir du corps de la femme, precisement parce que ce don’t il jouit, c’est de la jouissance de l’organe, Sem.

XX, 13). This aspect of lacanian theory suggested to writing essay a number of my essay paper postlacanians that one should try to bypass this phallic obstacle in order to a critical essay reach this dreamt-of other jouissance. Well, in writing Macquarie sofar that this is possible, one will not meet with a relationship that would be more sexual than the previous one, on the contrary. In this region beyond the phallic, we do not meet with the writing analysis Polimoda, searched-for and dreamt-of sexual relationship between the essay Stevenson Academy, man and the woman. We meet with a jouissance of the body beyond the phallus (Lacan, On Feminine Sexuality, p.74; une jouissance du corps au-dela du phallus, sem.XX, 69). In my interpretation, this means that the relationship between man and woman beyond the writing a critical analysis Polimoda, phallus is the very same one as the relationship between the subject and the Real of its body.

This allows me to rephrase the write paper University, already quoted lacanian statement as follows: : Phallic jouissance is the obstacle owing to which the subject does not come to enjoy his own body as real, precisely because what he enjoys is the writing essay, jouissance of the phallus. Well, whenever this other jouissance of the body will pop up, the subject will always react in the same way, that is, with anxiety. Indeed, this jouissance of the body is situated beyond the Symbolic, meaning that it implies necessarily the disappearance, the death of the subject. This interpretation gives a whole new meaning to the concept of death drive. Here, we meet again with the primordial relationship between a deadly passivity and a desperate activity. This brings me to the clinical applications. Write Of Southampton! What are the clinical manifestations of this jouissance coming from the writing a critical essay, beyond? We know at least two of how to essay College them: the writing a critical analysis Polimoda, Freudian clinic of the traumatic neurosis and the lacanian clinic of the psychosis. In case of how to write a conclusion Abbey College Manchester psychosis, the subject is confronted directly to an Other without the protection of the Symbolic. Here, we meet with the Other who enjoys the subject in a terrifying way, hence the writing, classic idea of the essay, psychotic to be persecuted.

In case of traumatic neurosis, the subject is a critical analysis Polimoda, always in one way or another confronted with a Real that mortifies him, that leaves him without any answer . In this case, the necessary signifiers are lacking for the subject, and essay, clinical practice demonstrates that in such circumstances, it is the body that takes the relief (just think of the dissociation and the ubiquitous psychosomatic symptoms. Hence, in these two paradigmatic cases, this jouissance of the analysis essay Polimoda, organism can be understood in another way than the dreamt-of feminine ‘other’ jouissance of the Encore-seminar. It does not bring us any closer to the hoped-for relationship between the man and the woman — between the phallus and the body — no, it has everything to do with the opposition between activity and passivity, which first of all finds its expression in the relationship between the subject and esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, the drive, that is, the Real of the analysis essay Polimoda, body. In this jouissance, the subject is reduced to the passive position, surrendered to an activity that surpasses him and that lies beyond his understanding. This implies a fundamental trauma that precedes and surpasses every individual trauma.

In my opinion, if we want to elaborate a new theory on gender, it will be this opposition that should serve as a starting-point.