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business plan isp Use Business Plan Pro to edit this sample plan and sources Wittenborg University of Applied, make it your own. Over 500+ additional sample plans also included. Internet - ISP - Ongoing. Article Monkton Combe School. The topics which follow discuss our customers, our competitors, and conditions within our industry. The Market Analysis data found in critical sources Sciences, the following table and chart is taken from the 1997 U.S. Census. Market Analysis (Pie) The company's customer base includes all consumers and all small- to medium-sized businesses, including start-ups. The company plans to writing College concentrate on SOHO clients, as these are perfect targets for critical University of Applied Sciences our new high-speed offerings, and hold the greatest growth potential for the company. School Of Dayton. Web Solutions feels that these market segments have special pricing and service needs, and make more dedicated, reliable customers. The following sub-topics look at the size and concentration of businesses in this group, the way services are bought and sold, and specific competitors. The company is University competing in the low-cost Internet access and writing essay, website hosting niche of the industry.
The industry is critical Wittenborg University Sciences moving in the direction of a fusion of VVD services over a single common media (ref. The AOL-Time/Warner merger). This is where all media players must move in order to compete in the coming decade. The alternative is to be a content provider. Essay College. This is a less desirable position as it leaves the company too much at the whim of the public and critical sources Wittenborg of Applied, forces the company to renew its efforts continuously to critical University provide usable content. The ISP industry has begun the process of sources Wittenborg, specialization. Many companies who began by filling all needs (as we do today) have moved into areas which utilize their strengths.
These specializations include: Colocation (Server Hotel) facilities. Web hosting. Dialup access. Content provision. Additionally, there are a few new markets emerging, such as Applications Service Providers. ISPs offer a way for people to enter the Internet. According to IDC, America Online (including subscribers to CompuServe, which AOL acquired in September, 1997), has approximately a 43% share of the total subscribers in the ISP segment, followed by write Combe Microsoft's MSN, and ATT Corporation's WorldNet.
After these major players, roughly 5,000 ISPs fight over the remainder of the market. Critical Sources Wittenborg Sciences. IDC estimates that the consumer ISP market will expand from $10.7 billion in 1998 to $37 billion in make writing articles Amsterdam, 2003. When users access the critical University Sciences, Internet, they dial into the local point of presence (POP) of an ISP or online service provider (OSP). Critical Thinking School Strathallan School. ISPs offer basic, flat-rate Internet access to customers, either through their own networks, or through networks leased from other ISPs. Users dial into University an ISP's network through ordinary phone lines and, using a browser, access the Web. OSPs, such as America Online, provide original content in areas such as shopping, news groups, gaming groups, investor information, and critical school University, magazines. Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences. Access fees for both ISPs and OSPs typically range from $19.95 to $21.95 per critical writing Brighton month for unlimited Internet use. The flat rate system was pioneered by America Online in 1996 and sources Wittenborg of Applied, has led to an explosion of subscribers.
Flat rates have also served to increase the amount of time that users spend online, which has forced many local telephone service companies to upgrade capacity in order to accommodate the heavy usage. One nettlesome issue that could potentially slow the money online writing articles Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, growth of e-commerce is the taxation of goods and services. Sciences. Currently, fees paid to article Combe ISPs and OSPs are tax-free, except in a few states. Purchases, however, are subject to the same taxes that apply to goods sold in critical sources University Sciences, a store or catalog. When online purchases are made, purchasers are technically responsible for remitting state and local taxes. The only exception occurs when a consumer buys from a corporation with a physical presence in that consumer's home state. In actuality, however, online shoppers rarely pay this cyber-taxation. While state and local governments are disturbed at this loss of revenue--and the potential loss of immense future revenue--federal governmental officials have adopted a hands-off policy with regard to Internet taxation. In October, 1998, the Internet Tax Freedom Act was passed, placing a three-year ban on write a review Combe, any new Internet sales taxes or taxes on ISPs. Sources University Sciences. During this three-year time frame, a committee of government and business representatives known as The Advisory Commission on write article Combe, Electronic Commerce will meet to discuss a more permanent tax policy. The 19 members of the commission include three federal officials, eight business and consumer leaders, and eight representatives of state and local governments.
The rise in Internet users has proven to be a boon for Internet service providers, which charge monthly subscription fees in critical sources Wittenborg of Applied, return for essay Brighton providing access. While business has been good for many of these ISPs, a number of Wittenborg Sciences, challenges threaten the long-term growth and profitability of these companies. Broad access becomes more prevalent. Today, most residential Internet users gain access to the Web via commonplace copper telephone wires. Download speeds are limited to critical thinking of Dayton a maximum 56 Kbps and sources Wittenborg University, are often significantly slower than that, resulting in frustration among impatient Web surfers. Essay College. The lack of speed has provided an opportunity for broadband service providers to gain market share. LLC's RoadRunner, which provides high-speed online access, has begun to attract users who desire more speed and are willing to pay a higher price. As of the sources Sciences, second quarter of 1999, cable modem users numbered over 1 million, still a small percentage of total Internet users, but growing very rapidly.
Free Internet access proves viable. While most headlines or advertisements proclaiming free Internet service are actually a bit misleading, the impact of thinking Strathallan, this business model is starting to be felt. Sources Sciences. The most prominent and successful example of a free ISP is in the United Kingdom, where Freeserve plc does not charge its customers access fees. Unlike the United States, however, local calls in the United Kingdom are billed on critical thinking school University, a per-minute basis, so heavy Internet users may actually pay more than in the United States. In the United States, different types of free plans are being marketed. One strategy gives a subscriber free service in exchange for having advertisements scroll constantly across his or her PC screen. A different slant to this marketing scheme allows a consumer to earn a free personal computer, provided that he or she signs up for a few years of Internet service in advance. The following is Sciences a list of services which various websites provide: Destinations. Destinations are places, or websites, located on how to write College, the Internet where people can go for information, entertainment, or commerce. Content providers.
This type of website offers mostly original content (like news articles) to subscribers. Sources Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences. Some of the major content providers include ESPN Sports Zone (a joint venture between Infoseek Corp. and Walt Disney Co.), SportsLine USA Inc., privately held The Motley Fool Inc., and MSNBC (a joint venture between Microsoft and NBC). With new websites being established every day, it's difficult to come up with a reasonable estimate for the size of this market. Portals. These websites tend to gather content into one place rather than creating it themselves. Some of the major portals include Yahoo! Inc. (1998 sales of $206 million), Infoseek Corporation ($63 million in fiscal year 1998), and Lycos Inc. ($56 million in fiscal year 1998).
Although e-commerce has started to become a larger promotion of these companies' business, portals typically rely on the sale of advertising space to critical writing College generate revenue. According to sources Sciences Jupiter Communications, a market research firm based in thinking University of Dayton, New York City, advertisers spent approximately $2 billion for online ads in 1998. Jupiter believes that this number will hit $9 billion in 2002. Communities. Communities are similar to portals, in that their primary revenue streams come from advertisers. Wittenborg University. Some of the critical, major community sites include Geocities (1998 sales of $18.4 million), now a part of Yahoo! Xoom.com Inc. ($8.3 million), and theglobe.com Inc. ($5.5 million). Business-to-consumer e-commerce.
Estimates for the amount of online spending by consumers in 1998 range from $7 billion to $13 billion, with at least 25% occurring during the Christmas shopping season. Forrester Research, an information technology research firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, believes that online retail spending will hit $108 billion in sources of Applied, 2003. Some of the major publicly traded online retailers included Amazon.com Inc. (1998 sales of thinking school Strathallan School, $610 million), CDnow Inc. ($98 million), barnesandnoble. com Inc. Wittenborg Sciences. ($62 million), and Beyond.com corp. ($37 million). A variety of real-world companies including Gap Inc., Lands' End Inc., and Macy's have established retail operations on the Internet. Business-to-business e-commerce. Writing. Although there are very few pure business-to-business e-commerce firms, this segment dwarfs the business-to-consumer sector.
Forrester believes that this market, which totaled $43 billion in 1998, should rise to critical sources University $1.3 trillion by 2003. Most companies in this category, like Cisco Systems and Dell Computer Corporation, have other sales channels, but are increasingly using the Internet to lower costs and reach a wider customer base. Dell generates an estimated $30 million in critical thinking University of Dayton, sales every day via the Internet, while Cisco estimates that it produces approximately $33 million a day in sales through the Internet. Wittenborg Sciences. Auctions. The online market for auctions is headed by eBay Inc., (1998 revenues of critical essay Brighton, $86.1 million, with $745 million of gross merchandise sales). Hardware: networking equipment. The hardware sector provides the infrastructure on which the University, Internet is school built. Hardware companies provide the equipment that forms the interconnections between the networks that comprise the critical Wittenborg University of Applied, Internet. Their products steer traffic through a spiderweb of routes to the correct destination.
One critical piece of networking equipment is the router, which acts as a traffic officer by directing data to the proper destination. Another key element of the Internet infrastructure is make writing a remote access concentrator. Access concentrators link employees and customers to an organization's internal network, and link consumers to the Internet via their ISP. Web Solutions believes that its customers choose its products and services based on the following criteria: Competitive threats come from other ISPs, including the following companies: Jump.Net, Arizona.Net, AOL, EarthLink, Mindspring, and Prodigy Internet. Most of our competitors offer solutions for University Windows, and perhaps Mac, but ignore all other operating systems. With the rise of Linux and thinking school of Dayton, other alternative operating systems, there is University of Applied potential for thinking University Web Solutions to surpass its competitors. Wittenborg University Sciences. Key competitors are detailed as follows: Jump.Net offers a wide variety of services to match customer needs. They have split information into two categories: Basic service: for customers looking for school a simple, inexpensive way to connect their home or business to the Internet.
Complete details: for customers who need a custom solution for unique requirements, Jump.net offers the following services: Arizona.Net is San Antonio's first and largest ISP. Critical Sources Wittenborg. Locally owned and operated since 1994, Arizona.Net specializes in modem dial-up, ISDN, dedicated local area network (LAN) access and T1 (a high-speed network link that transmits data at 1.5 Mbps) to the Internet. Arizona.Net now serves Phoenix, San Antonio, Houston, Dallas, Spring, Georgetown, Dripping Springs, Bandera, New Braunfels, and Boerne. For dialup connections, Arizona.Net uses an all-digital modem pool consisting of equipment from US Robotics, Ascend, and critical Strathallan, Livingston. All of their locations maintain a full 56k modem pool, upgraded to the latest version of the v.90 standard. These digital modems allow for critical sources Wittenborg Sciences a more reliable connection, and enable them to make ISDN connections on the same equipment, so they can offer 64k ISDN service with all dialup accounts. To make sure that customers can get to their services, Arizona.Net maintains a no-busy-signal policy. If customers report a busy signal, Arizona.Net has the ability to connect as many telephone lines as necessary to relieve the money articles Vrije Universiteit, problem.
Currently, none of critical Wittenborg, their locations are having any problems with busy signals. Arizona.Net maintains multiple separate T3 (a high-speed network link that transmits data at 45 Mpbs) connections to the Internet backbone through multiple backbone providers. These separate connections give Arizona.Net more than enough bandwidth to handle future growth as well as provide the security of uninterrupted service. EarthLink helps its members have an critical, enjoyable and critical University Sciences, productive Internet experience by providing reliable, unlimited Internet access and Web hosting services, outstanding technical support, useful information, and critical of Dayton, innovative services. Prices are among the lowest in the industry. EarthLink offers the critical sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, following services: Internet access.
High-speed access. Web hosting. EarthLink Sprint bundle. Thinking School. MindSpring Biz delivers complete Business Internet Solutions for any small business backed with its award winning service and support. Critical Wittenborg Sciences. Its business plans--whether Web Hosting, e-commerce, high speed dedicated access, or Web Design--are packaged to fit customer needs today and are tailored to grow along with business for tomorrow. Mindspring offers the following business solutions: Web hosting. Business access. E-commerce. Domain reservation. How To College. Dedicated access.
MindSpring dialup access. SDSL Waiting Lis. Critical Sources Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. Promotional solutions. Help desk. The company recognizes that it is subject to both market and industry risks. The company's view of critical school, its risks, as well as how each is being addressed, is as follows: Regulations. Critical Sources. Possible problems caused by a sudden increase in regulation by local, State, or Federal authorities. One way the company can reduce this risk is to diversify into several different, but related, business areas.
If one area becomes too heavily regulated it may be sold and the profit rolled back into the company to bolster the remaining business or start a new venture. Monopolistic pricing. Aggressive or monopolistic pricing by large or heavily-funded providers. By holding prices down, it becomes difficult for competitors to low-ball the company. By diversifying, we can protect business in one area by bundling it with offerings from another area, meeting the needs of the customers and strengthening their ties to the company. Legal matters.
Lawsuits stemming from user abuse or accessibility of pornographic or questionable materials. The courts have historically classified ISP's as carriers unless the ISP made an incomplete effort to actively filter material posted by critical school or made available to critical Wittenborg of Applied its users. The company's usage policy clearly states that illegal behavior will result in termination of service, but we do not otherwise attempt to control the access of its users or their content, thus maintaining the company's stance as a carrier in critical thinking school School, the eyes of the law. If the legal environment should change, the critical sources of Applied Sciences, company will modify its policies and procedures to conform to the prevailing legal environment. Thinking School University. Technology. Sudden and unexpected shifts in technology or the popularity of the Internet.
The company will maintain an active research and development effort, as well as ongoing review of forthcoming technologies from competitors and vendors, in order to stay near the top of the technological curve. Also, the diversification of the company's business allows it to respond to shifts in revenue by redistributing material and personnel into those efforts most likely to generate the highest return on investment. Wittenborg. go to: Table of Contents | Use Business Plan Pro to edit this sample plan and make it your own. Writing Griffith (Navitas). Over 500+ additional sample plans also included.
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“ Learning To Read and Write” “Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, just remember that all the people in this world . haven’t had the advantages you have.” A favorite quote from the book, The Great Gatsby, fits this essay perfectly. Frederick Douglass’s Learning To Read and Write is part of an intriguing autobiography. Critical University Of Applied Sciences. A slave learning to read and write was a great accomplishment back then. Additionally, a slave running away was a horrible crime to commit. Douglass points out critical writing College, that slaves. Abolitionism , Boy , Frederick Douglass 752 Words | 2 Pages. Frederick Douglass Learning to Read.
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My parents and grandparents. American middle class , Dyslexia , Educational psychology 896 Words | 2 Pages. stated, “I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel” . (Angelou). A Portfolio Essay D'Overbroeck's. Word Length: 756 words Last Name Only 4 Works Cited Angelou, Maya. Critical Sources. Good Reads , Inc. How To. Good Reads . Otis Chandler, 2012. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. Kirszner, Laurie G., and Stephen R. Mandell.
Patterns for College Writing A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. Wittenborg University Of Applied. 11th ed. Essay. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2010. 15-50. Sources Wittenborg University. Print. . Essay , Maya Angelou , Paragraph 820 Words | 3 Pages. The Process of a review article Monkton Combe School Learning Think back to the time you were just a little kid learning to read and Wittenborg, write: have you . ever thought about how difficult this was? Well, imagine not being able to learn these skills not because you were mentally incapable but because the law prohibited you from learning . This is exactly what happened to Frederick Douglass. Many times we take these skills for granted even though others have struggled with barriers we are not faced with today.
Although Frederick Douglass took. Frederick Douglass , Intelligence , Knowledge 1403 Words | 4 Pages. LEARNING OUTCOMES OF INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP At the end of internship student should be able to: * Apply theoretical knowledge in . industrial application. * Acquire skills in articles Griffith University, communication, management and critical Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, team-work. * Practice ethical and professional work culture. * Implement Health Safety Environment (HSE) practices at workplace. Thinking School Strathallan. TRAINING APPROACH The Industrial Internship shall include the following activities: * Hands-on training * Real project-based assignments . Administration , Clerk , Employment 876 Words | 4 Pages. March 2013 Learning How to critical Wittenborg of Applied Read Do you remember how you learned to read or write? Do you remember who taught you . how to read or write? Everyone, when they were young, learned to read and write in different ways and thinking school School, forms. Most children probably learned to read and write by their parents, some by maybe their grandparents, or other family members. I remember I learned how to of Applied Sciences read by several different people. My mom, dad, aunt, and grandmother were the main people who taught me how to writing University (Navitas) read . I would.
American films , Education , English-language films 665 Words | 2 Pages. Bintu Sesay “ Learning To Read ” In “ learning to read ” Malcolm X takes the reader through his . journey of educating himself whiles being incarcerated. An articulate and former street hustler that commanded attention with only his presence Malcolm X talks about not realizing how ignorant he was to his own self-knowledge until he lost his freedom to the inside world of a penitentiary. Critical Sources Of Applied. He realized the essay, only words or sentences he could put together were those of simple sentences not far from a child’s. Black nationalism , Black separatism , Education 373 Words | 2 Pages. In the essay Learning to read and write by critical Wittenborg of Applied Sciences Frederick Douglass he talked about growing up as a slave, trying to learn how to . read and write, how it’s hard to get what you want but with a lot of work and feature articles University (Navitas), effort it can be done. It really connected with me how if he wasn’t white ethnicity he was considered a slave and didn’t have same privliges as the white kids in his neighborhood. With having glasses and being short made me feel different as well, not with rights but with making friends and being considered. Black people , Essay , Frederick Douglass 563 Words | 2 Pages.
LEARNING TO READ AND WRITE BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey now known as Frederick Douglass was born . in 1817 of a slave mother and an unknown white man in the state of Maryland. He was a man of valor, determined, and sensitive who resented the frequent abuses of critical Wittenborg University of Applied his condition, yet he managed to learn how to read and write. Frederick Douglass details a process of change in the life and make money articles Vrije Universiteit, character of the woman he served as a house slave for. Critical Sources University Of Applied. Despite his initial description. Abraham Lincoln , Frederick Douglass , Slavery in the United States 592 Words | 2 Pages.
Difficulties and critical writing Brighton College, experiences in writing learning log Introduction Learning Logs are more or less like personal diaries which . helps you to record, structure, think about and sources University of Applied, reflect upon the evidence of your own learning . The difference between a learning log and personal diaries is that a learning log contains your conclusions about how what you have learnt is relevant to Griffith (Navitas) you and how you will use the critical University Sciences, new information or knowledge in the future. Development I used the Learning Log to write a review article Monkton School record the courses I went. Critical thinking , Ethics , Learning 838 Words | 3 Pages. Reflection on Learning with Learning Contract. some people that played a part in critical of Applied, the group activities and there were some that did not, this was what contributed to the breakdown in communication in my . Articles. group.
The first day we got into Wittenborg University groups, we had to do a learning styles questionnaire. In this questionnaire there were four types of learning styles, which where activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists (Honey, 1973). In my group of seven we were made up of reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. On the second day we did a group activity about. Activity , Education , Group 895 Words | 3 Pages. Sam Smith Professor Schley English 112 3 February 2014 Malcolm X “ Learning to Read ” Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on . May 19, 1925. He was one of the essay Brighton, most articulate and powerful leaders of black America during the 60s. Sources Wittenborg University Sciences. Malcolm X dropped out of make money Vrije Universiteit school after 8th grade. Shortly after this he got involved in criminal activity and eventually ended up in prison. Prison motivated him to further his reading and critical Wittenborg of Applied, become literate.
He wrote letters to Mr. Elijah Muhammad of the Islam Nation, about. African American , African diaspora , Afro-Latin American 509 Words | 2 Pages. Approaches to learning - Theories of learning styles and write Combe School, learning strategies. Kolb (1984), in introducing the critical sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, idea of the experiential learning cycle and critical essay Brighton College, of learning styles, defines learning as . the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of critical University Sciences expertise. He suggests that ideas are not fixed but are formed and write d'Overbroeck's College, modified through current and past experiences. His learning cycle consists of four stages; completing each stage is important to improve learning in Wittenborg, the next stage : Active Experimentation (The learner actively uses the theories formed and also. Concept , Experiential learning , Idea 634 Words | 4 Pages. ? My Learning Style Grand Canyon University NRS 429V November 26, 2013 My Learning Style . Learning style? Why would one need to know a learning style? There is a way for you to find out what type of learning style you have.
The VARK learning style assessment tool, developed by University Neil Fleming, is an assessment that can be taken to discover ones learning style. There are several learning styles; kinesthetic style; those who learn from hands on experience, auditory learners; a learning. Auditory learning , Education , Educational psychology 789 Words | 3 Pages. Preferred Learning Styles Grand Canyon University: NRS 429: Family-Centered Health Promotion Josh Lake May 10, 2013 Preferred . Learning Styles This paper will discuss the students’ current preferred learning styles and strategies. A comparison of current strategies with suggested strategies will be provided as an analysis for change in sources University, future study habits. An analysis of the VARK learning style will also be provided for a basis for make online writing articles Universiteit Amsterdam, this examination and critical Wittenborg Sciences, future learning strategies implemented. Education , Educational psychology , Knowledge 853 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: LEARNING AND COGNITION PAPER Learning and Cognition Paper LaTrice N. Weams PSY/ 390 Esther Siler-Colbert, . M.S., ABD April 8, 2013 Learning and Cognition Paper Examining the different concepts surrounded around learning and cognition and how they relate to Brighton College each other will be the main focus of the critical sources Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, paper. Giving a true definition of what learning really is and how behavior determines how someone learns will provide enlightenment on how learning can be achieved when being done. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 783 Words | 3 Pages.
Learning Styles Everyone has a specific way in which they learn and understand information. Vrije Amsterdam. The specific ways of . learning are called learning styles which include, visual, auditory, read /write, and kinesthetic. The VARK analysis questionnaire reveals the scores related to each learning style visual, aural, read /write and kinesthetic. After taking the critical sources Wittenborg University, VARK analysis questionnaire I discovered that I have a multimodal learning preference. Multimodal learning means an individual learns better. Education , Educational psychology , Intelligence 981 Words | 3 Pages.
Learning styles are various approaches or ways of make money online articles Vrije Amsterdam learning . Critical Sources Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. They involve educating methods, particular to College an individual, that . are presumed to allow that individual to learn best. Most people prefer an identifiable method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. Based on critical of Applied this concept, the idea of online Vrije individualized learning styles originated in the 1970s, and Wittenborg, acquired enormous popularity. Proponents say that teachers should assess the critical thinking school Strathallan School, learning styles of critical their students. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Dyslexia , Education 987 Words | 3 Pages. I/ Introduction Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The more words you know, the more you will . School Of Dayton. be able to understand what you hear and sources Wittenborg Sciences, read ; and the better you will be able to say what you want to when speaking or writing.
Vocabulary refers to the words we must understand to communicate effectively. Educators often consider four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening vocabulary refers to the words we need to know to understand. Dictionary , Language , Lexicography 2077 Words | 7 Pages. ?Report 1 Learning English Summary : Why learning English is write a portfolio essay College important? Because English is the language for doing . international business and to communicate with others around the world, so that’s why learning English in Sciences, a school, college or institute of further education is a must. Write Essay D'Overbroeck's College. To increase your English skill, you must always learn as often as you can and Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, practice as well. Try to use proper grammar when you write, pronounce well when you speak or something like that. As you know, English has. Commonwealth of Nations , English language , French language 1175 Words | 3 Pages.
easily assimilated by the patient and critical writing, family. To do so, there are several tests that can be used to critical sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences analyze learning styles. One such test is . the VARK questionnaire, which categorizes learning style into Visual, Aural, Read /Write, and Kinesthetic (VARK: A Guide, 2001). Critical Writing Brighton. There is also another category called Multimodal, which simply means that the person learning has multiple preferences for sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, learning and can use a combination of critical writing essay College styles easily. Patients who come back to the hospital over and over again.
Education , Educational psychology , Kinesthetic learning 1106 Words | 3 Pages. Learning to read by critical sources University Malcolm answers. improve his penmanship. Thinking School University. When he realized that studying using a dictionary was a very powerful tool he got motivate to further use method of copying in . Critical Wittenborg Of Applied. writing the content of the feature writing University (Navitas), dictionary along with memorizing the new words. As a result he was able to read and understand any book. Critical Sources Wittenborg Of Applied Sciences. 2.He started his education from the teachings of Mr. Of Dayton. Muhummad about the critical sources University Sciences, history that was “whitened” and had no place for black man. Since then Malcolm was eager to learn more about the history of thinking a black man. He learned that. Black people , Black supremacy , Race 451 Words | 2 Pages. ?What is Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences a Learning Experience? posted Jan 5, 2011, 4:37 AM by Shane Gallagher When I think about d'Overbroeck's, “ Learning Experiences,” I think . of every situation someone finds themselves in critical Wittenborg University Sciences, as a learning experience.
People have not traditionally used that phrase in relating to more formal learning interventions – i.e. classroom, but from thinking school University, a learner’s perspective, both formally and informally, that’s exactly what is happening: learners are experiencing something that, hopefully, results in a change in sources, thinking. Cognitive science , Education , Educational psychology 717 Words | 2 Pages. Summary - Read -Only Participants: A Case for Student Communication in Online Classes Tonia Ray Grand Canyon University: UNV-501 January 30, . 2013 Summary - Read -Only Participants: A Case for critical thinking school, Student Communication in Online Classes More than ever, online classes are becoming a viable approach and solution for students pursuing undergraduate and critical Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, secondary degrees. Thinking School School. However, the accessibility to these classes does not guarantee all online students are receiving a quality education. . Distance education , E-learning , Learning management system 750 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: Learning disabilities Learning Disabilities Anthony Genchi Grand Canyon . Critical Sources Wittenborg. University SPE 526 February 22, 2012 Abstract Individuals who have a learning disability, communication disorder, or are giftedness may have a rough time in the classroom setting. It is the job of the teacher to understand these disabilities or disorders by gaining knowledge of their characteristics and their causes so that they can adjust. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Educational psychology , Gifted education 1481 Words | 5 Pages. For someone that has been diagnosed with a learning disability, they may feel that it takes over their lives.
But with the right help it will . not affect their ultimate success in critical thinking school of Dayton, life. In this research essay I will be talking about what a learning disorder is, how to detect that a child has a learning disorder, and how it affects children in school and sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, ways to treat them. The four common types of essay Brighton learning disability I will be discussing are Dyslexia, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Dysgraphia. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Dyslexia 2197 Words | 6 Pages. SCAFFOLDING-- ROLE OF THE TEACHER INTRODUCTION A constructivist approach primarily includes interaction and collaboration learning as well . Sources Wittenborg University. as a flexible curriculum and thinking school Strathallan, a variety of activities to enable the learners to construct meaning themselves which ensures better retention. Thus in class room learning becomes more dynamic. Need for the study One of the critical Sciences, prerequisites in learning language is to become a good communicator using the target language. This sometimes appears to money online articles Vrije Amsterdam be a difficult task in. Classroom , Creative writing , Education 1973 Words | 6 Pages.
Running head: VARK LEARNING STYLE ANALYSIS VARK Learning Style Analysis Kathleen Nash Grand Canyon University NRS-429V, . Family Centered Health Promotion July 22, 2012 VARK Learning Style Analysis The VARK learning preference tool provides individuals with information that they can utilize to enhance their learning process by University of Applied Sciences helping them to study more effectively and efficiently. The VARK tool consists of a questionnaire that the make money writing Vrije Universiteit, learner takes to identify which senses the individual. Education , Educational psychology , Kinesthetic learning 1022 Words | 3 Pages. Education A Review of the Literature Online education has become a widely accepted alternative to . learning in the classroom. Distance education has helped students across the country educate themselves in a world were technology rules and fast paced lifestyles are a part of life. The main advantages of critical sources Wittenborg Sciences distance learning are: Convenience eliminates travel to a traditional classroom and write essay College, the freedom to critical of Applied Sciences learn at any time are some of the write article, main reasons why so many.
Distance education , E-learning , Education 1793 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: Learning Learning Paper Sandra Allen January 31, 2011 Psych. 550 Psychology of Learning Dr. . Terri Edwards Many psychologists have had debates with the concept of learning . Nature versus nurture is sources Wittenborg Sciences two concepts that many psychologists have argued over. Learning is a cause of someone’s change in behavior through experience, practice, and skills. In this paper, the subjects to describe is, the concept of a portfolio learning , distinguishing between learning and performance, and finally.
Behaviorism , Cognitive science , Developmental psychology 1790 Words | 6 Pages. Component 1 My learning environment is in a quiet and spacious room. With a comfortable chair. My desk is always ready all the tools needed to . study without any problem; I have always easy on the eyes pencil, calculator, calendar, notebook etc. To concentrate on my classes I have to be alone and without any noise around me. Critical Wittenborg University. When I have to a portfolio essay d'Overbroeck's study for a test I wait till the critical, night before of feature writing articles Griffith University my test to study so I can get my mind fresher on the test day. What I first do is I pick a place where there. Auditory learning , Education , Educational psychology 1247 Words | 3 Pages.
Learning strategies and sources of Applied Sciences, VARK analysis Dictionary.com defines a student as “a person formally engaged in make writing articles Amsterdam, learning ” . (Student, 2012). Students of any age know that comprehending and critical sources of Applied, retaining information is essential to writing essay Brighton educational success. Just as every student had unique physical attributes, they also have unique learning styles in which they best retain new and important information. Critical Sources Wittenborg. The VARK (Visual, Aural, Read /Write, and Kinesthetic) is a questionnaire that is given to help individual find. Education , Educational psychology , Kinesthetic learning 807 Words | 3 Pages. Studies 1 – Assignment 1: 2011/12 A ‘ learning style’ is ‘the way in which somebody approaches the acquisition of knowledge and skills.’ . (QFINANCE – The Ultimate Resource 2009) There are many different ways in which an individual can find their specific ‘ learning style’ ranging from various tests and consultations to the online questionnaire. Focusing on the online questionnaire, there are a number that somebody could choose from write a review article, including Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire, the critical sources Wittenborg of Applied, VARK model. Accountancy , Accountant , David A. Kolb 1239 Words | 4 Pages.
INTRODUCTION What is lifelong learning ? Lifelong learning is not a new concept; it can be traced back to critical school School early in of Applied Sciences, the 20th . century. At this time it was considered to mean additional extras after formal education had ceased (King 1999). It assumed that most formal education would fulfil most of the individuals' requirements for working life. Now however, it is less common for individuals to continue in one working environment for the whole of their employment life. Instead they must expect. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 960 Words | 3 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………….………………………… 1 II. HISTORY OF E- LEARNING …………..………………………………….…… 2 III. ADVANTEGES OF . E- LEARNING ………. ………………………….….……. Monkton Combe. 4 IV. EXAMPLES OF E- LEARNING …….…………………………………………..
16 V. CONCLUSION………………………….…………………………………….….. 26 REFRENCES …………………………………………….……………………………. Critical Sources Sciences. 2 I. INTRODUCTION: e- Learning is a catch-all term that covers a wide range of instructional material that can be delivered on a CD-ROM or DVD, over a local area network (LAN). Distance education , E-learning , Electronic performance support systems 2280 Words | 7 Pages. Frederick Douglass: Learning to Read and Write.
Douglass’ narrative, “ Learning to critical thinking Strathallan Read and Write” talked about how he accomplished the feat of critical sources University of Applied Sciences becoming a literate individual . through the use of self-teaching at a young age. Make Money Universiteit. Douglass describes the ways in which he enlisted the aid of young children to assist him with his learning . He also went into detail about how his newly acquired abilities “had been a curse rather than a blessing”. Sources University Of Applied Sciences. (p. Feature Articles University. 3) Douglass accounted how his ability to read later on assisted him in his succession with “ learning how to write”. Frederick Douglass , Intelligence , Knowledge 411 Words | 2 Pages.
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6 Ways to Prevent Cheating on critical Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences Homework. One of the Strathallan, most frustrating aspects of teaching in today#8217;s world is the critical sources Wittenborg Sciences, cheating epidemic. There#8217;s nothing more irritating than getting halfway through grading a large stack of papers only to realize some students cheated on the assignment. There#8217;s really not much point in teachers grading work that has a high likelihood of having been copied or otherwise unethically completed. Make Articles Amsterdam. So. What is a teacher to critical sources University of Applied do? We need to be able to assess students. How can we prevent cheating on homework? Like most new teachers, I learned the hard way over the course of many years of teaching that it is possible to reduce cheating on homework, if not completely prevent it. Here are six suggestions to d'Overbroeck's College keep your students honest and to keep yourself sane. One of the critical Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, reasons students cheat on homework is because they are overwhelmed.
I remember vividly what it felt like to be a high school student in honors classes with multiple extracurricular activities on my plate. Other teens have after school jobs to help support their families, and some don#8217;t have a home environment that is conducive to studying. While cheating is never excusable under any circumstances, it does help to walk a mile in our students#8217; shoes. If they are consistently making the decision to school University of Dayton cheat, it might be time to reduce the University of Applied, amount of homework we are assigning. I used to give homework every night especially to write article Combe School my advanced students. I wanted to push them. Instead, I stressed them out. They wanted so badly to Wittenborg University be in the Top 10 at graduation that they would do whatever they needed to critical Brighton College do in order to complete their assignments on time even if that meant cheating. When assigning homework, consider the Wittenborg, grade level, maturity, and outside-of-school commitments involved.
Think about the kind of school and home balance you would want for your own children. Go with that. Allowing students time in College, class to get started on Wittenborg of Applied Sciences their assignments seems to prevent cheating to some extent. Thinking School. When students have class time, they are able to knock out part of the assignment, which leaves less to fret over later. Additionally, it gives them an opportunity to ask questions. When students are confused while completing assignments at home, they often seek #8220;help#8221; from a friend instead of going in early the next morning to request guidance from the teacher. Often, completing a portion of a homework assignment in class gives students the confidence that they can do it successfully on their own. Sources University Of Applied Sciences. Plus, it provides the social aspect of learning that many students crave. Instead of fighting cheating outside of class , we can allow students to work in pairs or small groups in class to learn from each other. If students are cheating on homework, they probably lack the vision for how the work is beneficial.
In order to curb cheating, it#8217;s important to consider the meaningfulness and valuable of the assignment from students#8217; perspectives. They need to see how it is school Strathallan, relevant to them. In my class, I#8217;ve learned to assign work that cannot be copied. Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. I#8217;ve never had luck assigning worksheets as homework because even though worksheets have value, it#8217;s generally not obvious to teenagers. It#8217;s nearly impossible to critical thinking catch cheating on worksheets that have #8220;right or wrong#8221; answers. That#8217;s not to say I don#8217;t use worksheets. I do! But. I use them as in-class station, competition, and practice activities, not homework. Critical Sources Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. So what are examples of more effective and meaningful types of homework to assign?
Ask students to complete a reading assignment and respond in writing. Have students watch a video clip and answer an Brighton College, oral entrance question. Require that students contribute to an online discussion post. Sources Sciences. Assign them a reflection on the day#8217;s lesson in the form of a short project, like a one-pager or a mind map. As you can see, these options require unique, valuable responses, thereby reducing the opportunity for students to cheat on thinking school School them. Critical Sources University Sciences. If you#8217;re sincerely concerned about students cheating on assignments, consider reducing the point value. Reflect on your grading system. Are homework grades carrying so much weight that students feel the need to cheat in critical writing essay Brighton, order to maintain an A? Each teacher has to do what works for sources of Applied Sciences him or her. In my classroom, homework is worth the least amount out of any category.If I assign something for which I plan on giving completion credit, the point value is even less than it typically would be. Projects, essays, and thinking, formal assessments count for Wittenborg of Applied much more.
To some extent, this part is out of educators#8217; hands. Much of the ethical and moral training a student receives comes from home. Still, we can do our best to create a classroom culture in which we continually talk about integrity, responsibility, honor, and the benefits of working hard. What are some specific ways can we do this? Talk to students about cheating. Explain to them that there are different kinds. Many students are unaware, for instance, that the #8220;divide and conquer (you do the first half, I#8217;ll do the second half, and then we will trade answers)#8221; is cheating.
As a class, develop expectations and consequences for students who decide to take short cuts. Decorate your room with motivational quotes that relate to honesty and doing the right thing. Discuss how making a bad decision doesn#8217;t make you a bad person. It is an opportunity to write a review article Combe grow. Share with students that you care about them and their futures. The assignments you give them are intended to prepare them for success. Offer them many different ways to seek help from you if and when they are confused. Provide revision opportunities for homework assignments. Explain that you partner with their parents and that guardians will be notified if cheating occurs.
Explore hypothetical situations. What if you have a late night? Let#8217;s pretend you don#8217;t get home until after orchestra and Lego practices. You have three hours of homework to do. You know you can call your friend, Bob, who always has his homework done. How do you handle this situation?
EDUCATE ABOUT PLAGIARISM. Many students don#8217;t realize that plagiarism applies to more than just essays. At the beginning of the critical sources University, school year, teachers have an energized group of students, fresh off of summer break. I#8217;ve always found it#8217;s easiest to motivate my students at this time. I capitalize on this opportunity by how to write a portfolio essay beginning with a plagiarism mini unit. While much of the information we discuss is about writing, I always make sure my students know that homework can be plagiarized. Speeches can be plagiarized. Videos can be plagiarized. Anything can be plagiarized, and the repercussions for critical University of Applied Sciences stealing someone else#8217;s ideas (even in the form of critical writing Brighton College, a simple worksheet) are never worth the time saved by doing so.
In an ideal world, no one would cheat. However, teaching and learning in the 21st century is much different than it was fifty years ago. Critical Sources Sciences. Cheating? It#8217;s increased. Maybe because of the digital age. Maybe because of University, differences in morals and values of our culture. Critical University. Maybe because people are busier.
Maybe because students don#8217;t see how the school work they are completing relates to their lives. No matter what the root cause, teachers need to be proactive about preventing cheating on homework whenever possible. Personally, I#8217;d never advocate for completely eliminating homework. To me, it has the potential and Brighton, value to teach students many lessons both related to school and critical of Applied Sciences, life. Still, the feature articles Griffith (Navitas), #8220;right#8221; answer to this issue will be different for critical University of Applied each teacher, depending on her community, students, and culture. Do you have different techniques that have proven effective for a portfolio essay College you? Please share them with us in the comments.
We would love to learn from you. If you#8217;re interested in the plagiarism mini-unit I like to use at the beginning of the year, click on the image below. An avid reader and writer, I've had the privilege of teaching English for over a decade. I have degrees in English, Curriculum Instruction, and critical sources Wittenborg Sciences, Reading as well as a reading specialist certification. In my free time, I enjoy loving on my kids, deconstructing sentences, analyzing literature, making learning fun, working out, and drinking a good cup of coffee. Write Monkton School. 5 Ways Teachers Can Help Students Cope with Natural Disasters. Teaching about Censorship and Banned Books in High School. A Unique Kinesthetic Writing Process Activity for. The Problem with Calling on sources Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences Students to.
8 Meaningful Essay Prewriting Activities. Article Combe. Tips for critical University of Applied Sciences an Excellent Teacher Evaluation. Teaching Vocabulary in High School. 5 Ways Teachers Can Help Students Cope. Three Grammar and University of Dayton, Writing Lessons that Empower.
How Avoiding Comparisons Can Help You Fight. What ELA Teachers Can Learn from critical Wittenborg of Applied, a. Making Positive Parent Phone Calls. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Book Club (Part 3): Assessments and Accountability. Critical Wittenborg University Of Applied Sciences. Book Club (Part 2): Establishing Expectations and. Why We Should Teach Students How to. You are so right about communicating the purpose of the assignment and giving students time in class to do homework.
I also use an article of the week on make money online articles plagiarism. I give students points for the learning not the doing. It makes all the difference. I tell my students why they need to learn how to sources Wittenborg do #8220;#8212;#8221; for high school or college or even in life experiences. Since, they get an A or F for the effort, my students are more motivated to give it a try. No effort and they sit in my class to work with me on the assignment. Showing me the effort to learn it #8212; asking me questions about the assignment, getting help from a peer or me, helping a peer are all ways to get full credit for critical essay Brighton College the homework- even if it#8217;s not complete. Critical University Of Applied Sciences. I also choose one thing from each assignment for the test which is a motivator for learning the material not just #8220;doing it.#8221; Also, no one is permitted to earn a D or F on a test.
Any student earning an F or D on a test is then required to do a project over the weekend or at write d'Overbroeck's, lunch or after school with me. All of this reinforces the idea learning is Wittenborg Sciences, what is the goal. Giving students options to critical thinking School show their learning is also important. Cheating is greatly reduced when the goal is to learn and not simply earn the grade. Thanks for sharing your unique approaches, Sandra! Learning is definitely the Wittenborg, goal, and getting students to own their learning is write Combe School, key.
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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Wittenborg of Applied, Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for critical Brighton College Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on University, Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of make money online articles Amsterdam, Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of critical sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.
This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an writing essay Brighton industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. Critical Sciences? He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level.
Or, once he sets the money online Vrije Universiteit price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to University of Applied have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and feature Griffith University (Navitas) Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in critical Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms.
Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in articles Griffith (Navitas) the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the critical sources Wittenborg Sciences determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is critical essay College, given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for critical Wittenborg of Applied Sciences his product.
(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. Critical Essay Brighton? There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and sources Wittenborg University of Applied Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.
Either he can fix the price and online Amsterdam leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by critical sources University of Applied Sciences the consumer demand for his product. Money Online Writing Articles? Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by sources University the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is critical essay Brighton, also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to Wittenborg which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.
If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. If, on the other hand, the demand is University of Dayton, less elastic, the tendency will be to sources University Sciences raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the feature writing articles most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Critical Sources University Sciences? Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and write Monkton School total costs is the sources Wittenborg of Applied maximum i.e. Article School? Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).
He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and University of Applied Sciences error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the Strathallan School MC and the elasticity of demand. Sources University Sciences? We discuss below the determination of make online articles, monopoly price in the short period and the long period.
(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the sources short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. Essay College? TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the Sciences greatest.
This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and thinking school University TC curves equal. Sources Wittenborg University? Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and T on a review article Combe School, the TR and sources of Applied Sciences TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the critical school monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at critical Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences MP Price.
Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the how to a portfolio price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of critical Wittenborg, variable inputs. He may start two shifts of money Vrije Amsterdam, production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and sources Wittenborg of Applied use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the critical school School short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at Wittenborg of Applied Sciences this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and critical thinking Strathallan SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.
AVC is the average variable cost curve. Wittenborg University Sciences? D/AR is the critical school School demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.
Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the sources monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the writing (Navitas) short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the critical Wittenborg University of Applied average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is make money writing articles Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to sources University of Applied Sciences BP x PA = BPAC.
In this figure, P is the shutdown point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from critical MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only of Applied if he is able to earn super-normal profits.
If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in articles University (Navitas) his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and sources Wittenborg University its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at thinking Strathallan the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and Wittenborg Sciences the SMC curve passes through this point. Write Combe? Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.
Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and critical Wittenborg Sciences SMC 1 in articles University Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the Sciences market for his product.
Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by thinking Strathallan his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.
There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is critical Wittenborg University, always less than the price, the greater the difference between the critical thinking two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. Sources Sciences? The greater the difference between the two, the feature articles University larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.
We discuss a few. Critical Sources Of Applied? But no method is critical Strathallan, regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Wittenborg University of Applied Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the critical thinking school School measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is critical Wittenborg of Applied, P-MC/P. Make Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? A seller’s monopoly power depends upon critical sources University, his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power.
A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in write essay d'Overbroeck's College the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and Wittenborg Sciences the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the how to write essay d'Overbroeck's College price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and critical University Sciences the formula is:
Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is critical writing essay, illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and critical sources University of Applied marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.
The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at feature articles MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. Critical Wittenborg Sciences? The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the feature writing P-MR elasticity of sources University of Applied Sciences, demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the critical Strathallan reciprocal of the sources Wittenborg University of Applied price elasticity of Combe School, demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the critical sources Wittenborg University elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of money online Vrije, demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the University of Applied Sciences other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.
First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and writing Brighton College cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by Wittenborg University of Applied the monopolist seller. The index showing the money online writing articles Universiteit degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem.
Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumer’s demand. How To Essay? But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of sources Sciences, demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to thinking the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of University of Applied, obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the writing Griffith (Navitas) degree of monopoly power.
The former used this in the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Critical Wittenborg Of Applied? Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of articles Griffith University, demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in the price of sources Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, one firm’s product affects the Vrije Universiteit demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is sources Wittenborg University Sciences, zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power. School? According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.
On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is Wittenborg Sciences, unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is money online articles Vrije, unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of of Applied, cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of writing Brighton, cross-elasticity of demand is sources of Applied, not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.
But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of thinking school of Dayton, monopoly power the absolute.
The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Critical? Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is online articles Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, PC at OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to critical sources Wittenborg University of Applied estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon feature writing articles Griffith University (Navitas), the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences deduction of interest and wages of management from the firm’s net income in Strathallan School order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.
Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to Wittenborg of Applied be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to article Monkton monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert management. Prof. Rothschild measures the critical University of Applied Sciences degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to make online writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the slope of the industry demand curve. Sources University Of Applied Sciences? In Figure 7, dd represents the demand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.
Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from articles (Navitas) different customers or for different units of the same product. Critical University? In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in essay d'Overbroeck's such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is Wittenborg, perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the highest price.
Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thinking School University Of Dayton? Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of critical sources University, Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is school Strathallan School, of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the sources Wittenborg of Applied same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by writing essay Brighton College libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.
In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of sources Wittenborg of Applied Sciences, hotels at writing essay hill stations are very low as compared to sources Wittenborg University Sciences the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and write d'Overbroeck's College status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the critical sources Wittenborg University rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at critical school Strathallan School a higher price than in sources Wittenborg Sciences the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product.
Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Write A Review Article? Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for critical of Applied Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is critical writing, some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into critical sources University of Applied Sciences, separate parts only if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from critical University one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for critical University the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.
This is online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, usually possible in the sale of critical Wittenborg of Applied, direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from feature articles University (Navitas) their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of critical sources University Sciences, money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is possible in the case of writing Brighton College, services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to Griffith the home country by tariff restrictions. Critical Sources Wittenborg University? Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of make articles Universiteit Amsterdam, dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connection with differentiated products.
Railways charge different rates for University of Applied Sciences the transport of coal and copper. Critical Thinking School? For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of Wittenborg University of Applied, services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and feature writing articles Griffith tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others.
(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by critical University presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and School snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. Critical University? A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.
Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and essay Brighton high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of critical Wittenborg University of Applied, a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at how to write a portfolio essay which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the sources Sciences marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.
Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in school market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to critical sources Wittenborg University Sciences market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to write d'Overbroeck's the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in sources Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the feature Griffith (Navitas) high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”
Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and sources Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is critical essay College, MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the critical sources Wittenborg figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of write a review article Monkton Combe, output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of sources Wittenborg, each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in articles (Navitas) market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in University Sciences the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by articles Griffith University (Navitas) the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:
Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at sources University of Applied Sciences a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of write a review Monkton, goods abroad at a price which is critical sources Wittenborg of Applied, lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is school Strathallan, perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the critical sources University of Applied demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the a review Monkton Combe School horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.
In order to determine the quantity of the critical of Applied Sciences product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the writing Brighton College combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for University sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the critical school Strathallan School marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is critical University Sciences, perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is how to write essay College, not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the critical sources Wittenborg University average cost curve is likely to be below the d'Overbroeck's average revenue curve at some point.
Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Critical Sources Wittenborg Sciences? Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in feature articles University practice, if discrimination were forbidden. Critical Wittenborg Sciences? From the critical thinking school of Dayton point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in critical the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to Griffith stay in that area.
Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for University Sciences the market. (Navitas)? This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.
But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the critical Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and critical school School sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to feature subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only critical sources University of Applied Sciences beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. Writing Essay Brighton? If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at University a lower price. It means expansion in output, the writing essay Brighton use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.
Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is critical University of Applied, possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from make money online writing articles Universiteit abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.
Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the critical of Applied Sciences result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by Brighton undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.
Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of Sciences, controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and writing University restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. Critical University Of Applied? The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.
If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. The same consideration applies to how to write a portfolio essay d'Overbroeck's College potential government regulation.
The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the University Sciences product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.
This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. Feature Writing Articles University? The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for Wittenborg anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of write a review article, Boycott. University Of Applied? People may even boycott the writing essay Brighton College use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.
(6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is sources University of Applied Sciences, always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.
The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for make money online articles Amsterdam the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in Wittenborg Sciences the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of critical thinking of Dayton, substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to critical sources University Sciences the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:
We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is thinking school University of Dayton, done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Wittenborg University Sciences Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the feature writing (Navitas) maximum price QK (=OB) at critical of Applied Sciences the competitive level.
The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from make money online below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to sources Wittenborg University KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.
If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quantity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to school increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at critical University a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to write a portfolio d'Overbroeck's College the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. Critical Of Applied Sciences? A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price.
The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of of Dayton, output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to sources University Sciences APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of feature writing Griffith University (Navitas), it to his customers at any stage by critical Wittenborg raising the critical school University price and reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by of Applied Sciences levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. How To? A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.
Figure 13 illustrates this case. Sources? AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and a portfolio marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the critical sources of Applied Sciences product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to money writing Amsterdam the monopoly firm tends to critical sources University of Applied shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the essay College MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of critical sources Wittenborg of Applied, higher price and a smaller output of the product. Since the thinking school Strathallan School monopolist has to critical University bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of writing articles University, tax, the critical sources Wittenborg higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!
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