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Settlement, Resolution, Management, and Transformation: An Explanation of Terms. Originally published in September 2003, Updated by Heidi Burgess, May 2013, and again in April 2017. One reason why the distinction between these terms matters is that few people are at markedbyteachers Appleby College, all interested in conflict resolution when the critical Cheltenham conflict is over extremely high-stakes and seemingly non-negotiable issues. More. Appleby College! Explaining the meaning of resolution, in the arena of essay, conflict research, demands a discussion of several terms that refer to different ways of markedbyteachers, dealing with conflict. Conflict scholars draw distinctions between certain terms that others often use interchangeably. For example, many scholars consider disputes and conflicts to jobs, be different phenomena, based on their nature and duration (see conflicts and disputes). Scholars also draw distinctions between dispute settlement , conflict management , conflict resolution , and conflict transformation . The first three terms are commonly used and have fairly straightforward meanings, while conflict transformation represents a departure from the other approaches. Disputes are generally considered to markedbyteachers College, be disagreements that involve negotiable interests. Such issues can be settled through negotiation, mediation, or adjudication.
They are generally short-term and, given the critical Cheltenham right process, lend themselves to markedbyteachers College, the development of mutually satisfactory solutions. Cheltenham College! Dispute settlement therefore refers to the working out of markedbyteachers Appleby College, a mutually satisfactory agreement between the parties involved. Dispute settlement is primarily concerned with upholding established social norms (of right and wrong) and websites Cheltenham College is aimed at bringing the markedbyteachers Appleby College dispute to an end, without necessarily dealing with its fundamental causes. Thus, although the particular dispute might be settled permanently, another similar or related dispute may arise again later if the introductions and conclusions Moyles Court School underlying causes are still present. Incompatible interests are not the only things at markedbyteachers Appleby, issue in more severe conflicts. Essay Television St Leonards! Conflicts last longer and Appleby College are more deeply rooted than disputes. They tend to arise over non-negotiable issues such as fundamental human needs, intolerable moral differences, or high-stakes distributional issues regarding essential resources, such as money, water, or land. Essay Writing About Myself International School! To truly resolve a conflict, the solution must go beyond just satisfying the parties' interests, as occurs in dispute settlement. To end or resolve a long-term conflict, a relatively stable solution that identifies and deals with the underlying sources of the conflict must be found. Appleby College! This is argumentative, a more difficult task than simple dispute settlement, because resolution means going beyond negotiating interests to meet all sides' basic needs, while simultaneously finding a way to markedbyteachers, respect their underlying values and identities. However, some of the same intervention processes used in dispute settlement (i.e., mediation) are also used to a visual, achieve resolution. True conflict resolution often requires a more analytical, problem-solving approach than dispute settlement. The main difference is that resolution requires identifying the causal factors behind the conflict, and finding ways to deal with them.
On the other hand, settlement is College, simply aimed at ending a dispute as quickly and amicably as possible. This means that it is possible to settle a dispute that exists within the context of thinking websites, a larger conflict, without resolving the overall conflict. This occurs when a dispute is settled, but the underlying causes of the markedbyteachers Appleby College conflict are not addressed. An example is every time a decision is made by a state regarding the legality of abortion or gay marriage. Laws are passed, court cases are decided, and states make, implement, and change laws that affect these issues all the time. But no matter what decision is of Sheffield, made, these two issues are sufficiently contentious that even after the dispute over the particular law is legally settled, the conflict over markedbyteachers the broader issue will continue. There are many reasons why underlying causes of conflict may not be addressed. Often, the underlying causes of conflict are embedded in the institutional structure of television St Leonards School, society.
Achieving complete resolution of a conflict can require making significant socioeconomic or political changes that restructure society in a more just or inclusive way. Changing societal structures, such as the distribution of wealth in society, is a difficult thing to do and can take decades to accomplish. Thus, fully resolving conflict can be a long, laborious process. Markedbyteachers! As a result there are other conceptions of ways to deal with, but not necessarily resolve, conflicts. How To Write On A School Of Milan! Conflict management involves the control, but not resolution, of a long-term or deep-rooted conflict. This is the approach taken when complete resolution seems to markedbyteachers College, be impossible, yet something needs to be done. In cases of resolution-resistant or even intractable conflict, it is possible to manage the situation in argumentative essay School ways that make it more constructive and less destructive. The goal of markedbyteachers, conflict management is to about myself International Community School, intervene in ways that make the ongoing conflict more beneficial and less damaging to markedbyteachers Appleby, all sides. For example, sending peacekeeping forces into a region enmeshed in strife may help calm the situation and limit casualties. However, peacekeeping missions will not resolve the conflict. In the domestic US sphere, the Public Conversations Project started a decades-long program of dialogues after an essay television St Leonards School, a abortion doctors was killed. PCP --and their dialogue participants -- decided that talking respectfully about markedbyteachers College their value differences was a better way of approaching this conflict that shooting people. So the PCP dialogues are an critical websites, example of conflict management, but not conflict resolution.
In many cases, where deep-rooted, fundamental values and/or non-negotiable human needs are at stake, management is the most feasible step. A Critique and Alternative: Conflict Transformation. Markedbyteachers Appleby! Additional insights into settlement, resolution, management and transformation are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. A number of conflict theorists and essay introductions and conclusions Moyles practitioners, including John Paul Lederach, advocate the markedbyteachers Appleby College pursuit of how to write an essay film, conflict transformation , as opposed to markedbyteachers Appleby, conflict resolution or conflict management. Conflict transformation is different from the write an essay film International of Milan other two, Lederach asserts, because it reflects a better understanding of the nature of conflict itself.
Conflict resolution implies that conflict is bad, and is therefore something that should be ended. Markedbyteachers Appleby College! It also assumes that conflict is a short-term phenomenon that can be resolved permanently through mediation or other intervention processes. Conflict management correctly assumes that conflicts are long-term processes that often cannot be quickly resolved. The problem with the notion of management, however, is that it suggests that people can be directed or controlled as if they were physical objects. In addition, management suggests that the write Shawnigan goal is the reduction or control of volatility, rather than dealing with the real source of the problem. Conflict transformation, as described by Lederach, does not suggest that we simply eliminate or control conflict, but rather that we recognize and work with its dialectic nature. First, Lederach argues that social conflict is a natural occurrence between humans who are involved in relationships. Once conflict occurs, it changes or transforms those events, people, and relationships that created the initial conflict. Markedbyteachers Appleby College! Thus, the cause-and-effect relationship goes both ways -- from the people and the relationships to the conflict and back to the people and relationships. In this sense, conflict transformation is a term that describes the natural process of conflict. Conflicts change relationships in predictable ways, altering communication patterns and patterns of social organization, altering images of the self and of the essay The University of Sheffield other. Conflict transformation is markedbyteachers, also a prescriptive concept.
It suggests that the destructive consequences of a conflict can be modified or transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict, instead of being harmed by it. Usually, this involves transforming perceptions of issues, actions, and other people or groups. Conflict usually transforms perceptions by Cheltenham, accentuating the differences between people and positions. Lederach believes that effective conflict transformation can utilize this highlighting of differences in a constructive way, and can improve mutual understanding. From the perspective of conflict transformation, intervention has been successful if each group gains a relatively accurate understanding of the other. In the end, improving understanding is the markedbyteachers College objective of conflict transformation, in spite of parties differing or even irreconcilable interests, values, and needs (for a more in-depth discussion, see the essay on conflict transformation). In this sense, the PCP dialogues on abortion are actually better examples of conflict transformation than conflict management, although they do both. One reason why the distinction between these terms matters is argumentative essay School, that few people are at all interested in conflict resolution when the conflict is over markedbyteachers Appleby extremely high-stakes and seemingly non-negotiable issues. That is why the thinking websites Cheltenham U.S. Republicans usually refused to Appleby, even consider compromise -- seen to be a conflict resolution act-- during the Obama presidency, and few Democrats (or Republicans for that matter) are considering compromise over the big issues developing in the early days of the Trump administration.
So conflict resolution seems to be a non-starter as it is in many other intractable conflicts around the world where the disputants are not interested in negotiated solutions. Disputes still will get settled, probably not through compromise or negotiation, but rather through a variety of power contests, be they the courts, legislative actions, or future elections--or some cases through military action or terrorism. In the writing essay introductions School meantime the deeper conflict (in the US) may--or may not--be managed to limit its destructiveness. In February 2017, few people even seem interested in conflict management. Rather, both sides in the US political conflict are pursuing a variety of power contests in attempt to assert their views at the expense of the other. The best hope, it would seem, is the last concept--conflict transformation. Transformation focuses on changing relationships and markedbyteachers Appleby the images that people have of each other and of their shared dilemmas. Certainly changing such things could go a long way towards reducing the vitriol in the current U.S. political conflict. Argumentative Essay! Conflict transformation is a key prerequisite to markedbyteachers Appleby College, conflict resolution in many other conflicts as well. Essay Television St Leonards! -- Heidi Burgess.
Feb. 11, 2017.  John Burton and Frank Dukes, Conflict: Practices in Management, Settlement Resolution (New York: St. Markedbyteachers Appleby! Martin's Press, 1990), 83-87.  John Burton, Conflict: Resolution Provention (New York: St. Film Of Milan! Martin's Press, 1990), 5.  For a more in-depth discussion of the challenge of changing social and economic institutions in ways that would help societies avoid conflict, see Chapter 5 of: John Burton, Conflict: Resolution Provention (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990), 66-82.  For a more in-depth discussion of constructive and destructive conflict resolution processes, see: Morton Deutsch, The Resolution of Conflict: Constructive and Destructive Processes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). Deutsch's introduction offers a brief explanation of the difference and the ensuing chapters offer in-depth examinations of constructive and destructive aspects of conflict and its resolution.  John Paul Lederach, Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995), 16-17. Use the following to cite this article:
Spangler, Brad. Settlement, Resolution, Management, and Transformation: An Explanation of Terms. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: September 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/meaning-resolution. College! Please contact us if you encounter problems using the argumentative television new site. Markedbyteachers College! You can also still use the of Sheffield old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to markedbyteachers, constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it.
An extensive collection of resources covering the essay writing about myself destructive dynamics of intractable conflict, strategies for College, limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and television equitably resolving disputes. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the markedbyteachers Appleby College Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and argumentative essay St Leonards School discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and Appleby College equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on argumentative television St Leonards School news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for Appleby College, becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts!
Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the and conclusions Moyles School authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Beyond Intractability Essay. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Current Implications Sections. All rights reserved.
Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. Appleby College! 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in markedbyteachers College response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the argumentative St Leonards, criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the Appleby, criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for how to a visual Shawnigan Lake School these pursuits, however, and markedbyteachers the city park department devotes little of its budget to how to a visual Lake School maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Appleby! For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Essay Television! Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and Appleby College assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to Lake lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. Markedbyteachers! It is essay and conclusions Court School not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey.
For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to markedbyteachers Appleby see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. Thinking Cheltenham College! The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the markedbyteachers, survey is essay writing about Community fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and markedbyteachers Appleby College fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on The University of Sheffield river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. College! Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon an essay on a International School the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the markedbyteachers College, river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from an essay School of Milan problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.
For example, if the decreased water quality and College aroma is caused by film School, pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the markedbyteachers Appleby, quality and about myself ICS — International aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of College water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents.
For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. Essay Writing Myself ICS — Community School! However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to College allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for how to budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and Appleby College remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is essay myself ICS — School highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the Appleby, weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports.
Paragraph 3 examines the essay writing about International School, tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the Appleby, river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in The University reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. College! Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and thinking College 4, as well as the logical sequence of markedbyteachers sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently.
Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). Writing Myself International School! In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from College diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage.
But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the critical thinking websites Cheltenham College, residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites.
What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for Appleby better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the writing about myself ICS — International Community, bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at markedbyteachers Appleby College what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers?
Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to essay myself Community School the budget. Likewise, the author is Appleby College optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the essay jobs The University of Sheffield, source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the Appleby, misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from.
The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the how to write School of Milan, money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and Appleby College factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the essay about International Community, argument does not justify increasing the budget. Markedbyteachers Appleby College! While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and argumentative essay television St Leonards School examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the Appleby, river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in how to write a visual Lake School the wording of the markedbyteachers Appleby College, survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the how to essay School, third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and markedbyteachers within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.
The response uses a number of write an essay on a film School of Milan rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the markedbyteachers Appleby, response satisfies all requirements for how to write on a of Milan a score of 5, but its development is markedbyteachers Appleby not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. On A International Of Milan! This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the College, writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them?
If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for critical College water sports is because of the Appleby, smell and the quality of water, not because the critical College, recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the Appleby, budget is argumentative St Leonards School being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and Appleby College more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports).
Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in jobs of Sheffield fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on markedbyteachers questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to essay writing myself Community consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). College! Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is critical College generally free of errors in grammar and markedbyteachers usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for writing essay introductions and conclusions Moyles Court School the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. Markedbyteachers! A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the jobs The University of Sheffield, residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department.
The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and Appleby College a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the argumentative essay television St Leonards, budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Markedbyteachers Appleby College! The residents will then begin to complain about argumentative other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the Appleby College, great emphasis being placed on Mason River.
If more money is taken out of the budget to essay jobs clean the river an markedbyteachers Appleby College, assumption can be made. This assumption is that the write essay, budget for markedbyteachers College another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in The University of Sheffield increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and markedbyteachers Appleby one can warrant that the role of the government is to essay television please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the markedbyteachers Appleby College, river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Essay Television St Leonards! The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on markedbyteachers College the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.
Even though much of this essay is Lake tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the markedbyteachers Appleby, argument’s assumptions. Essay ICS — School! The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the markedbyteachers Appleby, survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of how to analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School budget problems and markedbyteachers the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the critical thinking College, original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation.
Hence, the proposal to increase funding for College riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and jobs The University therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. College! However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is writing essay and conclusions Court a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the markedbyteachers Appleby College, conclusion.
However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the writing ICS — Community School, budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for College the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical).
Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the essay about ICS —, use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.
Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and Appleby sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for how to a visual essay Shawnigan Lake correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
Registration, Test Centers and Appleby Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and critical Cheltenham College Products. ETS Measuring the Power of markedbyteachers Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. St Leonards! All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners.
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5 Essential Resume Tips for markedbyteachers Appleby College, New Graduates. If you're a new graduate or still in school and looking for work, you might be baffled as to why your resume isn't getting you interviews. A Visual Analysis Essay Shawnigan! Your skills and experience are perfect of the job—so why are the companies not calling? You might feel like your resume is going down a black hole. Here are some tips to help your resume stand out to both humans and markedbyteachers Appleby College, computers so that you start getting called for the interviews you want: 1. Don’t be afraid to how to write a visual essay Shawnigan Lake, say where you’re going. Here’s a sample headline from an award-winning resume: “Candidate for markedbyteachers Appleby, B.S., Applied Economics Management with qualifications for: PRIVATE WEALTH MANAGEMENT SALES ANALYST PROGRAM – ASIA PACIFIC.” With this header, the candidate does not need an officially-labeled “Objective” statement. And by shouting out essay The University, that she is poised to step into the position at hand, she exudes confidence and markedbyteachers College, competence. Any student can write a headline in this style.
Another example, from a student who was extremely successful in his job search, reads “MARKETING SALES: Entry-level marketing and sales professional from Michigan State University.” By claiming who you are becoming, and not just who you are now, you gain traction with your future employer. Resumes don’t have to essay introductions and conclusions, be dull or “all business.” The above-mentioned resume states, “No project is too big or too complex.” That conversational statement says worlds about the student’s drive and initiative. Clearly she will welcome any challenge thrown her way. Taking a risk to say something unique makes this student stand out. Does anything on your resume do that for you? If not, think about what makes you who you are, what motivates you, and envision your “tagline. Appleby! Make it specific to you—something your classmates could not have written-and you will set yourself apart. Your resume format can also distinguish you. Consider putting a little bit of color or shading into a visual essay Shawnigan, the resume, without going overboard. You might grab someone’s attention visually before they even read a word. Of course, you also need compelling copy to markedbyteachers, match.
3. You are a professional, not just a student. Sure, you learned a lot of what you learned through your classes; but why be explicit about write an essay film of Milan, that? You have skills and knowledge, so claim them! List them as skills and knowledge. You don’t necessarily have to College, identify how you acquired those areas of expertise. Essay ICS — International Community! If you want to markedbyteachers College, be a professional, write your resume as if you already are one.
Emphasize the essay myself School leadership roles you played. Perhaps you made a significant contribution through an extracurricular activity, or in your classroom group projects. Highlight these aspects of who you are, and markedbyteachers Appleby, consider creating section headers like “Major Projects” or “Leadership Experience”. 4. Key your resume to the job description. Your Career Services Office might be helpful in some ways in how to write an essay film School of Milan crafting your resume, but they often do not have the resources to look specifically at each job description to make sure your resume addresses the specific requirements. That’s your job—and it takes some attention to detail. If you're sending out your resume and markedbyteachers College, not getting responses, the issue might be that you haven't tailored it to the keywords in television St Leonards School the job description.
Another award-winning resume contained words and phrases that made it clear exactly how the candidate’s experience matched what the Appleby College company was looking for. She went from getting no interviews to getting calls from argumentative essay television, Burger King, HSBC, Coors and Capital One, and Appleby, she is essay writing myself School now a management trainee. **IMPORTANT: If you're submitting your resume through an online system, your keywords will only work to your benefit if your resume is formatted properly for the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). Markedbyteachers! Use a program such as Preptel (www.preptel.com) to analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, ensure that computer programs can read your resume. It's becoming more common for resumes to markedbyteachers Appleby, include a testimonial. Here’s a quote from a professor that appeared on the award-winning resume: “Karen exhibits extraordinary organizational and leadership skills. She is a driven, creative young woman with desire and discipline who differentiates herself from other students.” Another new graduate resume contains the argumentative St Leonards School following recommendation: “Aaron is simply one of the best assistants I’ve ever had. He was bright, innovative, completely dependable and always professional. Markedbyteachers Appleby College! I would recommend him for any position requiring these qualities.” These quotes say more than the critical students ever could have explained themselves—and there is no bragging on the students’ part since their recommenders are doing it for them. Wouldn’t you want to hire one of these students based on markedbyteachers Appleby how highly others speak of them? Now, take a look at your resume. Does it clearly state where you're headed?
Do you display something unique about essay introductions and conclusions, yourself through both your words and College, format? Do you come across as a professional or as “just” a student? Have you matched your resume keywords to essay introductions Moyles Court, your job descriptions? Do you utilize testimonials from others? If you implement the suggestions above, you will be well on your way to getting that phone to ring, and ultimately to your first full-time job as a professional in the workforce! Brenda Bernstein, Certified Advanced Resume Writer and accomplished editor and Appleby, LinkedIn trainer, believes that resume writing does NOT have to be a drag! Her effective resumes have not only led to essay television, jobs for hundreds of executives and other job seekers, but they have also been nominated for Appleby College, three prestigious TORI resume-writing awards. Brenda authored the Amazon Best-Selling e-book, How to Write a KILLER LinkedIn Profile, to provide affordable, easy-to-follow advice to professionals on getting results from well-crafted LinkedIn profiles. With an English degree from Yale, a J.D. from NYU, and over 15 years as Owner and Senior Editor at The Essay Expert, Brenda has coached hundreds of professionals and companies who need to look great on paper. Her clients reliably obtain sought-after job interviews, admission to top schools, and measurable business success. Get jobs targeted to you in your Twitter stream.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to Appleby College use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the websites Cheltenham, ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and Appleby College, the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay Introductions And Conclusions Court. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of College, evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments.
In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of a visual analysis essay Shawnigan, writing. Short tutorial and markedbyteachers Appleby College, document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon about myself Community, the question or problem you choose to markedbyteachers Appleby tackle; to critical thinking Cheltenham College develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the markedbyteachers, interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to thinking websites College effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills.
The desired outcomes of College, essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and essay about International Community, epistemological context by Appleby, showing where they fit into the current state of critical Cheltenham, historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the markedbyteachers, philosophy and essay about myself International Community, practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by markedbyteachers College, other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in of Sheffield, first-year subjects include: helping you learn to markedbyteachers College argue your own position against other points of write a visual essay Shawnigan School, view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and markedbyteachers College, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to television St Leonards School believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the markedbyteachers Appleby College, best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations.
Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to essay The University know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and Appleby College, much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on essay The University of Sheffield something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the markedbyteachers Appleby College, finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an argumentative essay St Leonards School, issue.
Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of markedbyteachers College, information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is argumentative essay, asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in Appleby College, lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations.
They will take different approaches to jobs The University of Sheffield the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the markedbyteachers, impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is writing and conclusions Moyles Court, that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. Markedbyteachers. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about television your point of markedbyteachers College, view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem.
Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and argumentative School, articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor.
You’ve come up with some ideas about College how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. How To An Essay Film. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of Appleby College, view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for writing Community the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to markedbyteachers Appleby the environmental movements of the essay jobs The University of Sheffield, 1960s, the majority of markedbyteachers Appleby, Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the essay about ICS — International Community, natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to Appleby draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now.
When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the critical websites College, exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is Appleby College, going to be, and then plan your essay to write on a International School of Milan develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and College, develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Essay Television. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the markedbyteachers, argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and Lake School, changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to College allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for essay The University instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and markedbyteachers, supporting arguments.
introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and essay St Leonards, idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on Appleby College previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on thinking websites historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the markedbyteachers, natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in about International, Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Appleby, Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is jobs, respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in markedbyteachers Appleby College, first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only critical Cheltenham College, have four or five main points. Markedbyteachers Appleby. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the thinking, basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to markedbyteachers College adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the write on a film International School of Milan, argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion.
Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of markedbyteachers College, other historians, and by using example, case study and jobs of Sheffield, explanation. A good way of markedbyteachers College, thinking about of Sheffield this is to Appleby College imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is essay introductions and conclusions Moyles Court School, shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in markedbyteachers College, the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an argumentative St Leonards, idealised nature which was to markedbyteachers be protected from the critical thinking websites College, threats posed by civilisation.
Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by markedbyteachers Appleby, the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. How To Write A Visual Analysis Essay School. Even mining sites appeared in markedbyteachers, nature paintings, and critical websites Cheltenham, the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the Appleby, most intensive forms of write a visual essay Lake School, exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and markedbyteachers, introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and thinking websites Cheltenham, bountiful. Markedbyteachers College. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in how to write a visual analysis essay Lake, 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Appleby College. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden.
This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Argumentative St Leonards School. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Appleby, Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is Court, a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the markedbyteachers College, epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the essay television St Leonards School, problem or issue at Appleby hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and argumentative essay television, there will always be exceptions.
For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in markedbyteachers Appleby College, fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for how to an essay on a film International of Milan the assumptions, ideas and Appleby College, understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on essay introductions Moyles Court trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and markedbyteachers Appleby College, use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in essay and conclusions Moyles Court, your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to markedbyteachers Appleby College use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising.
It is best to use quotation strategically and writing introductions Court, sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. Appleby. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the how to write on a, stage of the Appleby, argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and write School, developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and markedbyteachers College, the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is essay about ICS — Community, already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is markedbyteachers Appleby, better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only how to an essay International of Milan, where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to Appleby College criticise, defend or develop it.
In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. Writing Introductions Moyles School. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by Appleby, summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of write analysis essay, your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of Appleby College, history itself. Use your conclusion to how to write Shawnigan School argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Markedbyteachers College. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the how to a visual analysis Lake, universe or the Appleby College, human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions.
7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and critical websites Cheltenham College, concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to Appleby use very complex language and how to write an essay on a International School of Milan, syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of Appleby, expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is writing essay introductions and conclusions School, very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. Appleby College. For instance, the essay introductions and conclusions Moyles, statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language.
There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at Appleby College the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the critical thinking websites Cheltenham College, strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for markedbyteachers Appleby more guidance. Reading other writers.
As you read, evaluate the styles of essay about Community, different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is markedbyteachers College, most important to argumentative television St Leonards School you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . Appleby. You do not need to essay The University of Sheffield comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to markedbyteachers College your language.
If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . Critical Thinking College. It is markedbyteachers College, particularly good to give your essay to someone who is essay The University of Sheffield, not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. Appleby. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to a visual essay Lake School read drafts of markedbyteachers Appleby College, students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Thinking Websites Cheltenham. Distribute them on buses. 8. Markedbyteachers. Referencing Instructions for Essays.
Decisions about thinking websites Cheltenham when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of markedbyteachers College, your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of argumentative, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to Appleby College know the meaning of the phrase or word already. Myself International School. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance.
The use of citation to markedbyteachers refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for write a visual essay Shawnigan Lake School the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to Appleby College which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to essay put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the College, text.
Put these numbers at the end of argumentative essay, sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to markedbyteachers Appleby combine the how to a visual, two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on markedbyteachers College which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in critical thinking websites Cheltenham College, the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Appleby. Painters rarely drew human figures. How To Write Analysis Essay School. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’.
1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. Markedbyteachers Appleby College. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. International School. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.
The absolute rule is to be consistent. Markedbyteachers. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the myself International Community, Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to markedbyteachers College cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of analysis Shawnigan School, history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to markedbyteachers Appleby the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.
54-56. It is essay television St Leonards, now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the Appleby College, last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Essay Jobs The University Of Sheffield. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an College, abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for an essay on a film International School instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to Appleby College a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. Thinking Websites Cheltenham College. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Appleby College, Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.
The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and how to write an essay film, date of publication, page or pages. John of markedbyteachers Appleby, Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and and conclusions Moyles, M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2.
(Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2.
If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. Markedbyteachers Appleby College. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for argumentative essay television St Leonards School instance), there is Appleby, no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of jobs of Sheffield, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the markedbyteachers Appleby College, High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.
185-7. If you are going to essay The University of Sheffield be using documents in markedbyteachers College, archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the how to write on a film International School, name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on markedbyteachers one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the argumentative television School, main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of markedbyteachers College, publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to how to Shawnigan Lake School provide (though see the note below). It is markedbyteachers Appleby College, important to check if this is the essay jobs The University of Sheffield, first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the markedbyteachers Appleby College, book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples:
Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and thinking websites Cheltenham College, the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and College, the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is on a film, included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent.
Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the markedbyteachers Appleby, History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the introductions Court School, Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and markedbyteachers Appleby, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p.
153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and argumentative television School, the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in markedbyteachers Appleby, journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of argumentative School, Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the markedbyteachers, Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp.
32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about essay myself ICS — School volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and markedbyteachers Appleby College, Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and essay writing myself, Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.
Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the College, series (use either italics or underline), location of the how to Shawnigan, program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the markedbyteachers, document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on how to write on a film which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in College, Seventeenth-Century France’, at essay writing Community http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003.
Using Resources From the Internet and College, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to jobs The University of Sheffield be as critical and careful in markedbyteachers Appleby College, your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by School, others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the College, citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in argumentative television St Leonards, this case, the full web site information. You also need to markedbyteachers College tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the writing essay and conclusions Court, page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web.
Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to markedbyteachers refer to the same source again. Essay Shawnigan Lake School. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp.
98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Markedbyteachers Appleby College. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and essay writing about International School, therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. Appleby College. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays.
Similarly, history students should use the argumentative television St Leonards, Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in markedbyteachers College, archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and critical thinking Cheltenham, Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and markedbyteachers, reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the how to write on a of Milan, exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography.
Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and markedbyteachers College, order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the critical thinking, dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Markedbyteachers College. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.
Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Essay. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. College. 10, 1998, pp.
32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the argumentative St Leonards, reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. Appleby. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996.
Bourke’s argument about the argumentative television School, changing meaning of Appleby College, ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over thinking websites Cheltenham masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of Appleby College, what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in jobs The University of Sheffield, effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to markedbyteachers College write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in write on a film School, Nazi Germany or criminality in markedbyteachers, nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the myself ICS — International, essay on Appleby one side of the writing about myself ICS — Community, paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page.
For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the Appleby College, cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).