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Art And Designing Is My Hobby Essay Essays and Research Papers. DANCING What makes a good hobby ? Hobbies should be fun, upbeat, and affordable for everyone. . I realized that my hobby was dancing. Yes, I know that to some people dancing is not considered a true hobby ; but the way I see it, if I enjoy dancing spend my precious time doing it, then I have every right to consider it as my special hobby . My hobby started only five years after I was born. My hobby is the fun but challenging life of dance. How To A Good Essay Rotterdam Business! Right after I learned. Academic Article! Dance , Dance music , Dance therapy 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Reflection on Art . 1 Essay Seminar I: Exploring the Liberal Arts Ottawa University Amy Hanridge Christine Paquette 09/12/2013 Refection on how to Rotterdam Business, Art 2 “In order correctly to academic writing article SDA Bocconi School of Management, define art , it is necessary. Art , Feeling , Good and evil 667 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Favourite Hobby My favourite hobby is all kinds of technology like cars, trains, planes . etc. Mostly it's cars.
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Everyone is different – this is one of the few things in my life where I have no doubt. And since everyone is quality essay Niagara College different, then his dreams, . ideals and perspective are different. But everyone in this world there is no other perspective than his own. As we try to how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School, put a strange place, it only managed to touch the foreign thoughts and feelings, and is quite short. But not every time you try to put in place to someone else, you need to change our mindset and our way of prompts University of California, Los Angeles thinking. How To A Good Comparison Rotterdam Business School! There is a really a much. Bee Gees , Debut albums , Earth 921 Words | 3 Pages. Quality Essay Niagara! “All the best stories are but one story in reality - the story of escape. It is the only thing which interests us all and at all times, how to escape.” - AC . Benson The concept of escape is central to the development of the theme in my work, We escape the mundane reality and boring routine of our daily lives through our dreams and how to comparison Rotterdam ambitions. We dream to be different.
We dream to writing article School, be truly alive, in such a way that we can look back at our lives on write comparison essay School, day and think that we have truly reached our full potential. Brian Dettmer , Concept , Escape 1741 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Writing Niagara! meaning any number of things, it is up to the reader to make sense of what he is trying to say, the same goes for how to a good essay art . Art is how to write a good essay Niagara not . made to be some commercial poster to be hung on a dorm room wall, art is far more than that, and it is the window into the imagination, the a good comparison Business, truth of an artist. My thoughts on Warhol’s quote is that he is trying to say that everyone has the ability to article School, create art , art is the imagination creating things on paper, if you want a portrait of someone, take a photo, if you really want. Aesthetics , Art , Art critic 1708 Words | 4 Pages. Museum of Art : Paper After visiting the Raleigh Museum of Art , I discovered two paintings that conjured up opposite feelings . that I will compare and contrast. The painting I liked most was titled, Jungle Camp, 2000 an a good comparison essay Rotterdam, Acrylic on canvas 72 x 60 in. (182.9 x 152.4 cm), from one of North Carolina’s most respected artists, Maud Gatewood. Her paintings record the varied experiences of a wandering life. Writing on the back of the canvas, the artist notes the origins of this picture: Trapped in the Amazon. Academy! Acrylic paint , Art , Golden Artist Colors 894 Words | 3 Pages. faced many rejections and abuse throughout her childhood which is conveyed in how to comparison Rotterdam Business her artwork. As an important School, artist, Dowling concerns herself with the a good comparison essay Rotterdam, ideology of . Aboriginal identity and their ancestors’ perspective of Australian history. Consciously merging the art styles of essay writing Niagara European and indigenous conventions into her work, Dowling establishes the links between her background and that of her relatives.
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sample proposal Sample Proposals for how to School the Undergraduate Engineering Review. Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the author must first submit a proposal that specifies the importance of the research, the scope and limitations of the research, and the methods for the research. Submitters should read the journal's Request for academic article SDA Bocconi School of Management Proposals before submitting. A Proposal to Research the Storage Facility.
for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain. There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the a good essay Rotterdam Business proposed high level nuclear waste site located in essay important King, Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at write essay Business Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain. Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the rock to create a critical mass.
A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of quality writing College energy in write a good Rotterdam Business, a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of (UCLA) this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and how to essay Rotterdam Business School, ground water. Another safety concern is the possibility of write a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to how to write comparison essay Rotterdam remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the research paper Wilbraham and Monson radioactive isotopes to how to write Rotterdam decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997]. There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to how to a good 5 paragraph essay Niagara College these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Write A Good Comparison Rotterdam School? Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of 5 paragraph writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) radioactivity to how to write the environment. (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and.
(2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for essay The Storm King School high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995]. Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. Also, because one of the most significant factors in how to write Rotterdam Business, determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the academic writing article SDA Bocconi of Management waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to write a good essay Business School corrode. The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995].
For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site? I will try to account for as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the essay important King criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion.
In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School, considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. The first goal of my research is to research paper sites Academy explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. For example, will the rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, 1997]? What will happen if the waste containers corrode and comparison Rotterdam Business, do not last as long as predicted? Will the how to a good College natural setting contain the waste? To achieve this goal, I will rely on Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain [Clark, 1997], the how to Business DOE Yucca Mountain home page , and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989].
A second goal of my literature review is to evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards. I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on the paper presented by research Wilbraham, Clark , and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995]. Because engineering students are the primary audience for my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Figure 1. Schedule for write comparison essay School completion of the literature review. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5. Given that all my sources are available through the writing prompts (UCLA) University of Wisconsin library system, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on maintaining the university libraries. The only how to write a good Rotterdam School, other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report.
I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20. I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and essay Niagara, environmental studies. I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the how to write Rotterdam School attached resume. Kerr, R., New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks, Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp.
913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). Roush, W., Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe? Science, vol. 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762. Taubes, G., Blowup at Yucca Mountain, Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp.
1836-1839. A Proposal to paper sites Wilbraham and Monson Review How Geophysical Precursors. Can Help Predict Earthquakes. Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. Some of how to write essay School these earthquakes kill hundreds of people.
If the times, magnitudes, and locations of why is essay writing King School these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how to essay Rotterdam School how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson Academy three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes. Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. On the write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business morning of April 18, 1906, the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by quality essay College, the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to write Rotterdam Business be thrown into waves that twisted railways and broke the pavement into quality, great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. As a result, the comparison essay Business fires quickly spread throughout the city and continued for three days.
The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the city [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the paper sites and Monson Academy Kwanto earthquake in Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on comparison essay Business September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993]. In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. When the disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. In Tokyo, the damage from the earthquake was less, but the essay prompts Los Angeles resulting fires were more devastating.
The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Kwanto earthquake were two of the most famous and devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and how to write comparison essay, with disastrous results. If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur. Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted. One of the most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in China. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake.
These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued. Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the research paper Wilbraham and Monson Academy Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993]. The people in write a good comparison essay, Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. If the people hadn't been evacuated, the writing important School death toll could have exceeded 100,000.
Using geophysical precursors, the write comparison essay Rotterdam Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of earthquakes of magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to predict the earthquake that struck the city of University (UCLA) Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988]. This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the write essay Business Chinese believed it to be a few years away. Write A Journal Article Critique? Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to how to write comparison Rotterdam be issued. Article Critique Ross? For example, in how to write comparison Rotterdam Business, 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an earthquake of magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Two years later, an write article critique Ross School, earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of write comparison essay Business School Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for research paper sites Wilbraham Academy two months.
No earthquake occurred. I propose to review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of how to write Business School earthquakes. In this review, I will achieve the following three goals: explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in research paper Wilbraham and Monson, radon emissions, and how to write a good essay Business, changes in writing important King, the electrical resistivity of how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School rocks; show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an essay prompts Los Angeles, earthquake; and. discuss how each of these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions. Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. In addition to monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for how to write essay Rotterdam predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is why is essay writing important King School, solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993].
For that reason, I will not consider it. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of how to write a good essay Rotterdam School rocks. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is SDA Bocconi of Management, a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by how to write Business School, the development of cracks in the rocks, then the influx of essay writing King water into those cracks. Essay? The fourth stage is the actual rupture of the fault and the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the sudden drop in stress in the fault. A Good Niagara College? In this stage, aftershocks occur. During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns.
For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the how to write essay Business School second stage as the volume of rock increases. In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to the five stages of an earthquake and how well this relation can be used to predict the oncoming fault rupture. This section presents my plan for obtaining the quality objectives discussed in the previous section. Because of the recent earthquakes in how to a good Rotterdam Business School, California and Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and academic article School of Management, earthquake prediction.
I have gathered five books and several articles on the subject. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. These books and how to a good essay, articles should provide sufficient information for me to write my review. How To Write Critique School? The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of a massive earthquake? The second goal of my research is to show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake. Write A Good Comparison Rotterdam School? To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and writing University of California, Los Angeles, Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964]. A third primary goal of the write a good comparison essay Business School literature review is to cover the accuracy of 5 paragraph writing prompts University Los Angeles monitoring each precursor. By accuracy, I mean how well does the method work in predicting the time, place, and size of earthquakes.
This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at how to write comparison essay School present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to validate these types of statistics. Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of academic article School experts and preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on two of how to write comparison essay Rotterdam School my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993]. Should I require additional sources other than the ones I have, I will search for them in the library system at the University of research paper Wilbraham and Monson Academy Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. Because the how to essay School primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for them and lives would be saved. However, they may not know the different methods of predicting earthquakes.
My intent is to inform these students of three methods of predicting earthquakes. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in paper, earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of a good comparison Business three methods for earthquake prediction. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and academic writing article SDA Bocconi, Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into how to write essay Business School, perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes. This section presents my schedule, costs, and quality essay writing College, qualifications for how to a good essay Rotterdam performing the proposed research. Prompts Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)? The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. How To Write Comparison Essay Rotterdam? Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to the audience. Figure 1. Schedule for how to 5 paragraph essay Niagara College completion of literature review. The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the how to a good Rotterdam School formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and research sites Wilbraham Academy, the second being the formal report on write comparison School December 6, 1996.
Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the why is essay important King library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only write a good essay Rotterdam, costs, which will be minor, are for copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for under $10. I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at academic Madison. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the how to write comparison essay Rotterdam Business principles of how to write Ross School seismology and stress-strain relationships. How To Write Comparison Rotterdam? In addition, I have taken field courses on academic article SDA Bocconi structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and comparison Rotterdam Business, my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the proposed literature review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume (not attached on this web site) . Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. A Good 5 Paragraph College? Freeman and essay Rotterdam School, Company, 1988). Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993).
Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987). Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993). All materials at this web site are the writing intellectual property of the editors and authors.
You are more than welcome to make hypertext links as long as you give proper credit. If you have comments, suggestions, or questions, please direct them to one of the editors.
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The “Eumenides” of Aeschylus: Whole-Hearted Patriotism #038; Moderated Modernity. Aeschylus’ Eumenides is how to comparison a play about an institutional innovation and a paean to the goddess of the city. It is an account of the origin of Athens’ Supreme Court and a love poem to Athena and writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) her people and places. This poet, however, loves for cause and with a thoughtful passion. This people, the ”Attic folk,” schooled by their divinity, have the wisdom to Business domesticate dread and to innovate moderately.
My aim will be to flesh out and quality essay writing give precision to these notions, in sum to delineate the idea of a reverent revolution. I ought to confess at the outset that I love this play, but that Greek tragedy, as a genre, is alien to me. In his youthful work, The Birth of how to write a good comparison Rotterdam School Tragedy from the writing prompts University of California, Los Angeles, Spirit of Music (1870), Nietzsche propounds a stark opposition between Socratic and tragic culture. He writes: ”And now one must not hide from oneself what is hidden in the bosom of this Socratic culture: an optimism that deems itself limitless.” (Ch. 18) I recognize myself as a minor instantiation of the Socratism that Nietzsche fears and despises, this—I might say, American—optimism that wants to nullify deep tragedy by the light of reason and neutralize fate by the devices of how to write comparison essay Rotterdam ingenuity. When I read a Greek drama, I immediately fall to 5 paragraph writing prompts University Los Angeles (UCLA) considering how its “tragedy” could have been forestalled.
I think to how to write a good essay Rotterdam Business School myself: “What little bit of good sense could have circumvented this mess?” Moreover, I feel my way into the inwardness of the tragic heroines and heroes and find myself repelled by their super- and sub-human lack of what one might call life-intelligence. A few years ago I was having lunch with a colleague, Jonathan Badger, who had just lectured on Sophocles’ Antigone, and expressing to him my view of that tragic heroine as a teenage monster. He showed me that it was actually obtuse to regard her as a sixteen-year-old girl with an authority problem. Research Wilbraham And Monson? She is not a fiercely rebellious teenager but a human token designed to be caught in an ultimate, unresolvable clash of how to write essay Rotterdam fearfully fundamental forces, a cosmic rift—here the one between family and city, between blood and politics. Tragedy, he was saying, is not about characters in situations but about catalysts of sub-rational and super human clefts in how to write College, a world in which no man, woman, or girl can do the right, the saving thing.
I saw his point. One reason, then, that this drama, the Eumenides, speaks to how to a good comparison Rotterdam School me lies in what it is not. Why Is Essay Writing The Storm King? It is not a tragedy of the unresolvable impasse, of the unavoidable fatality. It is surely a drama, since drama is Greek for an eventful deed. But it is also a pragma, an affair practically handled, whose outcome is not all-round cleansing by devastation, but a future of good daily living. Socrates, who is, according to Nietzsche, the how to a good Business, late-coming destroyer of academic writing SDA Bocconi School of Management deep-delving dark tragedy, was a boy of eleven when the Eumenides was first shown. Perhaps he was in the audience; I don’t know if children were allowed in, but he was a great theater-goer in later life. This much can be said: His severe critique in comparison Rotterdam Business, the Republic (383B) of the tragedians, including Aeschylus, can’t stem from this play. For it is quite literally the apotheosis, which means the “deification,” of good sense.
Aeschylus invests this drama of sweet reason, of moderation triumphant, with exhilarating solemnity and a journal School participatory splendor. I mean that precisely. Whereas in a good Business School, most tragedies the audience looks on and reacts, perhaps recoils, at the fate of academic writing article School of Management kings and comparison essay Rotterdam School heroes, in this play all Athens is on stage: The spectators see themselves as part of the play. And whereas in how to a journal critique Ross, most Greek tragedy the audience faces fearful and pitiful depths, in write a good comparison, this play it is carried to write a good essay Niagara College joyful heights by an act of prudence that subverts tragedy. The final tone of the play is that of a city led by a goddess whose wisdom is touched with glory. So now I have broached the matter of the a good comparison essay, first part of my subtitle: Except for a brief prologue in Delphi, where lay the omphalos-stone, the writing prompts of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), navel of the world, the Eumenides is set in Athens, where, it will be shown, resides the world’s wisdom. In Delphi the scene is the sacred enclosure of how to Rotterdam Business Apollo’s temple; in Athens it is Athena’s temple on quality Niagara College, the High City, the write School, Acropolis, and writing Niagara College then on the rock facing the Acropolis, Ares’ Hill, the Areopagus.
This Athena, the Athena of the how to a good essay Business, play, is Athena Polias, the City-Athena, the Democratic Athena. Of California, (UCLA)? She is not, to how to write essay Rotterdam Business be sure, the protagonist of the drama, which is write a good 5 paragraph essay a choral band; she is, however, its chief individual actor. I don’t know if there are any other plays in which a divinity is the sole main character; it is, to say the how to write a good Rotterdam Business, least, a remarkable moment in stagecraft. Athena is on stage together with her people, the “Attic folk,” the essay important The Storm King, Athenians, first with a few, then with the whole town. These people are named from their city, and their city is named from its goddess.
But here is how to write comparison essay Rotterdam Business School a wonderful fact: As in English, so in Greek, Athens is why is School a plural: Athenai, “the Athenas.” I will return to this name, but now I want to point out that no other great Greek city I can think of is thus named from write a good essay Rotterdam Business School its divinity-not Sparta, nor Corinth, nor Argos at the center, not Syracuse in write article Ross, the west or Miletus in the east of Greater Greece. The play is not, strange to say, named after its chief actor, its choral protagonist. In fact—a curious and significant fact—it is not named after anyone actually so called in the play. There are no “Eumenides” in the Eumenides. Let me draw back here to place the play Eumenides in how to write a good comparison Business, its trilogy, the Oresteia. How To 5 Paragraph Essay? The Agamemnon is the first of the three. It is a model tragedy in the familiar sense. The hero, just returned from the conquest of Troy, is write comparison essay Business killed by his wife Clytemnestra. She has her reasons; it is an open question whether she assassinates or executes him. I am reminded of academic article SDA Bocconi School that fine movie, Witness for the Prosecution, which ends with the wife stabbing her iniquitous husband in the courtroom; Charles Laughton, playing the winning but unwitting Queen’s Counsel for the defense of the guilty husband, who will now defend the wife, terms that deed not a murder but an execution.
The second play, the Libation Bearers, is a bridge drama. The exiled son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon, Orestes, returns clandestinely to kill his mother. How To Comparison Essay Business School? Again it is an open question, the question for the final play, the Eumenides, whether his deed is polluting matricide or rectifying revenge. In this middle play, a band of creatures called the Erinyes appear and academic writing article School pursue Orestes as a mother-killer. Or rather they don’t appear, for although they are on stage, they are visible only to Orestes, “dark-gowned and how to write Rotterdam Business School twisted round with swarming snakes,” while to the women bearing the critique, drink offerings they are mere “notions.” (doxai, L.B. 1049-51) Hence, some interpreters have thought that they are extrusions of essay Rotterdam Orestes’ guilty conscience. If so, they are matricidal-guilt phantasms only while the mother’s blood is not yet dry. In the last play they have material lives and are plain to sight, to hearing and even to smell—they exhale stink (Eu. 53).
The first two plays are set in Agamemnon’s kingdom, Mycenae, which in the fifth century was part of Argos. Now, in the Eumenides, the scene shifts from Argos to Athens via Delphi. I observe here that this final play of the trilogy will have none of the The Storm King School, practically prescriptive features Aristotle ascribes to tragedy in his Poetics, the very features the Agamemnon has to perfection: no colorably good human being of high station with a tragic flaw, no so-called unity of time and place, no audience purification by pity and fear. (Ch. 13, 5, 6) Instead the play’s occasion, Orestes, is a small-gauged victim of how to write Rotterdam circumstance, the protagonist divinities are beyond human flaw, the sites and Monson, play includes the world as its venue and covers months or years in its time. It might even be said to qualify, before the event, Aristotle’s claim that poetry is more serious than history because the historian only tells what did happen while the poet tells what might happen. (Ch. 9) Now this poet so fuses, in his mythopoetic drama, what did and what might happen that the opposition between history and poetry is in effect canceled. For the Eumenides is a revised story of an origin, of a founding, not a speculation about what might in general happen, but a story about what might in particular have happened. So, indeed does most imaginative writing, but this drama gives a mythopoetic account of the founding event of a real institution, the Areopagus, the High Court of how to write a good Rotterdam Business School Athens. It is intended to give the essay Niagara College, meaning of the Court’s present. This is not factual history conjectured from evidence by research but the dateless past recovered through a vision of its present consequences—not fact but nonetheless, or better, therefore, truth. I shall try to explain myself later.
The present point is to emphasize how uncanonical this play is in its melding of history and poetry—surely a new genre. And that brings me back to its name. Eumenides is the title by how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business, which the writing article of Management, play was known in antiquity; there is how to a good essay some agreement that it was Aeschylus’ own. I’ll suppose that it was, since that leads to a thought-provoking and so perhaps intended consequence. The play-going city, virtually every male citizen and resident, knew well who these Eumenides were. They had a sanctuary at the “Hill,” in essay of California, Los Angeles, Greek, Colonus, a mile north of Athens-center. It was the place where in Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus the comparison Business School, patricide Oedipus will be said to have found refuge and write critique School release, as will the matricide Orestes on Ares’ Rock, the Areopagus. These divinities were also known to have a more central home, in the cleft beneath the Areopagus, facing northeast toward the Acropolis. A Good Essay Business School? And they were called variously the Awe-inspiring, the August Ones.
People were evidently mindful of the literal meaning of Eumenides, an adjective formed from eu, “well,” and writing menos, “disposition.” They were the Well-disposed Ones; as Sophocles will say: “because they receive the suppliant out of how to write a good Rotterdam Business their well-disposed hearts” (O.C. 11. Why Is Essay Writing Important? 39, 89, 486). These gracious goddesses are thought of write a good Rotterdam School with respectful and a journal article critique School even with affectionate trust. How To Comparison Business School? I will venture a comparison. Although refugees like Oedipus and Orestes aren’t exactly “huddled masses,” yet I am reminded of Emma Lazarus’s poem inscribed on the main entrance of the academic writing article School, Statue of write essay Business School Liberty, which announces that she receives those “huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” Just so the Eumenides represent the capacious, burden-removing and, I might say, diversity-welcoming aspect of Athena’s city—as we will see. Now these well-disposed ones were on the playbill, or whatever apprised the theatergoer of the dramatic fare for the day. And behold! the creatures that form both the chorus and the character confronting the protagonist have the very opposite name. They are called the Erinyes, and research Wilbraham Academy sometimes speak as one in the first person singular through their leader, one Erinys. (e.g.
951) They too don’t act as does the comparison essay Business, usual tragic chorus; for example, the quality Niagara, old burghers of how to a good comparison Rotterdam School Argos in the Agamemnon are sidelined to ineffectual, mildly wise commentary. But these are a fierce lot. Everyone knew them as well. In English they are called the “Furies.” Their Greek name may derive from eris, “strife,” but the facts are lost in research paper, the mists of age. The Eumenides appear as a trinity, an august threesome, but the Business, age-old Erinyes are a band, better a pack, of writing twelve. They are horror incarnate, frightful and disgusting, dressed darkly in write comparison, rags, with rheumy eyes, foul breath and of California, (UCLA) snakes through their hair. Apollo’s Pythian priestess, who opens, the a good comparison essay School, play is soon seen running out on essay writing The Storm, all fours from their sight, which is Gorgon-like, but even more, bitch-like. Write A Good Comparison? When we first see them they are asleep, panting and slobbering in their dream of hunting their victim down: Catch, catch, catch-mark him! (130) The oldest manuscript of the play that we have, the Medicean Codex of the later tenth century, includes a life of Aeschylus which claims that he did yet another unheard-of thing: By letting the Erinyes “loose without order into the orchestra, he so scared the people that infants expired and women miscarried.” I don’t think infants and pregnant women were in fact in write a journal article critique, the theater, but as I imagine it, the effect was—how shall I put it?—participatory. The business of the Furies was the opposite of the releasing Eumenides. They held the world bound in the constraints of comparison Rotterdam School order and research paper sites justice.
In the write comparison School, Iliad they check Achilles’ grieving horse when he bursts, unnaturally, into human speech. (19.418) Heracleitus says that “the Sun will not overstep its measures; if he doesn’t [control himself], the Erinyes, the helpers of justice, will rout him out.” (Fr. 94) Clearly these dreaded beings guard the rightful courses of nature. Such natural order is write a journal article called justice, dike. Write A Good Comparison Essay? These guardians of dike are born of Earth in write 5 paragraph Niagara, Hesiod’s Theogony (184) and of Night in how to write a good essay Rotterdam School, Aeschylus’ Eumenides, of obscure darkness in either case. As the academic, action developed, the spectators began to understand that they were witnessing a terrific conversion: The Erinyes were turning before their eyes into Eumenides. They were transformed in bearing and School garb—most significantly, as we will see—but also in number, although the play does not say so.
Had I been the choregos, the producer, of the play I would have had the transformation include the fading away of the twelve-pack Erinyes into the threesome Eumenides; the Eumenides would in fact, make a terrific movie script. A Journal? However it was staged, it was a grand transfiguration—except that the new name was never uttered. Why not? Something near enough is said of how to comparison Rotterdam Business School them in the play: The reformed Erinyes are given the paper and Monson, adjective euphrones, “well (or kindly)-minded.” These frightening faces, Athena says to her citizens, will be of great profit to how to Business School you, if you, being kindly-minded, honor them, the Kindly-minded. (euphronas euphrones, 992) As I imagine it, all of essay writing of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Athens, sitting there in enthralled solemnity, was meant to a good essay School experience a dawning recognition: “But these transfigured horrors are our Kindly Ones, our Well-disposed deities, our Eumenides, that live on the other side of the hill not far from this theater!” By the end of Aeschylus’ century, the name Eumenides is simply a euphemism for Erinyes—very likely Aeschylus’ doing, but not in his spirit. For in his play, the Erinyes really do disappear and are transformed into the Eumenides. Athena and her people know how to turn the dreadful females into the Gracious Ladies, how to Niagara make the horrors holy. That is Aeschylus’ trenchant patriotism: to see Athens as a sovereignly assimilative power, her goddess as supremely, grandly ingenious—and something else, something beyond that I will consider later; it has to do with the fact that the Eumenides, if no longer horrible, are terrible still: the frightening faces. The learned name for how to write a good essay Rotterdam any causal account, and how to article critique Ross School thus for Aeschylus’ mythical history, is aetiology, from aitia, a “reason or cause,” and logos, a “rational account.” Temporal aetiology accounts for present situations and institutions through their beginning. Primal times are explanatory times; to recall them is to recall the present to write comparison Rotterdam School its sense of itself. Aeschylean aetiology, however, is not done by what we call archaeology or history, the unearthing of buried artifacts or the researching of old documents.
It is rather the projection backward into the timeless past of an originary vision, of the origin as it appears now to the mytho-poetic sight. Nowadays mythmaking has a bad name, especially among professional historians. It is an accusation. For example, there is a well-known book entitled Inventing America.  In its Prologue, the author, Gary Wills, analyzes Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” of essay University (UCLA) 1863. Write Comparison Essay Rotterdam School? “Well, now,” he says, “that is why is essay writing The Storm School a very nice myth,” a “useful falsehood,” and a “dangerous thing.” It is a reprehensible piece because, among other things, in the exalted biblical language of “four score and seven years ago” Lincoln traces the birth of the nation back to write a good 1776 and so to the Declaration of Independence and to its self-evident truth “that all men are created equal.” Wills, however, thinks he knows that this date of why is essay writing important The Storm King School origin is deceitfully false. It was not until the final ratification of the Constitution in 1789 that we became a nation, and thus our conception was not in an idea but in all sorts of practical manipulations, messy and how to Business School even unholy. What is more, Wills likes better that view of our country which sees it as the product of practical compromises than that which envisions its birth in a whole-hearted ideal because such ideals are never “straight-minded,” to why is essay writing important borrow a word from the Eumenides. They always have, he thinks, a subtly pernicious hidden agenda, in Lincoln’s case the establishment of a “civil religion,” which made us falsely feel that we could save and redeem the world. I cite this book only to sharpen by contrast the contours of both Aeschylus’ and Lincoln’s kind of how to a good Business School patriotism, which does not consign its country’s present to ever-disputable, secular historical fact, but derives it from a primal act that contains timeless truth. Such origin-myths given a definite temporal dimension to presently active principles; mythopoetry is the art of putting a past event behind the present situation. This is truth-telling of 5 paragraph prompts Los Angeles (UCLA) a high order and has nothing in common with the falsification of facts—which Aeschylus did not have in any case. I doubt a mean-minded deceiver could produce a founding drama of such grandeur.
It is time to say what, in general, I take to be the difference between falsified fact and write essay Rotterdam mythologized aetiology and wherein the deep truth of the latter lies. Georges Clemenceau once said, when asked how historians might judge German guilt for World War I: “This I do not know. But I know for writing SDA Bocconi certain that they will not say that Belgium invaded Germany.” For the reverse is a brute fact and how to write essay Business its denial a brute falsification. On the other hand, an idealized account of the Niagara College, originating event, the ideal founding of a current institution—especially if it is endangered—is not a subversion of fact, but a revelation of truth; namely, of the true meaning and the ideal function deeply embedded in a good comparison Rotterdam, that institution, as the civic poet discerns it. It is not a refashioning of the historical past for the benefit of the present but a penetration into the present for the recovery of the primordial plan. How, in particular, can we tell feckless disregard of facts and mendacious skewing of history—in short, shameless propaganda—from sound-minded mythopoiesis? Strangely enough, language usually tells. Aeschylus’ Greek seems to me an essential element of 5 paragraph writing prompts University Los Angeles (UCLA) his patriotic passion.
It is as far as any diction can well be from what will one day be the crude formulas of write comparison essay Business propaganda; it has the ring of truth. The marvel is that any of research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson his Athenians understood him, for his language is so high and how to write Rotterdam subtle, so grand and flexible, so archaic and neologistic, so bold and complex that most of us who suppose that we knew at least a little Greek have to puzzle the text out laboriously with recourse to every aid available. I will give a few examples of his word-making, poetry practiced on the very elements of language: bdelyktropoi, “of a loathsome turn” (52); palaiopaides, “elderchildren” (69); dysodopai pala, “of-a-rough-and-rocky-road” (387); brotoskopon “man-watching.” (499) All these words are so new and academic writing article of Management sound so ancient; this diction is magnificent without being grandiloquent—though, to be sure, the reverently irreverent Aristophanes displays Aeschylus and Euripides in Hades hurling eleven-syllable masses of “tight-riveted words” at a good Rotterdam Business each other. (Frogs, 824) The Athenian audience, at any rate, loved it in all its stiffness and inventiveness, and quality Niagara they seem to have caught the how to a good Rotterdam Business School, hyper-intricate choral meters and savored the article critique, gorgeous staging. For the Oresteia won first prize. Aeschylus wrote between seventy and ninety plays—we only have seven—and won first prize twenty-eight times; some of how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School these were posthumous, since after his death the people of Athens decreed funds toward the revival of his plays. The Eumenides was first performed in 458 BCE, and it was rooted in the present of quality essay College that year. Write Rotterdam? There are at least four references to the current situation. To begin with, when Athena first appears she says that she has heard Orestes’ call from far-off Troyland, where she had been taking control of territory assigned to her by 5 paragraph essay University, the Greek victors.
Not only is she presenting herself as a divinity with far-flung possessions, but to how to a good comparison School the Athenian audience, she must have been heard, in these early days of the Delian League that would turn into why is essay important King School Athens’ empire, as asserting dominion over the cities of the Troad, a claim Athens was then in fact pursuing. Again, when the Erinyes finally accept Attic domicile they are re-robed onstage in “scarlet-dyed vestments.” (phoenikoba ptois… esthemasi, 1028) As they had been promised, they become “fellow-dwellers,” metoikoi in Greek. (869, 1011) These “metics,” resident foreigners, something like our green-card holders, were just at a good comparison Rotterdam Business this time being recognized as of academic writing SDA Bocconi of Management major importance to Attic prosperity. They participated in the great civic processions dressed in scarlet robes. Aeschylus is expressing the inclusiveness of how to write comparison essay Athena Polias’s city, or, put less amiably, he is endorsing the expansionism of post-Persian Athens. A third topical reference lies in Orestes’ grateful oath, pledging Argos to perpetual peace and alliance with Athens (764), a matter of academic considerable current importance to a city embarking on just that audaciously expansive foreign policy. The fourth case I will mention concerns the Areopagus High Court, whose founding is the central event of the Eumenides. How To A Good Rotterdam Business School? The old oligarchic Areopagus Council, the historical court, had recently been stripped of its expansive powers, powers of law-enforcement, punishment, censorship. In the democratic reform that occurred just a few years before the why is writing important The Storm, production of the play (463-61 BCE), these had devolved on how to write a good essay Business, popular institutions.
Aeschylus, evidently a moderate democrat, here appears to endorse this reduction of the court’s brief to cases of why is writing King murder, since he represents Athena as instituting it for just that purpose. Aeschylus himself was deeply engaged in the city’s life, and it was a factor in his fame. The year after winning first prize for the Oresteia, in his late sixties, he left Athens for Sicily, probably to execute dramatic commissions, and how to a good comparison essay Rotterdam died there soon after at seventy. The people of paper Academy Gela, where he was buried, set him a grave marker with an inscription calling him Athens’ pride and noting that he had fought at Marathon. But he had fought also at Salamis, the other of Athens’ two great single-handed battles against the Persian invaders. At Salamis the Athenians fought in how to write comparison Rotterdam, ships under the view of Xerxes the how to write Ross, King. Eight years later, in 472, a very young Pericles was the producer of Aeschylus’ Persians, which takes place in Xerxes’ court at Susa after the Salaminian defeat and how to comparison essay School is the grandest case of paper sites Wilbraham and Monson Academy empathy for how to write comparison Rotterdam Business School a vanquished enemy that I know of.
The time of academic article School of Management his life as a whole and of this, his last recorded winning play, was altogether the high time of his city. When he was five years old, the Pisistratid tyranny was overthrown in favor of the Athenian democracy to which we might well be said ultimately to owe our own political being. When he wrote the Oresteia, the Persians had been ejected from Greece for over two decades, and the perils of Attic imperialism were looming, though yet avoidable. When Aeschylus left Athens in 457, the rebuilding of the mighty old temple of Athena Parthenos, destroyed by the Persian occupiers of the Acropolis and rebuilt with tribute money paid by Athens’ client states to comparison essay Rotterdam the Delian League, money meant to protect them from the Persians, and in fact soon to be stolen by the Athenians—this ominous and glorious Periclean project was yet ten years off. So also was the restoration after the Persian sack of the Erechtheum, Athena Polias’s house, being talked of academic writing School of Management but very far from even being begun. This precinct, alluded to in the play (855), was Athena Polias’s special seat, where was housed her primeval statue of olive wood, the write a good comparison essay Business, one that will play a role in the drama, the one that miraculously survived the Persian burning of the High City.
And it was here that the testimonials of the contest between her and Poseidon for the possession of Athens were shown, a salt pool struck from the rock by the sea god and by it an olive tree sprung up from the rock at the behest of the city goddess. It may be that the 5 paragraph Niagara, olive tree was a witness to Athena’s trumping wit, which won her the city: A salt pool is a good Rotterdam put to real use as brine in which olives are marinated to how to write essay College make them edible. As I imagine it, Aeschylus felt his city to be at a cresting time, with some depths of danger and more heights of hope looming. 458 BCE was a time of write comparison Rotterdam School crisis for Athens —krisis in the Greek sense, a time for judgment when a provident poet-lover of his country would be inspired to foresee the glories and driven to forfend the disasters of the future. I want to observe here parenthetically that, while even a sketchy knowledge of current events—sketchy, that is, compared to what any Athenian spectator would know as a matter of course—could serve to make the play’s strong footing in the real present more pointed, a perceptive reader is likely to sense this too, albeit impressionistically. The play speaks for itself, as do all great works.
Besides the quality essay writing College, astonishing language and how to comparison Rotterdam Business School the expansive spirit of the drama, the town folk who sat there took in astonishing new interpretations of the world they knew: the origin of the Delphic oracle as well as of the names both of the Areopagus and of the writing School, Eumenides, the comparative stature of their goddess and how to write comparison Business School Delphi’s Apollo, the origin of their claims on Argos’s loyalty. But again and again, and academic writing SDA Bocconi School of Management above all, they saw the magisterial management of how to a good comparison essay School their city’s affairs by their goddess, the maternal virgin goddess, the peaceable warrior goddess, flexible and why is writing The Storm firm, the child close to her Father who is the highest, the comparison essay School, universal divinity. I imagine them, as they participated in this climactic drama, infected with Aeschylus’ kind of patriotism. There are, as I said, different patriotisms, unsound and SDA Bocconi sound. There is “chauvinism,” bigotry and exclusiveness, born of poverty of spirit and clumsy anger. How To A Good Essay Rotterdam Business? And then there is a liberal patriotism based on moral consanguinity. Thus Lincoln says that those who adopt the moral principle of “that old Declaration of Independence” can claim to be “blood of the research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson Academy, blood.” And there is also a community of customs and friendly feeling. And last but not least there is the land itself; the hills surrounding the write a good comparison Rotterdam School, city of Athens are sung as “violet-crowned” (iostephanoi) and writing Niagara the continent of America is sung for its “purple mountains’ majesty.” But first and above all there is a founding wisdom. Thus the third stanza of ”America the Beautiful” qualifies patriotism:
America, America, God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy good in brotherhood, thy liberty in law! Thus, too, Aeschylus’ patriotism is first and finally focused on his citizens’ moral virtue: They are “sound-minded [or in how to write a good essay School, the usual translation ‘moderate’] in good time” (sophronountes en chronoi, 1000); this is the most exalted praise their new co-dwellers know to give Athena’s people. With this quotation I come to the drama itself as an exemplar of the second part of my subtitle: “Modernity” means literally “just-nowness,” from how to write 5 paragraph essay College Latin modo, “just now.” This literal meaning suggests one defining aspect of modernity—there are others—that fits the how to a good, Aeschylean re-visioning of Athens’ goddess. In this sense, modernity is an ever-recurrent moment in human history; it is the mode of 5 paragraph writing prompts University of California, (UCLA) rationality practically applied. A given situation goes from onerous to insupportable and human ingenuity finds a—usually radical—device for bettering man’s estate in the here and now, an impatiently swift solution; this modernizing reason is bent on rectifying the write a good Rotterdam Business School, condition just now. It doesn’t care what cosmic balances, what ancient restraints, what natural bonds may be disturbed, disrupted, abrogated. Such enlightened reason is bright-eyed and light-headed in its universalizing impulse and in its disrespect for the ancient obstacles.
It is the quality essay, impatient, with old naive Nature, and wants to how to write essay Rotterdam Business School supplant her with new, sophisticated Artifice. Prompts University Of California, Los Angeles? These abstractions are, I think, embodied in the two contending divinities of Aeschylus’ play. The earlier part shows how Athena aids the new rationality, represented by how to write a good comparison Business, Apollo, in winning its case against the old justice; the later part shows how Athena moderates this dangerous victory by inviting the old powers into her city and teaching her people how to be soundly rational by why is important The Storm King School, respecting the claims of a primeval cosmic equipoise, awful though it may be in aspect. The Eumenides, being the last drama of a trilogy, supervenes on a long chain of dramatic events. To recount it in how to a good essay, skeletal form: Before the Oresteia begins, Atreus, Agamemnon’s father, has killed Thyestes’ sons and served their flesh to their father at a banquet. Agamemnon himself has sacrificed his and essay writing The Storm King School Clytemnestra’s daughter to speed on the Greek expedition to write Troy. In the Agamemnon, his wife, Clytemnestra, and Aegistheus, a surviving son of Thyestes, have killed Agamemnon on his victorious return from Troy, each for a compelling reason. In the Libation Bearers, Orestes, Clytemnestra’s and Agamemnon’s son, has killed her and Aegistheus to avenge his father and preserve his own succession. Write A Journal Ross School? Now in the Eumenides, Clytemnestra’s ghost is clamoring for how to a good comparison essay School Orestes’ death as a matricide.
That last killing would be the end of the Atreides, the House of academic of Management Atreus, and the vacating of the curse on write a good comparison Rotterdam Business, it for Atreus’s deed. Thyestes’ progeny had already been erased. The two cursed lineages would have ceased, for Orestes’ sister, Electra, is childless. Nature would have evacuated the evil and the cosmic equipoise would be regained. Sites Wilbraham? This is natural justice, the justice of the Erinyes, also called the “Curses” (Arai ) who are naively furious justice: Why should a killer, especially a mother-killer, live? It is against write a good comparison the logic, the measures, of nature. Ordinary mortals, on the other hand, tend to be of essay writing prompts University of California, (UCLA) two minds. They have tit-for-tat justice in their bones, but they also ask, as does the chorus at the end of the Libation Bearers : “When will there be rest from, when will there be a stop to a good comparison Rotterdam Business School the fury of academic article this blind ruin?” (ate, 1076) They long for an imposed intervention, a forcible cut-off that ends the natural course, the logical working out write essay Rotterdam Business School of the accursed drama. This natural justice has the name dike, or as its enforcers sometimes say: eytheia dike, “straight justice.” (312, 436) The Erinyes think of essay writing The Storm themselves as straight-justice-dispensing.
The word dike with its derivatives is the dominating sound of the play: dikaios, endikos, dikastes, dikephoros, orthodikaion, adikein—the text bristles with it, and how to write Business School the ear rings with it. This dike, which the Erinyes claim as their own, has a thoroughly practical, concrete use. It means old custom and usage; it will henceforth mean the actual lawsuit brought and the effective judgment rendered; but above all, it means the order and right of things. The noun dike seems to be anciently connected with the verb deiknymi, “show, indicate.” The Erinyes say: “Come, let us join in the dance since it seems right to display our hateful muse,” for their office is to academic SDA Bocconi School of Management do “straight justice,” justice horrid but perspicuous. How To Write Comparison? (307) The Erinyes’ dike, the justice of reciprocity, a life for a life, is plainly indicated by brute fact, particularly when blood relations are involved. Dike, the concrete justice of the Erinyes, is therefore not dikaiosyne, Just-ness, the thought-invoking object of inquiry mooted in Plato’s Republic. Why Is Writing School? The question behind the play is indeed “What is justice?,” but it is engaged by the parties to a trial and by how to write essay Business School, judicial decisions. The accuser is dead Clytemnestra, appearing as a specter (eidolon), the defendant her live son Orestes, the venue the Areopagus court of ten juror-judges with Athena as arbiter; the advocate for Clytemnestra is the band of Erinyes, for Orestes, Delphic Apollo.
So the play begins in School, Delphi and right away there is revisionist mythmaking, Aeschylean aetiology. The Pythia, the write Rotterdam School, priestess of Apollo’s oracle, comes out of the essay of California, Los Angeles, temple just to tell the story of Apollo’s taking possession of Delphi. All the world knew that it had been a violent business, but the Pythia paints the picture of a smooth, unforced inheritance. In this tale, Apollo is write comparison Rotterdam School a welcome civilizing god, the why is The Storm School, “prophet” of Zeus. He appears as a divinity of easy—no, facile—dominion, a god whose people have been trained to suppress the darker circumstances of his installation in Delphi. The priestess goes back in and soon runs out again, totally freaked out, as our students would say, by the creatures that sit inside on how to comparison essay, stools, asleep, slobbering and snoring.
She exits. The temple doors are now open and we see them: the Erinyes. Apollo comes on the scene with Orestes, to whom he promises protection from these Furies. He tells him to flee from them over land, sea, and islands, but finally to write a journal article critique go as a suppliant to Pallas Athena’s city for “relief from comparison his pains.” He ends: “For I persuaded you to kill the mother-body.” (84) Orestes sets out on his long expiatory flight. Clytemnestra’s specter appears and how to a good College upbraids the how to write comparison Rotterdam Business, sleeping Erinyes for neglecting their pursuit.
They wake up to dance and sing the how to a good 5 paragraph essay, first of several choruses that have a terrible kind of dignity and induce a repelled sort of how to write Business School pity. They sing to Apollo: “You, the young male, have ridden down the old female divinities” (daimonas, 150) by the respect you show for a godless man. “This,” they sing, “is what the younger gods do who exercise power altogether beyond Justice.” (162) Apollo responds by reviling them. They then bandy words, a foretaste of the arguments they will mount before the Areopagus, where both will claim to essay writing have justice on how to a good essay School, their side. It is 5 paragraph essay Niagara a long time later. How To Write A Good Comparison Essay? We are now in writing of Management, Athens, on the Acropolis. Orestes has arrived to sit, as he had been ordered by Apollo, as a suppliant with his arms around the how to write a good Rotterdam School, old olive wood statue of sites and Monson Academy Athena, the one kept in the Erechtheum. He insists that he is no longer polluted because Apollo has purified him and that, moreover, his guilt has been blunted by time and comparison essay Business School travel. The Erinyes are still in hot pursuit. When they see him clasping the how to write critique School, statue, they sing out a horrible song: They will suck red clots of blood from his limbs in requital for mother-blood, “Everyone receives the justice he deserves….” Hades “oversees all in his recording-tablet of a mind.” What they are saying is that some deeds are un-erasable: “Mother’s blood, once spilled on the ground, is scarcely recoverable,” even if retribution has been exacted. (261 ff.) Orestes claims, on a good essay Rotterdam, the contrary, to have worked off his guilt through travel and research “time that, growing old along with everything, purifies it.” (286) And now, the lead-Erinys announces the “Binding-Hymn.” It is Business a furious, long, stamping dance, an incantation for enchaining the mind. (370, 332) It asserts the Furies’ power and right to pursue even into Hades those who commit inexpiable crimes of essay blood.
Athena flies in, answering Orestes’ call. How To Write A Good Comparison Essay Rotterdam Business School? Aeschylus was admired for his staging; she surely arrives, a dea ex machina, by write a good essay Niagara College, some cranelike device. But neither machines nor words make the wonder of this moment; it is write comparison essay Rotterdam Business rather the spectacle itself: Here is Athena’s old bretas, the olive bole that Orestes is embracing. Here is the possibly winged (1001) goddess herself, the divinity on which Orestes has called. He sees her, the spectators see her, the splendid deity vis-a-vis her presumably primitively carved, homely statue. How could the sight of both together help but lead to reverent reflection? The city was full of statuary Athenas. The Athenian spectators must think: We can reach her through these images; when we call her she will hear and academic article SDA Bocconi School come. But they must, at the same time, feel reminded that their wooden board, their marble statues, and write a good essay Rotterdam Business their clay statuettes are just that: images, not the goddess herself. Essay Niagara? And that is exactly what distinguishes their worship from idolatry.
For an idol is to the worshiper not an image, but the how to write, spirit itself, prayed to, not through. These Athenians, presented by their first playwright with the wooden token and the real goddess face to face, were being invited—whether they followed the call or not—to think about the paper sites Wilbraham and Monson, patent defectiveness and the mysterious power of those increasingly perfect representational artifacts that their normally invisible goddess was eliciting from them. Indeed, thoughtful spectators might realize—once the magic of the performance had faded—that the “living” goddess who had been juxtaposed onstage to her venerably featureless effigy was herself a piece of Aeschylean poetry and stagecraft. Then they might wonder whether her innovative rationality, combined with her preservative respect for the—henceforth—ancient ways she had herself subverted, were in fact the attributes of a poet’s made image or the revelation of a divine revolution: Was the poet interposing himself between the citizens and their goddess, or was he their conduit to her? Athena descends and notices the write Business School, Furies. Writing Article SDA Bocconi Of Management? Apollo had reviled them and driven them from his temple: “Out, I am ordering you….You belong where there are judgments and butcheries of head-lopping and eye-gouging, and where the how to a good comparison Business School, green youth of boys is ruined by destruction of seed” (186)—Aeschylean language for castration, high poetry to paper Academy render the immoderate tone of the self-righteous young god. Here is Athena’s reception for them.
She says that she is a good not afraid of, but she is amazed by these creatures, which are unlike any other race, not seen among gods or comparable to humans in shape. Then she catches herself: “But to speak ill of essay writing someone close by us because he is write a good Business misshaped does not approach what is just…” (413) The Erinyes introduce themselves. Essay? They are called the “Curses,” and are the children of Night who live beneath the comparison, earth. Research Paper And Monson? They begin the argument.
Athena says: “I would understand [all this], if someone would give a perspicuous account.” (420) Athena wants to how to a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School hear from both sides in lucid speech. She admonishes the Furies not to insist on academic writing article SDA Bocconi, formalisms. The Furies begin to trust her and entrust their case to her decision. So does Orestes. The gist of the write comparison Rotterdam, case is, on writing College, the Furies’ side, a rationally connected double demand: that a mother-killer should be hunted down even into Hades and that their own just prerogative to execute this charge should not be abrogated. Comparison? On Orestes’ side, too, there is a double argument, which is not so rationally coherent, though Orestes has had a “smart teacher” (sophos didaskalos, 279) in Apollo. He admits to the deed, but claims that it was just to essay writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) requite his father’s murder, and he also offers the excuse that Apollo forced him to it with threats of “stinging pain to the heart.” (466)
Once again something simply amazing happens. Athena, the daughter of the god of gods, puts herself modestly on the level of mortals. She says: “The affair is too great for some mortal to think he can adjudicate it…Nor is it right for me to decide a judicial case concerned with a killing so acutely anger-filled.” On the one hand there is a good comparison before them a purified suppliant, on the other, the undeniable charge of the Furies who will, moreover, should they lose the case, poison the ground for ever. So Athena also has two agendas: a fair verdict and the protection of Attic soil. She issues an ordinance “for all time.” (484) Justice concerning killings will henceforth be turned over to academic SDA Bocconi School judges . Dike will go to dikastai; Justice is how to a good essay Business turned over to juries; the natural course of just requital is turned into a case-at-law, and the avenging Erinyes are to College plead before a court.
Acquittal or punishment ceases to be a private and now becomes a public affair. A British Lord Chief Justice said: “One…object of punishment is to prevent…the victims of crime from taking matters into their own hands.” Athena’s institution of the high court of Athens is a revolution in a good comparison Rotterdam, human affairs, the kind of event I call modern, or, better, modernizing. It means the overthrow of how to a good 5 paragraph Niagara College ancient ways in the interest of a reasonable procedure, a crucial characteristic of which is the growth of how to essay Business School public power, the expansion of why is essay important School what in our quintessentially “modern times,” the times in which modernity becomes the established mode, is called the state. But what if the accuser loses the case, if a guilty defendant escapes punishment on technicalities and the righteously aggrieved party is left helplessly furious? What if the write essay Rotterdam, humane, exculpatory rationality of the human court leaves the world out of kilter? We will see how Athena mitigates this inevitable consequence of writing prompts of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) institutional justice, the conversion of capital Justice as a power into lower-case justice as a process. But first there is how to a good comparison Rotterdam Business School that initial, that mythic trial before the Areopagus.
Athena goes off to select “the best [material, ta beltata] among my townspeople.” (487) I don’t think she means the essay writing, aristocrats or oligarchs. Write A Good Essay Business School? Aeschylus’ locution betokens that the 5 paragraph essay writing University of California, (UCLA), juror-judges are just the write a good comparison, fittest citizens. Aeschylus, recall, is a defender of Athenian democracy. While she is gone, the Niagara, Eumenides sing again, a song of despair and threatened withdrawal: “Now come the overturnings, the a good Business, revolutions (katastrophai ), wreaked by new ordinances—if the hurtful justice of this mother-killer is to dominate.” (490) “I shall”—they sing as one—”permit every violent ruin” (moron). Let no one cry out ‘O Justice! 0 thrones of the Erinyes!’ …since the House of Justice has indeed collapsed.” (511) And then in the middle of their lamenting threats they make a demand that justifies my picture of them as intended by Aeschylus to be the representatives of the aboriginal justice of equilibrium: Approve neither the anarchic life.
nor the quality Niagara, tyrannized one… God grants the power to everything middling. I speak the proportionate word. (symmetron epos, 531) Athena, who was not there to a good Rotterdam Business hear them, will—wonderfully—repeat their words. But first the trial. The scene seems to how to write article critique Ross have shifted to the chambers of the how to essay Business School, Areopagus court.
Trumpets sound; the people stream in; the court sits. The Eumenides, advocates for Clytemnestra, offer a simple case: He admits he did it. The opposition’s claim that Zeus, Zeus who overcame his own father, has more regard for a father’s than a mother’s death is implausible. Moreover, Clytemnestra, in writing University (UCLA), killing her spouse, did not kill a blood relation, a mitigating circumstance for her. Orestes intimates right away that neither is he his mother’s blood relation. Apollo now speaks for how to write Rotterdam Business Orestes. He again proceeds violently: “You altogether hateful beasts, hated by the gods…” (644) He follows Orestes’ line: “The mother so-called is not the writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), child’s begetter.” (658) He goes on to speak as a scientist to common folk, dispensing fancy then-modern biology, according to which the how to Business School, mother has no part in the embryo except that of a nurse. He cunningly mentions that the male can even engender entirely without a mother.
He cites the daughter of Zeus, Athena herself, as a case. It is a smart lawyer’s move, but once again, disregardful of the Erinyes. 5 Paragraph (UCLA)? For Aeschylus has-against tradition-made them the children of Night, and she, Hesiod tells us, can bear “having slept with no one” (Birth of the Gods, 213); the Furies themselves (probably) have no father. I interrupt the account here to how to write comparison point to a curious circumstance that must have crept into every spectator’s mind: Apollo’s argument, which in fact abolishes mothers, insofar as they are nothing but carrying wombs, is cleverly made in 5 paragraph writing University of California, Los Angeles, a drama that is enacted, except for Clytemnestra appearing as a specter and the Amazons appearing in a story, mainly by a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business, childless females whose status is above, below, beyond natural womanhood: the writing College, Pythian priestesses who open the play, the Erinyes who are transformed in its course, the consecrated guardians of Athena’s statue who lead the exit march. Above them all thrones Athena Parthenos, the Virgin. (999) Why? Well, first this is a sacral drama, and the great Olympians are served by virgins. But more significantly, the two protagonists, female-gendered but non-bearing, are, on the one hand, male-like powers, the one of fiercely spirited engagement, the a good comparison essay Business, other of majestically large objectivity. Yet, on the other hand, both are capable of kindly care, the Eumenides eventually by Athena’s unique persuasiveness, she herself always as the quality essay writing Niagara, city goddess who cherishes (911) her own people as with a supernatural maternity. From this dual disposition both reach a middle wisdom, the moderation that they will soon be revealed to have in common. The pleading is done.
Athena addresses her citizens while the court deliberates. She tells them yet another revisionist foundation myth—more aetiology. The place where the court of write essay Rotterdam Business School juror-judges; that will exist for ever, is deciding its first murder case, the kind for which she has instituted it, is called the Areopagus, ”Ares’ Rock,” because there the army of Amazons from Asia that attacked Athens in the time of Theseus sacrificed to Ares. (683) Again, all the world knew the essay prompts of California, (UCLA), current explanation of the name, which was that Ares, having killed a son of Poseidon for trying to rape his daughter, was tried on this hill for murder by a jury of gods. I assume that he was acquitted, as Orestes will be. Why this new tale? One notion is that Aeschylus wants Orestes’ trial to be the initial case of the how to write a good Rotterdam, new Areopagus court. But if the earliest court consisted of the twelve Olympian gods, Athena’s institution of a mortal court of research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson ten would still be original enough, and if Ares had indeed been acquitted, the precedent might be welcome. Write A Good Comparison? I think Aeschylus revises the naming event of this court’s home to remind his audience of the more recent Asian army that had entered the city just over three decades ago, that of the Persians. Then Athens had ejected a male invasion—they regarded the Persians as effeminate—as once before in mythical times it had defeated a female invasion. Now, in a journal article School, the dramatic time of the play, it must cope with another female band not of invaders but of infernal plaintiffs about to be outraged: Those Amazonian warrior women were easier to deal with than these furious female deities.
She uses the pause in the drama to make a consequent point: Reverence this Areopagus! Don’t muck up—she uses strong language—your own bright water. Their own inborn fear and awe will keep the town’s men from doing injustice, as long as “the citizens themselves don’t make innovations in the laws.” (epikainonton nomous, 693) While in the course of instituting novelties, she warns her people against innovation! And then, in the most significant moment of the play, she goes on to say exactly what the Eumenides have said in her absence: “I counsel the caring townsmen to revere neither the anarchic nor the tyrannized way, and not to throw all that is dreadful out of the how to a good essay, city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is yet imbued with justice?” (697).
She and University (UCLA) the Furies together seem to be doing a long-term end-run around Apollo, although she is about to help him win his current case. Athena’s political wisdom is ingeniously and complexly deep, as we will see. After the jurors have voted and before the how to comparison Rotterdam Business, votes are counted, Athena makes a consequence-fraught announcement. If the vote is why is important tied, Orestes will be acquitted because her pebble is going into the urn for Rotterdam Business acquittal. Quality Writing? Her reason is stupefyingly simple and how to write a good comparison Rotterdam Business unprincipled: “I support everything male—except for how to a journal article Ross School the matter of getting married [here speaks the virgin goddess], and I am very much my Father’s child.” (736) This is another remarkable moment.
Her refusal to invent a principle-preserving sophism is positively refreshing here. After all, she has a deeper reason that she is wise not to how to write a good comparison Rotterdam School articulate before the Furies: to stop the descent of killing, to put an end to this murderous lineage without actually eradicating it. And yet she knows that this is a dangerous circumvention of the how to write article, dread and awe that irredeemable blood should inspire. And that is, as ever, only how to write comparison School one of two wise intentions. The other is to establish by how to write Niagara College, precedence a permanent ordinance: the judicial compromise that will resolve an insoluble situation. The equality of votes, five to five, which she surely foresees—or so I imagine—betokens the inability of human beings to a good resolve this matter by themselves, to be of sites Wilbraham Academy one dispositive mind, any more than the deity could deal with it alone. She knows that she is to be the tie-breaker; she must supply the casting vote, and it is for essay Business School ever—and still for us—in favor of acquittal.
When humans are equally divided in mind, civilization says: Let him go. Give him the benefit of the how to Niagara, doubt. Essay Rotterdam Business? And ever after, in the goddess’s absence, her tie breaking vote, cast for a journal School clemency, will be present in write comparison essay Business, every court, and so will she. (I don’t say “cast for mercy” because this is pagan moderation, civilized leniency, not Christian forgiveness.) Furthermore, Athena’ s rule tends toward slowing innovation in deliberative assemblies: Positive action is defeated by a tie. So Orestes is acquitted, and he, full of gratitude and promises for an Argive alliance, quits the scene with his divine advocate. Athena is left with her assembled people—and the how to write a good, absolutely infuriated Furies. They dance again and become, as people do, ominously repetitive but also darkly beautiful with rage. They again speak as one, fixated on how to a good School, the locution of being ridden down by the younger gods and iterating their lament: I am she who is unhonored—she who is wretched,
I emit poison, my heart’s poison in payment for pain. in unbearable drops on the ground. (780, 810) And again the goddess does something astonishing, something no other divinity, I imagine, would or could attempt and accomplish: She undertakes to why is The Storm calm the Furies, to how to write comparison essay Rotterdam School gentle them. She speaks to writing King them between their laments. She tells them they are not unhonored nor defeated, for the votes were equal and Rotterdam Business Zeus himself kept Orestes from harm. This is tact—half the jurors, she points out, were for essay writing Niagara them; moreover, not their antagonist Apollo, but the god of gods himself ordered the write a good comparison essay Business, outcome. Here she gently reminds all of her closeness to Zeus; she alone knows the keys to the chamber where his thunderbolt is sealed. (827) It is the subtlest of threats. But above all she has begun to make her daring offer: Be “augustly honored and be co-dweller (synoiketor) with me.” (833) She is inviting the Furies into her city!
They still rage repetitively. “For me to bear this, oh!—for me of such ancient good sense to dwell in College, this earth is a dishonoring defilement,” they say twice over. (838, 871) Athena bears it patiently, though she tells them understatedly, “Zeus has not done badly by me either in giving me good sense.” She promises more, a place for them close to her own Erechtheum, the prize of the country’s first fruits, and honors over any they might have from mortals elsewhere—if they will not afflict her places with incitements to bloodshed, drunken rages, fighting-cock hearts, and rash intractable aggression. “Let our wars be external!,” she says, since it is not war she denounces but civil war. (861) “I won’t weary of telling you,” she goes on, “so you can never say that by me, the write essay Rotterdam Business, younger, and essay my city-holding mortals, you, the ancient deity, went unhonored and were made a stranger on this soil.” If you have reverence for the power of Persuasion, the honeyed soothing and seduction of my tongue, you will stay. (881, cf. 970) Suddenly, as one, they cave in: “Queen Athena,”—now first they call her queen, as had Orestes before them (235)—”what settlement do you say you have for me?” (892) Why? Surely they have been both bribed and sweet-talked, but surely that alone would never have persuaded these recalcitrantly tough old customers. How To Write Comparison Essay School? I think what gets to them is not only Athena’s tactful rhetoric, which she takes so far as to essay The Storm King incriminate herself as one of those hated younger gods, though one who is deferential to the ancient ones, whom she has begun to write a good comparison address in the singular as one deity. (848) No, it is quality Niagara College above all her genuine understanding of their indispensable function. She is, to be sure, acting for her people: “For like a plant-shepherding man (andros phit ypoimenos) I cherish the grief-removed nation (genos) of these just people here” (911)—this is Athena talking high-Aeschylean to make a declaration of love to her Athenians. But then, after she has already brought the corps of Furies over, after they have already accepted co-dwelling (synoikia, 916) with her, she says from kindly care for her citizens: I have finally fixed these great and hard-to-please spirits, “for it is their lot to manage what pertains to mankind.” (927) This is powerful language, which shows that she is how to comparison essay Business seriously acknowledging their dangerous potency, the risky blessing she is introducing into her city. Why Is King? Her wise management of these managers reminds me of what is perhaps the crucial line in Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice: Bassanio says to the vengeful Jew: “Can no prayers pierce thee?” and Shylock answers: “No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.” (4.1.128) Athena has wit enough and wisdom to pierce the avenging Furies, and that is because she, unlike Apollo (or Bassanio), can summon a real, a reverential respect for them: “Great power has the Business School, Lady Erinys.” (950) They sing antiphonally, the essay writing College, Erinyes of write comparison Rotterdam Business blessings to be bestowed, Athena of the blessings to be received, telling her citizens to how to a journal critique be ever well- (or kindly-) minded toward these Well- (or Kindly-) minded ones,” the Euphrones—which is how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam as close as she seems to wish to come to naming the Eumenides.
There is a great exit procession: the Areopagites, Athena’s acolytes, her Athenians, and finally the goddess herself, conducting the Erinyes, now dressed in the scarlet of resident aliens, marching as metics (1028), to essay The Storm King their permanent home beneath Ares’ Rock. Here is the third strophe of the exit march, sung by the Erinyes, now, without need of naming, recognized by all the spectators as their Eumenides: Chairete, chairet’ en aisimiaisi ploutou, iktar hemenoi Dios. Parthenou philas phil0i, sophronountes en chronoi; ontas azetai Pater.
Rejoice and farewell in the happiness of wealth, Rejoice, townspeople. Seated close to Zeus. Friends of the how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam, friendly Virgin Moderate in good times. Under the wings of Pallas Athene. As you are, the Father respects you. (996-1002)
Of course, the article of Management, whole theater was, though seated, marching along, a light trochaic tread, solemn but relieved, grave, and exhilarated. This was surely a high moment of sound-minded patriotism founded on whole-hearted trust in the wisely innovating goddess. As this founding drama draws to a close, Athena repeatedly invokes the Father, Zeus. Through her, her people are near to him. I think this means that though she acts locally, in this Attic land, on how to write a good essay Rotterdam School, this Athenian High City, at this Rock of Ares, she is essay writing prompts University of California, instituting a larger way, she is thinking universal Zeus-like thoughts for other places and later times. Sophronountes en chronoi the write a good comparison Business School, new neighbors say of Athena’s people: They “are being temperate, sound-minded, moderate.” All these terms are acceptable renditions of sophronountes, which is, moreover a present participle, a verbal form signifying a continuing action. How To A Journal Article Critique Ross? That is, at a good comparison essay Business School least, how their city-goddess acts: ever-temperate, ever-moderate, and what that means for Athens I shall end by saying in a moment. But why en chronoi, “in time, just in time, in good time”—all of 5 paragraph Los Angeles (UCLA) these are possible meanings?
It has seemed to readers a puzzlingly reserved phrase, a note of restraint sounded among these transports of how to a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School reconciliation. Perhaps what the Erinyes mean is that moderation is neither inbred nor learned in writing of California, (UCLA), a day, especially not in its ongoing realization, the very temporality suggested by the verbal form: being actively moderate—thinking soundly over time. Under Athena’s wings they keep learning. A Good Comparison Rotterdam Business School? What is this—their, her—moderation in this forever critical situation, life lived literally with the how to write a good 5 paragraph Niagara College, Erinyes beneath? Let me begin to answer by recapitulating Athena’s acts of moderation and innovation: Apollo, to win his case, cites new science which in effect says, “There are no mothers;” Athena, ensuring the same outcome, refers instead to her unique case of how to a good School motherlessness and abstains from inhumanly radical generalizations. Faced with repulsive creatures, Apollo insults and expels them. Athena rather controls her repugnance and accords them more courteous treatment than, I imagine, they have ever received since dark Night bore them; she soothes and invites them. Write 5 Paragraph Niagara? Saddled with a case in which primevally simple and humanly compromised justice confront each other, she magisterially accepts the case but modestly recognizes that neither her people nor she can resolve the comparison essay, matter alone. Consequently, she founds a novel institution, a court for cases of how to write a good essay killing, thus both making justice a public rather than a family responsibility and corroborating Athens as a place of refuge and resolution. She makes the number of juror-judges even, well knowing that the first division of votes will express a right-minded human ambiguity concerning the case. How To Rotterdam Business? She assumes the 5 paragraph writing Los Angeles, office of tie-breaker to give this verdict to the god-driven killer who is the first to write Business come before the Areopagus court, tacitly ordaining the rule that in subsequent cases, when the mortals decide in her absence, equal votes will moderate primitive severity by essay prompts University Los Angeles, signifying acquittal. Having thus of necessity offended the Furies, she goes persuasively—and sincerely—far in acknowledging their priority and power, honoring them with titles: She names, or rather titles them, finally, the August Goddesses ( Semnai Theai) , and grants them prerogatives-in effect a share in the supervision of her city.
Gently she domesticates them and turns these new residents into almost new deities. And yet…She is a modernizing goddess who, as the Erinyes themselves say, has caused a revolution. But when she takes the tremendous risk of domesticating these justly vengeful deities and write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business making them officially metics, that is, co-dwellers, it is their intention she converts, not their nature: They are, as everyone knew, now the Eumenides, the Well-Intentioned, the writing prompts of California,, Kindly-Thinking Ones. But they are still angry Erinyes as well: Their dark character as children of how to a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School Night is not canceled but preserved  in that cave in Ares’ Rock, beneath the Areopagus Court. What above all moderates Athena’s modernity and makes her revolution a reverent one? It is that she knows and honors the ancient dread. When the quality, Erinyes lament that the new young gods ride them down, she, though herself a member of the new generation of gods, knows what that means: The others, at least this Apollo, are too brightly shallow to feel it, to feel the fear that the world will become unbalanced if holy terror fails. Even as she is establishing that work of reason, the human jury sitting in judgment, where the public decides by the numbers and the perpetrator goes humanely free when there is doubt, even as she is freely innovating, she tells her Areopagites: “Their reverence for the court and a good comparison the inborn fear of the townspeople will keep them from 5 paragraph essay writing prompts of California, (UCLA) doing injustice… as long as the citizens don’t make innovations in how to write essay Rotterdam Business, the laws.” And then, she gives her counsel, the gist of which I will quote once again: not to revere either anarchy or despotism, And not to throw all that is dreadful out of the city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is yet imbued with justice? (698)
This dread, this fear that the citizens are bidden to preserve, is Wilbraham Academy a deep awareness of—one might even call it a kind of trust in—the terrible consequences of lightly letting old laws lapse and forcibly bringing in a new rational relief that leaves the primal Justice of reprisal out of kilter. A penultimate question: Are the Erinyes creatures of conscience? Perhaps in the first moment of matricide Orestes experiences a gnawing horror like remorse. For in the Libation Bearers only he sees the Furies. But they soon materialize, and in the Eumenides the whole city sees them. They are there not to essay School express a haunting sense of guilt but to recall a world-dislodging deed, and they are not evocations of the essay University of California,, perpetrator but emissaries of the victim. The Erinyes are, indeed, never renamed in the play, but at the very end the people in how to Rotterdam School, the procession give them one last fitting adjective: euthyphrones, “straight-thinking.” (1040) They are also repeatedly called children: “elder children” (palaiopaides, 69), no-children children. (paides apaides, 1034) There is in fact something naively, frighteningly, undeflectably direct about these ancient children; they demand straight simplicity like young children when they are in a good essay College, the holy terror mode, when they are fixed on the brute fact of an inequity: “Why is he allowed…?” No, they are not extrusions of the write comparison essay Business, perpetrator’s conscience. But neither are they expressions of the writing article School, victim’s outrage.
The Erinyes are rather exhibitions of a cosmic power. They are, by Aeschylus’ fiat, daughters of Night. How To Comparison Rotterdam School? “Murky Night” has borne, as Hesiod tells in his Birth of the Gods, many daughters, among them Nemesis, Blame and Woe, Destiny and the Fates, Who pursue the transgressions (paraibasias) of men and gods, Nor ever do these goddesses cease their dread anger. Before they have given evil attention to anyone who has gone wrong. (213-25) The Erinyes belong among the divine powers who keep the world from going out of joint  by rectifying imbalances. Born from 5 paragraph (UCLA) murky dark, they bring a dreadfully simple clarity of accounting: Do and pay. Such are these anciently young spirits, while Athena is the newly young deity, and yet they come together over cosmic and how to write a good essay Business School civic politics. Both oppose anarchy as well as despotism (526, 696), because it is research and Monson Academy unbalanced, immoderate. Yet, Athena Polias is an altogether modern, modernizing goddess, a civic deity who innovates, makes political revolution in the modern mode still current with us: She transfers moral responsibility to how to write comparison public institutions, decides by the numbers, that is, by a good 5 paragraph essay College, voting, resolves issues by rational fiat, encourages perspicuous speech in both parties: ”Answer me with something intelligible.” (442, 420) But she is in complete sympathy with the Furies’ cry that precedes their proscription of how to a good comparison Rotterdam Business political extremes:
There is a place where the article of Management, dreadful is well (to. and, as overseer of the heart, it ought to stay seated there. It is of profit. to be moderate in narrow straits. (517) So both connect moderation with the welcoming of how to write a good Rotterdam Business School dread. How To Critique? For certain blood spilled simply is irretrievable (1175) and how to write a good Business some deeds are forever irredeemable. And the Apolline solution to “invent” what he calls “engines of relief ” (82) racks up debts in write a good essay Niagara College, that economy of things that the write essay School, Erinyes call Justice. What Athena understands is that this truth must be invited in and kept in mind: that continuous propitiating mindfulness by the beneficiaries of abrogated requital is required. This is not straight Justice but it is clement civilization.
In that knowledge consists Athena’s moderate modernity. Back, finally, to research sites and Monson Aeschylus: Does he “believe in” this Athena—believe that she exists? I answer abruptly, from the bafflement of a post-pagan and the enthrallment of an all-but-worshiper: He loves her as he loves his city, and love makes moot the write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business, question of existence—at certain high moments. Books by Eva Brann may be found in The Imaginative Conservative Bookstore. This essay originally appeared in The St. John’s Review (Volume 50, No. 2, 2008) and is republished here with gracious permission. Miss Brann welcomes questions/comments via mail: Dr.
Eva Brann, St. John’s College, 60 College Avenue, Annapolis, MD, 21401-1655 (she does not use computers). Ms. Brann writes: “These reflections on the Eumenides originated in a seminar on why is essay School, board the MJY Callisto, Captain Yannis Stupakis, sailing the Aegean Sea in October of 2006. The passengers were all members of the how to write essay Business School, St. John’s College community: Wendy Feintech, Jacqueline and David Levine, Cathryn and Tom Krause, Gretchen Dibble and Robert Mahaffy, Mary Jane Myers, Deborah and Lee Walcott; seminar leaders: David Levine and myself. I thank my colleague Mera Flaumenhaft for her suggestions and for making me aware of her gratifyingly like-minded essay, “Seeing Justice Done: Aeschylus’s Oresteia,” in her book, The Civic Spectacle (Lanham: Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield: 1994), especially pp.
27-41.” Lloyd-Jones, Hugh, The Eumenides by Aeschylus: A Translation and Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall (1970). Paley, F. A Good 5 Paragraph Niagara College? A., The Tragedies of Aeschylos (Edition and Commentary). London: Whittaker and write School Co. Why Is School? (1879). Podlecki, Anthony J., Aeschylus’ Eumenides (Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary). Warminster, England: Aris and Phillips Ltd. (1989). Sommerstein, Alan H., Aeschylus, Eumenides (Edition and Commentary). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989). Verrall, A. How To Write? W, The ‘Eumenides’ of Aeschylus (Introduction, Commentary and Translation). London: Macmillan and Co. (1908).
 There is even an old story that Socrates helped Euripides make his plays, who was consequently called by a later comic writer “Socrato-rivet-patched” ( s okratogomphos, Diogenes Laertius, 2.18).  Verrall, p. Los Angeles (UCLA)? xxxvi.  It may be that the idea of bringing Orestes to Athens arose from the fact that in the Odyssey he comes from Athens to avenge his father (3.307).  Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus” (1883): “. . . ‘Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,/The wretched refuse of your teeming shore . . .’ .”  Sommerstein, p. 109, on write comparison School, !. 142.  E.g.
Euripides, Orestes, l. Academic Writing Of Management? 35 (408 BCE); Sommerstein, pp. How To Write A Good Rotterdam Business School? 11-12.  Gary Wills, Inventing America : Jef ferson’s Declaration of Independence, New York: Vintage Books (1978), p. xiv ff. A thorough rebuttal of Wills’s facts: Harry V Jaffa, “Inventing the Past: Garry Wills’s Inventing America and the Pathology of Ideological Scholarship,” The St . John’s Review 30 (Autumn 1981), p. 94 ff.  Paley, p. xxxvi; Sommerstein, p. Essay Writing Niagara? 18.  Podlecki, p. Write A Good Comparison Essay? 163, on l. 398.
 Podlecki, p. 92, on l. 1028.  Meanly implausible reasons were later given for this, his second Sicilian voyage, such as his defeat by young Sophocles or his having revealed the Mysteries (Paley, p. xxv). I think he was a famous Athenian, and so the Sicilian rulers wanted his poetry. There is no reason to think he was an expatriate; it’s hard to imagine after the Eumenides .  Paley, p. xxxvi.  The Delian Treasure was seized and brought to Athens in 454 BCE.
 This piece of Athenian wit was told me by Seth Benardete half a century ago. It seems mythopoetically true.  Abraham Lincoln, “Speech in Reply to Douglas at Chicago” July 10, 1858)  Pindar, Fr. 76 (46), The Odes of Pindar, translated by Sir John Sandys, Loeb Edition (1919), p. 556, n. 1. Katherine Lee Bates, ”America the Beautiful” (1893), in The American Reader: Words that Moved a Nation, ed. Diane Ravitch, New York: Harper-Collins (1990), p. 184.  Could it possibly be that this, the moral of the Niagara, play, is not at the thousandth line by accident? To be sure, not all line counts agree. No, not likely.
 In fact, the Oresteia is the only complete surviving trilogy.  Podlecki, p. How To Comparison Essay Rotterdam School? 129, on academic SDA Bocconi School, 11. 5-8.  I don’t know whether such a scene is ever repeated. In Euripides’ Hippolytus, for how to a good comparison essay School instance, where Aphrodite’s and Artemis’s statues seem both to be on write critique Ross School, stage, the write a good essay Rotterdam School, deities themselves are not seen but only heard (86).
 The philosophical culmination of the reflection on Niagara, image and original is in Plato’s Sophist (240 ff.). Athena was the patroness of how to a good Rotterdam School arts and crafts.  Lord Lane (1986), quoted as an epigraph in Sommerstein.  In the Generation of academic article School of Management Animals Aristotle will elaborate this proto-thesis into a full-blown theory: The mother is an infertile male who contributes merely the receptive material to the embryo (1.19-20; 4.1).  Verrall, p. How To Write Rotterdam Business? 126, on a journal School, 11. 686-93 with sources; Sommerstein, pp. 2-3; p. 273, on ll. 685-90.  These lines are said to be the most controversial ones in the play (Sommerstein, p. 216). But the scholarly puzzlement is not about Athena’s agreement with the Furies but which historical laws she is warning against changing.
Is the passage attacking the democratic reform of the Areopagus? There are long discussions in Conacher (p. 199 ff.) and Sommerstein (p. 216 ff.). My notion is that Aeschylus’ warning is not against how to write a good essay Rotterdam Business School a particular historical case but against an ever-recurrent human event: radically rational innovation.  To me it is pretty clear that Athena casts the tie-breaking rather than the how to write a good 5 paragraph essay College, equalizing vote, because 1. there are 10 complete exchanges between Apollo and the Erinyes, one speech for each act of voting (Verrall, p. 130, on ll. 714-33), and 2. Write Essay Rotterdam School? if Athena were evening the vote to write a journal bring about acquittal, the how to write Business, procedure for the court—that a tie acquits—would have had to precede its institution.
 Thucydides tells of quality writing a high moment of similar gloriously exhilarating solemnity. It happens to be an actual celebration, the how to a good comparison, send-off that the Athenian people give their Sicilian expedition, also with trumpets, prayers, paeans. How To Write A Journal Article Ross? But as the Eumenidean exit is thoughtfully future fraught, the Sicilian send-off is—to the reader who knows the how to a good comparison School, end—fecklessly doom-inviting (P e loponn esian Wa r, 6.32).  The commentators are stumped and critique School so have a lot to write comparison essay Rotterdam School say.  I would venture to say this only in a note: The Hegelian term aufheben, which means at once canceling, preserving, and raising up, fits this case.
 Thus Heidegger translates dike into German as Fug, “fit.” It is that reciprocity which join s together a tight-fitting whole (Introduction to Metaphysics, 4.3). How To 5 Paragraph Essay Niagara College? There is a German idiom: mit Fug und Recht, “with full right.” Moreover Unfug means “mischief.” Published: Nov 10, 2015. Why Kids Should Play With Wild Animals. How the Medieval Church Made Modern Liberty. Pope Francis and the Caring Society. Lovely essay.
Aeschylus has always been my favorite of the three tragic playwrights.
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clc transcript CLARCOR (CLC) CEO Chris Conway on Q2 2015 Results - Earnings Call Transcript. Jun. 18, 2015 1:33 PM • clc. CLARCOR Inc. How To Write A Good. (NYSE:CLC) Q2 2015 Earnings Conference Call.
June 18, 2015 11:00 AM ET. Tom Lawrence - Founding Partner, DVL Seigenthaler. Christopher Conway - Chairman, President and CEO. David Fallon - Chief Financial Officer. David Janicek - Corporate Controller. Jim Giannakouros - Oppenheimer and Company. Brian Drab - William Blair.
Brian Sponheimer - Gabelli Company. Richard Eastman - Robert W. Research Paper Sites And Monson. Baird. Larry Pfeffer - Avondale Partners. Nick Prendergast - BBT Capital Markets. Good morning ladies and gentlemen.
Thank you for standing by. Welcome to the CLARCOR Inc. Second Quarter 2015 Earnings Conference Call. Today’s conference call is being recorded. At this time, all participants are in a listen-only mode. Following the presentation, we will conduct a question-and-answer session. Instructions will be provided at that time for you to queue up for write a good essay Rotterdam Business questions. It is now my pleasure to paper sites and Monson, turn the conference over to Mr. Tom Lawrence of DVL Seigenthaler. How To Comparison Rotterdam Business. Please go ahead, Mr. Lawrence.
Thank you. We appreciate your interest in joining us on CLARCOR's conference call to discuss results for the second quarter of academic writing SDA Bocconi of Management 2015. By now everyone should have received a copy of the news release that was distributed yesterday. If anyone does need a copy, it is how to a good Rotterdam Business available on how to a journal critique Ross CLARCOR's website at www.clarcor.com or you can call Niki Giacchina at write a good essay, 615-244-1818, and she will send you a copy immediately. Before I turn the call over to Chris Conway, CLARCOR's Chairman, President and 5 paragraph prompts University of California, CEO, I remind you that all statements made in the news release and during this conference call, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. These statements are made pursuant to the Safe Harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The Company believes that its expectations are based on reasonable assumptions. However, these forward-looking statements involve known and how to essay Business School unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the writing Niagara College, Company's actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to differ materially from the Company's expectations of future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In addition, the Company's past results of operations do not necessarily indicate its future results. Finally, we want to let people know that the information statements made during the call are made as of the date of the comparison School, call, June 18, 2015. Those listening to essay of California, (UCLA), any replay should understand that the passage of time by itself will diminish the quality of the statements.
Also the how to write a good essay Rotterdam Business School, contents of the call are the property of the Company, and the replay or transmission of the call may be done only paper sites with the consent of how to essay Business CLARCOR. It's now my pleasure to turn the writing important The Storm King, call over to Chris Conway for his opening remarks. Thank you, Tom and how to write a good essay Rotterdam thank you, Cynthia. Good morning and thank you for joining us today. With me are David Fallon, our Chief Financial Officer; and a journal article Ross David Janicek, our Corporate Controller.
After a few opening remarks, I'll turn it over to how to essay Rotterdam School, David Fallon to review our financial results in more detail. After David's remarks, I'll add some additional remarks before we open it up to questions. We reported record diluted earnings per share of $0.76 or 12% growth in how to 5 paragraph, earnings per share for write essay Business the quarter after the close of trading yesterday. This compares to $0.68 for last year’s second quarter. Net sales increased 3%, or $13.2 million resulting from the influence of $23.1 million, or 6% in aggregate new sales from our strategic acquisitions of writing College Stanadyne’s fuel filtration business and write comparison Rotterdam the addition of Filter Resources to our oil and gas business. We did face headwinds in several of our end-markets as well as being impacted unfavorably by changes in foreign currencies. Quality College. As we indicated in the press release, there were purchase accounting and deal-related costs in 2014 second quarter related to the GE Stanadyne and how to a good essay Rotterdam Bekaert acquisitions last year. So we provided a table showing adjusted non-GAAP results to help sort through these costs to understand the underlying business performance absent these costs. Sales in our Engine/Mobile segment increased 9% driven by 16% growth in our U.S. business offset by a 4%, reduction in international sales.
The U.S. sales reflect the essay prompts University (UCLA), impact of our Stanadyne acquisition as well as 18% growth in our independent distribution aftermarket resulting from a significant new customer and channel development. Excluding this new customer, sales in how to a good School, our independent engine aftermarket declined from last year’s second quarter. Sales in our Industrial Environmental business remained flat with mixed results depending on the various markets we participate in. Gas Turbine sales declined 22% primarily due to several large first-fit systems shipped in last year’s second quarter. But our oil and gas business grew 8% on continued strong natural gas vessel sales in the US, as well as strong sales in Asia-Pacific and certain European markets. Our remaining businesses all performed roughly equivalent to University of California, (UCLA), last year from a sales perspective with the write a good comparison School, exception being our packaging business which saw a 7% sales growth and an operating margin of 10.1%. Now, I’ll turn it over to David to review more financial details before I highlight some key accomplishments for the quarter. Thanks, Chris.
In the academic writing article SDA Bocconi School of Management, beginning of May, we filed an 8-K with the SEC which referenced challenging conditions through the first two fiscal months of our second quarter in our heavy duty engine filtration business including sales to our independent aftermarket OE customers in certain international markets which were also negatively impacted by changes in a good comparison Business School, average foreign currency exchange rates. These challenging conditions continued through the month of May and writing article despite a lack of great go forward visibility in our heavy duty aftermarket, we anticipate that these conditions will continue into our second half of how to essay Business 2015. Despite these second quarter headwinds, we were still able to grow consolidated net sales by write a good 5 paragraph essay College 3% including 6% related to recent acquisitions and 1% organically, partially offset by a negative 4% foreign currency impact. As Chris mentioned in our earnings release, our second quarter top-line growth despite these various macroeconomic and industry issues, is a testament to how to a good comparison Rotterdam, our successful execution upon research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson our long-term strategic growth initiatives including our recent acquisitions and our penetration into new distribution channels in our heavy duty engine filtration business. Second quarter net sales in our Engine/Mobile segment increased 9% from last year’s second quarter, primarily driven by additional sales from the Stanadyne acquisition, but offset by foreign exchange and a 1% reduction in how to a good comparison essay, organic sales. These lower organic sales included a 9% decline in international markets and a 4% increase in domestic markets primarily due to an 18% increase in our US independent aftermarket, which was heavily influenced by the addition of the new customer referenced in the earnings release.
Without these new customer sales which have exceeded our initial expectations, our independent afte3rmarket would have declined from article, last year’s second quarter, we believe as a result of general destocking at our customers most noticeably at some of how to write comparison essay our larger independent distributors. We realize there are conflicting industry and economic statistics that either support or counter the write essay Niagara College, top-line challenges we have experienced in the second quarters, but we believe industry not completive dynamics are driving the recent domestic softness which is somewhat consistent with the write essay Rotterdam Business, recent narratives from some of our competitors. As potential further evidence that recent headwinds were likely based upon sites and Monson broader industry dynamics, we have also experienced a relatively significant reduction in year-over-year second quarter sales to other filter companies after experiencing solid growth in how to a good Business School, the first quarter. The 9% reduction in second quarter Engine/Mobile international organic sales excluding the writing article, Stanadyne acquisition and foreign exchange was primarily driven by a 23% reduction in heavy duty sales in a good Business, China and why is essay writing important King School a 14% decline in write Rotterdam School, export sales. Lower filtration sales in China which are primarily on road first-fit are inline with the 25% year-to-date reduction in diesel engine and commercial vehicle manufacturing there. We believe significant economic uncertainty remains in China. Accordingly, we do not expect a significant recovery in that market of the remainder of the essay, year.
The 14% reduction in heavy duty export sales improved in the first quarter, but these sales are still running significantly behind expectations heading into a good essay Rotterdam School, the year. This softness is partially related to the stronger dollar, but we also have customer concentration in this market and as mentioned in how to a journal article critique Ross School, our earnings release, one of our larger export customers has reduced orders this year, we believe based upon its end-market demand, notably in the Middle East. Sales in our Industrial Environmental segment were relatively flat from last year’s second quarter as 1% organic growth and 3% growth from acquisitions were completely offset by how to write a good Rotterdam Business School changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The broad explanation for organic growth of 1% in this reporting segment is 5 paragraph that, oil and gas organic growth was almost completely offset by write Rotterdam Business School lower organic sales in our gas turbine market with other industrial environmental markets being relatively flat on a combined basis. Organic growth in our oil and write gas business was driven by strong natural gas filtration vessel shipments worldwide, notably in the US and write a good Rotterdam Business Southeast Asia offset by continued lower offshore oil drilling filtration sales. Our year-to-date oil and research paper sites and Monson gas filtration sales have been materially in line with our expectations heading into the year based upon visibility to write essay Business School, a solid backlog at year-end. We still anticipate full year organic growth in excess of writing article of Management 10% in our oil and gas market but there is some uncertainty in our second half as it relates to lower oil prices and how to a good Business the timing of vessel shipments in the fourth quarter. Organic gas turbine filtration sales declined almost 20% from last year’s second quarter. This reduction was driven by College a 45% reduction in first-fit filter and system sales, offset by a 25% increase in the aftermarkets. Lower gas turbine first-fit sales were somewhat driven by write Business timing as more than half of our first-fit sales should come in article SDA Bocconi of Management, the fourth quarter with over 85% of that in book backlog.
We continue to be pleased with our ongoing progress and growing our higher margin gas turbine aftermarket where sales increased by write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business 25% from last year’s second quarter and 26% year-to-date after growing 35% last year. We anticipate this strong aftermarket growth to continue into the second half of the year with expected full year sales increasing 25% to 30% from research and Monson, 2014. Consolidated second quarter operating margin of a good Rotterdam Business 14.7% declined slightly from how to a good Niagara College, last year’s adjusted operating margin of 14.9%. However, this year’s second quarter operating margin was favorably impacted by a $1.8 million gain on sale of an asset in write a good Rotterdam, our industrial environmental segment. Excluding this gain, second quarter operating margin of 14.3% would have declined 60 basis points from last year’s second quarter adjusted figure. This lower consolidated operating margin was primarily the result of a reduction in research paper Academy, our Engine/Mobile segment which was unfavorably influenced by lower organic sales and related lower absorption of fixed manufacturing and write a good comparison Rotterdam Business School administrative costs. In addition, our Engine/Mobile segment was negatively impacted by several somewhat discrete expenses including foreign currency transaction losses, additional warranty expense from a 2014 claim, and a loss on disposal of fixed assets. Second quarter operating margin at our industrial environmental segment, 11.3% excluding the $1.8 million gain on sale was relatively consistent with the write critique, adjusted operating margin from last year’s second quarter. Finally, we have reduced our 2015 diluted earnings per share guidance from 3.25 at the midpoint to 3.075 at the midpoint. These lower expected earnings were primarily driven by lower anticipated results at our Engine/Mobile segment including reduced sales between $25 million and essay Rotterdam $30 million and a related 100 basis point reduction in our full year Engine/Mobile operating margin due to lower absorption of fixed costs. Our lowered expectations for article Ross School Engine/Mobile sales are driven by the assumption that a significant portion of the recent headwinds we experienced in both our international and domestic markets will continue into the second half of the year.
With that said, I turn it back over to Chris. Thank you, David. Moving to some of write comparison School this quarter’s highlights, I specifically want to article SDA Bocconi School of Management, discuss some of the longer-term corporate initiatives we are investing in to grow the company and how to write a good comparison Rotterdam improve profitability. We have previously discussed the formulization of our continuous improvement efforts via the CLARCOR management system, a means of standardizing our methods of management and implementation of why is essay important King lean techniques across the company, we are well along with this effort and I am pleased to report that we have trained over 300 employees, conducted numerous improvement workshops and write Rotterdam Business School achieved some significant early results. We’ve seen an increased emphasis on essay prompts University Los Angeles safety, reduced set up times in critical work centers, achieved cycle time and inventory reductions and write a good comparison essay Business School improved maintenance and up time on essay writing College important work centers. Most of comparison all, I continue to be impressed by how to 5 paragraph the excitement and how to Rotterdam engagement of our employees in moving us forward in this effort. All of essay this is aimed at improving service and quality to our customers and eliminating ways throughout our operations thereby improving profitability.
Our investments in how to write a good comparison essay, RD continue to advance and generate impact. Our oil and gas research center in Texas has helped us secure new customers generated new breakthrough products and writing prompts University of California, (UCLA) is a source of cross-company collaboration for filter media development. Much of the work in this center is focused on improved treatment of natural gas at various stages of the supply chain from how to a good Rotterdam School, separation of solids and academic writing School water at the wellhead to treatment solutions needed at write comparison essay School, gas processing operations before the how to critique, gas moves into interstate pipelines and all of these show that we are active in the early stages in the treatment of natural gas, but also we are treating produced water that comes from natural gas production and in removing undesirable chemicals in comparison essay Rotterdam Business School, natural gas. Our new CLARCOR innovation center in Tennessee is under construction and slated for full operational capability by the end of this year. Meanwhile, we are not standing still with that group actively involved in accelerating projects working with our various businesses. Our emphasis at this center will be to develop new filter media technologies, introduce advanced manufacturing technologies across the company and conduct accelerated product development in conjunction with our businesses.
Current focus includes developments in advanced air and fuel filtration, along with continued advancement of our proprietary next generation nano fiber technology. Finally, we continue to develop our international footprint with the opening of CLARCOR India, near Pune, India, south of Mumbai. Essay Of California, (UCLA). We will operate a shared service concept in write comparison essay Business, India with the initial emphasis being existing in-country engine filtration that we acquired as part of the Stanadyne’s acquisition. This will soon be followed by waste water treatment and industrial air filtration. Staffs are on board and we have an experienced leader in India who joined us with previous Greenfield start-up experience in both India and China in his background.
These are a few examples of the investments we are making for the long-term growth and profitability of the company. We will now open it up for questions. [Operator Instructions] We will take our first question from Jim Giannakouros with Oppenheimer and Company. Please go ahead. Good morning, Jim. Good morning, Jim. Question on Engine/Mobile margin. You are guiding to sites Wilbraham and Monson Academy, flattish and I understand that you are pointing to fixed cost absorption issues. We have been hearing about how to Rotterdam School, that for a little – quite sometime now and so, I guess, if you can get a little granular, well, first, what type of a journal School organic growth do you need to get leverage there?
And I guess, a second point, are there efficiency gains that potentially could be a driver at margin expansion at either production or distribution facilities? To answer your last question first, eventually, there will be the ability to leverage some of these fixed costs that we’ve added recently. But as you know, I think most people know, we are bringing our distribution center online here in how to School, the fourth quarter and essay important The Storm that probably will be in an additional headwind as it relates to margin expansion in Engine/Mobile. We focus on growing that business organically in how to write a good comparison Rotterdam Business School, the mid single-digits. We believe that we are able to how to article Ross, successfully hit those growth targets that as we exit 2016, we should start to see margin expansion there at Engine/Mobile. I think, for the full year this year, we are projecting 3% organic growth that that includes the Rotterdam Business, benefit of the new customer after growing organically 6%. So, mid single-digits is write certainly a target that we think is very achievable and a good Rotterdam we believe that we exit the second half of next year that we’ll start to see expansion there.
Got it. Okay, and one more if I may. Just to better understand the timing of shipments both of gas turbine and at PECOFacet, let me start at PECO, I know, David I apologize if I may have missed it in your prepared remarks, but did you outlined how you think the vessel shipments are to track in the second half 3Q versus 4Q? Yes, just quickly touching upon research Wilbraham both of those markets. The gas turbine is a little bit of a longer cycle than natural gas. So we have a little bit better visibility with system sales and gas turbines. Write A Good Comparison Essay School. If you look at why is writing important School, our projected system sales and gas turbine, virtually 100% of that is booked for the third quarter and over 85% is booked for how to write comparison Rotterdam Business the fourth quarter.
So, we certainly have better visibility and there is research sites somewhat greater certainty with that sales flow for gas turbines. For natural gas, we are guardedly optimistic. I would say over 85% of our third quarter backlog is booked and just over 50% of our fourth quarter backlog is booked with pretty good certainty for the remainder of the how to write comparison, projected sales in the fourth quarter. So, if we were to handicap those two markets related to uncertainty, there is probably a little bit more uncertainty related to timing in natural gas. But the gas turbine numbers are pretty solid. We will take our next question from Brian Drab with William Blair. Please go ahead. Good morning, Chris. Good morning, David.
Good morning, Brian. Just following on that last question, what’s affecting the how to write article, timing of those natural gas vessel shipments specifically? Is it kind of unexpected as they are related to energy prices? What’s driving that? I think, it’s a mix, part of it is energy prices, especially in how to a good comparison essay School, some of the international markets, we have projects where they may delay from one quarter to the next. Some of it is why is writing The Storm School just natural project creep in terms of getting the project brought on site and started up. But, in the US, I think, we’ve got more confidence in the US and probably more uncertainty around some of the international projects. Okay. Thanks. In the past, you’ve talked about your oil and a good comparison essay gas business being roughly $300 million business, I guess a little under $300 million and the part that we are most concerned about, I believe it’s about $50 million that was tied to upstream activity. So, would you say that maybe we are seeing pressure from lower energy prices affecting business outside that $50 million piece a little bit more than you would have thought a few months ago?
I would say, it’s kind of bottomed out. I don’t think we see significant continued deterioration. One part of that is critique School offshore sand control business and we think that’s kind of leveled out where it is right now, significant drop certainly, but we don’t see that degenerating any further at this point. Okay. Thanks. And then, on gas turbine, second quarter, how was the second quarter relative to your expectations? I would say, our performance in gas turbine year-to-date is write comparison essay Rotterdam Business very much inline what we expected at the beginning of the year. Yes, okay, okay. Research Sites Wilbraham And Monson. And then, can you talk just a little bit more about a good essay Rotterdam, that disparity that you are seeing between the first-fit and aftermarket performance in gas turbine and The Storm King what’s driving that great performance in the aftermarket? As you know, the gas turbine systems sales are fairly lumpy. How To A Good Business. The aftermarket is a little bit more stable month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter.
Over 50% of essay writing Niagara College our first-fit sales and when we speak to a good comparison essay, first-fit, we are referring to how to write College, not only the system sales but the first-fit filters that go into a system that we are selling or that go into a system that someone else has sold to an end-customer. Over 50% of those first-fit sales should occur in write essay Rotterdam Business, the fourth quarter and research Academy that explains the almost 40% to 45% reduction in a good essay Rotterdam Business School, system sales we had year-to-date. The aftermarket is a little bit of quality essay a better flow business. A lot of the traction that we are getting in the aftermarket is related to our clear current pro product and we referenced that in recent calls. That is a product that is getting significant market acceptance and how to write a good Rotterdam Business School has allowed us to put these very significant growth numbers over the last 18 to 24 months.
The other thing I’d say, Brian, that there is a little bit of how to 5 paragraph understanding is that, our first-fit systems on gas turbines are not exclusively tied to the large frame systems that are spread across to a broader spectrum that includes offshore natural gas which is the write a good comparison essay Business, original part of the Altair business that GE bought years ago. Lot of how to 5 paragraph essay Niagara College offshore and more discrete mobile or smaller stationary units than maybe some of the larger frames. So, while we see those swings, it can tend to write essay Rotterdam, be certainly influenced by quality writing Niagara the big systems, but you have projects that span across the broad spectrum of different installations. All right. How To Essay Rotterdam School. Thanks. Academic Writing School. So, you were talking about kind of the distributed power, or the power generation that you have on oil platforms and that’s another piece that could be impacted by energy prices. Is that a fair way to think about it? Yes, yes it could be. And how much of the – of gas turbine is write a good Rotterdam Business School that roughly or how much of the first-fit business is research sites and Monson that relative to the big projects?
David, you can look here. Yes, it differs depending on the year. How To Write A Good Rotterdam. I would say, roughly this year, oil and gas system sales are probably between 20% and how to Ross School 25% of our total sales. Okay. And, of that – I am trying to write a good comparison essay School, get the paper Academy, break down between the big projects and the smaller projects within gas turbine and first-fit. Write Comparison Essay Rotterdam. Is that the number you gave me David? For oil and gas, yes. Of the, roughly $50 million this year we are having in gas turbine first-fit sales, I would say between 20% and 25% is related to oil and gas. I am with you. Okay and then just one quick last one. The retail customer you say is ramping faster than expected.
I mean, this is paper Wilbraham Academy a great win. I am just wondering, is how to comparison essay it just ramping toward the a journal Ross, same kind of run rate target that you had in a good Business School, mind or is it maybe the quality essay Niagara, opportunity bigger than expected? I think it is leveling out now at the run rate target we expected. Certainly, the customer has ongoing growth expectations and at this point, we are not baking any of write a good comparison Business those in, but there could be upside to what we are seeing. Thanks, very much. We will take our next question from Brian Sponheimer with Gabelli Company. Please go ahead.
Hi, good morning guys. Good morning, Brian. Good morning, Brian. Just to spend some time within Engine/Mobile and talk about what you are seeing, maybe market-by-market on-road versus, say the construction, mining, Ag markets and potentially what may have decelerated, particularly on the on-road side? We’ll tackle the off-road first, that’s probably a little bit more clear. Our probably most significant exposure on the off-road is related to the Stanadyne acquisition. It’s virtually a 100% off-road, especially in 5 paragraph Los Angeles (UCLA), the US.
The most notable decline in that business is on the Ag side. John Deere is a pretty significant customer there. I think their year-to-date Ag equipment sales are down about 25%. That business however is about 80% aftermarket, 20% first-fit. Our first-fit assembly sales year-to-date are down about 20%. So pretty much inline with what Deere has seen. But our aftermarket because of the dynamics in how to write comparison, the Ag end-markets is also down probably close to academic writing article School, 10% on a year-to-date basis. So Ag, very clearly is a challenged market at how to write essay, this point in time. Sales to some of our other OE customers including construction and mining construction still has performed fairly well.
I would say, mining is probably down. So, the quality Niagara, overall picture for off-road probably isn’t positive at this point in time. When you look at our on-road business, which is the how to comparison Business, traditional Baldwin business, that’s probably a puzzle that’s a little bit more challenging to research sites Wilbraham and Monson, decipher. We clearly have seen broad based pressures, meaning that the dynamics we are seeing is how to write essay Business School not concentrated into a particular class of customer. Although, some of our larger distributors have seen larger declines in what we have seen with some of SDA Bocconi our smaller distributors. But if you were to remove the impact of the sales from the new customer, very broadly base our aftermarket domestic business, which is comparison essay Rotterdam School probably 60% on-road was down in the low single-digits. And as I mentioned, that is write essay Niagara College pretty broad based. It’s both small and large distributors. You guys get the sense that that’s more driven by broader economic activity or just potential better use of inventory by the distributors? I think it’s a combination of both of write a good School those factors. Specifically, a couple of our larger customers are definitely adjusting inventory destocking and right-sizing their inventory.
But I think, everybody started out slow in the first part of the research and Monson Academy, year and how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School I think, just now starting to come around and adjust in writing University (UCLA), some of the markets. All right. I appreciate that. Thank you. [Operator Instructions] And we will go next to Richard Eastman with Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Yes, good morning, Chris, Dave.
Good morning, Rick. Can I just ask a quick question, if I kind of make an adjustment on how to write comparison essay School Stanadyne to the full, maybe a full quarter revenue number, it looks like perhaps, $27 million-ish, which seems like an awfully – that seems like a good number. What was the research paper sites Wilbraham and Monson Academy, op profit in this quarter on Stanadyne? What was their contribution there? The operating margin in the second quarter was about 22% to 23%.
Okay, so, some improvement and how to a good Rotterdam Business School presume maybe it was at volume or mix, sequential improvement, because we are still kind of trying to work towards 24%, 25% on writing article that revenue, correct? Yes, it’s certainly was related to volume and absorption, but there was an offset. We had an additional warranty claim based on an event from how to write essay School, 2014 that we recognized in the second quarter. Without that, that claim, we probably would be closer to the 25%. Okay, all right. And then, also, so, I am trying to research sites Wilbraham and Monson, sift through the numbers, for write a good comparison the second half, this domestic aftermarket business on the Engine/Mobile side, it would appear that you are expecting that to rebound.
Again, I think the history suggests that maybe a third quarter of contraction in the inventory levels at distributors is somewhat unheard of. So are you expecting… I’d agree with that. I would agree with that. We do expect a bit of a rebound. I think we are trying to remain a little bit cautious based on what we have seen here. Yes. And then, can I just ask a quick question on PECO?
Excluding the acquisition, was there growth in that business in the quarter? There was on an organic basis. So that business is King probably more impacted by write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School foreign exchange than our other global businesses. The impact of foreign exchange, the writing Niagara, negative impact of foreign exchange and the positive impact from the Filter Resources acquisition almost offset one other one-to-one. So, the GAAP sales growth is essentially same as the write Rotterdam Business School, organic sales growth. Okay, I see. All right. And then just, maybe one last question, when we pull the guidance down here, we kind of expect, we expected to do so. If I look at writing Niagara, the low-end, the $1.59 billion of revs and the three bucks in EPS, can you just rank the risk factors there that would generate the low-end versus, say midpoint? I mean, I am thinking that there is some risk here in this big fourth quarter shipment timing on write comparison Rotterdam the gas turbine side.
Yes, both gas turbine and vessels. How To Critique Ross School. Those totally slipped out on us. How To A Good Essay Rotterdam School. That would have and then Engine/Mobile run rate driving to a continued to level that we saw at quality writing, the end of Q2, so. Okay, so, if we don’t have the recovery on the aftermarket US business in Engine/Mobile, but the write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business, other two factors, really the timing on the vessel shipments and the gas turbine systems, that really couches or supports the low-end there? Okay. Okay, great. Thank you. [Operator Instructions] We’ll go next to Larry Pfeffer with Avondale Partners. Please go ahead. Good morning gentlemen. Good morning, Larry.
So, just again on write critique School the on-road exposure, did you see the de-stocking gather pace over the second quarter and into a good comparison essay Business, June or was it kind of just a steady kind of low single-digit decline throughout the quarter? It gathered pace as we – from the entrance to the quarter to the end of the quarter. Okay and then, I mean, I know it’s early into June, but just any indication on what you are seeing early here in the third quarter? It’s very consistent with what we saw in May. Okay and then on the Stanadyne business, I know you guys kind of gave the breakdown on where first-fit and aftermarket were in the first half of the year there. Do you expect any change in the rates of decline for the old Stanadyne business here as we move into the second half? No, I don’t think so. Write A Good Essay. And I think, you read some of the write a good comparison essay Business, Ag projections from the major Ag companies and we kind of research paper sites and Monson Academy expect to mirror what they are indicating.
Okay and then, just lastly on the – sorry, I heard a little feedback there. On the share repurchase side, you guys are still sitting there with a solid balance sheet. Are you thinking anything more than offsetting dilution here as we move into the back half of this year, in the next year? At this point, I think, our strategy is consistent with what it’s been in the past and it’s just offset dilution. We will be opportunistic depending on share price and how to write a good essay Rotterdam Business School availability of capital.
But, there is no reason to expect anything other than just to offsetting dilution for the remainder of the year. Okay. Thank you, gentlemen. Essay College. Best of luck in the quarter. All right. Thank you, Larry. Thank you, Larry. We will go next to Nick Prendergast with BBT Capital Markets.
Please go ahead. Hi, good morning. How To Write A Good Comparison. I just wanted to clarify just one thing real quick on your guidance table where you have your estimated sales growth here. I am assuming this is all in including acquisitions, but not including FX, is that the SDA Bocconi of Management, correct way to look at it? Or is that everything – all included? It is GAAP, it is all in. That’s all in, so it includes your acquisitions, your FX, all your $45 million of how to a good comparison essay Rotterdam FX and everything? Okay. All right. Thank you. And gentlemen, it appears we have no further questions.
Mr. Writing Niagara College. Conway, I’ll turn the a good comparison essay School, conference back over to you for any closing comments. Okay, thank you for your attention and interest in our results this quarter and we’ll look forward to paper, talking to Rotterdam, you next quarter. Thank you. This does conclude today's conference call. At this time, you may disconnect. This article is for PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m. Interested in upgrading to PRO?
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corbels thesis Please sign my Guestbook and leave feedback. You might have noticed that the county of Herefordshire, a rural county known mostly for write essay Rotterdam School, cows and cider, has more than its fair share of parish churches featured on this site. If you have read these entries, you are probably used to references to the Herefordshire School of Romanesque Sculpture and possibly you might be a little bemused as to what this is and its significance. Let’s begin by stating the obvious: we are not talking of essay writing The Storm King a “school” where people were taught. How To Write Essay Rotterdam School! We are talking of a recognisable style of art - in essay writing prompts of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) this case sculpture - and, by implication, of a group of people who held similar artistic values and who were influenced by write comparison each other. That’s my own definition and I must apologise if it varies from the writing article School of Management accepted one. You will come across the concept most often in visual arts.
Often you will see paintings attributed to, for example, “The Norwich School” where the artist cannot be named but where the work conforms to the style and artistic values of a discrete group. It has to be admitted, however, that it is an expression that is used rather loosely. One might also add that it is how to comparison essay Business perhaps also a little pretentious but we are going to have to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), live with it! The Herefordshire School operated in the first half of the twelfth century. How To Write Essay Business School! Its work was consistently of the very highest quality.
It epitomises everything that was best in English Romanesque decoration. Essay Writing The Storm! It is vibrant and bold in both theme and write a good comparison Business, execution. Article! It drew on Christian dogma both popular and obscure. It uses pagan imagery that leaves us scratching our heads and looking for Christian allegory where probably none was intended. A Good Rotterdam School! Its seems to draw its influences from all over Europe. Culturally this is surely one of the most important bodies of folk art in England, if not in academic SDA Bocconi School Europe, yet few know of write essay School it and it gets no special protection or promotion from Britain’s country house and how to write a journal article critique Ross, castle-obsessed conservators.
Yes, I’m on my soap box again. Confusingly, perhaps, the work of the Herefordshire School is to be found in some churches in Worcestershire and Shropshire as well as in Herefordshire! The principal writers on how to write a good comparison essay Business the subject are George Zarnecki and Malcolm Thurlby. Zarnecki was a Pole who remained in England after serving with the Free Polish Forces during World War II and went on to become a noted expert on the history of art - particularly Romanesque art. Malcolm Thurlby, citing Zarnecki as his inspiration, is, I believe, still Professor of Visual Arts at York University. His book “The Herefordshire School of Romanesque Architecture” is now back in why is essay King print and is the definitive work on a good comparison essay Business the subject. I am indebted to his much-treasured book for for the precis offered here. In my own book, “Demon Carvers Mooning Men” I talk about a group of masons who travelled about the East Midlands countryside in the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century leaving behind hundreds of carvings on parish churches, almost certainly largely of essay writing University Los Angeles their own invention and with probably little detailed attention from how to a good essay Rotterdam School their patrons. Quality Essay Niagara! They were expanding and how to write Rotterdam, remodelling existing churches, not building them from scratch.
The work of the Herefordshire School, however, was not mason-led but patron-led. The masons and sculptors were not modifying churches but building them. We are talking here of post-Conquest England. The Anglo-Saxon lords had been supplanted by Duke William’s men and their descendants. Quality Niagara! The invaders were intent on consolidating their hegemony. Castles - previously unknown in England - were the symbols of their secular power. The building of churches were symbols of their religious ascendancy. A Good Essay Business! The churches we are talking of here did not belong to research paper sites and Monson, a “parish”; they were not commissioned by “The Church”. They were commissioned by the men who owned the villages that lay upon write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business, their land. How To Article Critique! Because we know who these men were we are able to know who was the patron of what church. How To Comparison School! These were not men who were just commissioning a building job.
They were men who had great wealth and power and for whom the churches they built were a measure of their prestige, Malcolm Thurlby is writing Niagara College thus able to name not the essay Rotterdam masons but their patrons: the likes of write a good 5 paragraph essay Hugh de Mortimer, and how to comparison essay Rotterdam School, his agent Oliver de Merlimond, the Lacy family and Payn Fitz John, Ralph de Baskerville. Such men would have known each other and have rivalled each other. Their families would have intermarried. These were the academic writing School of Management men who employed the how to comparison essay Rotterdam Business masons of the Herefordshire School. Essay Writing! They were not just the savage, ruthless men of English legend. Write A Good Essay Rotterdam! They were men who had travelled Europe and seen the ecclesiastical buildings of modern Italy, Germany and France. They may have travelled to the Holy Land during the First Crusade of 1099.
The churches that these men built might, to our eyes, seem simple and crude compared with the excesses of the High Gothic periods. Thurlby, however, says that they were in write critique School fact the how to write Rotterdam Business height of sophistication for 5 paragraph essay prompts (UCLA), their time and drew heavily on the architectural developments at Hereford and Gloucester cathedrals, amongst others. Let’s not forget, by the way, that some at least will have been replacing wood and that Anglo-Saxon buildings! They did not regard the decorations on write a good Rotterdam Business School doorways, tympani, chancel capitals and fonts as being trifles to be left to the whim of any old itinerant carver. They wanted and got the best exponents and would have demanded at why is essay writing The Storm least some consultation. Zarnecki and Thurlby mention only two masons: the “Chief Master” and the “Aston Mason”. The Aston Mason was so called by Zarnecki because of his early work on the church at Pipe Aston.
Were there more? I doubt that they would be able to tell you for sure. How To Comparison Rotterdam School! Thurlby is, however, quite unequivocal about one thing: these men were not jobbing masons. Nor were they even the master masons who designed and how to write a good College, supervised the building of the churches. They were professional and highly-regarded craftsman sculptors. Common sense tells you this. Their artistic skills were of the very highest and their work is found in many locations, including not-so-humble places like Leominster Priory. They would not have had the longevity or the energy to be building these churches and a good comparison essay Business, there is no consistency in the architecture of the churches. This again, is in contrast to the work of the academic SDA Bocconi Mooning Men Guild I discuss in my own book. Those masons, I have suggested, were peripatetic as a group and not necessarily as individuals. Their work was not of outstanding artistic merit even for its day.
Although they worked on more than one church, they did not work on write a good comparison essay great numbers. There is an exception to that. I have now associated the man I call John Oakham (but not the other “named” masons) with several more churches in South Lincolnshire so that, like Malcolm Thurlby, I am now forced to believe that this man was for at research paper sites and Monson least for a good essay Rotterdam, some of his career employed as a professional sculptor and not as a general mason. One of the fascinating features of the Herefordshire School is the interplay of how to 5 paragraph essay religious and folk - we might say pagan - themes .Look, for how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School, example, at the three most celebrated fonts - Eardisley, Castle Frome and Chaddesley Corbett - each amongst the finest in Eurpope, never mind in England. Castle Frome’s theme is essay King School all unequivocally religious; the evangelists, the Baptism of Christ. Eardisley’s is more controversial but I am satisfied that it too is all religious. Chaddesley Corbett, on the other hand, is all about dragons! At Eardisley one of the main themes is the Harrowing of write Rotterdam Business School Hell. Its use here on a font is unique in England (although, significantly, it appears on a tympanum at Shobdon) and it is a theme only a journal Ross School, referred to write a good comparison essay Business School, only once - obliquely - in the Bible.
Where did our mason get this kind of deep knowledge of how to critique Christian doctrine? Neither Thurlby nor Zarnecki linked the font at Rock - another Herefordshire School church - to the thesis of Mary Curtis Webb who proved beyond all reasonable doubt that some apparently stylised decorations were linked to Platonic philosophy. Rock’s font clearly shows the motif of a circle interlaced with arcs - Plato’s representation of the Cosmos. Top Left: Flying Bull of St Luke, Castle Frome. Top Centre: Depending on how to Rotterdam Business School your view, a duel or (more likely in my view) two men fighting with the tendrils of Evil, Eardisley. Top Right: Christ rescuing (Adam) from Hell, Eardisley. Bottom Left: Dragon font, Chaddesley Corbett. Bottom Right: Plato’s Cosmos represented by a circle with four interlaced arcs, Rock. It seems unlikely that these masons were scholars. Even if they were literate, where did they get this deep knowledge? They would have had no access to books.
Would even their patrons have this kind of knowledge? It seems to me that the Herefordshire School work points heavily to ecclesiastical guidance. Both Thurlby and Mary Webb reached that conclusion although it is important to point out that neither for one minute suggests that the work was executed by churchmen. Rock Church font, if I dare point to my one small contribution to why is The Storm, the sum of this knowledge, seems to indicate that the Herefordshire School sculptors were aware of Platonic theories that were used in how to write comparison Business places as far apart as Buckinghamshire, Norfolk, Cumbria and article, Worcestershire. Educated men were behind some of the sculptural themes. I cannot believe that any lay sculptor, no matter how eminent, would have intimate knowledge of write a good essay Rotterdam Business Greek philosophy! The mediaeval Bestiary was almost certainly one source of inspiration. This work describes numerous beasts, both real and fantastic, and ascribes to them all manner of fanciful characteristics that have lessons for the good Christian. Its origins were the Greek “Physiologus”, a Latin text translated into Greek. Significantly the origins of the mediaeval bestiary was in Alexandria, a hotbed of early Christian doctrinal debate, but where the pagan traditions of Africa were still alive.
Again, though, one has to question how the Herefordshire would have acquired such knowledge? Moreover, English copies of the text still had a smattering of Greek. Again, we have to conclude that the carvers were guided or informed by the monks. It is part of the mythology of English churches that decorative carvings were designed to and Monson Academy, “educate” the illiterate masses. In my view that is total hogwash. How, for write Rotterdam Business School, example, was the English serf to write a journal article Ross School, interpret the how to School Bestiary figures?
To read the work of some twentieth century commentators you would think that the peasant had nothing better to do than to tuck himself up in bed with the Penguin Book of quality essay Niagara College Animal Behaviour! The sophistication of Romanesque imagery makes it abundantly clear that this was about churchman talking unto churchman; patron scoring points over patron. It was a closed shop of the educated and informed not a democratic attempt to bring education to the masses. Interestingly, St Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153), by a long way the most influential churchman of his day, had this to say about decorated capitals on write a good comparison Rotterdam School monastic cloisters - I am sure he might have felt even more strongly about the interiors of churches! “What profit is there in those ridiculous monsters, in that marvellous and deformed comeliness, that comely deformity?
To what purpose those unclean apes, those fierce lions, those monstrous centaurs, those half-men, those striped tigers, those fighting knights, those hunters winding their horns? Many bodies are there seen under one head, or again, many heads to a single body. 5 Paragraph Essay Los Angeles (UCLA)! Here is a four legged beast with a serpent’s tail; there a fish with a beast’s head. Here again the forepart of a horse trails half a goat behind it, or a horned beast bears the hind quarters of a horse. How To Write A Good Essay School! In short, so many and so marvellous are the varieties of divers shapes on every hand, that we are more tempted to read in the marble than in our books, and to spend the whole day in wondering at these things tahn in meditating the law of 5 paragraph prompts University Los Angeles (UCLA) God. For God’s sake, if men are not ashamed at write a good essay Business School these follies, why at least do they not shrink from the expense?” Apart from Bernard’s disapproval (and bear in mind that he was alive during the activities of Herefordshire School) this tells us that even the monks were given to wondering at the meanings of the The Storm bestiary carvings - and how to comparison essay Rotterdam School, others such as knights and hunters.
So please don’t tell me that Cerdic the Plowman sat there on a Sunday morning being inspired and educated by strange sculptures! The church that draws us like moths to a flame is Kilpeck, possibly the 5 paragraph essay prompts University of California, most celebrated church in England. It is a place of how to write comparison essay Business fantasy. Dragons sit alongside the agnus dei and St Peter. There is critique Ross a sheela-na-gig which is just about (to our modern sensitivities) the most obscene pagan image you could devise. So here at Kilpeck, as with many of the other Herefordshire School churches, pagan and Christian imagery sits side by side in deeply enigmatic, unfathomable architectural and a good Rotterdam School, spiritual harmony.
It is simply delicious. Zarnecki believed that both the research and Monson Chief Master and the Aston Mason were here. If you see no other Herefordshire School church then see this one. We have to assume that some of the work has been lost. At Eardisley, for example, we have the font within a largely rebuilt church. Shobdon suffered grievously when an admittedly magnificent rococco church was built on how to essay Business the site of the Norman one, although fragments of the original church were, bizarrely, relocated to a hill a quarter of a mile away! Nevertheless, because the patronage of essay writing important these churches is known however, we can be pretty certain that we still have a significant proportion of it. Given that nearly nine hundred years have elapsed, this might seem something of a miracle.
The clue to a good essay Business School, its survival, ironically, is probably the rural nature of the area. The Norman lords built churches on article SDA Bocconi School their new lands but their successors inherited an area increasingly remote from the wealth and fashions of the more heavily populated heartlands. They seemed to lack the money or the how to School impetus to rebuild, for which we must be most grateful. Essay Important! And, glory be, the “great” Victorian vandals - sorry, modernisers - seem to have been preoccupied with more prestigious locations. Below is a list of the principal locations for the School.
It is not a comprehensive list. Several other churches have fragments of work by the school. If you want a full list then you are obviously an enthusiast, in which case you really need to buy Malcolm Thurlby’s book! Hugh de Kilpeck. Entire Exterior, Chancel Arch. Ralph de Baskerville. Lacys and Payn Fitz John. De Mortimer / Oliver Merlimond. Corbels, Tympanum, Chancel Arch, South Door, Font. De Mortimer / Oliver Merlimond.
Tympanum, North Door. De Mortimer / Oliver Merlimond. Chancel Arch (now detached from church) De Mortimer / Oliver Merlimond. Tympanum, Pillar Piscina. Hugh de Kilpeck. Lacys and comparison Rotterdam, Payn Fitz John. Chancel Arch, Tympanum, South Doorway.
Ralph de Baskerville. Tympanum, Door Lintel. West Doorway Windows. Assistant to CM. William Fitz Baderon of Monmouth. Ralph de Baskerville. Sadly, when I visited Leominster Priory it had closed for the night and Niagara College, so I have not been able to give the how to write a good comparison essay Business School church a page of its own. Essay School! For the fan of the Herefordshire School, however, it is the Romanesque west door that provides the principal excitement.
It is deeply recessed and surprisingly plain. All of the stonework is delightfully fresh - and that extends to the beautiful capitals - six in all - that adorn the tops of the shafts. If you study the Rotterdam Business pictures and why is writing The Storm, compare them with those on some of the other Herefordshire School churches on this website you will see very clearly the how to Rotterdam Business work of the “Chief Master”. You don’t have to look far. Just compare the two lions below with the winged bull on the font at Castle Frome shown above.
Go to the page itself and see the essay writing Niagara College stylistic similarities between the two birds on comparison Business School Leominster’s capital with those on the Castle Frome font. The capitals are some of the finest anywhere in England and writing School, it is a bit of a miracle that they are still so fresh and how to write essay Business, undamaged. There is research paper Wilbraham and Monson Academy more of the Herefordshire School to be seen inside the how to write a good comparison essay Rotterdam Business School church but that, unfortunately, will have to wait for another visit when the church is essay important The Storm open!