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Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on Modernity in India. The other widely expressed way of coming to grips with our lack of true modernity is to say that there are “multiple modernities”, and how to a thesis Fountain Valley that the Indian variety is just another expression of modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to different nation-states.
If modernity is how to write essay, multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of modernity. And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in a thesis essay Fountain School, this country and therefore modernity in this country has to how to write pdf St. Clair College be defined in terms of the social-historical and cultural conditions of different regions or social segments of the nation. When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. The series of revolutions which took place in Europe, gave emergence to democracy and write a thesis Valley nation-states. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and enlightenment. Such a kind of School, social conditions in Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into existence the form of write of Colorado, modernity which is now called late modernity.
The pioneers of sociology – Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Simmel – were the products of modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Our first priority was to get freedom, and what School our ambition was to build India into a nation. Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Mukerji, B.K.
Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. How To Valley School? Dutt and K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on the approach to studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of industrialism and journal Westbourne School capitalism. Nor had they any experience of western modernity. Specifying the orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the professionalization of sociology as a discipline, in respect of concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of science. Their deeper concern, however, was with the issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the issues of social relevance and says that pioneers of sociology in India wanted to focus on social change.
For them, industrialism in how to a thesis essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado, whatever form it was brought by what journal article Westbourne School, colonial rule was not a challenge. Essay Valley Of Colorado? It was first a beginning of modernity and therefore they showed their concern for the study of what journal article Westbourne School, family, kin, caste and village. And, what is important is that the social background of most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and humanism (both Marxist and how to write a thesis Fountain School of Colorado non-Marxist) and deeper concern for issues of national identity, freedom from colonial rule and establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to the study of modernity and its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents – Trends Reports sponsored by ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in industrial sociology in India and puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory. Similarly, some of the studies on industrial organizations, trade unions and industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the conceptual frameworks of structural-functionalism and a college essay yourself University London the dialectical analysis.
Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that “we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and empirically valid”. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on ‘Modernization in Development: Trends in write a thesis essay Fountain School of Colorado, India’; S.C. Dube (1976) on ‘Indian Sociology at the Turning Point’ and A.R.
Desai (1981) on ‘Relevance of the Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society’. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to study modernity. A College About Brunel London (Navitas)? But it was in a sporadic way. A Thesis Fountain Valley School Of Colorado? The Indian sociologists showed their concern for social change in India. Writing Essay Yourself Brunel University London (Navitas)? But their social change was characterized by structural-functional analysis or in write essay Valley School, some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm.
During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. strongly believed that in order to how to write essay School push the history towards the next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to mention that the modernists in Europe did not discuss the bipolarity of how to write a thesis Fountain Valley School, tradition and modernity to analyze the later. In India, approach to modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. Journal School? talked about modernity in how to write Fountain Valley School of Colorado, an elaborate way.
And what is further interesting is that D.P’s ideas about modernity have been discussed at length by T.N. Madan in his work Pathways (1994). D.P. alleges that the western concept of modernity is erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in terms of a college essay yourself (Navitas), industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is mistaken. It abandons holism. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is rooted in its culture and history. Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on the approach of D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: …. India’s intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado those of the west. Hence, the urge for a synthesis of Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism.
Thus, the model of modernity which could be attempted in India, according to D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Indian culture. I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the writing about yourself University, obsession of colonialism and a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado national movements which characterized our past. We have abundant studies on rural society, family, caste and what is a Westbourne kin and have studied social changes observed in write a thesis Fountain of Colorado, these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about adaptive changes and we never move from the notion of the ‘Indian’. Our views about the ‘western’ is also the critically, same as it was for the ‘pioneers’ of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of modern Indian society.
Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. After the attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by American and British sociology. It was massively anchored in functionalism. There was a weak and fragile trend of Marxism. D.P. and how to a thesis essay Fountain Ramkrishna combined Marx’s dialectical logic with Indian traditions. A.R. Desai examined India’s social history in define critically Algonquin, Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and essay Valley of Colorado 1990s the Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach.
They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of is a journal School, modernity. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of capitalism in class formations. It was in the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the works of Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to its traditions. The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and how to write a thesis Valley School of Colorado Pocock) that the how to a legal essay, reality in Indian society in terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. How To A Thesis School? The discussion on critical psychology Burr Academy, modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition.
Besides these two books, there is a huge literature which deals with the processes of social change. The social change studies focus on modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is a thesis Fountain Valley School of Colorado, different from European modernization. Britain was cradle of European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about gradual change in the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into how to write a legal essay St. John's-Ravenscourt an industrial liberal society. In this process, the estates, mainly consisting of the serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and serfs were transformed into industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in Britain, took more and more to commercial and how to a thesis essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and guild masters replaced by projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by pauperization of the rhetorical analysis, uprooted peasantry, growth of slum-like work houses in cities, sudden breakdown in the family structure and exploitation of the workers by an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in orientation.
Modernization in a thesis essay of Colorado, India came in writing essay yourself University London, a different situation. How To A Thesis Essay Fountain? Here, colonialism and feudalism prospered side by side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Algonquin Indian modernity were of different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words: Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the how to a thesis essay School, British rule. Essay Pdf St. Clair College? This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in culture and write essay Fountain Valley social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of this contact was towards modernization, but in the process a variety of thinking and Burton Academy, traditional institutions also got reinforcement. This demonstrates the weakness of how to write essay of Colorado, assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and modernity.
Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions. This has not happened in the case of Europe. It is India’s historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in a college about University, tradition for a discussion of modernity.
We now turn to define modernity as is meant in India. M.N. How To Write Essay Valley Of Colorado? Srinivas on westernization and modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the concepts of westernization and modernization. These concepts have emerged from his empirical studies on the religion and St. John's-Ravenscourt School society among the Coorgs of South India.
Initially, he introduced the concept of sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to explain social change in a thesis Fountain, the caste system. Westernization is defined by Srinivas as “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels… technology, institutions, ideology and values”. But, the term ‘westernization’ does not mean only the things of the west. It is a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and essay about yourself Brunel rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of scientific, technological and how to a thesis essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado educational institutions, rise of critically Algonquin, nationalism, new political culture and leadership in the country. According to Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the process of sanskritization; both go on simultaneously, and to how to essay Fountain Valley some extent, increase in what journal article Westbourne, westernization accelerates the process of sanskritization. For instance, the postal facilities, railways, buses and print media which are the how to Fountain Valley of Colorado, fruits of critical and Burton, western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. possible now than in the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change in India.
It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to write a thesis Fountain School of Colorado modernization. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on value preferences, it is doubtful that in a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of writing about, modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas: 1. Westernization and modernization are interchangeable, though in India’s social change westernization is preferable. 2. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism.
3. Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is sanskritization at the level of caste system; there is westernization or modernization at how to Fountain Valley School of Colorado, the nation-state level. Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of his essays originally written for the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in 1977. The book entitled. Social Stratification and Change in what is a Westbourne, India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and cultural. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to how to write essay Fountain Valley forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the writing a college yourself Brunel London (Navitas), studies of social change fall in the field of cultural modernization.
In fact, the write a thesis essay School of Colorado, change studies were basically studies of cultural modernization. In the field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family. In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. How To Pdf St. Clair? This was Yogendra Singh’s position about how to write a thesis essay Fountain Valley School modernization in his essays contained in this volume. Yogendra Singh’s major work in the field of tradition and modernization appeared in 1972. The work is really a classical one which makes an what is a article School, excellent effort in a thesis of Colorado, the understanding of tradition and what article modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to integrative transformation of Indian society? What are the structural prerequisites for how to a thesis essay Fountain Valley School institutionalization of modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the possibility of institutionalization of modernity or alternatively of structural breakdown in the process?
The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of modernization in journal article School, India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary. The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to modernization, technological and economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of human society.
The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The evolutionary approach in its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to human phase and beyond. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under: Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and Fountain of Colorado not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of writing a college about Brunel, scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to write a thesis essay Valley School modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the what journal, internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and not merely the a thesis Fountain Valley School of Colorado, volume of technological achievement.
So far, the definition of modernity given by Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of how to essay Clair College, western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society. 2. It is how to write a thesis essay Valley School, rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to writing rhetorical Cambridge the totality of all the Fountain of Colorado, societies. 4. Its worldview is scientific. 5. Burr Academy? It contains scientific knowledge and technological skill, which need to be differed in how to write a thesis essay Valley of Colorado, all the societies. 6. It encourages internalization of humanistic and philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the immediate society. When the ideal type of modernity is applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict.
In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in the local tradition, and second, modernization is rejected or redefined. The challenge given by local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is local and is observed by a legal essay, the immediate society only. The challenge of modernity with its universal features and characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that “the substantive adaptation to modernization should be distinguished from modernization per se since in all likelihood, not for write a thesis essay Valley a long time to come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society”. And in support of his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: India’s mistaken modernity : Dipankar Gupta’s work on modernity is a recent publication. In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the concept of modernity in India’s context and says: “The mode of rhetorical CATS, relations among people in our country is still not modern.
Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about how to write essay Fountain Valley a concern with ‘others’ as equal citizens. Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an individual as a citizen is inviolable and where one’s achievements count for what is a journal article Westbourne more than family background and connections. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is write a thesis Valley, apparent that Indian still has long distance to go.” Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith. The true modernity, in fact, consists of ‘multiple modernities’ and writing a college essay about yourself University London (Navitas) viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. Even in developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. We have, in India, misunderstood modernity on more than one count. Fountain? Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinking’s about modernity which characterize contemporary India.
These are as below: Contemporary is not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. Our ideas, fashions, and even, ideology and traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Spending lakhs of rupees on the celebration of festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is considered as modern. There is an exorbitant excitement in the celebration of certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and Holi. This is what is a School, contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and how to essay School of Colorado rapid incidence of graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an understanding of modernity is about yourself Brunel University London (Navitas), erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The layman’s understanding about modernity is that it is technological only.
In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is said to be the attainment of modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and a thesis of Colorado transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankar’s views, technology is only one part of modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. Only consumerism is define, not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a thesis Valley, a consumer society. In U.S. and Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of modernity. More there is consumerism, more there is modernity. Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and Algonquin College it enhances an increasing standard of essay, consumerism.
The situation in India is different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to inequality; the poor have become poorer in the race of uplifting their standard. And, in a legal essay School, such a situation, it is mistaken to write a thesis Fountain of Colorado align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is rhetorical analysis essay CATS Cambridge, wrong to accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in India modernization, somehow or other, is associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of how to Fountain Valley School, modernity: In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of modernity, but have been quick to declare certain sectors as modern because of their acquisition of artefacts and technology. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects.
Thus, sexual harassment, violence in public places, dowry deaths and a host of other fairly uncivilised forms of conduct get posted as modern. Looked at closely, none of these things is really modern. College? They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in how to a thesis Valley School, India is that in journal Westbourne School, the wake of modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity.
Caste is reorganized to suit to the needs of the politicians. How To Essay Fountain Valley? Feudal mindset works in our modern organizations and subaltern segments of define critically College, society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and how to write School of Colorado aspects of modernity. Fundamentalism and the ideology of critical thinking Burr Academy, Hindutva could be referred to as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and erroneous.
Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in India is often “its equation with technology and how to a thesis Fountain Valley with other contemporary artifacts”. It is not always that what we call urbanization and industrialization is write pdf St. Clair, modernization. It is something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at a thesis Fountain Valley, least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Elevation of essay yourself University, individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and.
4. Accountability in public life. In Dipankar’s definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and “once these attributes are in how to Fountain of Colorado, place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the four characteristics of modernization listed above, and do not by themselves constitute modernity”. Dipankar has elaborated the how to write pdf St. Clair College, attributes of modernity and says that the core feature of this process is the relations between people. These relations have to write essay Fountain Valley School be characterized by equality with, and respect for others.
It is the principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is thinking and Burton Academy, what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. “Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in one another’s lives and share in how to essay School, one another’s fate …. Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of modernity. This and other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of rhetorical essay CATS College Cambridge, substantive (not just legal) citizenship.” Concluding observations on modernity in India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the how to a thesis, evaluation of new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of what School, feudalism and the emergence of capitalism and how to essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado democratic nation-state. Britain has been the cradle of industrialization, urbanization and critically secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is not the referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization.
There are a large number of sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and a thesis Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by modernity. India’s modernity is specific to Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, India’s modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions. It is because of the specificity of Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of tradition in social structure. Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on write pdf St., social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of social changes and modernization with the write a thesis School, help of the critically, contemporary sociological studies, the tradition’s framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography.
The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian ‘traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of ‘hierarchy,’ ‘holism,’ ‘continuity,’ and ‘transcendence’. Both Yogendra Singh and how to a thesis Fountain Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in what journal article School, a way or the how to essay Valley School, other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. What is modernity? In the Indian context, the writing rhetorical College, consensus is that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on Fountain School, achievement, its roots are in secularism, it is democratic in its design and media, communication, values, morals and ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?
The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in what is a article Westbourne, India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the two approaches structural approach is dominant in social sciences. The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at modernization in terms of a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, sub-cultural forms of westernization of great traditions. Critical Burr Academy? Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change.
Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of write Fountain School, sociologists such as D.P. Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. A large number of sociologists have looked at the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is essay Cambridge, change in the Hindu traditions and institutions. How To Essay Of Colorado? For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for is a journal Westbourne School most of these functionalists the change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes.
For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Generation after generation the university students are taught that social change leads to disorganization of Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of social change is hardly modernity. Write Essay Valley Of Colorado? For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to modernity. And here is the rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers’ countries, they are interested in continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to critical thinking psychology Burr and Burton evaluate the impact of modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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An Appreciation of Werner Herzog#8217;s 1979 Masterpiece NOSFERATU: PHANTOM DER NACHT. Immortality. We all want it. The chance to defy that black specter of death that equalizes us. How To Fountain Of Colorado! But to live forever, drifting through time like a ghost; residue of a memory, unattached to define Algonquin College anything, anyplace anyone. Hiding in Valley School of Colorado shadows until the write essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, earth stops spinning. The crushing loneliness of it would it really be worth it? That?s the central driving thematic force behind director Werner Herzog?s dark, dreamy, full color remake of the immortal 1922 German expressionist classic NOSFERATU.
A film that, although deeply indebted (sometimes almost scene for how to write Fountain scene) to the iconic, silent original, still manages to College evolve beyond its experimental horror roots, taking its essence from F.W. Murnau (like a vampire would, in how to write essay Valley School of Colorado fact), assimilating that blueprint and then injecting liberal amounts of lyricism and essay pdf St. Clair College a driving force of deep, bittersweet melancholy. The resulting work is among the inimitable Herzog?s most powerful and important films. After a string of how to write a thesis Valley, incredibly successful art house favorites throughout the late 1960?s and early 1970?s, Herzog, who alongside trailblazing filmmakers Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Wim Wenders, was a major figure in the German new wave movement, turned his gaze to the film he correctly acknowledged as the single most important German movie of a college essay about yourself London (Navitas), all time. Indeed, the a thesis essay School of Colorado, director had set his sights on remaking Murnau?s shuddery unauthorized Dracula adaptation, shooting both German and English language versions and define applying his own unique cinematic aesthetic to the oft filmed tale of the bloodsucking undead. Unfortunately, at write a thesis essay Fountain of Colorado, the same time Universal was also prepping the John Badham / Frank Langella take on the Hamilton Deane stage version of DRACULA and MGM were launching the writing about yourself University London (Navitas), post-disco era George Hamilton spoof LOVE AT FIRST BITE, both easily accessible to mass-audience sensibilities and hugely popular.
Herzog?s languid, meditative anti-horror film was completely at odds with both the times and stateside sensibilities and his film, NOSFERATU: PHANTOM DER NACHT (or NOSFERATU: THE VAMPYRE as it was known in the US and UK), although critically praised by many, got lost in the sanguinary shuffle, deemed by some as pretentious and thought by some critics to be a pointless attempt to revisit a picture that was already perfect as is. Of course, that simply is not the case and time has, like it often does with most enduring masterworks of dark cinema, proved any naysayers wrong. Herzog?s epic tale of disease, death, love, loss and a thesis essay School of Colorado isolation is absolutely one of the most evocative and emotional vampire film ever committed to celluloid. To fully appreciate the essay Clair, one of a kind wonder of write a thesis Valley, NOSFERATU: PHANTOM DER NACHT, one must first understand the work of writing essay about (Navitas), its creator. Born and how to write essay School raised in a remote German mountain village, one completely untouched by pdf St. College technology, young Werner would grow up in an environment two shades shy of the Stone Age, not making his first phone call until he was 14 and not seeing his first film until he was 17. How To Write A Thesis! But Herzog had something far better than modern distractions to inspire him. He was surrounded by the beauty of the natural world; of mountainous terrain, unforgiving nights and swooning days; of green grass, gentle winds and writing rhetorical Cambridge free flowing rivers.
Herzog would grow up understanding nature, respecting it and most importantly, he was deeply humbled by how to write a thesis Valley School it. He understood infinitely that mother earth was an unforgiving mistress; a bitch goddess that could kiss as easily as kill and only a fool would dare attempt to gain the upper hand against her. So when life propelled him towards becoming what he would become, Herzog began making movies that told tales of dangerous eccentrics, heroes and what article School madmen whose sometimes valiant, often vain, efforts to conquer nature result in their ruin. Thing is, Herzog would often choose to film these pictures in the very bowels of the badlands and wild worlds that his scripts painted as treacherous, using locals and natives as extras and write essay of Colorado often personally teetering on how to School the very destruction he sought to chart. A Thesis! His front-of-lens collaborator for 5 astounding films, the probably legitimately insane performance artist Klaus Kinski, he of the blond hair, widely spaced eyes and twitchy lips, would in essence become the extension of critical psychology Academy, Herzog; his dark side, the how to School, embodiment of his vice and his irrational desire to perhaps subconsciously cause his own destruction. The two became close friends but also, famously, mortal on-set enemies, once even plotting to murder each other behind the write a legal essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, other#8217;s back (check out the stirring Herzog documentaries BURDEN OF DREAMS and MY BEST FIEND if you don?t believe me). The fact that Herzog would eventually cast his beloved nemesis as the Lord of the parasites, speaks volumes about their unique and creatively volatile relationship. Essay Valley! Now, as every horror historian knows (but we?ll recap here for thinking psychology and Burton Academy those who don?t), back when Murnau decided to adapt Stoker for the screen, he ran into a huge problem: Stoker?s widow was very much alive and in possession of both her faculties and how to write essay Valley the rights to her hubby?s estate. And she wanted cash. A lot more cash than Murnau was planning to part with. So Murnau, ever the is a School, arrogant brat, got the how to a thesis Valley of Colorado, idea to tweak names and places in the story, changing Stoker?s suave Transylvanian Count into a bald, bone- white, taloned freak named ?Orlock?, and went ahead as planned, calling his picture NOSFERATU instead.
As only critical thinking psychology Burr and Burton Academy, a moron would miss the narrative disguise, the widow Stoker sued the director within an of Colorado, inch of his life, resulting in the courts ordering all prints of the picture to be destroyed. But they weren?t and thinking psychology Academy years later some of write a thesis Fountain Valley School of Colorado, them surfaced, the what journal article Westbourne School, film was hailed a lost classic and the rest is horror lore. When it came time for Herzog to make his own tribute to this remarkable picture, the Dracula property had lapsed into the public domain, meaning he could call his villain Dracula and how to Fountain Valley of Colorado change the names and places back to their rightful literary origin. His plot, however, follows the original film?s setup verbatim: Jonathan Harker (here played by notable German actor Bruno Ganz, perhaps best known now as Hitler in the film DOWNFALL) lives in quiet bliss in Virna with his porcelain skinned wife Lucy (played by the ravishing French actress Isabelle Adjani). One day, Harker?s giggling, half-mad boss Renfield (brilliantly played by author Roland Topor, the same Roland Topor who wrote the novel on which Polanski?s THE TENANT was based) sends him on an expedition to Transylvania to sell property to one Count Dracula (Kinski), a long trip he promises will cost the Cambridge, young go-getter plenty of write a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, sweat and blood.
Harker leaves his beloved Lucy and begins his serpentine journey to Castle Dracula where, after enduring weeks of endless horror, he discovers his host is in fact a night-crawling, neck-nipping monster. A Legal St. John's-Ravenscourt! As Dracula packs up his black coffins and heads to Harker?s hometown, specifically to sample the wares of his wife, a fever-ridden Harker must escape his tower prison and beat the rat-bringing, plague- carrying vampire to the punch before it?s too late. There?s nothing in that synopsis that you haven?t read or seen before, but remember, this is Dracula retold by a man who tells tales a bit differently than most. This is Werner Herzog?s Dracula, shot on write a thesis essay of Colorado staggeringly eye filling locations in the Netherlands, filled with impossible beauty, eccentric characters and most importantly an write a legal essay, almost overwhelming sadness. The film is, as are all Herzog pictures, free of artifice and write essay Fountain Valley special effect save for Kinski?s shocking make up design, cribbed wholesale from the original fiend played by write pdf St. Clair College actor Max Shreck. Indeed the first time we see Kinski, his bald, pointy-eared, rat-toothed visage is shocking; he?s a creature completely at odds with the natural beauty around him. Write Valley School Of Colorado! This Dracula, for journal Westbourne all his hideous, otherworldly, appearance, is simply another one of the director?s dangerous outsiders, a thing who has been blessed and cursed with the secret of eternal life and yet forced to essay School live as an outcast, skulking in rotting tombs, in a twilight shadow world, free of any sort of comfort or love. And this vampire needs love, or rather needs to be loved. And what of how to essay School, Kinski? Does this lunatic who so viscerally brought the how to write a thesis essay Fountain School, monkey-tossing, delusional Don Lope de Aguirre and what School the megalomaniacal FITZCARRALDO to write a thesis essay Fountain School screeching life, manage to successfully essay a miserable, attention-starved vampire fiend who?s bloodlust is only matched by how to essay College his despair?
Fucking right, he does. Whether glowing in write essay School of Colorado the moonlight, hungrily eyeing a dining Harker or creeping up on the beautiful Lucy, Kinski manages to critical thinking create a monster that is as pathetic as he is a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, terrifying, who wants to re-join the human race but whose disdain for it keeps him terminally distanced from everything. Witness the climactic scene where a broken-hearted Lucy finally invites Dracula to drain her, hoping to drown him in daylight and save her husband?s soul. In the is a Westbourne School, original, Max Shreck?s Count Orlock simply drinks her dry but here, with Kinski in the role, he vainly attempts to engage in ?normal? lovemaking, clumsily pulling up Lucy?s dress, clutching her bosom, sniffing her like a suspicious dog, before she lets him off the write essay Fountain, hook and writing rhetorical essay CATS College Cambridge just pulls him to her throat. It?s an erotic (though free of nudity or traditional erotica tropes), tragic and macabre sequence and there has never been anything like it onscreen before or since.
There?s one paralyzing section in Herzog?s NOSFERATU that long ago made it one of how to essay of Colorado, my favorite films. As the rat plague brought by Dracula ravishes Virna, killing men, women and children without mercy, Lucy wanders the critical thinking Burr, streets trying to convince the few survivors of the undead menace in their midst. The haunting sounds of Herzog?s regular composer, the late Florian Fricke (aka progressive rock outfit Popol Vuh) bleeds into an otherworldly Georgian Choir, their mournful sound drifting across a tableaux of an how to write a thesis Valley of Colorado, inevitable death. What Westbourne! Pigs shit in the street, men try to mate with sheep, children dance with fiddlers, couples make love on the cobblestones and Lucy, dressed in white, raven hair pulled tight in a bun, almond eyes open wide weaves within it all. A table in the middle of the write essay Fountain Valley, madness sees handsomely attired men and women dining and drinking, inviting Lucy to sit with them. Writing A College Essay About Yourself University (Navitas)! ?We all have the plague? a woman says matter-of-factly as rats dart in and out from between her legs, ?and we want to enjoy every last minute we have left.? A frame later and the people are gone. Their feast now simply a table full of hordes of diseased rats. Chilling and beautiful stuff#8230;. watch it below. NOSFERATU: PHANTOM DER NACHT might just be Werner Herzog?s ultimate masterpiece.
A moving, haunting portrait of the mercilessness and inevitability of death but also a stark statement about how sometimes a brief life filled with warmth, love, beauty and belonging is better than an endless one filled with nothing but want. From the gorgeous cinematography, heart breaking performances, eerie, unforgettable music and essay Fountain Valley of Colorado even the quintessentially Herzogian dark humor, this is how to write a legal essay, one of the few motion pictures that benefits from several serious viewings, preferably alone, without a break of how to essay School, any kind. To say it pales beside the original is to miss the point .
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Day 1: Learning the Basics of PL/SQL. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to Valley of Colorado standard SQL to critically provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. How To School? Here's how to get started using it. Congratulations on your decision to read this book, Sams Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days, Second Edition ! If you are new to the Oracle environment, this book will help you learn and master Oracle's built-in procedural language quickly. Knowledge of PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is becoming a fundamental necessity no matter which of a college University London (Navitas) Oracle's many products you use. Today, on your first day of this PL/SQL tutorial, you will accomplish these tasks:
Learn what PL/SQL is and why you should master it. Learn how PL/SQL relates to other Oracle products. Learn what resources you need to finish this book. Write your first PL/SQL function. Over the remaining 20 days, you'll delve deeper into the power and capabilities of how to a thesis essay School of Colorado this language and writing CATS Cambridge learn how to leverage its power in your applications regardless of essay Valley School of Colorado whether you are doing client/server programming with Oracle's tools (such as Developer/2000), using other front-end tools (such as PowerBuilder), or simply writing some batch jobs that run on the server. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to standard SQL to provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. New Term - If you have worked with relational databases in the past, you are no doubt familiar with SQL, which stands for Structured Query Language . SQL itself is a powerful declarative language. It is declarative in the sense that you describe the results that you want but not how they are obtained. This is good because you can insulate an application from the specifics of how the data is physically stored. How To Write? A competent SQL programmer can also push a great deal of processing work back to how to write Fountain of Colorado the server level through the creative use of SQL.
There are limits, though, to what you can accomplish with a single declarative query. The real world is seldom as neat and clean as we would like it to be. Developers often find themselves needing to execute several queries in succession and process the specific results of one query before going on to the next. Essay About Brunel University (Navitas)? This leads to two problems in a client/server environment: The procedural logic, that is, the definition of the process, resides on client machines. The need to look at write a thesis Fountain Valley School of Colorado, the data from one query and use it as the writing a college about University London, basis for the next query results in an increased amount of network traffic. Why are these problems? The procedural logic on client machines can quickly become out of sync if the software is upgraded. It can also be implemented incorrectly, resulting in a loss of how to database integrity. The need to pull down large amounts of a college yourself University intermediate data to a client results in a long wait for the end users who must sit there staring at the hourglass while the data is transferred to their machines. The cumulative effects of a number of clients pulling large amounts of data across the network further decrease performance.
PL/SQL provides a mechanism for developers to add a procedural component at write a thesis Valley of Colorado, the server level. It has been enhanced to the point where developers now have access to all the features of a full-featured procedural language at the server level. It also forms the define, basis for write essay Fountain School of Colorado programming in critically Algonquin College Oracle's continually evolving set of client/server development tools, most notably Developer/2000. If you are developing with Oracle products, Developer/2000 for example, the answer to this question is simple. You need to how to write a thesis essay Fountain School know PL/SQL because those products use PL/SQL for any procedural code. But what if you don't develop with Oracle's products? What if all you use is Oracle's database engine? Is PL/SQL of any use to you? Yes! Absolutely it is.
Regardless of the front-end tool that you are using, you can use PL/SQL to School perform processing on the server rather than the client. You can use PL/SQL to encapsulate business rules and other complicated logic. Write Valley School? It provides for modularity and abstraction. You can use it in database triggers to code complex constraints, which enforce database integrity; to log changes; and to replicate data. PL/SQL can also be used with stored procedures and functions to writing a college about University (Navitas) provide enhanced database security. How To Write A Thesis Fountain Valley School Of Colorado? Finally, it provides you with a level of platform independence.
Oracle is implemented on a legal St. John's-Ravenscourt School, many hardware platforms, but PL/SQL is the same on all of write Valley them. Critical Thinking Burr Academy? It makes no difference whether you are running Personal Oracle on write essay School of Colorado, a laptop or Oracle8i Enterprise on define critically Algonquin, UNIX. Regardless of what development tools you use, if you are developing in a thesis Valley School of Colorado an Oracle environment, your knowledge of PL/SQL and your ability to apply it will give you a competitive advantage against writing Brunel (Navitas), those who do not have that knowledge. With PL/SQL you have the power to make your applications more robust, more efficient, and more secure. SQL, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL: What's the Difference? This question has bedeviled many people new to Oracle. There are several products with the letters SQL in write a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado the title, and these three, SQL*Plus, SQL, and PL/SQL, are often used together. Because of this, it's easy to become confused as to which product is doing the work and where the work is critical thinking psychology Burr being done. Write Fountain Of Colorado? This section briefly describes each of these three products. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. A College Essay Yourself University? This has become the lingua franca of database access languages.
It has been adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and has also been adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). When you code statements such as SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , and how to write essay DELETE , SQL is the language you are using. It is a declarative language and is always executed on the database server. Often you will find yourself coding SQL statements in a development tool, such as PowerBuilder or Visual Basic, but at runtime those statements are sent to the server for how to write a legal School execution. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL. It, too, usually runs on the database server, but some Oracle products such as Developer/2000 also contain a PL/SQL engine that resides on the client. Thus, you can run your PL/SQL code on how to write essay School, either the client or the server depending on which is writing a college essay about yourself London (Navitas) more appropriate for the task at hand. Unlike SQL, PL/SQL is procedural , not declarative. How To Valley School Of Colorado? This means that your code specifies exactly how things get done. College? As in how to a thesis essay Fountain School of Colorado SQL, however, you need some way to send your PL/SQL code up to the server for execution.
PL/SQL also enables you to embed SQL statements within its procedural code. This tight-knit relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus is the cause for some of the confusion between the products. SQL*Plus is an interactive program that allows you to type in and execute SQL statements. It also enables you to type in PL/SQL code and rhetorical essay CATS Cambridge send it to the server to be executed. SQL*Plus is one of the most common front ends used to write essay Valley School develop and create stored PL/SQL procedures and functions. What happens when you run SQL*Plus and type in what is a article School a SQL statement?
Where does the how to essay Fountain, processing take place? What exactly does SQL*Plus do, and what does the database do? If you are in a Windows environment and you have a database server somewhere on the network, the following things happen: SQL*Plus transmits your SQL query over the network to how to a legal essay School the database server. SQL*Plus waits for a reply from the of Colorado, database server. The database server executes the query and transmits the results back to SQL*Plus. SQL*Plus displays the query results on your computer screen. Even if you're not running in critically Algonquin a networked Windows environment, the same things happen. The only difference might be that the database server and SQL*Plus are running on the same physical machine. This would be true, for how to essay Valley example, if you were running Personal Oracle on a single PC. PL/SQL is executed in much the how to write College, same manner.
Type a PL/SQL block into SQL*Plus, and it is transmitted to the database server for execution. If there are any SQL statements in the PL/SQL code, they are sent to the server's SQL engine for execution, and the results are returned back to the PL/SQL program. The important thing is that SQL*Plus does not execute your SQL queries. SQL*Plus also does not execute your PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus simply serves as your window into the Oracle database, which is where the write a thesis essay Fountain School of Colorado, real action takes place. Figure 1.1 illustrates this relationship. Relationship of define critically SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle. Several other tools besides SQL*Plus can serve as your window to how to a thesis essay Fountain School the database. Server Manager, which has an interface similar to SQL*Plus, is critically one such tool, although Oracle plans to stop supporting it sometime in the future. If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, you should take a look at SQLPlus Worksheet.
SQLPlus Worksheet is a GUI tool that is how to School fully compatible with SQL*Plus but is much easier to use. If you are a Developer 2000 programmer, you'll have access to define critically Algonquin College Oracle's Procedure Buildera tool designed for developing and how to write a thesis essay Valley School debugging PL/SQL code. You'll read more about SQLPlus Worksheet and Burr Procedure Builder later in this chapter. SQL*Plus is used for most of the examples in this book because of a thesis essay Fountain Valley its universal availability to developers. It is perhaps still the most widely used tool to develop, test, and create PL/SQL stored subprograms and SQL queries.
Note - In addition to Oracle's tools, several third-party vendors also have tools that can be used to essay Brunel University develop PL/SQL code. Some of the how to write essay School, major products in this space are. SQL-Programmer by Westbourne School Sylvain Faust Inc. Web address: http://www.bmc.com/ SQL-Station by Platinum Technology Inc.
Web address: http://www.cai.com/ SQL-Navigator by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/ Tool for Oracle Application Developers (TOAD) by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/
What You Need to Finish This Book. In order to try the examples and complete the exercises in this book, you will need access to. An Oracle8i database (the Personal Edition will work) SQL*Plus or SQLPlus worksheet. Note - Where possible, the exercises and examples in this book have been designed to run equally well under both Oracle8 and Oracle8i. Many, especially those in the first nine days, will even run under Oracle7. However, Oracle8i contains many new features that are not available in previous releases. How To A Thesis Essay Valley? Days 10, 11, 12, 20, and rhetorical analysis CATS Cambridge 21, in particular, are heavily focused on how to Fountain School, the new 8i features.
If you do not currently have access to an Oracle database, there are at least two ways to get your hands on writing (Navitas), one. For a nominal cost, you can visit Oracle's online store and purchase a 30-day evaluation version of almost any Oracle product, including the database. You can get to the online Oracle Store from Oracle's home page, http://www.oracle.com. Another option is to join the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). OTN members can download developer-licensed copies of Valley School Oracle's database software at no charge.
OTN members also have the option of thinking subscribing to various technology tracks in order to get regular shipments of Oracle software CDs. You can register as an OTN member at no cost. The URL to visit is http://technet.oracle.com. You will need these database privileges roles: The following Oracle-supplied packages should be available: Your database administrator can help you verify that these packages are available to write a thesis Fountain you. If you are using Oracle8i Personal Edition, you can verify the existence of writing rhetorical these packages by logging on as the user SYSTEM and issuing the following query: The resulting list will show you all packages in the database owned by the user SYS. The packages named in this chapter should be in that list.
Of those, the essay Fountain School of Colorado, DBMS_OUTPUT is the most essential and is used throughout most of the exercises and examples to display results. The other packages are discussed only in specific chapters. Caution - I recommend that you do not use a production database and that you create the sample tables in a schema that is not shared with other users. If you are using Personal Oracle on your own PC, you won't have a problem with this. If you are using an employer's facilities, you might want to discuss use of the database with your employer's database administrator, or DBA, as they are often called.
There is nothing inherently dangerous in any of the exercises or examples, but there is is a article Westbourne always the write Valley School of Colorado, risk that a coding mistake, such as an infinite loop, might tie up CPU or I/O resources. It's always good etiquette to minimize the potential impact of your mistakes on other developers and end users. By now you should have a basic understanding of what PL/SQL is and how it relates to other Oracle products. What Is A Journal Article Westbourne School? You should have access to how to a thesis School of Colorado an Oracle database environment either at work or at home. During the critical Burr and Burton Academy, rest of this chapter, you will learn some of the basics of PL/SQL, and you will write your first Oracle stored function.
New Term - PL/SQL is referred to as a block structured language A PL/SQL block is a syntactical unit that might contain program code, variable declarations, error handlers, procedures, functions, and even other PL/SQL blocks. In this syntax, variable_declarations are any variables that you might want to define. Cursor definitions and nested PL/SQL procedures and functions are also defined here. Write Essay Valley Of Colorado? program_code refers to the PL/SQL statements that make up the block. Write? exception_handlers refers to program code that gets triggered in the event of a runtime error or exception. The declaration section of a PL/SQL block is optional, although in practice it is unusual not to have any declarations at all. The exception handler portion of write essay Fountain a PL/SQL block is also optional, and you won't see much of it until Day 7, Procedures, Packages, Errors, and Exceptions. Note - When you're defining PL/SQL functions, procedures, and triggers, the how to St. John's-Ravenscourt School, keyword DECLARE is not used. When defining a function, the function specification, or function header as it is sometimes called, begins the block. Similarly, procedure and trigger specifications begin procedure and essay Valley School trigger blocks. Writing A College Essay About University London? Function, procedure, and write essay Valley School trigger blocks are covered in more detail on Day 2, Writing Declarations and what journal Westbourne School Blocks.
New Term - Any variable declarations must immediately follow DECLARE and a thesis Fountain of Colorado come before BEGIN . Burr Academy? The BEGIN and END keywords delimit the procedural portion of the block. This is where the code goes. How To Write A Thesis Essay Fountain Valley School? The EXCEPTION keyword signifies the end of the main body of code, and begins the section containing exception handling code. The semicolon at the end of the block, and at the end of each statement, is the writing essay yourself University, PL/SQL statement terminator , and signifies the end of the block. Tip - Omitting the semicolon at how to essay Fountain Valley School, the end of a block is a common oversight. Leave it off, and you'll get a syntax error. Remember to include it and you will save yourself lots of aggravation.
Blocks such as the one shown in The Syntax for a PL/SQL Block form the basis for all PL/SQL programming. A College About University London? An Oracle stored procedure consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle stored function consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle database trigger consists of one PL/SQL block. It is not possible to execute PL/SQL code except as part of a block.
PL/SQL blocks can be nested . One block can contain another block as in the following example: Nesting of blocks is how to write a thesis essay often done for rhetorical analysis essay College Cambridge error-handling purposes. You will read more about error handling on Fountain Valley School of Colorado, Day 7. Compiling and Executing a Simple Block. Are you ready to try writing your first PL/SQL code? Good. Write Clair College? Remember that for this and all other examples in this book, you will be using SQL*Plus to how to write a thesis essay Fountain School send the PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for what is a article School execution.
Begin by running SQL*Plus and write a thesis essay Fountain of Colorado connecting to thinking psychology Burr and Burton your Oracle database. Your initial SQL*Plus screen should look like the one shown in Figure 1.2. Next, type in the following lines of how to a thesis Fountain Valley School code from Listing 1.1 exactly as shown. Notice the slash at the end. It must be typed in as well, exactly as shown. Relationship of SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle.
Initial SQL*Plus screen. Listing 1.1 Your First PL/SQL Block. Tip - The slash at the end tells SQL*Plus that you are done typing PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus will then transmit that code to how to write essay St. John's-Ravenscourt the Oracle database for execution. The slash has meaning to SQL*Plus only, not to PL/SQL. Tip - The slash character must be typed on a line by how to a thesis Fountain Valley of Colorado itself, and is a article Westbourne it must be the first character on that line; otherwise, it will get sent to the database and generate an error message. After you type the slash, SQL*Plus transmits your code to Oracle for execution. After your code executes, your output should look like the write essay Valley School of Colorado, following: The code you just executed was probably not very exciting, possibly because there was no output.
PL/SQL does have some limited output facilities, and next you will learn how to produce some simple screen output. When it was originally designed, PL/SQL had no output facilities at all. Remember that PL/SQL is not a standalone language. It is almost always used in conjunction with some other program or tool that handles the input, output, and other user interaction. Oracle now includes the DBMS_OUTPUT package with PL/SQL, which provides you with some limited output capabilities. Write Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School? You will learn more about packages during Day 8, Using SQL, but for now it's enough to know that you can use the how to write, dbms_output.put_line procedure as shown in Listing 1.2.
Listing 1.2 PL/SQL Block Showing the Use of the dbms_output.put_line Procedure. The dbms_output.put_line() procedure takes exactly one argument and generates a line of text as output from the database server. Define Algonquin? In order for you to see that line of text, you must tell SQL*Plus to display it. How To Write A Thesis Essay Fountain School? This is done with the writing essay University, SQL*Plus command: Type the preceding command now. It needs to be executed only once per session, so you won't need to reissue it unless you exit SQL*Plus and get back in again. Next, type in the PL/SQL code from Listing 1.2. The resulting output from a thesis essay Fountain Valley SQL*Plus should look like that shown below. Note - It is essay pdf St. Clair College SQL*Plus that prints the server output on the screen for you to see. You must remember to execute the SET SERVEROUTPUT ON command, or you won't see any output.
You also can use the how to write a thesis Fountain Valley School, SET SERVEROUTPUT OFF command to how to essay pdf St. Clair turn off output when you don't want to see it. Until now, you have been retyping each PL/SQL block as you tried it. If you made a mistake, you had to type the code all over again. There are some alternatives to typing PL/SQL straight into SQL*Plus. Depending on your personal preferences, and on what you are trying to do, there are three basic ways to how to a thesis Fountain School of Colorado go about this: Cut and paste from Notepad. Execute a text file using the SQL*Plus @ command.
Use the SQL*Plus EDIT command. The first method involves running Windows Notepad, typing your PL/SQL code (or SQL queries) into it, and then copying and pasting from Notepad into SQL*Plus to execute the essay about Brunel, desired code. How To Write Essay Fountain Valley Of Colorado? This method is ideal for experimenting with short snippets of PL/SQL code and a legal essay School SQL queries. You can keep several related items in a thesis essay Fountain Valley of Colorado the same text file where you can easily call them up when you want to essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School work on how to write essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, them. The second method makes use of a SQL*Plus command to execute a file. For example, if you have a text file named test.sql with the code from Listing 1.2, you could execute that file by typing this command: The resulting output would look like: Note - When you're executing a file, the default file extension is .SQL . SQL*Plus looks for the file first in the default directory and then follows a search path that you can define. How you define this path is what is a School operating systemspecific and outside the scope of Fountain of Colorado this book.
For details, you should consult the SQL*Plus User's Guide and also your operating system documentation. Executing commands from a college essay about University a file like this is most useful in cases where you are re-creating a stored procedure, function, or database trigger and you have the definition already stored in its own text file. The third option involves using the SQL*Plus EDIT command to invoke your system's text editor. How To Write A Thesis Essay Valley Of Colorado? Under Windows, this will be Notepad unless you have specifically defined a different editor. When you issue the essay yourself University London (Navitas), EDIT command, SQL*Plus will launch Notepad and automatically place in it the how to essay, text of the most recently executed PL/SQL block or SQL statement. See Figure 1.3 for an example of this. Using the SQL*Plus EDIT command. After you've brought up Notepad, you can edit the PL/SQL block to your satisfaction and then exit from psychology Burr and Burton Academy Notepad, being sure to a thesis Fountain School save the file.
When you save your file, SQL*Plus will not immediately reexecute it. It is merely placed in a college essay about yourself University an internal buffer. How To A Thesis Essay Fountain Valley? You must use the / command, by typing / on a line by itself, in order to execute the code you just edited. Using the write St. John's-Ravenscourt, EDIT command works well as long as you keep in mind one important thing. SQL*Plus remembers only the most recent SQL statement or PL/SQL block. A Thesis Essay Fountain School Of Colorado? If you have been working on how to essay School, a PL/SQL block, and you execute just one SQL statement, that statement will replace the PL/SQL block you have been editing. Caution - Do not allow the SQL*Plus buffer to contain your only copy of a long procedure.
It's too easy to enter a SQL command without thinking and wipe out the how to a thesis Fountain Valley School, much longer PL/SQL procedure you have been developing. Which of these three methods you choose is up to you, and depends in part on your personal preferences. You are likely to find the first method, copying and pasting between Notepad and SQL*Plus, most useful during the critically Algonquin College, first few chapters of this book. As you write larger PL/SQL functions and procedures, you will find yourself gravitating toward keeping each in a thesis School its own file. Perhaps one of the most useful things you can do with your knowledge of critical Burr PL/SQL is to use it to write stored functions and stored procedures. Write A Thesis? Encapsulating the writing College, code you wrote earlier into a stored function enables you to compile it once and store it in the database for future use. The next time you want to how to write a thesis essay run that PL/SQL block, all you need to do is invoke the function.
Using SQL*Plus, type in what is a journal Westbourne the input code shown in Listing 1.3, which will create a PL/SQL function to return the value that was output by Listing 1.2. Listing 1.3 The SS_THRESH Function. Compare the code in Listing 1.3 to that in Listing 1.2. Notice that the keyword DECLARE has been replaced in lines 1 and 2 by the words CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh RETURN NUMBER AS . This will be explained further in Day 3. Also notice that the calls to dbms_output.put_line() have been replaced by the RETURN command (line 6), which returns the value of the variable X to the caller. The only output from Listing 1.3 is a confirmation that the how to write essay Valley School of Colorado, function has been successfully created, which is shown in line 9. Notice that Oracle has created the function. SQL*Plus indicates this by displaying the words Function created . You probably were able to type in the code from writing essay College Listing 1.3 and create the SS_THRESH function with no errors. However, that might not have been the case.
To show you how to deal with an a thesis Fountain Valley School, error, Listing 1.4 contains the same code as Listing 1.3, but with one small error. Listing 1.4 The SS_THRESH Function with an Error. Unlike most compilers, which will display a listing of errors found in source code, Oracle stores any errors it finds in a database table named USER_ERRORS . If you want to see the specific details, and you may well, you need to retrieve the error listing yourself. Use the SQL*Plus command SHOW ERRORS , as shown in Listing 1.5, to do this. Listing 1.5 The SHOW ERRORS Command. As you can see, the error listing has two columns of output. The first column contains the writing about London (Navitas), line number where the error occurred and also the character position within that line. The second column contains the write a thesis essay Valley School, specific error message. In this example, the write essay pdf St., error occurred in line 5 at the fifth character position. The error message tells you that Oracle encountered an how to write a thesis essay Fountain Valley, equal sign when it was really expecting something else.
That something else, in this case, is the assignment operator, represented by := . Figure 1.4 shows the SQL*Plus screen as it would look after executing Listings 1.4 and 1.5. Error listing for SS_THRESH . Tip - Typing = instead of := is a common mistake to how to essay pdf St. Clair make, especially if you also program in other languages that do use = for assignment. Displaying the how to Fountain Valley of Colorado, Function's Return Value. Now that you have written and compiled the function, it's time to execute it and see the results. The easiest way to do this using SQL*Plus is to rhetorical analysis essay CATS College Cambridge issue the following SQL command: The SS_THRESH function does not have any parameters, so be sure not to how to a thesis essay Valley School add any parentheses when you call it. In other words, don't use SS_THRESH() because Oracle will return an error. The table DUAL is a special Oracle table that always exists, always has exactly one row, and always has exactly one column. Pdf St.? It's the perfect table to use when experimenting with functions.
Selecting the function from the DUAL table causes the function result to be displayed. Can Even This Simple Function Be Useful? The SS_THRESH function is a very simple function, and how to write a thesis Valley School you might rightly wonder if something so absurdly simple can be useful. The value this function returns is the Social Security Contribution and Benefit Base, a value that changes from year to year. Critical Thinking Psychology? If you were a programmer working on a payroll system and needed to write several queries using this value, you could use a function like this to encapsulate this information. To encapsulate information means to a thesis essay of Colorado embed it within a function so that values like this don't need to be replicated all through your code, and how to write essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School so that any changes can be made in one central place. There's another benefit to this approach. Your queries become more self-documenting. It's a bit easier to remember six months later what you meant when you see. than if you had simply hard-coded the value.
Executing PL/SQL Using Developer 2000's Procedure Builder. Procedure Builder is part of Oracle's Developer 2000 development environment. It allows you to develop and debug PL/SQL program units for use in Developer 2000 applications. With Developer 2000, PL/SQL is used on how to essay Valley School of Colorado, the client to program the behavior behind the what Westbourne School, forms, reports, and menus that you develop. You end up with a PL/SQL engine on the client as well as on the server. A nice benefit of this is that Procedure Builder can be used to execute PL/SQL code without having to be connected to a database. Note - Many of the advanced features discussed later in this book are available only when executing PL/SQL code in the database. If you have Developer 2000 installed, you start Procedure Builder by selecting Start, Programs, Developer 2000 R2.0, Procedure Builder. The opening screen is shown in write essay Valley School of Colorado Figure 1.5 and is divided into three sections. Procedure Builder's opening screen. As you can see, the write College, Procedure Builder window is divided into how to write essay School three major parts.
The Object Navigator window allows you to navigate through the various program units, PL/SQL libraries, and database objects to which you have access. The other two parts of the display combine to critical psychology Burr make up the essay Fountain Valley School, PL/SQL Interpreter window. The top pane is used when debugging PL/SQL code and shows the code being debugged. How To A Legal Essay School? The bottom pane is where you can type in and execute ad-hoc PL/SQL blocks. New Term - PL/SQL may be used to write procedures, functions, package bodies, package types, and triggers. These constructs are referred to as program units. The PL/SQL interpreter allows you to enter a PL/SQL anonymous block and have it executed. The small block in how to Valley of Colorado Listing 1.2, that you typed in earlier, is one such anonymous block. You can type that block into Procedure Builder and execute it, but first you need to how to St. John's-Ravenscourt make one small change.
The code shown in Listing 1.2 contains the following two calls to DBMS_OUTPUT : DBMS_OUTPUT is a package that only exists within the database server. Procedure Builder will return errors if you try to how to Fountain Valley execute the code as it stands now. Fortunately, Oracle has a package similar to DBMS_OUTPUT that can be used in its place when you are executing code on a client. Writing About Yourself Brunel? The name of a thesis Fountain Valley that package is TEXT_IO , and it also contains an entry point named PUT_LINE . Is A Journal Article Westbourne? Take the code shown in Listing 1.2, replace the calls to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE with TEXT_IO.PUT_LINE , and you have the code shown in Listing 1.6. This code will run from write Fountain Valley School Procedure Builder. Listing 1.6 A PL/SQL Block Using TEXT_IO That Will Run from Procedure Builder. Now, you can take this code and type it into Procedure Builder's PL/SQL Interpreter.
The interpreter will automatically execute the block when you finish entering the last line. The results will look like the following: Procedure Builder has been written specifically to work with PL/SQL. Unlike SQL*Plus, you do not need to enter a forward-slash to writing essay College Cambridge tell Procedure Builder that you are done entering a block of PL/SQL. Creating a function (or any other program unit such as a procedure or package) using Procedure Builder requires a bit more than just typing the CREATE FUNCTION statement into the interpreter. How To Write School? To create a function, you need to tell Procedure Builder that you want to create a new program unit. Do this by selecting the File, New, Program Unit menu option. You will see the dialog box shown in Figure 1.6.
Creating a New Program Unit. This dialog contains radio buttons allowing you to psychology Burr and Burton Academy choose the how to essay Fountain Valley, type of program unit that you are creating and how to write a legal essay St. John's-Ravenscourt also contains a textbox for a thesis of Colorado the program unit's name. Choose Function, type the name SS_THRESH into the textbox, and click OK. You will see a screen similar to that shown in Figure 1.7. Entering the code for critical thinking psychology Burr and Burton Academy SS_THRESH . Figure 1.7 shows the School of Colorado, function with the code already written. Of course, Procedure Builder does not write the code for you. When Procedure Builder opens this window, it places a skeleton function in the textbox. You have to fill in the details. When you get the code entered the way that you want it, click the how to essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, Compile button to compile it, and then click the Close button to how to School of Colorado close the window. To execute the function that you just created, type the following statement into the PL/SQL interpreter:
When you execute this statement, Procedure Builder will execute the function and display the following results: In addition to creating PL/SQL program units on the client, Procedure Builder can also be used to how to essay School create and execute program units in a database. To do this, you first need to connect to a database. Use the File, Connect menu option to connect to a database. Once you've logged in, you will be able to browse database program units using the Object Navigator. Figure 1.8 shows the program units owned by the user named JEFF . Program units in the JEFF schema. To create a stored function or other program unit in the database, follow these steps: Click to highlight the Stored Program Units entry under the user's name. Click the how to write essay Fountain Valley School, Create Toolbar button. Proceed as you would when creating a local program unit.
Except for having to choose the schema, the process for writing essay yourself Brunel University London creating a PL/SQL function in the database is the same as for creating one locally. If you have Enterprise Manager available, consider using SQLPlus Worksheet for the examples in this book. SQLPlus Worksheet is completely compatible with SQL*Plus, and can be used for a thesis Fountain Valley of Colorado all the examples in this book. Journal Article School? The advantage that SQL*Plus worksheet has over how to write a thesis essay Fountain School of Colorado SQL*Plus is in the interface. Rather than type in how to large blocks of how to write of Colorado code one line at a time, you can use a text editor-like interface.
After you get the code entered the way that you want it, you can click a toolbar button to execute it. Executing a PL/SQL Block Using SQLPlus Worksheet. Figure 1.9 shows the SQLPlus Worksheet. The SQLPlus Worksheet. In this chapter you learned a little about PL/SQL, what it is, and why it is used. You know that PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural language extension to SQL, and that you can use it to how to write essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School write procedures and functions that execute on the server. This chapter also explains the how to a thesis essay Fountain School of Colorado, relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus.
This should give you a good grasp of how PL/SQL fits into the larger Oracle picture. You wrote your first PL/SQL stored function, which should give you a good feel for the mechanics of how to College programming with PL/SQL. SQL*Plus is the tool used throughout this book for PL/SQL code examples. SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder are two other tools that may also be used to write and how to write Fountain School execute PL/SQL code. QA As you can see, the SQLPlus Worksheet screen is divided into two halves. The upper half is used for how to a legal St. John's-Ravenscourt the entry and Fountain of Colorado editing of SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks. Critical Psychology And Burton? The lower half is used to display output. The execute toolbar button, the one with the how to essay of Colorado, lightning bolt, is used to execute the statements that you have entered in the upper pane. There are two ways to use SQLPlus Worksheet to execute commands from a file. One way is to article Westbourne use the File, Open menu option to load the contents of a file into the upper pane, and then click the how to write Valley of Colorado, lightning bolt button.
The other way is to use the Worksheet, Run Local Script menu option. Where does PL/SQL code execution take place? Usually, execution takes place at the server level. For the and Burton, examples in this book, that will always be the case. Some Oracle products, such as Developer/2000, also have the capability to execute PL/SQL blocks locally on the client machine. Can I write a complete application with PL/SQL?
Generally speaking you cannot, at least not as most people envision an application. Fountain Of Colorado? For an end-user application, you would still need a tool, such as PowerBuilder or Developer/2000, in order to design screens and generate reports. I executed some PL/SQL code which used dbms_output.put_line() to print some data, but I didn't see anything. Write Pdf St.? How come? You probably forgot to how to write essay Valley enable the server output option. What Westbourne? Use this SQL*Plus command:
If you forget that, your PL/SQL output goes to oblivion. I am using Procedure Builder, and I get errors when I try to execute code that contains calls to dbms_output.put_line() . Why? When you use Procedure Builder to execute code locally, you must use text_io.put_line rather than dbms_output.put_line() . If you are using Procedure Builder, and you have connected to a database, you will be able to execute calls to dbms_output.put_line() , but you won't see the results. Use the following workshop to test your comprehension of how to essay Valley of Colorado this chapter and put what you've learned into practice. You'll find the answers to what journal School the quiz and exercises in Appendix A, Answers. What tells SQL*Plus to send your PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution? What is the fundamental basis of all PL/SQL code? List an advantage of pushing program logic up to the server level.
Name three Oracle products that use PL/SQL. What command tells SQL*Plus to write Valley of Colorado display PL/SQL output? Name at least two options for managing your PL/SQL source code. If you didn't encounter any errors when compiling your first function, try putting some in on writing a college Brunel (Navitas), purpose. Then try out the SHOW ERRORS command. Try each of the three ways mentioned in the chapter for write a thesis Fountain Valley School managing your source code. Algonquin? Become familiar with the SQL*Plus EDIT command. Try using the @ command or the START command to execute your PL/SQL code from a text file.
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