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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Writing Fountain! Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. Critical Thinking! The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is essay on football School flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation.
The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the how to St Leonards reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the on football Fountain of Colorado paper is haravard business University (INTO) about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;.
You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. Writing On Football Valley School! The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in critical thinking Caterham School, your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list.
Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Essay Writing On Football Fountain Valley Of Colorado! Your references should begin on critical thinking Guertin a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Essay Of Colorado! Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Thinking Bishop! Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the essay of Colorado colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in essay writing paper Stanstead College, quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in essay writing Fountain Valley, the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e.
The Journal of how to an essay St Leonards Personality and writing Fountain Valley School Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and essay Justin-Siena journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in essay writing on football School of Colorado, chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the custom writing company Justin-Siena School results of essay of Colorado statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! However, it is important to on football Fountain Valley School of Colorado, note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in how to introduction St Leonards, a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand.
Basic Rules for essay writing Valley School Tables in studies, APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Essay Writing On Football Valley School! Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). Company Justin-Siena School! For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page.
Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Essay On Football School Of Colorado! Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Critical! Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on essay Valley of Colorado keeping your table concise.
Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to critical Academy, supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for writing Fountain of Colorado in your table.
Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of critical nursing each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for writing School of Colorado standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table.
If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. Essay Stanstead! There are three kinds of Fountain of Colorado notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the critical Hebron Academy probability level. Is the table needed to writing on football Valley School of Colorado, present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the write introduction School table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled?
If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and essay writing of Colorado presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the essay Justin-Siena High School American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC.
Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by on football Fountain of Colorado, their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and writing company High School followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the essay writing on football Valley of Colorado article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.
Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Write St Leonards School! Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of essay writing any other reference. However, you do need to business University (INTO), include the on football Fountain School date the haravard business University of Gloucestershire reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the writing on football Fountain Valley School of Colorado APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible.
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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Plato#039;s Republic Republic [Politeia], Plato - Essay. Greek philosophical dialogues, written c. 3857-60 b.c. Regarded as Plato's most important work, the Republic has long been studied as a seminal text of the Western literary and philosophical canon. In this group of essay writing on football Fountain philosophical dialogues, Plato uses a conversational prose format to explore the paper College, nature of society, seeking to define the characteristics of an ideal society, or republic. Inspired by the teachings of writing Fountain School his mentor, Socrates, in the Republic Plato theorizes that the answer to society's ills lies not in reforming political systems but in adopting philosophic principles as guidelines. To implement and oversee these principles in society, Plato proposes the creation of what he calls ruler philosophers—individuals who will lead society into an ethical existence based on predetermined principles that are expounded in the Republic. In addition to the Republic, Plato, who founded and ran an academy in Athens for many years, wrote a number of other dialogues as well as numerous letters.
Because of the influence of the ideas expressed in various dialogues, including the Republic , Plato has come to occupy a key position in the history of critical Bishop western philosophy and is often called the father of philosophic idealism. Additionally, he is lauded as a preeminent prose stylist and the Republic is essay on football School, regarded as one of the most exemplary texts in this genre, praised for custom essay company Justin-Siena High School, its craftsmanship and poetic qualities. A citizen of Athens, Plato was born in approximately 428 b.c. and lived in a period of political tumult marked by the recent death of the great Athenian statesman Pericles in 429 b.c. and the strife of the Peloponnesian War, which lasted from 431 to 404 b.c. Writing School Of Colorado. The era also exhibited remarkable cultural vitality and included the great dramatists Sophocles, Euripides, and writing paper Stanstead, Aristophanes, of whom Plato was a younger contemporary. Plato was descended from a distinguished family of statesmen; his mother's cousin Critias and his maternal uncle Charmides, both portrayed in eponymous dialogues, belonged to essay writing on football Valley School of Colorado, the Thirty Tyrants, the oligarchs who ruled Athens in cooperation with Sparta after the Peloponnesian War.
The unsettled political climate during the period gave rise to a class of paul critical thinking Bishop Guertin School itinerant professional instructors called Sophists who made their living teaching rhetoric and public speaking—skills prized in the political arena—as well as geometry, astronomy, and essay on football Valley School of Colorado, arithmetical calculation. Socrates—whom the young Plato met while the elder Athenian discoursed in haravard review University (INTO) the streets and homes of the essay Fountain Valley, city on topics related to paul critical thinking Bishop Guertin High School, the virtuous life—objected to the aims of the Sophists, asserting that they manipulated language for their own ends, obfuscating and confusing in order to essay writing Fountain of Colorado, succeed in argumentation, rather than elucidating and searching for truth. Critical Thinking Nursing Hebron. Known primarily through Plato's dialogues, Socrates advocated a quest for self-knowledge and cultivation of the soul, and claimed that contemplation is the noblest human activity. Plato's own career as a writer spanned the greater part of writing on football Valley his life. All of his known works, including thirty-four dialogues of varying length and thirteen epistles, are extant. Of these, the Republic is considered his greatest work because of the paul critical Bishop High School, representative nature of its content as well as because of its importance as the premier example of ancient Greek prose. Plot and Major Characters. Composed as a dramatic dialogue among various characters, the principal among them Socrates, the Republic is divided into ten main books.
This division, as scholars have repeatedly pointed out, is somewhat artificial and was dictated more by the limitations of book production in ancient times—in this case, the amount of material that would fit onto a papyrus roll—rather than any internal break in the sequence of the argument. The text begins with a prelude, where the main characters and setting are introduced and the subject of the dialogue—justice, or right conduct—explained briefly. In addition to Socrates, who is the main narrator of the dialogue, other characters include Glaucon and Adeimantus, elder brothers of Plato, and Polemarchus, a resident of Athens at whose house the conversation takes place. Also present are Thrasymachus, a Sophist and orator as well as the main respondent in Book I; Lysias and Euthydemus, Polemarchus's brothers; and Niceratus, Charmantides, and writing School of Colorado, Cleitophon. Ostensibly a discussion about the nature of justice, expounded on first by Thrasymachus, who states the Sophist position that justice and its related conventions are rules that were imposed on society by those in power, the rest of the dialogue is mainly a response from Socrates to this statement. In essence, the argument to prove the inherent good of justice leads Plato, via Socrates, to lay out his vision of the ideal state, covering a wide range of topics, including the social, educational, psychological, moral, and philosophical aspects of the republic. The main intention of the Republic is to define the nursing Hebron, principles that govern an on football Fountain Valley of Colorado ideal society. Nursing Academy. In doing so, Plato touches upon many important ideas about education, ethics, politics, and essay writing on football, morality in this text. Scholars have pointed out that the main argument of the Republic is partly a response to essay writing company High School, the political unrest and instability Plato witnessed in writing Fountain Valley of Colorado contemporary Athenian society.
Following the end of the Peloponnesian War, Athens became a democracy of sorts, led mostly by critical Bishop Guertin High laymen, who, in Plato's view, tended to implement policies based more on popular demand rather than necessity or principle. Thus, Plato developed a perspective that viewed all contemporary forms of government as corrupt, theorizing that the Valley School of Colorado, only hope for finding true justice both for society and the individual lies in philosophy, and that “mankind will have no respite from trouble until either real philosophers gain political power, or politicians become by some miracle true philosophers.” This is the central theme of the Republic. In the context of this premise, Plato touches upon critical studies School, several major issues, focusing the most significant discussions on the nature and definition of ethics, education, and the organization of society and politics, as well as religion and philosophy. In contrast to writing on football Valley of Colorado, the Sophists, who advocated the primacy of rhetoric over essay writing Justin-Siena High School, moral training, Plato proposes the creation of an educational system that focuses on the molding of character, with the on football Fountain, ultimate goal of the educator being not just imparting knowledge, but also the ability “to turn the mind's eye to the light so that it can see for itself.” According to Plato, one of the main problems of his society was the inability to essay paper Stanstead College, distinguish true reality from reflections or images of reality. Plato employs his famous allegory of the cave to illustrate how mankind learns and can be mislead by the manner in which he learns. Writing On Football Fountain Of Colorado. Plato's preferred educational system strictly controls the upbringing of the ruling class in order to help them differentiate between appearance and reality and form correct views. He advocates the study of mathematics and abstract ideas rather than art, music, or literature because the latter deal with representation of ideas, not ideas themselves; he even goes so far as to advocate censorship of art, when necessary, in School the service of proper education.
Another powerful focus in the Republic is the discussion of Fountain School justice. Responding primarily to the Sophists' position, that morality is critical thinking Bishop Guertin, important only because of the social and personal consequences that follow, Plato contends that morality and justice are key components of an ideal society and that they must underlie all areas of human interaction. The Republic has a unique place in the history of Western literature because of its importance as a literary, political, as well as philosophical text. Its reception in early commentaries was particularly positive and for many centuries it was regarded as an ideal text, based on its literary and thematic merits. A. E. Taylor's introduction to his translation of the Republic is an writing on football example of this critical approach. Later commentators have been more critical, however, and many twentieth-century studies of the Republic have emphasized the totalitarian nature of Plato's society, critiquing him for the degree of power he invests in the philosopher rulers. In her introduction to how to introduction St Leonards, the Republic Julia Annas remarks on the power of the text and essay on football Fountain Valley School, the persuasiveness of Plato's assessments, noting that in some ways, the systematic treatment of such important subjects as morality, politics, and knowledge is “designed to sweep the reader along,” often leading first-time readers to critical thinking Bishop High, either accept the premise of the text without question or to reject it entirely. After further study, though, writes Annas, the Republic reveals itself as a work of great complexity, and thus a text that rewards detailed analysis. In his assessment of the role of the good as it is Fountain Valley School of Colorado, explained by Plato, Mitchell Miller also comments on critical Caterham School, the multilayered nature of ideas presented in essay writing Fountain Valley School the Republic and focuses his discussion by providing context from other contemporary sources of Greek prose. Other modern studies of Plato have also tended to paul critical thinking Bishop, focus on specific ideas explored in essay Fountain School of Colorado the Republic. For example, R. E. How To Write An Essay Introduction St Leonards School. Allen (see Further Reading) explores the speech of Glaucon to highlight the idea of essay writing on football Fountain Valley School justice and paul Bishop Guertin High School, morality, while James O'Rourke ruminates about the respective positions accorded to myth and logic in Plato's ideal society.
In his essay on slavery as it is writing on football Fountain of Colorado, defined in the Republic, Brian Calvert reviews other critical commentaries on this issue, concluding that Plato's republic “could not contain slaves.” Critical commentaries on the Republic continue to flourish, attesting to the sustaining power of the ideas contained in the text, whether they relate to society, politics, religion, education, or human nature. Access our Plato's Republic Study Guide for haravard business University of Gloucestershire (INTO), Free. Apology (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Charmides (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Crito (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Euthyphro (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Gorgias (dialogue) before 387 b.c.
Hippias Major (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Hippias Minor (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Ion (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Laches (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Lysis (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Protagoras (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Republic, Book I (dialogue) before 387 b.c. (The entire section is essay Fountain School of Colorado, 257 words.) Get Free Access to this Plato#039;s Republic Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and write introduction, thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and writing, characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Thinking. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Taylor, A. E. “The Republic. ” In Plato: The Man and His Work, pp. 263-98. London, Eng.: Methuen, 1948.
[ In the essay Fountain of Colorado, following essay, first published in 1926 and revised in 1937, Taylor provides a detailed analysis of the ideas, language, and philosophy of Plato's Republic.] The Republic is at once too long a work, and too well known by numerous excellent summaries and commentaries, to require or permit analysis on custom Justin-Siena High, the scale we have found necessary in dealing with the Phaedo or Protagoras. We must be content to presume the student's acquaintance with its contents, and to offer some general considerations of the relation of essay writing Fountain Valley School of Colorado its main. (The entire section is 19658 words.) Get Free Access to this Plato#039;s Republic Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Lerner, Ralph. Custom Justin-Siena High. Introduction to Averroes on Plato's Republic, translated by Ralph Lerner, pp. xiii-xxviii. Essay Writing On Football Fountain Valley School Of Colorado. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974.
[ In the following introduction to the medieval Arabic philosopher Averroes's commentary on Plato's Republic, Lerner discusses Averroes's approach to the text, noting that despite the differences in their religious backgrounds, Averroes exhibits a deep appreciation for Plato's philosophy. ] Why a Muslim like Averroes should choose to write on critical thinking Bishop, Plato's Republic is not immediately self-evident. Of what use is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable. (The entire section is writing Valley School of Colorado, 6273 words.) SOURCE: Annas, Julia. Introduction to An Introduction to Plato's Republic, pp. Thinking. 1-15. Oxford, Eng.: Clarendon Press, 1981. [ In the following essay, Annas presents an overview of the on football Valley School, Republic in the context of politics and philosophy during Plato's time, also focusing on Socrates' influence on how to an essay St Leonards School, Plato. ] The Republic is Plato's best-known work, and there are ways in which it is too famous for its own good. It gives us systematic answers to a whole range of questions about on football Fountain, morality, politics, knowledge, and metaphysics, and the book is written in custom essay company Justin-Siena School a way designed to sweep the reader along and give a general grasp of the way Plato sees all these questions as. (The entire section is 7141 words.)
SOURCE: Miller, Mitchell. “Platonic Provocations: Reflections on the Soul and the Good in the Republic. ” In Platonic Investigations, edited by Dominic J. O'Meara, pp. 163-93. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1985. [ In the following essay, Miller explicates the fundamental philosophical positions adopted by Plato in the Republic.] If we do not understand [the Good], then even the greatest possible knowledge of other things is of no benefit to us. The aim of essay writing on football Valley this reflection is to explore the nexus of notoriously obscure notions that lies at the center of. (The entire section is thinking Guertin School, 16239 words.) SOURCE: Calvert, Brian. “Slavery in Plato's Republic. ” Classical Quarterly ns.
37, no. 2 (1987): 367-72. [ In the following essay, Calvert summarizes the critical debate over whether Plato's ideal republic would include slaves or not, concluding that although the essay writing Fountain Valley School, standard critical view supports the existence of slavery in the republic, there is an equally balanced argument opposing the existence of the practice. Review Of Gloucestershire. ] For a number of years, in the not too distant past, there was a lively debate between Plato's defenders and critics over the question of whether his Republic contained slaves. However, since the appearance of an article by. (The entire section is 3780 words.)
James O#039;Rourke (essay date summer 1987) SOURCE: O'Rourke, James. “Mythos and Logos in the Republic. ” Clio 16, no. 4 (summer 1987): 381-96. [ Characterizing the Republic as a “foundational text in Western thought,” O'Rourke contends that the essay writing Fountain Valley of Colorado, emphasis accorded to logic over how to an essay, myth in this work imbues it with an inherent structural instability. Essay Fountain. ] The Republic is perhaps the foundational text in Western thought that gives dominion to logos over mythos. This paper is about the instability of that hierarchy in the text of the Republic, and the consequences of that instability. The justifications Socrates gives in the latter part of the Republic for why the. (The entire section is 7342 words.) Anthony Skillen (essay date July 1992) SOURCE: Skillen, Anthony. “Fiction Year Zero: Plato's Republic. ” The British Journal of School Aesthetics 32, no.
3 (July 1992): 201-08. [ In the Valley, following essay, Skillen presents an account of Plato's views on fiction as they are laid out in the Republic.] Then it will be our first business to supervise the production of critical stories, and choose only those we think suitable, and reject the rest … the worst fault possible, especially if the fiction is an ugly one, is misrepresenting the nature of gods and heroes, like a portrait painter whose portraits bear no resemblance to their originals … (The entire section is 3793 words.) SOURCE: Aune, Bruce. “The Unity of Plato's Republic. ” Ancient Philosophy 17, no. 2 (fall 1997): 291-308. [ In the following essay, Aune investigates charges of structural disunity between the two books of the Republic, maintaining that a close examination of the two parts reveals a style and method of inquiry in part II that are very similar to essay on football Fountain School of Colorado, those of custom essay company Justin-Siena part I. ] How well does Republic i fit together with the books that follow? Does it contribute to, or detract from, the unity of the on football School, dialogue as a philosophical work? There is still disagreement about this matter. 1 Irwin 1995, 169 speaks of book 1 as the first of two ‘long.
(The entire section is haravard business review (INTO), 10235 words.) Elizabeth F. Cooke (essay date spring 1999) SOURCE: Cooke, Elizabeth F. “The Moral and essay writing School of Colorado, Intellectual Development of the write, Philosopher in Plato's Republic. ” Ancient Philosophy 19, no. Fountain School. 1 (spring 1999): 37-44. [ In the following essay, Cooke comments on Plato's view of the Bishop Guertin High School, role of philosophy in everyday life, stating that for Plato, philosophy is not an abstract concept, but one that draws from all aspects of life, including the spiritual, moral, and intellectual. ] The metaphysical knowledge required for the philosopher is often seen as merely abstract and essay writing on football Fountain, theoretical, though the philosophers share in an essay St Leonards the same early character education as that of the spirited auxiliaries. This is not a mere oversight by. (The entire section is 3589 words.) Donald Morrison (essay date spring 2001) SOURCE: Morrison, Donald. “The Happiness of the City and the Happiness of the Individual in Plato's Republic. ” Ancient Philosophy 21, no. 1 (spring 2001): 1-24.
[ In the following essay, Morrison reflects on the relationship between the happiness of on football Fountain individuals and paul thinking Bishop Guertin, the happiness of the city as it is outlined in the Republic.] Is the polis, as conceived by Plato in the Republic, some kind of ‘super-individual’, or is it nothing over and above its component individuals? Is the happiness of the polis a separate and transcendent value, for writing Fountain Valley, which the custom writing Justin-Siena, happiness of its citizens might be sacrificed, or not? Answers to these questions are often grouped into. (The entire section is 12492 words.) David N. McNeill (essay date December 2001) SOURCE: McNeill, David N. Essay On Football Valley Of Colorado. “Human Discourse, Eros, and critical Caterham School, Madness in Plato's Republic. ” Review of Metaphysics 55, (December 2001): 235-68. [ In the essay writing Fountain School of Colorado, following essay, McNeill compares three variations on the idea of eros as presented in critical nursing Academy Plato's Republic, Phaedrus and Symposium.] In book 9 of the Republic, Socrates tells Adeimantus that the essay writing on football Valley of Colorado, “tyrant-makers” manage to defeat the relatives of the nascent tyrant in the battle over the young man's soul by contriving “to make in him some eros, a sort of business of Gloucestershire (INTO) great winged drone, to be the leader of the idle desires.” This “leader of the soul,” Socrates claims, (The entire section is essay writing on football Valley, 13291 words.) Allen, R. E. “The Speech of Glaucon in Plato's Republic. ” Journal of the essay writing Justin-Siena School, History of Philosophy 25, no. 1 (January 1987): 3-11.
Outline of Plato's position on the “good” as it is explicated via the dialogue between Glaucon and Socrates in the second book of the Republic. Kahn, Charles H. “Plato's Theory of Desire.” The Review of Metaphysics 41, no.1, issue no. Writing Valley Of Colorado. 161 (September 1987): 77-103. Investigates Plato's theory of the psyche and desire as it is critical thinking Hebron, expressed in the Republic, noting that Plato is the first western philosopher to writing Valley School of Colorado, deal with these topics in a systematic manner. Write St Leonards School. . (The entire section is 379 words.) Plato's Republic Homework Help Questions. The main theme of Plato’s allegory of the cave is that we humans tend not to understand the true reality of our world. Writing Fountain. We think that we understand what we are looking at and sensing in our.
Plato favored an aristocracy ruled by philosopher kings. He did not believe most societies could maintain it though. Plato’s aristocracy was based on merit. The leaders were strong. Plato's ideal society is built on the ideal of justice. Just as he believed the soul was composed of three hierarchical parts—appetitive, rational, and spiritual—he believed a just society. Well, hate may be too strong of a word, but he certainly wasn't a fan. The reason is Academy, because Plato was convinced that not all people had the intellectual ability to rule. It is an elitist.
The Ring of Gyges was an oral legend told to essay writing Valley of Colorado, Plato by his brother Glaucon, and recounted in The Republic. The story concerned a magic ring that made its wearer invisible; this allowed the.
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B. Thesis: The battle against poverty can be won through the efforts of those who have. Fountain School! Words: 976 - Pages: 4. Persuasive Speech Outline Grading Rubric. Persuasive Speech Outline Grading Rubric | |Outstanding (15-13) |Good (12-10) |Fair (9-7) |Unacceptable (6-0) |Points | |Speech Planning |Outline perfectly or almost |Outline mostly retains the form|Outline retains some of the |Outline retains little if any | | | |perfectly retains the haravard University of Gloucestershire form of the|of the sample outline and |sample outline’s form. Words: 606 - Pages: 3. computers are taking over essay writing Valley School of Colorado just as factories do too, so for essay Stanstead example I called bright house few days ago. I was on the phone with them for about ten minutes, and essay writing on football Fountain Valley of Colorado I was just trying to get in touch with a person, Just trying to speak with somebody because it was just recording. Soooo computers are taking over our lives today. In this way not technology is paul critical thinking Bishop Guertin School taking over on football Valley our jobs and our ability to do work , but its been a big *distraction to critical thinking studies, us , when I was doing my speech, I got distracted multiple times. Writing On Football Fountain Of Colorado! Words: 692 - Pages: 3. Paul High School! Aristotle wrote these words: Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. Essay Writing On Football School Of Colorado! The first kind depends on paper, the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into on football Fountain of Colorado, a certain frame of mind; the critical Bishop third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself. These three modes of persuasion are ethos, meaning disposition or character; pathos, which emotion or passion; and writing on football Fountain School of Colorado logos, meaning argument or discourse. Ethos has to do.
Words: 565 - Pages: 3. 9/11 Macario Vidal Devry University Professor Legare April 15, 2013 9/11 On September 11, 2001 members of Al Qaeda were able to take over US planes in an act of terrorism. Two of the planes struck the Twin Towers in New York and caused them to fall taking many lives in the process. Another plane struck the Pentagon and caused damage and paper Stanstead casualties. The last plane was on its way to another attack when it abruptly crashed in a field in. Words: 1917 - Pages: 8. Joel Carey Persuasive Speech Outline Speech 100 Spring 2007 I. Essay Valley School Of Colorado! Attention Step: Welcome and thank you for coming. So, how many millionaires do we have in business review of Gloucestershire, the audience tonight?
Well, did you know that according to USA Today the average player salary in the National Basketball Association today is $3.7 million dollars per year? Average! The rookie minimum is over essay Fountain Valley of Colorado $300,000 and Kevin Garnett the NBA’s highest paid player earned $28 million this season. Custom Writing High School! According to Forbes the. Words: 1545 - Pages: 7. SPCH 1315 Format for of Colorado Persuasive Speech Outline General Purpose: To educate parents about the different ways to combat childhood obesity Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, I want the audience to know how to incorporate easy healthy food and custom essay writing company Justin-Siena High lifestyle choices into their children’s daily life.
Central Idea: The three things I want to focus on is how to encourage exercise in on football Fountain School, our children for busy parents, healthier food choices, and kid and budget friendly healthy recipes or. Words: 653 - Pages: 3. Post. 07 Nov. 2012. TheHuffingtonPost.com. 06 Mar.
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Wikimedia Foundation. 06 Mar. 2013 lt;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Schedule_I_drugs_(US)gt;. Source. Bob Filner Urges Obama to Reclassify Marijuana as Legitimate. Paul Critical! OB Rag RSS. 13 Nov. 2011.
06 Mar. 2013 lt;http://obrag.org/?p#x3D;48494gt;. Words: 956 - Pages: 4. Eric Johnson Spc 140 Nov 27,2012 Persuasive speech Title: students choosing mcc Specific purpose: getting undecided h.s students into a career Today As I stand here before you, I will give you a couple key reasons as to why High school graduates should choose Monroe Community College as a starting point in their college career. Most people choose a four year college or university with no specific reason as to why they have chosen it. If you choose Monroe you are given an opportunity. Words: 374 - Pages: 2. America’s strength and on football Valley School of Colorado authority. The 9/11 attacks were the first inland attacks on America, this clearly displayed the global powerhouse’s vulnerability. These unsuspected acts of terrorism were single handedly able to bring the United States to essay writing paper College, its knees. Most Americans had never thought that the great nation of Fountain Valley School of Colorado America was not susceptible to mainland attacks but unfortunately that was wrong. The world viewed America as an indestructible fortress, but the planes hit the very foundation of this.
Words: 414 - Pages: 2. How To Introduction School! Persuasive Speech Persuasive Speech Purpose: Explain to Fountain Valley School, the class the critical nursing dangers involved with texting while driving and persuade them to Valley School, stop allowing their phone take their mind off the road using the Monroe’s Motivated Sequence. Body First and foremost, texting while driving has become such a big issue among teenagers. Critical Thinking School! Texting, in general, has become the thing to Fountain School of Colorado, do. Student’s text now more than they talk on the phone. DWT has become most common in kids. A. Words: 319 - Pages: 2. Persuasive Outline Title of essay writing paper Stanstead Presentation: Social Network Media Benefits in Business Name of Presenter: Brian Cruz Description of Business Audience and Context (and your role…who are you?): I am a contracted sales and advertisement advisor speaking to a company’s higher management to inform them of the potential benefits from integrating social network media to essay writing Fountain of Colorado, our sales plan and why we should implement it into business. Introduction: (attention grabber) Good afternoon, my name is. Words: 858 - Pages: 4. Writing Company Justin-Siena! Alexus Arnold Professor Smith Speech 101 26 November 2013 Coffee Coinsurer Intro / Attention getter: The best part of essay writing on football School waking up is Folgers in your cup!
Waking up in the morning is hard enough. During the cold breezed winter morning you’re battling your grogginess and the clock. The best way to get a start on your day is with a fresh, hot cup of critical thinking Bishop Guertin High coffee. Coffee is the essay School hidden gem that your morning needs to critical thinking, get a jump start on on football Fountain Valley, a busy day. Writing Stanstead College! It’s consumed everywhere and judging by the. Words: 430 - Pages: 2. Essay Valley Of Colorado! Distracted Driving Persuasive Outline. Part 1 Audience Adaptation 1. Specific Purpose: The purpose of this speech is to persuade my audience that texting while driving is not safe and it shall be stopped mentally and physically. 2. Writing Paper Stanstead! What kind of change? Although there are laws out there, citizens seem to bypass it all and continue to this day to on football Fountain Valley of Colorado, never change this problem.
3. What did I find out in my audience analysis? How many people did a survey? What were the results? I found out that a lot of people agree to this. Words: 1462 - Pages: 6. Emily Bontz COMM 110, Class 1205, MTWTH 8:00 A.M Group Speech June 24, 2013 Travel to essay writing paper, Greece Introduction I. Attention Getting Device: Traveling to essay Valley School, Greece for the first time is a life-altering experience. The unique culture and the beauty of the spectacular landscapes, alone, are enough to amaze you.
Add on the rest of what Greece has to offer and prepare yourself for a long-lasting experience that you will remember forever. II. Orientation Phase: A. Point: Greece. Paul Critical Thinking Bishop High School! Words: 871 - Pages: 4. Persuasive Speech Ideas Having problems coming up with a topic? Here are a few questions to ask yourself for inspiration. On Football School! Remember that your topic should be something important to essay writing paper Stanstead, you. Essay Writing Valley School! This is not a complete list of Justin-Siena High School ideas! Be creative and let your interests guide you.
1. Should marijuana be legalized? 2. Should instructors teach morality? 3. Should college athletes be paid? 4. On Football Valley School! Is affirmative action fair? 5. Should the Greek system remain on college campuses? 6. Are. Words: 404 - Pages: 2. Persuasive Speech Assignment - Stem Cells Communications 102 Emre Keskintepe Stems Cells - The Miracle Cure Specific Purpose - I. To achieve passive agreement on stem cells as a scientific advancement that needs implementation into writing Stanstead, current medicine. Stem cells could benefit millions of writing Valley School people, cure countless diseases and possible save the life of review (INTO) your loved ones and essay on football Fountain School you.
Central Idea - I. Thinking Hebron Academy! Stem cells have the remarkable potential to writing on football Valley School of Colorado, develop into different cell types in the body. Words: 1407 - Pages: 6. I have to do a Persuasive speech on custom writing, texting while driving and i really need some help! I am suppose to have a thesis with three main points and for writing Fountain Valley School of Colorado each of those three main points I need 3 supporting facts. I already wrote this up Thesis Statement. Texting while driving is dangerous because it can not only Caterham, kill you but also it can kill another person in the same amount of time that it takes to send a text message.
The dangers of texting while driving. A- According to. Words: 304 - Pages: 2. Persuasive and Informative Speech. INTRODUCTION Speech is just not someone’s written or voiced opinions but it is also how that person tries to express his or her ideas or believes using other meanings. Gestures, signs, paintings photos e.t.c. are also different kinds of speech. There are three major classifications of speeches i.e informative, persuasive and commemorative. Writing On Football Valley Of Colorado! However this assignment is going to focus on two kinds of speeches, i.e. the informative speech and persuasive speech particularly on thinking nursing, the differences. In. Words: 1471 - Pages: 6. TITLE OF SPEECH: Persuasive Speech Name: INTRODUCTION I. On Football Fountain Valley Of Colorado! Attention Catcher: In the paul critical Bishop course of Valley of Colorado a year, at critical studies Caterham, least 2.3 million people in writing on football Fountain School of Colorado, the United States, including 1 million children are likely to experience at least one period of business of Gloucestershire homelessness, according to Laurie Anderson’s in her 2013 journal “Providing Affordable Family Housing”.
II. Listener Relevance: Imagine that you had to essay writing Valley of Colorado, live in a two-bedroom apartment with ten other people, or having to live in a space with no heat during the. Words: 718 - Pages: 3. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE TOPIC: Euthanasia I – INTRODUCTION a) Opener Building or Areas of Agreement (Attention Getter): Empathy b) Thesis Statement: Euthanasia should be legalized in all countries c) Preview of the Main Persuasive Points: i. Everyone has the right to thinking, make a decision about their own life ii. Economic factors iii. Psychological effects Transition: Many people thinks that it is a murder, but when they visualize themselves in that situation they will agree. II. Words: 284 - Pages: 2.
Persuasive Speech Outline CST 100 Principles of Public Speaking Oluwabusola Oshin “The Use of Standardized Test to Determine Admissions” Thesis Statement: My speech is to essay Fountain Valley, convince the audience why SAT or ACT scores should not be used to critical Guertin, determine college admission decisions. I. Writing School Of Colorado! Introduction a. Caterham! Attention Getter: With a show of hands how many of you came into essay writing Fountain Valley School of Colorado, high school with the mindset of making killer grades so you can get into the college of your dreams? With another show of. Words: 461 - Pages: 2. NAME: Peter Enlund SPEECH #: 4 SPEECH TITLE: Homeschooling GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade the critical thinking Academy audience to essay writing Valley, realize traditional homeschooling is harmful SPECIFIC PURPOSE(S): To persuade the audience to realize the harmful effects of traditional homeschooling To persuade the audience that public/private school is better To persuade the thinking audience not to make the choice of homeschooling children CENTRAL IDEA: Traditional homeschooling is not the best route to educate a student. Words: 1425 - Pages: 6. . Non-cash contributions are used to make patients#x27; stay more enjoyable, and include magazines, coffee and essay on football Fountain of Colorado cookies, and new or gently used clothing. A more complete listing of wish list items for veterans will be available after my speech, along with volunteer applications.
D. Donations of frequent flier miles help military family members travel to their loved ones side without the essay writing worry of cost, and donations of hotel points ensure that family members are not burdened even if a Soldier. Words: 1022 - Pages: 5. Rosma Elisa amp; Qaisara Afiqah Persuasive Outline Topic: Walking For Health Life Audience: General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to start walking in order to writing Fountain, improve health. Thesis: Everyone should choose to walk on critical thinking Bishop High School, a regular basis to improve both mental and physical health. 1. Essay Valley School Of Colorado! Introduction A. Essay Justin-Siena! Attention Getter. Words: 1168 - Pages: 5. CMST 2060 SAMPLE OUTLINE Persuasive Speech INTRODUCTION I. Attention-getter A. An attention-getter can be an anecdote, bold claim, rhetorical question, interesting fact or statistic, or something else. The important thing is that you make it interesting. B. Attention-getters should, of course, be relevant to your topic. II.
Orienting material A. Introduce your topic clearly and quickly. B. Relate your topic to the audience. C. Establish credibility. Words: 1047 - Pages: 5. Compare the attitudes towards food in text 9 and 11.
I will be comparing the on football Fountain Valley School attitudes of writers who are vegetarians and a chef who eats red meat. Firstly, both texts are very enthusiastic about their topics of food. Text 11 which is about turning vegetarian or being vegetarian it eases the readers in to the passage as it’s not in an imperative or bossy tone. Essay Stanstead! It relaxes readers as the author begins with “take your time” which immediately removes all pressure away which is essay writing Fountain of Colorado a tactic to persuade. Words: 1422 - Pages: 6. Pursuasive Speech-Sentence Outline. Marichen Rasmussen Lecturer: Ms. Susan Muller Public Speaking 1201 14 April 2014 Persuasive Speech Sentence Outline: Water Pollution I. Introduction/Attention a. Paul Critical Guertin High School! Did you know that 36 states in School of Colorado, the U.S.A. Thinking Nursing Hebron! are facing water shortages? b. Water pollution impacts ever facet of our lives, therefore I call on all of you to educate yourself on responsible water usage and actively partake in essay Valley, efforts to how to write an essay introduction, reduce water waste and water pollution. c. Who here likes watermelon? Or how about a good. Essay On Football Fountain Valley! Words: 810 - Pages: 4. Megan Dash November 17th, 2014 American History Mr. Lawler September 11th the day both Flight 175 and Flight 11 hit the World Trade Center I was too young to remember, But my mother remembers it as if it were yesterday.
At 8:46am as the North Tower was struck by paul critical thinking High School, Flight 11 my mother was driving my grandmother to her Chemotherapy. She heard it on the radio of her blazer. “I was shocked and essay writing on football Valley afraid, I had the critical thinking constant thought of wondering what was going to happen next” she recalled as she. Words: 319 - Pages: 2. Sleep Deprivation Persuasive Speech. Persuasive Speech for Students’ Chronic Sleep Deprivation Introduction: A. Attention Getting Opening: Over the past ten to twenty years, academic demands placed upon college students have increased significantly, this has lead to an increase in workload and amount of Fountain Valley of Colorado time needed to critical thinking Bishop, study for a specific course. Today, college students represent the most sleep-deprived division of the writing Fountain Valley population in the U.S. (Sleep and Memory). According to haravard review (INTO), Gayla Martindale, 63% percent of the students who. Words: 1547 - Pages: 7. Persuasive Speech Outline Your Name: COMS 101 Section 035 Date Due: Organization: Chronological Order Audience analysis: A small group of college-aged students who are pursuing higher education Topic: The history of the piano Rhetorical Purpose: To inform my audience about the history of the piano as well as the essay Fountain Valley transformations it has undergone throughout the years Introduction: I. Attention-getter Historical, enjoyable, and expressionable. II. Motive. Words: 496 - Pages: 2. 9/11 Reaction Paper This documentary is centered on business review University, Ladder 1 and Engine 7’s response to essay School, 9/11.
Before 9/11 James Hamlon explains that him and his team would do practice drills in the World Trade Center. By doing this they were able to learn the building layout. Ladder1 was one of the first firehouses to respond to essay High School, the 9/11 disasters. James and essay writing on football Fountain of Colorado his team responded to critical Academy, building one of the World Trade Center. When the tower was hit it knocked out all the internal communications, except for.
Words: 331 - Pages: 2. I. The Legalization of essay writing on football Valley School Marijuana II. Table of Contents * The history * Why it’s illegal * Fear Tactics * Medicinal Uses * Myths of Marijuana Use * The Benefits of Legalization III. History * The use of Cannabis at critical thinking nursing Academy, least as a fiber dates back at least 10,000 years ago in on football Fountain of Colorado, Taiwan. * Evidence of Cannabis being inhaled dates back to 3000 B.C by the Romanians at a burial site. * Cannabis was introduced to the Scythians and Thracians whose shamans. Critical Caterham School! Words: 943 - Pages: 4. Essay! Persuasive Speech Outline Your Name: David Anthony Jones Moraes COMS 101 Section B05 Date Due: July 5th, 2013 Organization: Problem-Solution. Critical Thinking Nursing Academy! Audience analysis: Christian ESL private school teachers in Brazil. Essay Fountain Valley Of Colorado! Topic: I intend to address the problem of corruption in Brazil, paying special attention to Stanstead College, its effect on education. Rhetorical Purpose: To inform my audience about corruption in Brazil, and to essay writing Fountain School of Colorado, persuade them that the church in Brazil should pray for their country in. Words: 611 - Pages: 3. Course no. SP180.1.2 – Principles of Public Speaking Assignment No. 6 – Persuasive Speech Outline TITLE: Why Banning the School Use of Cell Phones While Driving Should be Mandatory Nationwide A. General Purpose To persuade the audience that cell phone usage while driving should be banned nationwide B. Specific Purpose To convince the audience that driving while on a cell phone can be distracting and very dangerous to themselves as well as others on the road C. Central idea Using. Essay On Football Fountain Valley! Words: 675 - Pages: 3. General Speech - ENG 205 Informative Speech Outline General Purpose: To inform Specific Behavioral Purpose Statement: (I want my audience to know/understand/be able to explain/appreciate. . .) INTRODUCTION Attention Grabber – I’m sure everyone in this class has a social media account whether it be Facebook, Instagram, Twitter or snapchat these accounts can connect you to essay paper College, people all around the essay on football Fountain Valley of Colorado world but did you know that they also affect your learning ability and expose you to.
Words: 481 - Pages: 2. Title: What’s In Your Glass? Topic: The Opposition of Artificial Intelligence Method of haravard business (INTO) organization: Refutative Specific Purpose: My specific purpose of Fountain this speech is to encourage those who oppose artificial intelligence to see the critical thinking Caterham good that can be done with this technology. Thesis: In this presentation I hope to explain the essay writing on football Fountain School of Colorado opposition that artificial intelligence faces, show examples of successful uses of AI, and challenge those opposed to essay College, this technology to consider a change. Words: 1169 - Pages: 5. Persuasive Outline College More Affordable I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Wouldn’t it be nice if any student would attend college without the struggles of writing of Colorado paying for school. B. Custom Essay Writing Justin-Siena High School! Thesis Statement: The expensive of writing Valley College tuition has neglected people to pursue their dreams. C. Preview Sentence: During my speech I will discuss my three reasons why college should be more affordable.
Student loans, you will live a more comfortable lifestyle, and because every person. Words: 528 - Pages: 3. the outline template below for a persuasive speech. 2. You may choose from one of the topics below. Custom Justin-Siena School! a. Why banning the use of cell phones while driving should be mandatory nationwide b. What I see as the biggest challenges young adults face today c. Essay Writing Valley School! Increased dependence on technology in the U.S. Caterham School! d. Bullying in schools. e. Gun laws in the U.S. Essay Writing On Football Fountain! 3. Justin-Siena High! State the general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea clearly and in the appropriate form. 4. Words: 364 - Pages: 2. rather than just celebrated for essay Valley the sake of essay Justin-Siena it being a holiday.
Persuasive Speech: Title: Take Action Against Bullying We are all born imperfect. Some short, some tall, some skinny, some fat, but we all desire one thing. Acceptance. On Football Fountain School! To be accepted by paul High School, society for being whoever we desire to writing on football Valley, be. Having the freedom to express yourself how you desire that is culturally and morally acceptable. Thinking Studies Caterham! Let me ask you some questions. (Have you ever experienced being bullied? Did you find a simple fix or solution. Words: 1132 - Pages: 5. i. Help repair injured joints 9. Signing up is essay writing on football School of Colorado simple and easy j. Register through individual states i. PA – www.donatelifepa.org g. Subtopic 3 – Common Myths and Misconceptions xi. “If doctors know I am a donor, they will not try to save my life” 10. All doctors and nurses are required to not give up on their patients. k. Must be on a ventilator and pronounced brain dead or recently pass away to. Words: 544 - Pages: 3. Lucy Vue Public Speaking NE 11A.M Janet Nobles Informative Speech Outline Objective: To inform To inform the business University (INTO) audience about a history background of the Hmong people.
Intro: I have a lot of essay writing Fountain Valley School of Colorado people asking me this question every time they finished asking me what nationality I am. What is Hmong? That triggers me! Sometimes it is heard for essay writing Stanstead me to answer them because I don’t know the real answer to it and I would just say “we are Asian, we don’t have a country and we are not Mongolian.” This. Words: 599 - Pages: 3. SPEECH TEXT INTRODUCTION The existence of Internet has obviously given us huge impacts in many aspects including in Education. Essay Writing On Football Fountain Valley School Of Colorado! Today’s students are all lucky since they are all born in high-technology era with numerous of custom gadgets and things to ease their lives. It is undeniable that Internet has helped us in many ways consistently with the modernised people in this modernisation ages. However, is the education today relies on writing on football Fountain Valley School of Colorado, Internet merely? Is today’s students are too lazy that they. Words: 970 - Pages: 4. your main points? 0 1 2 3 4 5 2. Thinking Nursing Hebron! Did you bring your speech to a satisfactory close or end abruptly?
0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Did your conclusion reinforce your persuasive appeals? 0 1 2 3 4 5 DELIVERY/PREPARATION: 20 POINTS 1. Did you use vocal variety or did you sound monotone? 0 1 2 3 4 5 2. Was your rate and volume effective? 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Did you use effective gestures and body movement without displaying distractive behaviors? 0 1 2 3 4 5 4. Did you maintain.
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clue words essay Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals. In the following essay, Jib Fowles looks at how advertisements work by essay writing School examining the emotional, subrational appeals that they employ. Essay Stanstead! We are confronted daily by hundreds of fads, only a few of which actually attract our attention. These few do so, according to Fowles, through something primary and prim itive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. Drawing on research done by on football the psychologist Henry A. Custom Essay Writing Company Justin-Siena! Murray, Fowles describes fifteen emotional appeals or wedges that advertisements exploit. Underlying Fowles's psychological analysis of advertising is the assumption that advertisers try to on football Valley School, circumvent the logical, cautious, skeptical powers we develop as consumers, to critical thinking Academy, reach, instead, the unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in writing on football Fountain Valley of Colorado, the bottom half of [our] minds. In Fowles's view, consumers are well advised to pay attention to these underlying appeals in order to avoid responding unthinkingly. The nature of effective advertisements was recognized full well by thinking the late media Philosopher Marshall McLuhan. In his Understanding Media, the first Sentence of the writing on football Valley School section on advertising reads, The con- tinuous pressure is to create ads more and more in College, the image of audience motives and desires. By giving form to people's deep-lying desires and picturing states of being that individuals privately yearns for, advertisers have the best chance of arresting attention and affecting communication.
And that is the immediate goal of advertising: to tug at our psychological shirts sleeves amd slow us down long enough for a word or two about whatever is being sold. We glance at a picture of essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, a solitary rancher at work, and critical thinking, Marlboro slips into our minds. Advertisers (I'm using the term as shorthand for both the essay Fountain School product's manufacturers, who bring the ambition and money to the process, and the advertising agencies, who supply the know-how) are ever more compelled to invoke consumers' drives and longings; this is the continuous pressure McLuhan refers to. Over the Hebron Academy past century, the writing of Colorado American marketplace has grown increasingly congested as more and more products have entered into the frenzied competition after the paul critical thinking Guertin High public's dollars. The economies of other nations are quieter than ours since the Fountain School volume of Justin-Siena, goods being hawked does not so greatly exceed demand. In some economies, consumer wares are scarce enough that no advertising at essay Valley of Colorado, all is paul thinking Bishop High necessary. But in essay on football, the United States we go to the extreme. Review Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! In order to stay in business, an advertiser must strive to essay Valley, cut through the considerable commercial by any means available--including the emotional appeals that some observers have held to be abhorrent and underhanded. Fowles I Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals.
The use of subconscious appeals is a comment not only on conditions among sellers. As time has gone by, buyers have become stoutly resistant to advertisements. We live in a blizzard of these messages and have learned to turn up our collars and ward off most of them. A study done a few years ago at Harvard University's Graduate School of Business Administration ventured that the average American is exposed to writing company Justin-Siena High, some 500 ads daily from television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, and so on. If for essay, no other reason than to preserve one's sanity, a filter must be developed in every mind to lower the number of ads a person is actually aware of-a number this particular study estimate at critical thinking nursing Hebron Academy, about seventy-five ads per day. (Of these, only twelve typically produced a reaction-nine positive and three negative, on the average.) To be among the few messages that do manage to essay Valley School, gain access to minds, advertisers must be strategic, perhaps even a little underhanded at times.
There are assumptions about personality underlying advertisers' efforts to essay paper Stanstead, communicate via emotional appeals, and while these assumptions have stood the test of time, they still deserve to be aired. Human beings, it is presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. Lusts, ambitions, tendernesses, vulnerabilities-they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution. These mental forces energize people, but they are too crude and irregular to be given excessive play in the real world. They must be capped with the competent, sensible behavior that permits individuals to get along well in society. On Football Valley School! However, this upper layer of essay writing company High, mental activity, shot through with caution and rationality, is not receptive to advertising's pitches. Advertisers want to circumvent this shell of consciousness if they can, and latch on Fountain Valley of Colorado to one of the nursing Academy lurching, subconscious drives.In effect, advertisers over the years have blindly felt their way around the underside of the American psyche, and by trial and error have discovered the softest points of entree, the places where their messages have the Fountain Valley School of Colorado greatest likelihood of getting by how to write introduction School consumers' defenses. Essay On Football Fountain! As McLuhan says elsewhere, Gouging away at the surface of haravard (INTO), public sales resistance, the ad men are constantly breaking through into the Alice in Wonderland territory behind the looking glass, which is the world of sub-rational impulses and appefltes. An advertisement communicates by making use of a specially selected image (of a Supine female, say, or a curly-haired child, or a celebrity) which is designed to stimulate subrational impulses and desires even when they are at ebb, even if they are unacknowledged by their possessor. Some few ads have their emotional appeal in the text but for the greater number by far the on football Valley School appeal is contained in the artwork. How To Write An Essay St Leonards School! This makes sense, since visual communication better suits more primal levels of the brain.
If the viewer of an advertisement actually has the importuned motive, and writing Fountain School of Colorado, if the appeal is sufficiently well-fashioned to call it up, then the person can be hooked. The product in the ad may then appeal to take on the semblance of gratification for the summoned motive. Many ads seem to be Saying, If you have this need, then this product will help satisfy it. It is a primitive equation, but not an ineffective one for selling. Thus, most advertisements appearing in thinking, national media can be understood as having two orders of content.
The first is the appeal to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers. The second is information regarding the goods or service being sold: its name, its manufacturer its picture, its packaging, its objecfive attributes, its functions. For example, the reader of a brassiere advertisement sees a partially undraped but blandly unperturbed woman standing in an otherwise commonplace public setting, and may experience certain Sensations; the reader also sees the Valley of Colorado name Maidenform, a particular brassiere style, and, in essay College, tiny print words about the material, colors, price. Or, the viewer of a television commercial sees a demonstration with four small boxes labelled 650, 650, 650, and 800; something in the viewer's mind catchers hold of this, as trivial as thoughtful consideration might reveal it to be. The viewer is also exposed to essay on football Fountain School, the name Anacin, its bottle, and Hebron, its purpose. Sometimes there is an apparently logical llnk between an ad's emotional appeal and its product information. It does not violate common sense that Cadillac automobiles be photographed at writing on football School of Colorado, country clubs, or that Japan Air Lines be associated with Orientalia. But there is paul thinking Bishop High School no real need for the linkage to have a bit of reason behind it. Is there anything inherent to the connection between Salem cigarettes and mountains, Coke and a smile, Miller Beer and comradeship?
The link being forged in minds between product and appeal is a pre-logical one. People involved in the advertising industry do not necessarily talk in the terms being used here. They are stationed at the sending end of essay writing on football School of Colorado, this communications channel, and may think they are up to any number of things-Unique Selling Propositions, explosive copywriting, the optimal use of demographics or psychographics, ideal media buys, high recall ratings, or whatever But when attention shifts to the receiving end of the channel, and focuses on the instant of reception, then commentary becomes much more elemental: an advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal, that in business University of Gloucestershire, effect is the thin end of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. Should this occur, the essay on football product information comes along behind. When enough advertisements are examined in this light, it becomes clear that the paul thinking Guertin emotional appeals fall into several distinguishable categories, and essay on football Fountain of Colorado, that every ad is a variation on one of a limited number of basic appeals. While there may be several ways of classifying these appeals, one particular list of fifteen has proven to be especially valuable. Advertisements can appeal to:
1 The need for sex. 2. The need for affiliation. The need to nurture. 4. The need for guidance. 5. The need to aggress. 6. The need to achieve. 7. The need to critical studies, dominate. 8. The need for prominence. 9. The need for essay writing Fountain Valley of Colorado, attention. 10.
The need for autonomy. 11. The need to Stanstead College, escape. 12. The need to feel safe. 13. The need for aesthetic sensations. 14. The need to satisfy curiosity. 15. Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc.
1. Need for sex. Let's start with Sex, because this is the appeal which seems to pop up first whenever the Valley of Colorado topic of thinking Caterham School, advertising is raised. Essay Writing Valley! Whole books have been written about this one alone, to find a large audience of mildly titillated readers. Writing Paper! Lately, due to campaigns to sell blue jeans, concern with sex in ads has redoubled. The fascinating thing is not how much sex there is in advertising, but how little. Contrary to impressions, unambiguous sex is rare in these messages. Some of this surprising observation may be a matter of definition: the Jordache ads with the lithe, blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male is clearly an appeal to the audience's sexual drives, but the same cannot be said about Brooke Shields in writing on football Fountain School, the Calvin Klein commercials. Essay Writing Justin-Siena School! Directed at young women and their credit-card carrying mothers, the essay writing on football School image of Miss Shields instead invokes the need to be looked at. Buy Calvins and you'll be the center of much attention, just as Brooke is, the essay writing Justin-Siena School ads imply; they do not primarily inveigle their target audience's need for sexual intercourse. In the content analysis reported in Fountain Valley of Colorado, Mass Advertising as Social Forecast, only two percent of critical studies School, ads were found to pander to essay on football School, this motive.
Even Playboy ads shy away from sexual appeals: a recent issue contained eighty-three full-page ads, and just four of paul Guertin High School, them (or less than five percent) could be said to have sex on their minds. The reason this appeal is essay Fountain of Colorado so little used is that it is too blaring and tends to obliterate the product information. Nudity in advertising has the an essay introduction St Leonards effect of reducing brand recall. The people who do remember the essay on football Valley of Colorado product may do so because they have been made indignant by the ad; this is essay College not the response most advertisers seek. To the essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado extent that sexual imagery is used, it conventionally works better on men than women; typically a female figure is offered up to the male reader. A Black Velvet liquor advertisement displays an attractive woman wearing a tight black outfit, recumbent under the legend, Feel the Velvet. The figure does not have to essay Stanstead, be horizontal, however, for the appeal to be present, as National Airlines revealed in its Fly me campaign. Indeed, there does not even have to be a female in the ad; Flick my Bic was sufficient to convey the idea to many. As a rule, though, advertisers have found sex to be a tricky appeal, to essay writing on football School, be used sparingly. Less controversial and equally fetching are the appeals to our need for affectionate human contact. 2. Need for affiliation.
American mythology upholds autonomous individuals, and social statistics suggest that people are ever more going it alone in their lives, yet the high frequency of affiliative appeals in ads belies this. Or maybe it does not: maybe all the School images of companionship are compensation for what Americans privately lack. In any case, the need to associate with others is writing Valley widely invoked in advertising and is probably the most prevalent appeal. All sorts of goods and services are sold by linking them to our unfulfilled desires to be in good company. According to Henry Murray, the need for affiliation consists of paul critical Bishop Guertin, 24 desires to draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with another; to essay Fountain School of Colorado, please and win affection of another; to critical Guertin School, adhere and remain loyal to a friend. The manifestations of this motive can be segmented into several different types of affiliation, beginning with romance. Courtship may be swifter nowadays, but the desire for pair-bonding is far from satiated. Ads reaching for this need commonly depict a youngish male and female engrossed in each other The head of the essay writing Fountain of Colorado male is usually higher than the female's, even at this late date; she may be sitting or leaning while he is standing.
They are not touching in custom writing High, the Smirnoff vodka ads, but obviously there is an intimacy, sometimes frolicsome, between them. The couple does touch for Cognac when The moment was Martell. For Wind Song perfume they have touched, and Your Wind Song stays on his mind. Depending on the audience, the pair does not absolutely have to be young-just together. He gives her a DeBeers diamond, and there is a tear in her laugh lines. She takes Geritol and preserves herself for him.
And numbers of consumers, wanting affection too, follow suit. Warm family feelings are fanned in ads when another generation is added to the pair. On Football Fountain Valley School Of Colorado! Hallmark Cards brings grandparents into the picture, and Johnson and Johnson Baby Powder has Dad, Mom, and baby, all fresh from the bath, encircled in arms and emblazoned with Share the Feeling. Business Review Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! A talc has been fused to familial love. Friendship is yet another form of affiliation pursued by advertisers.
Two women confide and drink Maxwell House coffee together; two men walk through the woods smoking Salem cigarettes. Miller Beer promises that afternoon Miller Time will be staffed with three or four good buddies. Drink Dr Pepper, as Mickey Rooney is writing School of Colorado coaxed to do, and join in with all the other Peppers. Coca-Cola does not even need to haravard review University, portray the School friendliness; it has reduced this appeal to how to an essay St Leonards, a Coke and a smile. The warmth can be toned down and disguised, but it is the same affiliative need that is being fished for. The blonde has a direct gaze and her friends are firm businessmen in appearance, but with a glass of Old Bushmill you can sit down and writing on football Fountain School, fit right in. Or, for something more upbeat, sing along with the essay paper College Pontiac choirboys. As well as presenting positive images, advertisers can play to the need for affiliation in negative ways, by invoking the fear of rejection. If we don't use Scope, we'll have the Ugh! Morning Breath that causes the male and female models to avert their faces. Unless we apply Ultra Brite or Close-Up to our teeth, it's good-bye romance.
Our family will be cursed with House-a-tosis if we don't take care. Without Dr. Scholl's antiperspirant foot spray, the bowling team will keel over. Essay Writing On Football School! There go all the guests when the supply of Dorito's nacho cheese chips is exhausted. Business University! Still more rejection if our shirts have ring-around-the-collar, if our car needs to be Midasized. But make a few purchases, and we are back in essay writing Fountain Valley, the bosom of human contact. As self-directed as Americans pretend to be, in the last analysis we remain social animals, hungering for the positive, endorsing feelings that only those around us can supply. Advertisers respond, urging us to custom essay writing company Justin-Siena School, Reach out and touch someone, in the hopes our monthly bills will rise.
3. Need to nurture. Essay Writing On Football School! Akin to writing, affiliative needs is the need to essay on football Valley School of Colorado, take care of small, defenseless creatures, children and pets, largely. Reciprocity is of less consequence here, though; it is the giving that counts. Murray uses synonyms like to feed, help, support, console, protect, comfort, nurse, heal. A strong need it is, woven deep into our genetic fabric, for if it did not exist we could not successfully raise up our replacements.
When advertisers put forth the image of something diminutive and furry, something that elicits the haravard business review University of Gloucestershire word cute or precious, then they, are trying to trigger this motive. We listen to the childish voice singing the Oscar Mayer weiner song, and our next hot-dog purchase is prescribed. Aren't those darling kittens something, and how did this Meow Mix get into our shopping cart? This pitch is often directed at women, as Mother Nature's chief nurturers. Make me some Kraft macaroni and cheese, please, says the elfin preschooler just in from the writing on football School of Colorado snowstorm, and mothers' hearts go out, and Kraft's sales go up. We're cold, wet, and hungry, whine the husband and kids, and the little woman gets the Manwiches ready. A facsimile of this need can be hit without children or pets: the husband is essay writing paper ill and sleepless in the television commercial, and the wife grudgingly fetches the NyQuil. But it is not women alone who can be touched by this appeal. The father nurses his son Eddie through adolescence while the John Deere lawn tractor survives the years. Another father counts pennies with his young son as the subject of New York Life Insurance comes up.
And all over America are businessmen who don't know why they dial Qantas Airlines when they have to take a trans-Pacific trip; the koala bear knows. 4. Need for guidance. The opposite of the need to nurture is the on football School of Colorado need to be nurtured: to be protected, shielded, guided. We may be loath to admit it, but the child lingers on inside every adult-and a good thing it does, or we would not be instructable in our advancing years. Who wants a nation of nothing but flinty personalities?
Parentlike figures can successfully call up this need. Robert Young recommends Sanka coffee, and since we have experienced him for twenty-five years as television father and doctor, we take his word for it. Florence Henderson as the writing expert mom knows a lot about the advantages of Wesson oil. The parentliness of the Spokespersons need not be so salient; sometimes pure authoritativeness is better. When Orson Welles scowls and Fountain School, intones, Paul Masson will sell no wine before its time, we may not know exactly what he means, but we still take direction from him. There is little maternal about Brenda Vaccaro when she speaks up for Tampax, but there is a certainty to her that many accept. A celebrity is not a necessity in making a pitch to company Justin-Siena High School, the need for guidance, since a fantasy figure can serve just as well. Essay Writing Valley School Of Colorado! People accede to the Green Giant, or Betty Crocker, or Mr Goodwrench. Some advertisers can get by nursing Academy with no figure at all: When E.F Hutton talks, people listen. Often it is tradition or custom that advertisers point to and consumers take guidance from.
Bits and pieces of American history are used to sell whiskeys like Old Crow, Southern Comfort, Jack Daniel's. We conform to traditional male/female roles and writing on football Fountain Valley of Colorado, age-old social norms when we purchase Barclay cigarettes, which informs us The pleasure is back. The product itself, if it has been around for a long time, can constitute a tradition. Business Review University! All those old labels in the ad for Morton salt convince us that we should continue to buy it. KooI-Aid says You loved it as a kid. You trust it as a mother hoping to get yet more consumers to go along. Even when the product has no history at all, our need to conform to tradition and to be guided are strong enough that they can be invoked through bogus nostalgia and older actors. Country-Time lemonade sells because consumers wnat to believe it has a past they can defer to.
So far the needs and the ways they can be invoked which have been looked at are largely warm and affiliative; they stand in contrast to Fountain, the next set of needs, which are much more egoistic and assertive. 5. Need to aggress. The pressures of the real world create strong retaliatory feelings in every functioning human being. Since these impulses can come forth as bursts of anger and critical thinking nursing Academy, violence, their display is normally tabooed. Existing as harbored energy, aggressive drives present a large, tempting target for Fountain Valley, advertisers.
It is not a target to be aimed at thoughtlessly, though, for few manufacturers want their products associated with destructive motives. There is nursing Hebron always the danger that as in the case of sex, if the appeal is too blatant public opinion will turn against what is being sold. Jack-in-the-Box sought to abruptly alter its marketing by going after older customers and forgetting the younger ones. Their television commercials had a seventyish lady command, Waste him, and the Jack- In-the-Box clown exploded before our eyes. So did public reaction until the commercials were toned down. Print ads for Club cocktails carried the faces of Octogenarians under the headline, Hit me with a Club'; response was contrary enough to bring the campaign to a stop.
Better disguised aggressive appeals are less likely to backfire: Tnumph cigarette has models making a lewd gesture with their uplifted cigarettes, but the individuals are often laughing and usually in close company of others. When Exxon said, There's a Tiger in writing on football Fountain School of Colorado, your tank, the implausibility of essay writing paper Stanstead, it concealed the invocation of aggressive feelings. Depicted arguments are a common way for advertisers to tap the audience's needs to aggress. Essay Fountain Valley! Don Rickles and Lynda Carter trade gibes, and consumers take sides as the name of essay writing paper College, Seven-Up is stitched on writing on football Valley minds. The Parkay tub has a difference of opinlon with the user; who can forget it, or who (or what) got the last word in? 6. Need to achieve. This is the drive that energizes people, causing them to strive in their lives and custom High School, careers. According to Murray, the need for achievement is essay on football Fountain Valley School signalled by the desires to accomplish something difficult. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self.
To rival and surpass others. A prominent American trait, it is thinking one that advertisers like to hook on to because it identifies their product with winning and essay writing Fountain, success. The Cutty Sark ad does not disclose that Ted Turner failed at his latest attempt at yachting's America Cup; here he is represented as a champion on the water as well as off in his television enterprises.If we drink this whiskey, we will be victorious alongside Turner. We can also succeed with O.J. Simpson by renting Hertz cars, or with Reggie Jackson by bringing home some Panasonic equipment.
Cathy Rigby and Stayfree Maxipads will put people out front. Sports heroes are the most convenient means to critical thinking nursing, snare consumers' needs to achieve, but they are not the only one. Role models can be established, ones which invite emulation, as with the profiles put forth by Dewar scotch. Successful, tweedy individuals relate they have graduated to the flavor of Myer's rum. Or the on football Valley of Colorado advertiser can establish a prize: two neighbors play one-on-one basketball for thinking nursing Hebron Academy, a Michelob beer in a television commercial, while in writing on football, a print ad a bottle of Johnie Walker Black Label has been gilded like a trophy. Any product that advertises itself in superlatives-the best the first the finest-is trying to make contact with our needs to succeed. For many consumers, sales and bargains belong in Bishop High School, this category of appeals, too; the person who manages to buy something at fifty percent off is seizing an opportunity and School of Colorado, coming out ahead of others. 7. Need to dominate.
This fundamental need is the business review University of Gloucestershire craving to be powerful-perhaps omnipotent, as in the Xerox ad where Brother Dominic exhibits heavenly powers and creates miraculous copies. Most of us will settle for being just a regular potentate, though. Writing On Football Fountain Valley! We drink Budweiser because it is the King of Beers, and here comes the powerful Clydesdales to prove it. A taste of Wolfschmidt vodka and The spirit of the critical Hebron Czar lives on. The need to dominate and control one's environment is often thought of as being masculine, but as close students of human nature advertisers know, it is not so circumscribed.
Women's aspirations for control are suggested in the campaign theme, I like my men in English Leather or nothing all. The females in the Chanel No.19 ads areoutspoken and wrestle their men around. Male and female, what we long for is clout; what we get in essay writing Valley, its place is a Mastercard. 8. Guertin High School! Need for essay School, prominence. Here comes the need to be admired and respected, to enjoy prestige and essay paper College, high social status. These times, it appears, are not so egalitarian after all. Many ads picture the trappings of on football Fountain Valley, high position; the Oldsmobile stands before a manorial doorway, the Volvo is parked beside a steeplechase. A book-lined study is the setting for Dewar's 12, and Lenox China is displayed in a dinlng room chock full of antiques.
Beefeater gin represents itself as The Crown Jewel of England and essay paper, uses no illustrations of essay writing Valley of Colorado, jewels or things British, for the words are sufficient indicators of distinction. Buy that gin and you will rise up the prestige hierarchy or achieve the same effect on yourself with Seagram's 7 Crown, which ambiguously describes itself as classy. Being respected does not have to entail the critical Hebron usual accoutrements of wealth: Do you know who I am? the commercials ask, and we learn that the prominent person is not so prominent without his American Express card. 9. Need for attention. The previous need involved being looked up to, while this is the need to be looked at. The desire to exhibit ourselves in such a way as to make others look at Fountain School, us is a primitive, insuppressible instinct.
The clothing and cosmetic industries exist just to serve this need, and this is the way they pitch their wares. Some of critical thinking studies School, this effort is aimed at Fountain Valley School of Colorado, males, as the ads for Hathaway shirts and St Leonards School, Jockey underclothes. Essay Fountain School Of Colorado! But the greater bulk of such appeals is targeted singlemindedly at women. To come back to Brooke Shields: this is thinking nursing Hebron Academy where she fits into American marketing. If I buy Calvin Klein jeans, consumers infer, I'll be the object of essay on football Fountain Valley School, fascination.
The desire for exhibition has been most strikingly played to in a print campaign of many years' duration, that of thinking Bishop Guertin, Maidenform lingerie. The woman exposes herself, and essay writing on football Valley, sales surge. Gentlemen prefer Hanes the ads dissemble, and women who want eyes upon them know what they should do. Peggy Fleming flutters her legs for Leggs, encouraging females who want to be the star in their own lives to purchase this product. The same appeal works for cosmetics and writing, lotions. On Football Fountain Of Colorado! For years, the little girl with the exposed backside sold gobs of Coppertone but now the company has picked up the pace a little: as a female, you are supposed to Flash 'em a Coppertone tan. Food can be sold the same way espe cially to the diet-conscious; Angie Dickinson poses for California avo cados and says, Would this body lie to writing, you? Our eyes are too fixed on her for us to think to ask if she got that way by eating mounds of guacomole.
1O. Need for autonomy. There are several ways to writing, sell credit card services, as has been noted: Mastercard appeals to the need to dominate, and American Express to the need for prominence. When Visa claims, You can have it the way you want it, yet another primary motive is being beckoned forward-the need to endorse the self. Custom Essay Justin-Siena School! The focus here is upon the independence and integrity of the individual; this need is the antithesis of the need for guidance and is unlike any of the social needs.
If running with the herd isn't your style, try ours, says Rotan-Mosle, and many Americans feel they have finally found the right brokerage firm. The photo is of a red-coated Mountie on his horse, posed on a snow- covered ledge; the copy reads, Windsor-One Canadian stands alone. This epitome of the solitary and proud individual may work best with male customers, as may Winston's man in the red cap. Essay Writing Valley School Of Colorado! But one-figure advertisements also strike the strong need for autonomy among American women. As Shelly Hack strides for Charlie perfume, females respond to her obvious pride and flair; she is her own person. The Virginia Slims tale is of people who have come a long way from subservience to independence. Cachet perfume feels it does not need a solo figure to work this appeal, and uses three different faces in its ads; it insists, though, It's different on thinking School every woman who wears it. Like many psychological needs, this one can also be appealed to in a negative fashion, by invoking the loss of independence or self-regard. Guilt and regrets can be stimulated: Gee, I could have had a V-8.
Next time, get one and be good to Fountain, yourself. 11. Need to escape. An appeal to the need for autonomy often co-occurs with one for the need to escape, since the desire to duck out of our social obligations, to seek rest or adventure, frequently takes the form of essay paper College, one-person flight. The dashing image of a pilot, in fact, is a standard way of essay Fountain Valley, quickening this need to get away from it all. Freedom is the pitch here, the freedom that every individual yearns for thinking nursing Hebron Academy, whenever life becomes too oppressive. Many advertisers like appealing to the need for escape because the sensation of pleasure often accompanies escape, and essay writing Fountain Valley School, what nicer emotional nimbus could there be for a product? You deserve a break today, says McDonald's, and Stouffer's frozen foods chime in, Set yourself free. For decades men have imaginatively bonded themselves to the Marlboro cowboy who dwells untarnished and critical thinking studies School, unencumbered in Marlboro Country some distance from on football Fountain Valley School modern life; ads, part of the same campaign, contain two strolling figures. In smokers' aching needs for autonomy and escape are personified by that cowpoke. Many women can identify with the lady ambling through the essay writing woods behind the words, Benson and Hedges and mornings and me.
But escape does not have to be solitary. Writing Fountain Valley School! Other Benson and Hedges Salem cigarette advertisements, it can be several people who escape together into the mountaintops. A commercial for Levi's pictured a cloudbank above a city through which ran a whole chain of young people. There are varieties of escape, some wistful like the Boeing Someday campaign of dream vacations, some kinetic like the play and essay College, parties in soft drink ads. Essay Valley School! But in every instance, the consumer exposed to the advertisement is invited to essay Justin-Siena School, momentarily depart his everyday life for a more carefree experience, preferably with the product in hand. 12.
Need to feel safe. Nobody in their right mind wants to be intim- idated, menaced, battered, poisoned. Essay Writing Of Colorado! We naturally want to do whatever it takes to stave off threats to our well-being, and to our families'. It is the writing company Justin-Siena High School instinct of self-preservation that makes us responsive to the ad of the St. Bernard with the keg of essay writing Fountain, Chivas Regal. Review University Of Gloucestershire! We pay attention to essay Valley of Colorado, the stern talk of Karl MaIden and the plight of the vacationing couples who have lost all their funds in how to write introduction St Leonards, the American Express travelers cheques commercials. We want the omnipresent stag from essay writing Fountain Valley Hartford Insurance to paul thinking Bishop Guertin High School, watch over Fountain, us too. In the how to write introduction School interest of keeping failure and on football of Colorado, calamity from our lives, we like to see the durability of products demonstrated. Can we ever forget that Timex takes a licking and critical studies School, keeps on ticking? When the American Touris ter suitcase bounces all over the highway and the egg inside doesn't break, the essay writing Valley School need to critical Hebron, feel safe has been adroitly pluck.
We take precautions to diminish future threats. We buy Volkswagen Rabbits for the extraordinary mileage, and MONY insurance policies to essay Fountain Valley, avoid the tragedies depicted in their black-and-white ads of widows and orphans. We are careful about our health. We consume Mazola margarine because it has corn goodness backed by the natural food traditions of the American Indians. In the essay writing Stanstead medicine cabinet is Alka-Seltzer, the home remedy; having it we are snug in essay on football Fountain School of Colorado, our little cottage. We want to custom essay writing Justin-Siena, be safe and secure; buy these products, advertisers are saying, and you'll be safer than you are without them. 13. Needfor aesthetic sensations. There is an undeniable aesthetic component to virtually every ad run in essay on football Fountain School, the national media: the photography or filming or drawing is near-perfect, the type style is well chosen, layout could scarcely be improved upon. Advertisers know there is little chance of good communication occurring if an ad is not visually pleasing. Consumers may not be aware of the extent of their own sensitivity to artwork, but it is undeniably large.
Sometimes the how to introduction St Leonards School aesthetic element is expanded and made into an ad's primary appeal. Charles Jordan shoes may or may not appear in the accompanying avant-grade photographs; Kohler plumbing fixtures catch attention through the high style of their desert settings. Beneath the slightly out of essay writing on football Fountain School of Colorado, focus photograph, languid and sensuous in tone, General Electric feels called upon to explain, This is an essay writing High School ad for the hair dryer. This appeal is not limited to on football Fountain, female consumers: JB scotch says It whispers and shows a bucolic scene of lake and castle. 14. Need to satisfy curiosity. It may seem odd to list a need for information among basic motives, but this need can be as primal and compelling as any of the others. Critical Caterham! Human beings are curious by nature, interested in the world around them, and intrigued by tidbits of School, knowledge and new developments. Critical Hebron Academy! Trivia, percentages, observations counter to conventional wisdom-these items all help sell products. Any advertisement in a question-and-answer format is strumming this need. A dog groomer has a question about long distance rates, and Bell Telephone has a chart with all the figures.
An ad for Porsche is replete with diagrams and schematics, numbers and arrows. Lo and behold, Anacin pills have 150 more milligrams than its competitors; should we wonder if this is essay on football School better or worse for us? 15. Physiological needs. To the extent that sex is solely a biological need, we are now coming around full circle, back toward the start of the list. In this final category are clustered appeals to sleeping, eating, drinking.
The art of photographing food and drink is so advanced, sometimes these temptations are wondrously caught in the camera's lens: the crab meat in the Red Lobster restaurant ads can start us salivating, the Quarterpounder can almost be smelled, the liquor in the glass glows invitingly imbibe, these ads scream. Some common ingredients of advertisements were not singled out for separate mention in the list of fifteen because they are not appeals in and of themselves. They are stylistic features, influencing the way a basic appeal is presented. The use of humor is one, and critical thinking Bishop Guertin High School, the use of celebrities is essay Fountain School another A third is time imagery, past and company Justin-Siena School, future, which goes to several purposes. For all of its employment in advertising, humor can be treacherous, because it can get out of hand and Fountain Valley School of Colorado, smother the product information. Supposedly, this is what Alka-Seltzer discovered with its comic commercials of the late sixties; I can't believe I ate the whole thing, the sad-faced husband lamented, and the audience cackled so much it forgot the business University of Gloucestershire antacid. Or, did not take it seriously. But used carefully, humor can punctuate some of the softer appeals and soften some of the essay on football Fountain Valley School harsher ones. When Emma says to critical Caterham School, the Fruit-of-the-Loom fruits, Hi, cuties. Essay Writing On Football Valley School! Whatcha doing in business review University, my laundry basket? we smile as our curiosity is assuaged along with hers. Bill Cosby gets consumers tickled about the children in his Jell-O commercials, and Fountain, strokes the need to nurture.
An insurance company wants to invoke the need to critical High School, feel safe, but does not want to leave readers with an unpleasant aftertaste; cartoonist Rowland Wilson creates an avalanche about to crush a gentleman who is saying to another, My insurance company? New England Life, of essay writing on football of Colorado, course why? The same tactic of humor undercutting threat is used in the cartoon commercials for how to an essay introduction St Leonards, Safeco when the Pink Panther wanders from essay writing Valley School one disaster to another Often humor masks aggression: comedian Bob Hope in the outfit of a boxer promises to knock out the knock-knocks with Texaco; Rodney Dangerfield, who can't get no respect, invites aggression as the comic relief in Miller Lite commercials. Roughly fifteen percent of all advertisements incorporate a celebrity, almost always from the essay Justin-Siena High fields of entertainment or sports. The approach can also prove troublesome for advertisers, for celebrities are human beings too, and fully capable of the essay on football Fountain School of Colorado most remarkable behavior if anything distasteful about them emerges, it is likely to critical nursing, reflect on the product. The advertisers making use of Anita Bryant and Billy Jean suffered several anxious moments.
An untimely death can also react poorly on a product. But advertisers are willing to take risks because celebrities can be such a good link between producers and performing the social role of introducer. There are several psychological needs these middlemen can play upon. Let's take the essay Fountain School product class of cameras and haravard business review of Gloucestershire, see how different celebrities can hit different needs. The need for essay writing on football School of Colorado, guidance can be invoked by Michael Landon, who plays such a wonderful dad on Little House on the Prairie; when he says to buy Kodak equipment, many people listen.
James Garner for Hebron Academy, Polaroid cameras is put in a similar authoritative role, so defined by a mocking spouse. The need to achieve is essay writing School summoned up by Tracy Austin and other tennis stars for Canon AE-l; the advertiser first makes sure we set these athletes playing to win. When Cheryl Tiegs speaks up for Olympus cameras, it is the need for attention that is being targeted. The past and future, being outside our grasp, are exploited by advertisers as locales for business, the projection of needs. History can offer up heroes (and call up the on football Valley need to achieve) or traditions (need for guidance) as well as art objects (need for essay Stanstead College, aesthetic sensations). Nostalgia is a kindly version of personal history and is deployed by advertisers to rouse needs for affiliation and for guidance; the need to escape can come in here, too.
The same need to escape is sometimes the point of futuristic appeals but picturing the essay on football Fountain School of Colorado avant-garde can also be a way to get at the need to achieve. When analyzing ads yourself for their emotional appeals, it takes a bit of custom essay writing High School, practice to learn to ignore the essay writing of Colorado product information (as well as one's own experience and feelings about the product). But that skill comes soon enough, as does the ability to quickly sort out from an essay St Leonards School all the non-product aspects of an ad the chief element which is the most striking, the most likely to snag attention first and writing School of Colorado, penetrate brains farthest. The key to the appeal, this element usually presents itself centrally and forwardly to the reader or viewer. Another clue: the viewing angle which the audience has on the ad's subjects is informative. If the subjects are photographed or filmed from below and thus are looking down at you much as the Green Giant does, then the need to be guided is a good candidate for the ad's emotional appeal If, on the other hand, the subjects are shot from above and critical Caterham, appear deferential, as is often the case with children or female models, then other needs are being appealed to. To figure out an ad's emotional appeal, it is wise to know (or have a good hunch about) who the targeted consumers are; this can often be inferred from the magazine or television show it appears in. This piece of information is a great help in determining the appeal and in deciding between two different interpretations. For example, if an essay writing Fountain Valley ad features a partially undressed female, this would typically signal one appeal for readers of Penthouse (need for sex) and paul critical thinking High, another for readers of Cosmopolitan (need for attention). It would be convenient if every ad made just one appeal, were aimed at essay writing School, just one need.
Unfortunately, things are often not that simple. A cigarette ad with a couple at the edge of a polo field is trying to hit both the need for affiliation and the need for prominence; depending on the attitude of the male, dominance could also be an ingredient in this. An ad for Chimere perfume incorporates two photos: in the top one the lady is being commanding at a business luncheon (need to thinking Guertin High School, dominate), but in the lower one she is being bussed (need for Fountain School, affiliation). Write School! Better ads, however, seem to avoid being too diffused; in the study of post-World War II advertising described earlier, appeals grew more focused as the decades passed. As a rule of thumb, about on football of Colorado, sixty percent have two conspicuous appeals; the last twenty percent have three or more. Rather than looking for the greatest number of appeals, decoding ads is most productive when the loudest one or two appeals are discerned, since those are the haravard business review of Gloucestershire (INTO) appeals with the best chance of grabbing people's attention. Do They or Don't They?
Do the emotional appeals made in advertisements add up to the sinister manipulation of School of Colorado, consumers? It is clear that these ads work. Attention is caught, communication occurs between producers and consumers, and sales result. It turns out to be difficult to detail the of Gloucestershire exact relationship between a specific ad and a specific purchase, or even between a campaign and subsequent sales figures, because advertising is only one of a host of influences upon consumption. Writing Fountain School Of Colorado! Yet no one is fooled by this lack of perfect proof; everyone knows that advertising sells. If this were not the case, then tight-fisted American businesses would not spend a total of fifty billion doflars annu ally on these messages.
But before anyone despairs that advertisers have our number to College, the extent that they can marshal us at will and march us like automatons to on football Fountain School, the check-out counters, we should recall the resiliency and obduracy of the American consumer. Paul Critical Bishop Guertin School! Advertisers may have uncovered the softest spots in minds, but that does not mean they have found truly gaping apertures. There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interests. Writing School! Despite all the finesse of advertisements, and all the subtle emotional tugs, the public resists the vast majority of the petitions. According to paper Stanstead, the marketing division of the A.C. Nielsen Company, a whopping seventy-five percent of writing of Colorado, all new products die within a year in the marketplace, the thinking Caterham School victims of consumer disinterest which no amount of advertising could overcome.
The appeals in School, advertising may be the most captivating there are to be had, but they are not enough to entrap the wiley consumer.The key to essay paper Stanstead College, understanding the discrepancy between, on the one hand, the fact that advertising truly works, and, on the other, the fact that it hardly works, is to essay writing on football School, take into account the enormous numbers of people exposed to an ad. Modern-day communications permit an ad to be displayed to millions upon millions of individuals; if the smallest fraction of thinking Hebron Academy, that audience can be moved to buy the product then the ad has been successful. When one percent of the people exposed to a television advertising campaign reach for their wallets, that could be one million sales, which may be enough to keep the product in production and the advertisements coming. It is of Colorado good to keep in mind that many of the purchases which might be credited to these ads are experienced as genuinely gratifying to the consumer We sincerely like the goods or service we have bought and we may even like some of the emotional drapery that an ad suggests comes with it. It has sometimes been noted that the most avid students of advertisements are the critical thinking studies School people who have just bought the product; they want to steep themselves in the associated imagery This may be the reason that Americans, when polled, are not negative about advertising and do not disclose any sense of being mis-used.
The volume of essay writing of Colorado, advertising may be an irritant, but the product information as well as the imaginative material in ads are partial compensation. A productive understanding is that advertising messages involve costs and benefits at both ends of the communications channel. For those few ads which do make contact, the consumer surrenders a moment of time, has the lower brain curried, and essay writing company High School, receives notice of a product; the advertiser has given up money and has increased the writing Fountain Valley School of Colorado chance of sales. Haravard Review University (INTO)! In this sort of communications activity, neither party can be said to be the loser.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. Writing Valley School Of Colorado! The entire paper should be written in thinking Caterham the past tense, in on football School of Colorado a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around.
(see sample on essay writing Stanstead, p. 41 of essay Valley of Colorado, APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at critical the top of pages of published articles.
It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and essay of Colorado, spacing. (Note: on paul critical thinking Bishop, the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the essay writing on football of Colorado, actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the paul critical thinking Bishop Guertin, header different for those two parts of the essay Fountain Valley School, manuscript). St Leonards! Flush right, on same line: page number. Writing On Football School Of Colorado! Use the toolbox to essay writing paper, insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of essay writing Fountain School, method, results, and discussion.
(Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the custom essay company Justin-Siena, stage for your study and essay writing on football School, why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and essay Stanstead, gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for essay writing School of Colorado, constructing a good introduction:
Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. Critical Studies Caterham! (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to of Colorado, provide an example or anecdote illustrative of critical thinking nursing Academy, your topic area.
Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the writing Fountain Valley of Colorado, information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the paul critical thinking Bishop Guertin High, ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Essay School Of Colorado! Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and paul critical Guertin High School, so forth, and essay writing Fountain Valley of Colorado, think about thinking Bishop Guertin High School, how you want to transition between ideas. Essay Writing On Football Fountain School! When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies.
Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Paper Stanstead! Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Essay Writing Valley Of Colorado! Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in critical nursing your reference section.
Remember that your audience is the Fountain School, broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of critical thinking Academy, psychology, but you need to provide them with the Fountain Valley, complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the paul critical thinking Bishop High, most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in Fountain such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.
The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. Essay High! If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold)
Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and on football Valley School of Colorado, SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out paul critical Bishop Guertin School, when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for on football Fountain Valley, their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to introduction St Leonards School, avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the on football, data analysis, the custom Justin-Siena High, color of the computer, and on football Fountain Valley School, so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in critical Caterham School detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth.
Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to essay writing, describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Haravard! Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?
If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for writing on football Valley School, descriptive statistics List what type of how to write an essay introduction School, analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the on football Fountain, number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). Paul Thinking Bishop! For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation).
For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and essay on football School, 18 represents df within . Business University Of Gloucestershire! Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is essay, “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. Haravard Review University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to essay Valley School, show what proportion of variability is an essay St Leonards, shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of writing on football Fountain of Colorado, all the statistics and Guertin School, numbers, be sure to state the nature of essay on football Fountain School of Colorado, your finding(s) in words and paper College, whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”).
This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and writing on football Fountain Valley, SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Writing! Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in School of Colorado Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of essay writing company High School, means and essay Fountain Valley School, standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. An Essay Introduction St Leonards School! Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the writing, literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings?
How do your findings tie into the existing literature on essay Stanstead, the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of essay on football Valley School of Colorado, other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and essay company School, pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an writing on football Valley, idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on an essay St Leonards, a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into essay Valley School, what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and essay paper Stanstead College, why.
What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the essay School, question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an how to write introduction St Leonards, idea for a future study. End on writing on football Valley of Colorado, a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by critical thinking nursing, last name of first author). Writing On Football Fountain Valley Of Colorado! Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references.
The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to an essay St Leonards School, how to format references correctly. Examples of references to on football Fountain of Colorado, journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of custom essay writing Justin-Siena High, references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is essay School of Colorado, capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. Essay Writing Paper College! If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of writing on football School of Colorado, mood disorders and mood dysregulation.
Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and Justin-Siena High School, book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Essay Writing Of Colorado! Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp.
599-658). Thinking Studies! New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for essay on football, tables, depending upon essay writing Stanstead College the information you wish to essay Valley School, include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page.
Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for essay company, any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the writing Fountain Valley School, DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). Essay Writing Stanstead College! The figure caption typically includes the on football Fountain of Colorado, IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and critical School, note what the bars represent in on football Fountain of Colorado the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to haravard (INTO), include the authors’ names and publication date.
You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in writing Fountain School parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by custom essay writing company School, the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the writing of Colorado, authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions.
For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. Custom Company High! ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is writing of Colorado, cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the thinking, secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in essay on football Fountain other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in essay writing School your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of essay writing Fountain Valley School, most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.
Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of writing High, its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .