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Pioneer Opportunities in an essay Hillfield Strathallan College Cather and Warminster, Faulkner. Willa Cather's My Antonia and William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury are contrasted. Both texts offer different temporal perspectives on the myth of free-land. Cather's novel is prospective, occluding the actual political and commercial fragmentation of the future from guidelines an essay which she is writing in order to portray the uncertainty in transition felt by the American pioneer; Faulkner's novel is retrospective, highlighting through the collapse of language and time the historical failure of essay competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan democratic possibility. Whitman's concept of America as a teeming nation of nations ('Preface' to Leaves of Grass , Norton, p.2081) implies that the guidelines Hillfield Strathallan country is a ferment of international identities. How To Write A Summary Scientific Article Burr And Burton! It possesses no unified domestically based culture but is constructed from those brought to it from an essay Hillfield Strathallan College abroad. This tension between the domestic and the foreign is revealed in some American writers in their treatment of prospect and essay competitions John Diocesan, retrospect. Willa Cather writes of a liminal period of American history, when America possesses only guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan, a tentative past and nursing Macquarie University, only the prospect of a positive future. Physical space stands as a metaphor for the establishment of a coherent American nation, in which there is not yet a 'Country' but merely country, the material out of which countries are made ( My ntonia , p.7). Her narrative concerns itself with both the geographical and guidelines an essay College, historical frontier and the abstract frontier, the point of balance between America as constructed from outside, by a melting-pot of review Warminster School foreigners whose identity and sense of self derives from other lands, and guidelines for writing Hillfield, America as possessing its own sense of selfhood.1 The Sound and the Fury stands on the far side of this line. Faulkner's Southern, post-First World War, post Eliot and Joyce context locates him in a heritage of modernity, dispossession and disenchantment.

In The Sound and the Fury retrospect is all that exists. Every important event has already happened by the time we read the novel such that even things which appear to look forward, such as Quentin going to nursing essay Macquarie commit suicide, are relegated to the past. The Sound and the Fury closes securely grounded in the present, window and doorway and signboard each in its ordered place ( The Sound and the Fury , p.199). By contrast, My ntonia projects forward even as it looks back. This difference in optimism between the two novels is evident in their treatment of the land and its potential. Jim's first experience of his grandparents' garden is stylised with Biblical overtones. For Writing An Essay Hillfield College! Jim's affinity with the warm earth in this new country where naturally a body feels friendly to the animals ( My ntonia , p.17) is overshadowed by the threat of the snakes.

This metaphor of the land as a pre-lapsarian Eden with the possible threat of the serpent is reiterated later when Jim defeats the articles School huge rattler, the ancient, oldest evil (p.49), in guidelines an essay College the Christmas tree, which is critical reminiscent of the Tree of for writing Knowledge (p.83) and at the end of the novel as Jim and ntonia walk through the apple orchard. The description of the latter scene stands as a metaphor for the relationship of the rural to the urban in the novel as a whole: There was the deepest peace in that orchard. It was surrounded by a triple enclosure; the wire fence, then the critical thinkers Lancing hedge of thorny locusts, then the mulberry hedge. (p.341) My ntonia , like O Pioneers , contains the story of Man (and especially Woman) successfully harnessing nature and working with the land. The urban, and the negatives associated with it, lie always outside the for writing Hillfield Strathallan College centre of the text, threatening but never encroaching on the main narratives. When Jim moves to Black Hawk, he lives on the outskirts, able to look over the country (p.145). In Lincoln, Jim lives in a country part surrounded by trees and blossoms (p.277). Cather avoids writing directly about the culture of the city such that the problems associated with it are brought to the country from elsewhere.

Wick Cutter comes to Black Hawk from Iowa and is one of the fast set of businessmen and the tragic conclusion to his story (an apt warning for Jason Compson) is relegated to an incidental place in the narrative at the end. Jim Burden's ultimate history, his sterile job as a worker for the railways, that mediating force between urban and rural lanscapes, is placed outside the main frame of the novel, as a preface. Cather, writing the novel in 1918, must have been well-aware of the problems of the capitalist world but by refusing to fully elucidate the urban state she heightens the essay writing book free download of Applied novel's sense of hanging on the edge. From the introverted and rural perspective of the guidelines Strathallan College novel and its characters the future seems optomistic, fashioned with the nursing essay University tropes of the idyllic pastoral. For the for writing an essay Hillfield College reader, objective, detached and critical thinkers, with historical awareness, this is a parochial vision, one consistent with the perspective of those who stand on boundaries uncertain as to where they are moving next.

With significant contrast, The Sound and the Fury places the lack of guidelines Hillfield fulfilment of the New World's democratic prospects at its forefront. The landscape is predominated by urban motifs, even though Jefferson is supposedly a small country town. Essay Writing Macquarie University! Jefferson is populated by 'town squirts', immigrants, petty criminals and aggressive capitalists. Moneymaking relies on sucking people in guidelines for writing (p.146) rather than offering the opportunity for expanding the land. Jason's saving of money is yet another means of possessing the past, his attempt to mark how far he has come from having nothing. For Alexandra in O Pioneers , saving and spending are congruent with realising opportunity in critical Lancing the future. Whereas in Cather race issues are remarkable by their absence, here racism is rife. Luster's desperation to find a quarter to go to the show (unlike the theatre in My Antonia, this show is not culturally expansive) epitomises the problems of an essay Strathallan capitalism and the coloured divide: Nigger's money good as white folks, I reckon.

White folks gives nigger money because know first white man comes along with a band going to get it all back, so nigger can go to critical Lancing work for for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan some more. Essay Free Download Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! (p.10) In terms of the land as a metaphor for the possibility of for writing America, Quentin's sense of enclosure on essay writing of Applied his train-ride home from Harvard is guidelines an essay Hillfield College far from the expansiveness experienced by Westminster, Jim on his outward journey, and his sense of a transition to a new land.2 Ironically too, Quentin's return is an guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College indictment of a system which requires the rural, Benjy's pasture, to be exchanged for write scientific article Burr and Burton Academy an education which ultimately results in further disillusionment rather than opportunity. Along with the dichotomy between urban and rural, the trope of childhood and adulthood is one fitted to the American context.5 Cather's presentation of the pioneer experience as a progression from the old and other to the new and domestic fits with a sense of America moving through its adolescence. Guidelines For Writing An Essay! The time-scale of My ntonia is that of a human life, young Jim and young Antonia growing to maturity and the child is the embodiement of expectation and possibility. Cuzak's boys, vibrant, intelligent, affectionate (p.352) represent the nursing writing University future. ntonia and an essay Strathallan College, Jim are the transitional generation, both symbolically of America and and Burton, literally of which the novel is an essay Hillfield Strathallan concerned. ntonia is the earth-mother, fecund and domesticated and, it was no wonder that her sons stood tall and straight. She was a rich mine of life, like the founders of early races (p.353).

By contrast, the older generation, those who bring with them the expectations and attitudes of the lands from which they originate, find it difficult to settle. Mr. Review Warminster School! Shimerda's death, caused by homesickness, is the most striking example of this (p.101) though Norwegian Anna also expresses it: A new country's hard on the old ones, sometimes. My grandmother's getting feeble now, and her mind wanders. An Essay Hillfield College! She's forgot about this country, and essay writing, thinks she's at home in Norway. (p.239) In contrast to the stabilised relationship between past, present and future as embodied by the three generations here, family relationships in Faulkner are disrupted and the move to adulthood marks a loss of guidelines for writing Hillfield innocence. Review! Benjy - physically an adult, mentally a child, sexually neutral - possesses language only in so far as it is an essay Hillfield a marker of concrete objects; he cannot use it in how to a summary Burr and Burton Academy the abstract sense.

For example, he can only register his mother's illness in terms of the concrete feature associated with it, the cloth on Hillfield her head ( The Sound and the Fury , p.26). He has no notion of illness as a concept. Benjy lacks language and is therefore innocent of the consequences of writing competitions The Baptist School his own actions so that if he cannot understand the inference of guidelines for writing sexuality ( The Sound and the Fury , p.30), he cannot be blamed for his touching of a schoolgirl.3 Entrance into language represents a loss of innocence because by being able to use abstract concepts we are able to realise the articles Warminster gap between our hopes and their realisations or failures. For Writing Hillfield! By associating the idea of Eden, or more specifically the passage relating to the Fall itself, with sexuality Quentin discovers a gap between expectation and experience. Writing Review! He imagines himself and Caddy as Adam and Eve figures, the ancestors of the human race. But when she loses her virginity, thereby admitting her womanhood and fallen state, Quentin too experiences a loss, a deprivation of his desires. Benjy, feeling for Caddy with only a primitive attachment urge (she 'smells of trees') and being without the concept of guidelines an essay Hillfield Strathallan time or language, is saved from realising this gap. Review School! Quentin, obsessed by time and language, cannot cope with it.

Whilst it is going to far to see an explicit correlative between Quentin's disillusionment and that of guidelines an essay a modern America that has fallen short of realising its potential, the negative comparison of child and adult in Faulkner might be seen as an indicator of his position in modern history and as a Southern writer. The essentially negative outlook of the novel is paper Westminster School mediated by Hillfield College, the presence of Dilsey. Whereas the three other sections of the novel are retrospective and the fact that characters are unable to grasp the future is essential to their plight, Dilsey, following the easter sermon, is able to look forward, although to a point beyond empirical and physical time. As she explains, I seed de beginnin, en now I sees de endin (p.185). By ending on Easter Sunday the novel is framed by how to a summary of a scientific, the life and death of Jesus, the predominant child image of Western culture. The novel's projection forwards has an extra-terrestrial context rather than being grounded in the physical land as occurs in Cather. In her texts there is continuation of the family line (unlike in The Sound and the Fury ) and the diagram of progression is natural rather than spiritual. An Essay Strathallan! Most explicitly in essay writing O Pioneers , Mr. and Mrs.

Bergson must die and guidelines for writing an essay Strathallan College, be buried on the land before the land yields its fruits to their children. In Faulkner, any progression is spiritual rather than physical and as such is critical College beyond human control. The concept of the circle of life, part of the ancient lore of mother-earth, is just one element of the constant myth making that occurs in an essay College Cather's fiction. How To Write Article Burr Academy! The culture of My ntonia is predominantly oral. Guidelines Hillfield College! Stories and myths are passed on Lancing such that even the new generation of ntonia's children delight in storytelling, demanding that Jim relate his snake killing adventure (p.351).4 The novel partakes in this heritage, not only in its references to Eden but also in Jim's classical interest. His Latin dictum, Primus ego in patriam mecum. deducam Musas, is central to understanding America's sense of unity. Patriam means a small rural neighbourhood rather than a country and this idea relates to the theme of the novel in taking a collection of identities who bring their own stories and forming them into a coherent new myth, specifically American.

The pioneering spirit extends culturally as well as physically, although it is an interesting to note that Cather attempts to construct a new narrative in relation to the old modes of pastoral, Biblical and epic. Once again highlighting her sense of transition, her narrative of prospect is founded on the past. By contrast, for Faulkner, as evinced through Quentin, Latin dictums and Biblical references can be restrictive, reducing complex arguments to dangerously inapplicable maxims in a reducto ad absurdum. Quentin's retrospect, placing Caddy's lovemaking in a tradition of lust from Greek mythology to Othello (p.93), implies the consistency of man in being driven by primal passions. Guidelines Hillfield Strathallan College! Even in the new America, there is critical College no escaping from such powerful, uncivilised forces. Whereas Faulkner's novel is constantly retrospective, but technically remarkably adventurous, Cather's is essentially realist in its technique, uses the established modes of myth, epic and pastoral, but looks forward.5 Embodied in the personal experience of Jim, the passing of old friends and his reminiscences at for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan, the end is actually forward looking. Because Jim himself has now become the stuff of thinkers College stories, rather than stories deriving from other lands, he himself is part of a new, American myth. His stumbling across the first bit of road to cross the land represents the for writing an essay College discovery of a piece of specifically American archaeology. Macquarie University! By having a past to possess, the implication is that America and its inhabitants have moved forward.

His writing down of his memories of his ntonia likewise moves us to the future. Although the guidelines an essay narrative still ends with foreignness and orality (ntonia tells her stories in her native Bohemian) the act of writing the narrative, the Warminster School physical book itself, stands as a testament to the entry into for writing Strathallan, concrete language. Even as the essay Westminster School subject matter of the novel hovers on boundaries, the guidelines for writing an essay College fact of the novel suggests the line from fluid, alien orality to permanent, native narrative, has been crossed.6 By contrast the disruption of conventional narrative in The Sound and the Fury represents a protest about the tradition which precedes it and the culture in which it is being written. Just as all the characters are out of synchronisation with their expected positions in the social hierarchy (Dilsey is too dominant for writing book free Hanze University Sciences a black servant, the guidelines an essay Hillfield Strathallan College Compsons are landowners who have sold all their land, the teenage Quentin is essay writing free download Hanze Sciences a rebellious free-spirit) so the book's deliberate failure to occupy an expected generic space implies an uncertainty about the cultural state of modern America. This pessimism about literature and language is manifested on a literal level too, as immigrants have now become others rather than partners in the American construction (p.83) and dialects slightly different from the normal are rejected as alien rather than accommodated (p.76). In Cather the negative is under-written; Faulkner writes the negative. In both cases, however, the ultimate conclusion lies outside the frame of the novel. In Cather, the historical fact of the guidelines an essay Strathallan College prevalance of urban and international essay writing The Baptist Diocesan High School, commercial culture over the rural and natural does not predominate in the fictional, pre-lapsarian world of the plain.

In Faulkner the failure of aspirations, the gap between expectation and realisation, can only be answered in a spiritual world. Both, therefore, are novels located on boundaries. For The Sound and the Fury, its technical novelty locates it at guidelines an essay Hillfield, an extreme of modernity, whilst its contents and characters are constantly retrospective, facing backwards even as the car carries them along (Sartre, p.269). Cather writes of a frontier - geographical, temporal, and metaphorical - in American history and her novel is both retrospective and projective. Her suppression of the awkward aspects of critical thinkers Lancing American history is the result of her attempt to finely balance the guidelines for writing Strathallan College novel on essay writing Diocesan School the edge between old and new.

This explains why a text so clearly of a certain time is peculiarly devoid of locative details. The Civil War receives just one explicit reference in for writing Hillfield My ntonia (the coroner who attends to Mr. Shimerda is a veteran) and one implicit (the play Jim and Lena go to see is a war play, 'Shenandoh'). To ground it in actual history, rather than in an epic and Biblical heritage, would be to demand that readers apply a context and consequently ignore just how finely poised the potential for American success actually was. By contrast, for Faulkner, there can be no denying the problems both of the present and the past and the uncertainty of the how to Academy future. The frontispiece to the first edition of Cather's Song of the Lark visually demonstrates this concept of liminality. The picture shows a woman walking out from an expanse of plain, the setting sun behind, and looking forward into somewhere unknown and, to the observer of the picture, unseen. [Back to text] From The Sound and the Fury: And all that day, while the Strathallan train wound through rushing gaps and writing free download University of Applied Sciences, along ledges where movement was only a laboring sound of the exhaust and groaning wheels and the eternal mountains stood fading into for writing Hillfield Strathallan College, the thick sky, I thought of home, of the bleak station and the mud and the niggers and country folks thronging slowly about the square, with toy monkeys and how to a summary of a Academy, wagons and candy in Hillfield College sacks and roman candles sticking out, and my insides would move like they used to critical do in school when the bell rang. ( The Sound and the Fury , p.56) From My ntonia : There seemed to be nothing to see; no fences, no creeks or trees, no hills or fields.

If there was a road, I could not make it out in the faint starlight. There was nothing but land: not a country at for writing, all, but the material out of which countries are made. No, there was nothing but land - slightly undulating, I knew, because often our wheels ground against the brake as we went down into a hollow and lurched up again on the other side. I had the feeling that the world was left behind, that we had got over the edge of it, and were outside man's jurisdiction. ( My ntonia , p.7) The adjectives of speed, effort and oppressiveness in the first passage contrast with those of writing competitions Saint John The Baptist School absence and uncertainty in the second. [Back to text] Benjy's possession/dispossession of language is a difficult issue to explain. Guidelines An Essay Strathallan College! If signifier (the cloth on the head) and signified (the illness) have to be present at the same time in order for Benjy to register the existence of illness or other such abstractions, how does he have any stable memory? Following this, if objects only thinkers Lancing, exist simultaneous with their perception, how can Benjy relate his story in the past tense, suggesting that the objects he describes occupy a different spatial and temporal place to himself? How, indeed, can someone mute narrate a story at all? For one explanation, see Polk, pp.139-173. [Back to text] Other examples of myths and stories include: the two Russians and the wolves (p.56); Anton and the priest (p.106); Crazy Mary (p.166); the dead tramp (p.178); blind d'Arnault (p.186); the murder of guidelines Strathallan College Mrs.

Cutter (p.362). [Back to text] The same is essay download University of Applied Sciences true of O Pioneers, the Hillfield title of which interestingly derives from a Whitman poem which signals his own epic vision of the New World. In a concurrence with Cather, his poem opens with an invocation to the children. Critical Thinkers College! His fluid style, inspired by the versification of the Bible, also represents a return to ancient techniques in guidelines for writing Strathallan order to present the modern. [Back to text] This idea encapsulates another problematic ignorance of the novel, the fact that there is only one language of writing. All characters are forced to adopt English as the standard, both in the fiction and as the language in which the novel is written. This can be explained in critical thinkers College positive terms - symbolically, one of the first words Jim teaches Antonia is the word for sky, a natural phenomenon they both share; Mr.

Shimerda gives Jim a dictionary with both English and Bohemian alphabets - but there is still the problem of immigrant alienation, an alienation which ultimately causes Mr. Shimerda's death. [Back to text] Nina Baym (ed.), The Norton Anthology of American Literature , Volume I, Fifth Edition, W.W. Norton, New York, 1998 Willa Cather, My ntonia , Virago, 1980 (1918) Willa Cather, My ntonia , The Willa Cather Archive. 24 February 2002, Willa Cather, O Pioneers , The Willa Cather Archive.

24 February 2002, William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury , David Minter (ed.), W.W. Norton, 1994 (1929) Anne W. Fisher-Wirth, 'Out of the Mother: Loss in My Antonia ', Cather Studies , 2, 1993 Anne W. Fisher-Wirth, 'Disposition and redemption in the novels of Willa Cather', Cather Studies , 1, 1990 John B. Guidelines For Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! Padgett, William Faulkner on the Web, Noel Polk, New essays on The Sound and the Fury , Cambridhe University Press, 1993. Susan Rosowski, 'Willa Cather's Subverted Endings and Gendered Time', Cather Studies , 1, 1990 Jean-Paul Satre, 'Time in the work of University Faulkner', in The Sound and the Fury , David Minter (ed.), W.W. Norton, 1994 David Stouk, 'Willa Cather and the Russians', Cather Studies , 1, 1990. Add your Your Comments on this essay. Your Comments on Pioneer Opportunities in Cather and Faulkner To add your thoughts about this page, use the comment form below. This page was published on an essay Strathallan College October 2003 | Keywords: Willa Cather, William Faulkner, My Antonia, The Sound and the Fury. The content of this website is Copyright 2016 using a Creative Commons Licence.

One term of this copyright policy is that plagiarism is theft. If you use information from how to write of a article Academy this website in an essay Hillfield Strathallan College your own work, you should use the correct citation.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an guidelines Hillfield organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. Writing Westminster School! APA Style is a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and guidelines an essay also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to international essay writing John The Baptist High organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations.

We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to guidelines for writing an essay Strathallan College that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to thinkers Lancing understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out guidelines an essay Strathallan College, this page on crediting work.

Click here to essay book free download of Applied Sciences learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in for writing an essay Hillfield APA. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. How To Write A Summary Scientific Article And Burton! Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the for writing Hillfield assignment and write and Burton Academy includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources. Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and for writing College reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style.

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the articles School section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the an essay gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for how to of a Burr Academy, each source is based on guidelines Strathallan College, the type of source used.

Scroll down to how to write scientific Burr and Burton Academy see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher.

Retrieved from URL. To determine the essay writing book University Sciences exact format for guidelines for writing, your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and Lancing College easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the guidelines for writing College same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. Review Articles! [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949).

Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in for writing an essay parentheses after the name of the author. School! For periodicals, include the month and an essay Hillfield Strathallan College day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses.

How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the review articles first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the Hillfield Strathallan first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Nursing Writing University! Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks.

End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and guidelines for writing test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the writing review articles Warminster first letter. New World Punx. For Writing Hillfield Strathallan! (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from How to Structure Publication Information in APA:

For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and essay writing book free download University of Applied country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals.

For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the thinkers Lancing College name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and guidelines for writing an essay Strathallan Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Essay! Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from an essay College, URL. Do not place a period after the Lancing College URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it.

This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the guidelines for writing an essay College URL as the writing competitions Saint The Baptist School DOI number is static and never changes. Guidelines For Writing An Essay! If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number.

Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). How To A Summary Burr And Burton! Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and an essay College press and international writing competitions The Baptist High School open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945.

APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. For Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the critical Lancing College secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. Guidelines College! (Year published). Title of book . International Writing Competitions Diocesan! Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! (2014). Happy all the time. . Retrieved from

Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Essay School! Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R.

Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from how to scientific Academy, Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher.

Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Guidelines For Writing An Essay Strathallan! Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of writing Macquarie article.

Title of guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield College journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). International Writing John Diocesan High! Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of guidelines for writing College Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use!

Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. Writing Book Free Download University! (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from Looking for Strathallan College, an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine!

Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in College the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and guidelines for writing paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. Nursing! You also need to include the full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield direct quote.

It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information:

When taking an idea from another source and placing it in Westminster your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in guidelines mass quantities in how to a summary scientific article Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield have it exported to their civilizations. Critical Lancing College! Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the guidelines for writing Strathallan College year the essay paper School source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on.

Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at Hillfield Strathallan College a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of writing paper Westminster School other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date.

In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the Hillfield Strathallan year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is how to scientific Burr and Burton Academy, a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017)

2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is guidelines for writing, acceptable to shorten the essay book free University group name to guidelines an essay Hillfield Strathallan something that is Westminster School, simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out guidelines an essay Strathallan, this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in critical thinkers Lancing the APA format generator. The listing of guidelines Strathallan College all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project.

Included in nursing essay Macquarie University this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is for writing Strathallan, not necessary to include personal communications in how to write scientific article Academy the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in for writing an essay Strathallan College order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971).

Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). Review Warminster! The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. Guidelines For Writing Hillfield College! (1958). The cat in Macquarie University the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. For Writing An Essay College! Suess. (1958).

Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the book download Hanze of Applied Sciences citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information.

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and for writing an essay Hillfield headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard.

Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the review School pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan College your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head.

Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and critical thinkers Lancing many other word processing programs allow you to Hillfield set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the writing Macquarie other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by for writing an essay entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.

Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and how to write of a article and Burton research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. For Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan College! The 6th edition was released in writing review School 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for an essay Hillfield Strathallan, electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology.

Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Write A Summary Of A Scientific Burr Academy! Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan, accuracy and credibility.

Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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5 paragraf essay Have you ever made an awesome chocolate cake without looking at an essay Strathallan a recipe first? Unless you are an School extremely talented baker, most likely the guidelines College answer is “no.” Just one cup of writing Macquarie University, flour too many and for writing Strathallan your chocolate dessert will be a chocolate mess! The same goes for nursing Macquarie University, writing a 5-paragraph essay. If you are an extremely talented writer, you may be able to intuitively create a compelling essay with all the components needed to be both persuasive and easy to an essay Hillfield, swallow…or follow. However, if writing doesn’t come easily to you, you can benefit from creating a 5-paragraph essay outline before jumping into your writing assignment. I always make an outline first, no matter what writing project I’m working on.

There are endless, different ways to write a compelling essay. But, if your teacher is paper School, demanding that you sum up your argument in guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College five succinct paragraphs, follow this easy tutorial on how to create a 5-paragraph essay outline. Structure of the nursing essay writing 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. The 5-paragraph essay is guidelines an essay Strathallan College, made of…you guessed it…five paragraphs. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose: Paragraph 1: Amazing introduction (hook) and nursing the all-important thesis statement Paragraph 2: Argument A and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 3: Argument B and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 4: Argument C and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 5: Conclusion, made up of your restated thesis and the broader significance of your argument. Here’s how this outline would look if you sketched it out: A Note on Formatting Your 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. For Writing An Essay! Now, I’m not saying that you must put your outline into a diagram like the one above—using a simple pen and paper or word processor will suffice. If you like technology though, there are several digital outlining tools that can help you out—some of them more sophisticated and user-friendly than others.

It’s not really about making a perfect 5-paragraph essay outline, rather, it’s about developing an outline that makes the writing Westminster most sense to you. Guidelines For Writing An Essay Hillfield! An outline ensures that you have the necessary components to write an awesome essay. Without further delay, let’s jump into more detail about each of the download of Applied outline components. First we need a topic. For Writing Hillfield College! Typically, your instructor will give you a subject to write about, or at least parameters for articles Warminster School, a topic. Always follow your teacher’s specific instructions when embarking on your 5-paragraph essay journey.

After all, you don’t want the wrath of your instructor to come down upon you for completely ignoring instructions. For Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! For our sample topic, we’re going to use the following prompt: What are the arguments for writing Macquarie, or against writing a 5-paragraph essay? Should teachers continue requesting this writing method from students? Step Two: Take a Stance on Your Topic. We need to take a stance for or against teachers asking students to write 5-paragraph essays, so we can argue for or against it in our thesis statement. Don’t make the mistake of not taking a stance —without taking a position, your essay (five paragraphs or twenty) will have no direction at all.

When deciding on your position, you have to choose one that can be backed with valid and an essay Hillfield College supportable arguments, either from your research or from the course materials provided in your class. For our sample essay outline, I’m going to take a stance against the 5-paragraph essay . Step Three: Write a Clear Thesis Statement. Essay Book Download Hanze University! Based on my chosen stance against 5-paragraph essays, my thesis statement will be “Teachers should stop teaching students to write 5-paragraph essays.” Notice the word “should” in the thesis statement? More power can be added to for writing an essay Strathallan, your position by creating a statement about what should or shouldn’t be done. This is a much stronger and more defensible stance than if I simply wrote “5-paragraph essays are boring,” or something similar. Step Four: Develop Three Arguments to Underscore Your Thesis. Now you need to come up with three arguments that will back your thesis statement. Here are mine: The 5-paragraph essay is too basic. There are myriad other ways to write essays, many of which are more thought-provoking and creative than the 5-paragraph essay. The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula.

Step Five: Develop Three Supports for a summary of a article and Burton, Each of Your Arguments. Your evidence, or supports, should include facts, quotes, and data that substantiate your thesis. This is a great place to include quotes directly from guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield, your research sources. For example, to support argument A (“The 5-paragraph essay is essay paper School, too basic”), I might offer the following evidence: Support 1A : Chicago teacher Ray Salazar says, “The five-paragraph essay is rudimentary, unengaging, and for writing an essay useless.” Support 2A: Elizabeth Guzik of California State University, Long Beach says, “The five paragraph essay encourages students to engage only on writing articles Warminster the surface level without attaining the guidelines for writing Hillfield College level of cogency demanded by essay writing competitions John The Baptist Diocesan High college writing.” Similarly, in regards to argument C (“The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula”), I might support it with this quote: Support 1C: According to an article in Education Week , “There is a consensus among college writing professors that ‘students are coming [to college] prepared to do five-paragraph themes and arguments but [are] radically unprepared in thinking analytically.’” Remember, for the 5-paragraph essay structure, you typically need to come up with three supports for each of guidelines for writing Hillfield, your three arguments. In our example, I only nursing essay Macquarie University show three of the total nine supports needed to round out the argument. Once you have your thesis and arguments sorted, you can work on developing your introduction. (*Hint* it’s an for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan exercise in futility to develop your introduction first, because you won’t really know what you’re introducing yet.) For example, my hook could be, “English teachers across the paper Westminster School nation have been teaching students to become ineffective writers.” This hook makes a bold statement that will encourage readers to continue on to find out why I would say such a thing… especially if the reader is your English teacher.

Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion. After you have your paper outlined, figuring out a concluding paragraph should be a breeze. In a traditional 5-paragraph essay, the first step in writing your conclusion is to restate your thesis using different words. For example, I might write, “The 5-paragraph essay is an outdated and guidelines for writing an essay College useless writing tool that should be phased out of the classroom.” To close out the paper, I would open a discussion on critical Lancing the broader significance of this argument. For example, I might write, “Teachers should teach other methods of essay writing that help students stay organized and guidelines Hillfield Strathallan College also allow them to essay writing download, think analytically.” Now that you’ve established all the components of for writing Strathallan College, your 5-paragraph essay outline, you’ll need to how to write a summary scientific article Burr Academy, actually sit down, avoid social media for a while (I know, it’s hard), and write your 5-paragraph essay. Believe me, it will be much easier to do now that your thoughts are organized and guidelines an essay Strathallan you have somewhere to start. Thinkers Lancing! Ask any writer. An Essay Hillfield Strathallan College! There is nothing more frightening than the international essay writing John The Baptist School pure white of an Strathallan College empty page. An outline is write of a article Burr and Burton Academy, a great remedy for this.

Oh, and a couple more things: As you start writing, you’ll want to be sure to guidelines an essay College, connect all the pieces of your essay together with strong transition sentences. Don’t just line up the notes from your outline and call it done. Writing Review School! And always, always be sure to edit; if you need help with that, you can use Kibin’s essay editing services. Spend a little extra time adding those finishing touches that will elevate your essay from good to great. How about guidelines for writing Hillfield, you? Do you work from an outline? Or are you more accustomed to writing by the seat of your pants?

Let us know in the comments. International Essay Writing Saint John Diocesan High School! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the guidelines an essay Strathallan College Author.

Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for nursing, the Kibin blog, and guidelines for writing Hillfield College forever a word nerd. Thinkers College! Excellent post. Love the paradoxical example. I#8217;ll try this with my blog posts. We#8217;re not huge fans of the 5-paragraph essay, but we realize it#8217;s still a widely taught and utilized writing method. The paradoxical example was the guidelines Strathallan College perfect way for us to express our own view while still writing a valuable and useful article. I#8217;m glad you appreciate it #128521; I liked it so much I created a Mind map for it at Xmind. Writing University! Hope that#8217;s okay. Very cool! Thanks for doing and sharing this, @sganpat:disqus. this is completely helpful.

Awesome! Glad it helped you. An Essay Hillfield Strathallan College! #128578; What a very useful tips that is so applicable in international essay Saint John The Baptist High all writer#8217;s on how to write well written paragraph. I think these are all very efficient and effective things that everyone should learned. Thank you for the good tips and methods of for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, writing you have putted here. It was all useful and helpful stuffs. Critical Lancing! Thank you for your comment! I#8217;m so glad you found this post to be useful and helpful. Well explained about how to construct an argument. Guidelines An Essay! Wow nice post ! Will definitely use it when I write again #128578; Fantastic! Glad you found it useful. #128578; Wow nice post ! Thank you for sharing this #128578; Very nice article.

Thank for sharing this. You#8217;re welcome! Glad you found it useful. I really appreciate your post. Structure is the soul of any essay and you describe it in a great way. Thanks for of a article and Burton, your kind comments! Great question! Here is a good blog post that covers alternative structures: Thank you very much for the article is very important information!

I especially liked the point Step Seven: Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion clearly we need to for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan, develop this part of the Essenes.

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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the guidelines an essay topics covered in write and Burton Academy this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. Guidelines Strathallan College! These are often referred to as the architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). Thinkers Lancing College! For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and for writing Strathallan College, information that will help you choose the appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is important to understand that the styles describe different aspects of applications. For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and others describe communication factors. International Essay Competitions Saint High! Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an architectural pattern, is a set of principles—a coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and promotes design reuse by guidelines Strathallan College providing solutions to frequently recurring problems. You can think of architecture styles and patterns as sets of principles that shape an application.

Garlan and essay download, Shaw define an architectural style as: “#2026a; family of systems in guidelines an essay Hillfield Strathallan terms of a pattern of structural organization. More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of components and connectors that can be used in Lancing College instances of that style, together with a set of an essay Strathallan, constraints on how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Other constraints—say, having to do with execution semantics—might also be part of the style definition.” An understanding of international competitions Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, architectural styles provides several benefits. The most important benefit is that they provide a common language.

They also provide opportunities for an essay Hillfield College conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is inclusive of patterns and principles, without getting into international essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, specifics. For example, by Strathallan College using architecture styles, you can talk about essay competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, client/server versus n -tier. Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area. The following table lists the major areas of focus and the corresponding architectural styles. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of Key Architectural Styles. The following table lists the guidelines for writing College common architectural styles described in this chapter.

It also contains a brief description of each style. Later sections of writing, this chapter contain more details of each style, as well as guidance to help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the guidelines for writing Strathallan College system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. Paper Westminster! In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, entities within the Macquarie business domain. Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer.

A design paradigm based on division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and an essay College, consume functionality as a service using contracts and write of a scientific Burr Academy, messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system. For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of architecture styles is also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style. This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. Your organization's security requirements might force you to deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of guidelines Hillfield Strathallan College, more than three tiers. The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an organization's internal network and of a article and Burton, an external network.

On your presentation tier, you may decide to use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to a program on the server. In this case, you might deploy the client and server using the client/server architecture style, and use the component-based architecture style to decompose the for writing an essay Hillfield College design further into Westminster School, independent components that expose the appropriate communication interfaces. Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility. Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the for writing an essay Strathallan College capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and competitions High, experience of Hillfield Strathallan, your developers; and your infrastructure and organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to determine the appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to University as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server.

More generally, however, the client/server architectural style describes the guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College relationship between a client and writing book download Hanze of Applied Sciences, one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the replies on receipt. The server typically authorizes the user and then carries out the processing required to generate the for writing result. The server may send responses using a range of writing School, protocols and data formats to communicate information to the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browser—based programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows® operating system—based applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and guidelines for writing Strathallan, database query tools); and writing Macquarie University, tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on guidelines Hillfield Strathallan College, the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . This approach allows clients to how to write of a article Burr and Burton Academy communicate with other clients through a server-based queue.

Clients can read data from and guidelines an essay Hillfield College, send data to international essay writing competitions The Baptist Diocesan High School a server that acts simply as a queue to guidelines an essay Strathallan store the data. This allows clients to distribute and synchronize files and international essay competitions Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, information. This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Developed from the Client-Queue-Client style, the P2P style allows the client and server to swap their roles in order to for writing Strathallan College distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the client/server style through multiple responses to nursing writing requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of peers. Application servers . Guidelines For Writing Strathallan College! A specialized architectural style where the critical thinkers Lancing College server hosts and executes applications and services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. Guidelines College! An example is School, a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines.

Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on the server, access and updates to the data are far easier to administer than in other architectural styles. Ease of maintenance . Roles and responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to each other through a network. For Writing! This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is writing paper School, server based and will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the for writing College organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume. Articles Warminster School! The client/server architectural style is for writing an essay Hillfield College, also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and Warminster School, management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the tendency for application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability.

To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into competitions Saint Diocesan High, the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in guidelines for writing an essay College the 2-Tier client-server architecture and provides additional benefits. Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to system design and essay Macquarie University, development. It focuses on the decomposition of the design into guidelines for writing, individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties. This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and shared state. The key principle of the component-based style is the use of components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to essay paper School be reused in different scenarios in different applications.

However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Replaceable . Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Guidelines For Writing Hillfield Strathallan! Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in different environments and writing free Hanze University of Applied Sciences, contexts. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to the component instead of being included in for writing an essay Strathallan or accessed by critical thinkers College the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from existing components to provide new behavior. Encapsulated . For Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Therefore components can be deployed into any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of how to write a summary of a scientific article Burr, components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to as controls ), and Hillfield, helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in other components. Other common types of components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and review articles School, store and forward.

Components depend upon a mechanism within the guidelines for writing Strathallan platform that provides an environment in which they can execute, often referred to as component architecture . Nursing Essay Macquarie University! Examples are the component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and for writing Hillfield, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms. Component architectures manage the mechanics of locating components and their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, and—in some cases—maintaining state. However, the book free Hanze term component is often used in the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for building applications using such a component based approach. Hillfield Strathallan! For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into .NET Framework assemblies. They execute under the control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in each assembly. The following are the how to write and Burton Academy main benefits of the component-based architectural style:

Ease of deployment . Guidelines For Writing An Essay Hillfield College! As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on College, the other components or the system as a whole. Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to spread the for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan cost of development and maintenance. Writing Paper Westminster School! Ease of development . Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system. Reusable . The use of reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Components mitigate complexity through the use of a component container and its services. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and transactions. Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the an essay Service Locator pattern can be used to critical thinkers College manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to be able to combine components written in different code languages. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components.

Domain Driven Design Architectural Style. Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, object-oriented approach to designing software based on the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and the relationships between them. Nursing Macquarie! It aims to guidelines Hillfield Strathallan enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by defining a domain model expressed in of a and Burton the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the guidelines an essay Strathallan College business domain you want to writing Macquarie model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge. For Writing Hillfield! The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements.

However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to writing University only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the software is the domain model, which is a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to Strathallan College quickly find gaps in the software by analyzing the writing competitions Saint John High language around it. The creation of a common language is not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and applying it. Guidelines For Writing An Essay! Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the language of the domain, but also due to the fact that the how to write a summary article Burr Academy domain's language is itself ambiguous. College! The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the international essay writing competitions John The Baptist High language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain.

This in turn benefits the software being built, since the model is a direct projection of the domain language. In order to for writing Hillfield Strathallan College help maintain the model as a pure and helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of isolation and encapsulation within the domain model. Consequently, a system based on Domain Driven Design can come at writing paper Westminster a relatively high cost. While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and Hillfield, the entities it defines to write a summary scientific article Burr and Burton communicate business knowledge and requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon. Extensible . The domain model is often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested. Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at

Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an for writing Hillfield College, application into distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of each other. Functionality within each layer is essay book free University, related by a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College support a strong separation of essay writing book free of Applied, concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability. The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and abstractions of the guidelines an essay Strathallan layer directly beneath it. Writing Saint School! With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in guidelines for writing an essay Strathallan College a layer to interact with components in nursing essay writing Macquarie University the same layer or with components in any lower layer.

The layers of an application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in this chapter. Common principles for guidelines College designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the view of the system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and writing articles School, responsibilities of guidelines for writing Strathallan College, individual layers and the relationship between them. Encapsulation . No assumptions need to be made about essay download Hanze of Applied Sciences, data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . Guidelines For Writing An Essay Hillfield College! The separation between functionality in each layer is essay writing free University of Applied Sciences, clear.

Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the layers. For Writing An Essay Strathallan College! High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the international essay writing competitions Saint John Diocesan layer. Reusable . Guidelines For Writing An Essay Hillfield College! Lower layers have no dependencies on essay writing free Hanze of Applied, higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in guidelines for writing Hillfield other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is critical, based on abstraction and events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College business logic. A number of design patterns support the layered architectural style. For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the handling of the writing free download University of Applied user's interactions from the UI, the presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the user works. Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the code to drive it. Dividing the functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the behavior of individual roles. The following are the guidelines for writing College key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns:

Separation of concerns . Essay Download University Sciences! Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the guidelines Hillfield College View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations. Event-based notification . The Baptist High School! The Observer pattern is commonly used to provide notifications to the View when data managed by for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan the Model changes. Delegated event handling . The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are:

Abstraction . Layers allow changes to how to a summary scientific Burr and Burton Academy be made at the abstract level. You can increase or decrease the level of abstraction you use in each layer of the hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to reduce risk and an essay Hillfield College, minimize impact on essay writing book free download Hanze University of Applied, the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to identify dependencies, and organizes the Hillfield Strathallan College code into more manageable sections. Writing Articles Warminster! Performance . Distributing the layers over guidelines an essay Hillfield multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and write a summary of a scientific Academy, performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and functionality. Testability . Increased testability arises from having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality. Lancing College! The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes.

Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of an essay Hillfield Strathallan, UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it. Nursing University! These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of Hillfield College, using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about essay writing book free download Hanze University of Applied, each other. It is a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of for writing Hillfield Strathallan, message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of individual applications that communicate using common schemas and a shared infrastructure for sending and receiving messages. A message bus provides the paper Westminster ability to handle: Message-oriented communications . All communication between applications is based on guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan College, messages that use known schemas.

Complex processing logic . How To A Summary Of A Burr Academy! Complex operations can be executed by guidelines an essay combining a set of smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Because interaction with the bus is based on common schemas and of a article Burr and Burton, commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to change the logic that is used to process messages. Integration with different environments . By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into the process, or improve scalability by Hillfield Strathallan attaching several instances of the same application to the bus. Variations on the message bus style include: Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Essay Book Free Download Hanze University Of Applied! Based on message bus designs, an ESB uses services for communication between the for writing an essay bus and components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from critical thinkers Lancing one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network. For Writing An Essay! A core concept of writing review articles Warminster School, ISB is the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of logic through applications and services in the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications.

Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only for writing Strathallan, needs to know how to communicate with the bus. Writing Westminster! Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in an essay College business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing. Loose coupling . As long as applications expose a suitable interface for articles communication with the message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College same application can be attached to the bus in order to handle multiple requests at the same time. Application simplicity . Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to essay writing University the infrastructure, each application needs to guidelines Hillfield Strathallan support only a single connection to the message bus instead of multiple connections to other applications.

Consider the message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to perform tasks, or you want to essay writing combine multiple tasks into guidelines Hillfield Strathallan, a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments. N-tier and 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of functionality into essay writing free download Hanze of Applied, segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for communication instead of for writing an essay, a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and essay writing Westminster, resource utilization. Each tier is completely independent from all other tiers, except for those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to know how to handle a request from the guidelines an essay College n+1th tier, how to forward that request on to the n-1th tier (if there is nursing essay writing Macquarie, one), and how to handle the results of the request. For Writing An Essay College! Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in international The Baptist Diocesan High order to support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for for writing Hillfield Strathallan specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is international writing competitions The Baptist Diocesan School, deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, dependent on the functionality exposed by the layer.

An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is write of a scientific article Burr and Burton Academy, a typical financial Web application where security is for writing an essay, important. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in the perimeter network. Another example is how to write a summary of a, a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is deployed on client machines and the business layer and data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers. The main benefits of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the application as a whole. Scalability . Guidelines For Writing Hillfield! Because tiers are based on the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is reasonably straightforward. Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is increased.

Availability . How To Write A Summary Of A Scientific Burr And Burton! Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the an essay 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the writing Westminster School processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the layers in the application differ. For Writing An Essay Hillfield! For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers. The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to nursing writing University share business logic between applications, and Strathallan, you have sufficient hardware to allocate the required number of servers to essay writing each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on the public facing Web or application server. Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to another server. Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on the division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and an essay Strathallan, the behavior relevant to the object.

An object-oriented design views a system as a series of writing articles, cooperating objects, instead of a set of routines or procedural instructions. Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by guidelines for writing Hillfield College sending and write a summary of a scientific article Burr, receiving messages. The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . An Essay Hillfield Strathallan! This allows you to nursing essay Macquarie University reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the operation. Guidelines For Writing Strathallan! For example, an School, abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . College! Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to hide these internal objects from other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in Warminster School the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to an essay Hillfield the base object are propagated automatically to the inheriting objects. Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from write a summary and Burton other objects. This makes it easier to guidelines for writing an essay Hillfield College update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Writing Articles Warminster School! Polymorphism . Guidelines For Writing An Essay! This allows you to override the behavior of a base type that supports operations in your application by implementing new types that are interchangeable with the essay existing object.

Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the consumer by defining an abstract interface that the object implements and for writing College, the consumer can understand. This allows you to provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). The latter is a process commonly implemented using the more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the international competitions Saint The Baptist High principles of the object-oriented style. For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the object-oriented architectural style are that it is: Understandable . For Writing Strathallan College! It maps the application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Testable . It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Extensible . International Writing Competitions John The Baptist Diocesan! Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the interfaces that the object exposes, which would limit the capability to communicate and guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan College, interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . By locating only related methods and how to of a article, features in for writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion.

Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the international essay writing Saint John The Baptist High School design and operational requirements. The object-oriented style is for writing Strathallan, also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and international competitions High, message-based interaction with an application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based.

An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on the same tier, or access remote services over a connecting network. The key principles of the SOA architectural style are: Services are autonomous . Each service is maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Guidelines An Essay Strathallan College! Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Services are loosely coupled . Each service is independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . Of A Scientific And Burton Academy! Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security.

Common examples of guidelines an essay, service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are: Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and essay paper Westminster School, technology opportunities and guidelines for writing Hillfield Strathallan, reduces cost. Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and nursing essay writing University, abstraction. Discoverability . Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the guidelines an essay Hillfield Strathallan College provider and consumer of the service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the how to write of a article Burr and Burton Academy functionality in number of Hillfield, applications, which removes duplication. Consider the SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications. The SOA style is suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to writing review expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric.

Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy. Applying Domain-Driven Design and for writing an essay, Patterns: With Examples in competitions The Baptist Diocesan School C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the guidelines an essay Hillfield College following resources: