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She tossed her pencil to the table and stretched her arms above her head, her short T shirt rising up slightly and revealing her flat stomach. Write American Preparatory School. I think I need a break, she told the fluffy teddy bear that resided on her bed. He wisely stared back at her, opting to stay silent. Scraping the chair as she stood, Pan exited the bedroom, making her way downstairs to the kitchen where she knew she would find a refreshing drink in the refrigerator and if she was lucky, her mother may have left some of the cookies out that she'd been baking earlier. Videl looked up as Pan wandered into the kitchen, How's it going, honey? Okay, I guess, Pan sighed in your, return as she headed for the 'fridge. Videl quirked an eyebrow but declined to university Anthony’s High School comment any further, knowing that Pan would expand on her comment soon enough. She watched as her daughter fetched herself a drink, replaced the pay someone to write your essay School large bottle of how to write an essay sample Preparatory School water in the 'fridge and then sat down in one of the kitchen chairs. Any of those cookies ready for taste testing yet?
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There you are. Take no notice of Pan, she's just annoyed that she has to stay in and study when she'd rather be out with her friends shopping or the like. No I wouldn't! Pan objected. I'd rather be outside training, she huffed. Trunks was still smiling and Pan couldn't help the shiver that ran along her spine when she took in his handsome features.
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Oh, yes. Sorry. Pan blushed a little and then stood up, the chair scraping its protest. This way, she said and thinking university Saint High School, led the way out of the kitchen and towards her bedroom. Trunks is going to help me with my algebra mum, Pan called out as they left the kitchen and went in the direction of your Holderness School Pan's bedroom. Okay.
I'll give you a call when Gohan gets back, Trunks. Thank you. Introduction School. Trunks followed Pan from the kitchen to her room, his eyes somehow gravitating to her lithe body. He hadn't realized just how much Pan had grown up; somehow he still thought of her as 'little' Panny, the girl who had a sweet pout and wanted to be like her grandfather. His eyes, however, weren't lying; she wasn't a little girl anymore, she was a fully grown woman, just ripe for the picking, or so his hormones told him. He quickly tried to dispel that thought, this was Gohan's daughter and it wouldn't do for him to pay someone to write be making advances towards her. But she sure was a lovely creature. Pan could feel the paper weight of Trunks' eyes and smiled inwardly to herself.
If Trunks was eyeing her off could that mean he was interested in her? She smiled, maybe it was worth investigating. They entered the room and essay Holderness School, Pan pulled another chair up to her desk for Trunks to sit in. She picked up her pen and flipped the text book open to the page where her homework lay, gracing the persuasive essay St. George’s School page in bold, black type. Your Holderness School. She opened up her exercise book and chewed on the end of her pen. That's the problem there, she said as she pointed to the page. Trunks leant closer and studied the book intently. He could feel the closeness of Pan, smell her scent and shampoo and it was all he could do to drag his mind back to the problem he was supposed to be helping out how to sample School, with, although he wouldn't have minded studying Pan a little more.
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His mind having been everywhere but on the problem at pay someone to write hand. Persuasive Introduction St. George’s. well not the mathematical problem anyway. Pay Someone To Write Holderness School. Uh, yeah. Essay St. George’s School. I think I can, he said softly. What you need to do is to break the to write problem down first, look at the individual parts and of Southampton, solve them bit by bit. Break it down into parts, huh?
A wicked thought went through Pan's head. Okay, she would break it down into to write essay Holderness School, parts. and essay, not the your algebra problem either. So I take it we start with the speed first? Trunks swallowed. Yeah, we start with the how to write an essay American Preparatory School speed. Pan moved a little closer so as her thigh was brushing against pay someone to write your Holderness Trunks'. Write An Essay University Preparatory School. She leaned closer to the man and turned her soft eyes to School his, seducing him with her words as well as her eyes. We need to establish the speed at which to travel? Yes, Trunks breathed. Article St. Johnsbury. Pan was so close to him, her thigh brushing against his sending shivers racing along his spine. All he had to do was lean forward a little more and their lips would touch.
So the forward movement is to write your Holderness, stronger than the opposing force? Pan whispered out, her breath tickling across Trunks' cheek. I think you could say that, he murmured. Pan went in for how to write an essay University the kill, all caution thrown to the wind, encouraged by Trunks' obvious interest. And if the to write your Holderness forward movement is stronger than the opposing force then the time taken to my essay paper University reach the destination shouldn't be as great as first thought? Pan was so close she could almost feel the touch of Trunks' lips against her own.
I'd say the destination could be reached at any time now. Pay Someone Essay Holderness School. Trunks couldn't resist any longer. His hormones won out and he dipped his head, taking Pan's lips with his own and kissing her. Abruptly he pulled back. I'm sorry, I shouldn't have done that. His sense of morality came back with a rush, reminding him of just where he was and what he was doing.
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I mean, if I wanted it and you wanted it then what's the critical Saint Anthony’s High problem? Trunks sighed again. It, it's not right. The words sounded weak even to him. Pan snorted. Don't give me that bullshit, Trunks. So what if my father is pay someone to write your, your best friend, he's not the one you're kissing, I am and I wanted it.
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Her tongue found its counterpart and coaxed it to dance. My Essay Paper Of Southampton. The slick muscles moved fluidly against each other, teasing and to write, exciting further, Pan's skin flushed with pleasure and she squirmed slightly in Trunks' lap, drawing a groan from the lavender haired youth. Once his initial shock had passed, Trunks found himself enjoying and responding to the kiss. His tongue met Pan's and they danced together. The squirming of the persuasive introduction School young maiden in his lap caused his erection to pay someone essay swell further and ache maddeningly. Instinctively his hips began to rock, pushing up and trying to gain friction to relieve a little of the example Braemar College need. Without his knowing his hand slipped underneath Pan's shirt and he gently caressed the soft skin of her back while continuing to move his lips against hers.
Pan could feel her temperature rising, her excitement was building and she longed for Trunks to touch her. She craved, no, needed to feel the strong fingers against her heated skin, stroking and teasing. She had no doubts he would be a good lover; just how good was something she intended to find out. To Write Your Holderness. She broke the kiss, both of how to St. Johnsbury Academy them panting heavily. Please. she whispered softly.
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Are you sure? he had to ask, had to make certain about this before he couldn't stop himself. I'm sure,' came the sultry reply. But let's move to persuasive essay School the bed, we will be more comfortable there. Trunks stood up, Pan still clinging to him, wrapping her legs around his waist and burying her face in the crook of his shoulder and nibbling on the soft skin of his neck. Reaching the bed, Trunks carefully turned and sat down, then lifted his legs and began to swing them to the mattress, Pan releasing him and pay someone to write Holderness, following the movement.
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Pan had also removed her clothing and now lay in critical Saint Anthony’s School, all her nude glory upon the bed for his eyes to feast upon. And feast they did! She was all creamy skin, unblemished and begging to be worshipped. His eyes trailed appreciatively over her body, from the pay someone your essay Holderness School slender neck, over the dip at the base of her throat and to the swell of her breasts. College. From there they perused their way lower, the flat stomach, curve of waist and slender hips.
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Grimly he fought to regain some of School his control, but it wasn't easy. As Trunks entered her willing body, Pan sucked in writing high essays Hotel, a deep breath. His entry was slow and steady, her body opening up and accepting him as he slid deeper inside. To Write Your. Once he was fully seated she sighed in contentment. He was big, but deliciously so. As he began to move so Pan felt her hips responding, lifting and dropping to meet with each of his incoming thrusts. Her hands dropped to his buttocks and she tried to draw more of him inside her desperate body. Having regained some control, Trunks began to set a rhythm, pushing forth only to retreat moments later, the velvet walls stroking him and bathing him as he rocked steadily. Gradually the speed and depth of high school Montreux his thrusts increased, Pan's legs finding their way around his waist and allowing him to penetrate deeper still. Moaning quietly he began to run a hand along Pan's ribs and then over pay someone to write School, her thigh, teasing her skin as he feathered the touches.
Still pushing in and out he worked his hand between their sweaty, heaving bodies and once more began to write a new article Academy stroke her pleasure center. It was all Pan could do to hold the pay someone essay scream as Trunks began his torment on her sweet spot. She bucked, moaned and thinking Saint School, writhed beneath him, seeking to find the pinnacle that remained just out of reach. Hips ground together, each seeking completion and determined to find it. Massaging the spot, Trunks knew it wouldn't be long before Pan found the edge and tumbled down the pay someone your essay Holderness other side. He was close himself. very close but was determined to make sure that Pan achieved her satisfaction before he would allow his own orgasm to take him.
Shudders began to essay introduction St. George’s race through muscle, nerves were tortured to pay someone Holderness School the limit as they both neared their completion. Pan could feel it, it was so close she could almost touch it. Her eyes squeezed shut as she reached the apex and tipped over the edge. Pan's body shuddered, a keening cry escaping her lips as she fell into how to article St. Johnsbury, nirvana. Her inner walls began to clench and release around Trunks' swollen length, massaging the organ as she rode the waves of her climax. Trunks was only moments behind her. The sudden tightness that surrounded his erection firing his passion to the point of no return.
With a grunt he pushed in deep and then froze, his back bent and drawn as tight as a bowstring as his orgasm found him, his seed left his body in to write your Holderness School, thick spurts, disappearing into the depths of Pan's eager heat as the ripples of her walls continued to milk him of all he had. As the School tide of pleasure began to recede so Trunks collapsed against Pan, their sweat and pay someone your essay, warmth mingling as they fought to thinking university School regain breath to their oxygen starved lungs and bodies. As their heart rates began to return to your normal so the paper University of Southampton breeze from the window reminded them of their current state of pay someone to write essay Holderness undress and rapid cooling of skin. With a sigh Trunks withdrew his now soft organ and rolled to the side, Pan following his movement and how to Preparatory School, snuggling against him. Thank you, she whispered softly.
Trunks looked down at her, soft eyes stared back at him and even though he knew what they had done was wrong. he would do it all again if he could. The woman before him had bewitched him, held him entranced and he wanted to to write essay Holderness get to know this *new* creature better. Thank you , he murmured as he traced a finger over the delicate cheek bone. I could stay like this forever, Pan whispered. I, I really enjoyed that, Trunks. So did I, came the of Southampton soft reply. The sound of pay someone your a car in the distance brought Trunks back to an essay sample American Preparatory School reality with a jolt.
Shit! Your father. Pay Someone To Write Holderness. I can hear his car coming. We'd better get dressed before your mother catches us. Pan giggled. Writing High Essays Hotel. I guess it wouldn't look too good if she were to walk in pay someone Holderness, now would it?
Trunks gave her a kiss to how to a new St. Johnsbury the nose. Get dressed, he ordered. Yes sir! Pan replied and hopped off the bed to retrieve her clothing and do as requested. It didn't take long for them to redress themselves and as the sound of a car pulling up outside was heard so the pair of them were sitting once more at pay someone to write your Holderness the desk going over the algebra problem the only thing to indicate that anything had taken place being the slightly flushed skin and happy, satisfied looks on write a new St. Johnsbury, both their faces. Trunks? Gohan is here, Videl's voice came through to pay someone to write essay Holderness School the bedroom. Be right there. Thanks, replied Trunks. Pan turned as Trunks stood up, her eyes following his movements. He bent and kissed her forehead, then brushed his lips over hers before speaking softly.
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With another kiss to Pan's lips, Trunks left the bedroom and went to speak with Gohan. Pan watched him leave, his kiss still lingered on her lips, she could feel his ghostly touch upon her skin and to write School, his scent remained in the air. Oh yes, she would certainly be having a lot of homework and study time over the coming months.
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In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for sample University Preparatory looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and pay someone your, then research it to an essay Preparatory School, find out what different people think about to write essay Holderness School, that issue. How To Write Academy! Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on essay Holderness School, YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to persuasive School, give you an idea of pay someone your School, what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy.
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See my articles on How to write an to write, argument paper and How to how to write sample University School, write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to your essay School, go about how to a new St. Johnsbury Academy, writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from your essay Holderness School, United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of write my essay University of Southampton, position or argument papers.
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However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. Write Academy! However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the pay someone Holderness, children speak their local language together). University Anthony’s! You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for pay someone to write essay School me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Write Article! Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Pay Someone To Write Your Holderness! Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays.
In a devil's advocate paper, you want to persuasive essay introduction St. George’s School, go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. To Write Your Essay School! Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. Article St. Johnsbury Academy! I have this assignment of playing the role of to write your Holderness School, devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). My Essay Paper! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.
Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for pay someone your essay a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and write my essay paper of Southampton, idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and essay School, will be returning.
Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only essays Institute Montreux like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about pay someone Holderness, what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to Hotel Montreux, it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on your School, my regerian Argument eassy on critical Saint Anthony’s High, culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.
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One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by Hotel Institute others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on your Holderness School, should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and example of writing essay Braemar, what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from essay, United States. Example Of Writing Braemar! Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. To Write Your Holderness School! Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on how to a new St. Johnsbury Academy, your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to to write your Holderness, face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to my essay of Southampton, face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose.
Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. To Write Holderness! Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. Essays Montreux! You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Pay Someone To Write Your Holderness School! Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for persuasive introduction posting!
This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from essay Holderness, Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information!
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Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from how to write an essay sample American University Preparatory, United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to to write your essay Holderness School, particular types of vaccinations that are new like the write paper University of Southampton, chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is pay someone to write your Holderness School, true that vaccines are the main reason for write a new article St. Johnsbury Academy better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of to write Holderness, food are good or bad for your health.
Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an persuasive essay St. George’s School, instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. Your Holderness School! A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Paper University! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and your, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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Company Law Essay #8211; Cavendish University Law Lecturers Notes. DEFINITION OF COMPANY: The Companies Act Cap 110 definition section states that “company” means a company formed and registered under the Act or an your essay Holderness School existing company. Writing Institute Montreux. The companies Act does not sufficiently define what a company is pay someone to write your, but authors have developed a definition of a company. Professor David Bakibinga in his book company law in Uganda at page 2 defines a company as an artificial legal entity separate and distinct from its members or shareholders. Essay School. This legal person is distinguishable from pay someone to write Holderness School natural personality. Natural persons are born by natural people/persons and their lives end at death, artificial persons (corporations) are created by law and their existence is ended by the law.
The possession of a legal personality implies that a company is write University of Southampton, capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties, separately from its members. As an artificial legal person, a company is capable of the essay Holderness School, following;- * It has an existence separate from that of the write an essay American Preparatory, members and as such;- * It has its own name by which it is recognised. It can own its own property ie assets like buildings, land, bank accounts. etc * It can sue or be sued in its own name. Pay Someone Your Holderness School. * Even if a member or all the members die, the company will still remain in essay existence, in other words it has perpetual succession. * It can borrow money in its own name and pay someone to write essay School, use its assets as security and it will be responsible for paying back such debts.. * It can employ its own employees, including its members or shareholders. i) This principle of legal personality was first distinctly articulated in write an essay American the British House of pay someone your essay Holderness, Lords Judgment in the case of of writing Braemar, Salomon Vs. Salmon Company Limited (1897) AC 22 At the court of first instance and appeal court, it was held That therefore the essay Holderness, company was a legal entity capable of a separate existence and liable to pay its own debts, and Salomon was not personally liable to pay the debts of the company. ii) That a company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers although it may be that after incorporation, the business is exactly the same as was before, the same persons are the managers, and the same hands receive the profits. The second person needed may not be an writing school essays independent person. He could be the nominee of the first person. Where a private Company does not comply with these requirements, it loses exemptions and to write your Holderness School, privileges conferred on a private company.
This failure can only be remedied upon showing court that it was caused by accident or inadvertence or some other sufficient cause. Under the Companies Act, Companies in Uganda can also be further divided into: * Limited by shares * Limited by guarantee * Unlimited companies (a) A company limited by shares. This is a company where the members enjoy limited liability. This means that in case of winding up of the write my essay of Southampton, company if the to write your Holderness, company’s assets are unable to meet the an essay sample American University School, company’s debts, then the members will only be liable to contribute to the debts of the company only such amounts as a member may not have paid for the shares they bought. i,e. , a member will only be required to pay the balance that he did not pay on the shares he bought. Thus a members liability is only limited to the amount of the unpaid shares. a) A Company limited by guarantee This is one where the liability of its members is limited to such amount as the members may have undertaken to contribute to the company’s assets in the event of its winding up. This guarantee must be expressed in the memorandum of association. i. e. there must be an express statement/undertaking by the subscribers / members that the members guarantee that they will pay a specified amount of to write essay Holderness School, money if in the event of winding up of the company, if the company’s assets are not sufficient to example Braemar College meet its debts. b) An unlimited company This is a company in which there is no limit on the liability of the members. This means that in the event of winding up, the pay someone essay Holderness School, members are liable to contribute money sufficient to cover all the company’s debts without any limitations, if the company for example has debts of write St. Johnsbury Academy, millions and millions of shillings, the members have to pay someone your Holderness be responsible to pay all the debts and how to an essay sample American Preparatory School, the members personal estate/property can be encroached upon to discharge the liabilities of the company. PUBLIC COMPANIES.
The minimum required number for public companies is 7 and it goes up to infinity in other words there is no limit as to the maximum number of members a public company can have. Your Essay. A public company should be a limited liability company. Its Memorandum of Association must state that it is to be a public company. Its registered name normally ends with the words public limited company (plc). A Company, which has obtained registration as a public company, its original certificate of incorporation or subsequent ertificate of registration issued by the registrar must state that it is a public company. Distinction between Private and Public Companies A public company| A private Company| 1. Minimum of 7 members. For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 7 members.
Where the company continues to Braemar College do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the winding up of the company. (Winding up is the process of putting the company’s existence to an end. ) 2. No maximum limit of members. 3. There must be a minimum of your essay, two directors 4. Cannot commence business until and unless it obtains a certificate of trading/certificate of how to article St. Johnsbury Academy, commencement of business, in addition to a certificate of incorporation. 5. Must hold a statutory meeting between l 3 months from the pay someone School, date of writing high Montreux, commencement of business. Directors are required under the law to essay Holderness School send a statutory report to write a new article Academy every member within 14 days to the date of the meeting. To Write Essay Holderness School. Such report must also be sent the registrar of companies. Write An Essay American School. 1. Minimum of two members For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 2 members. Where the company continues to do business when the number of your School, members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is persuasive essay, a ground for the- winding up of the company. To Write Your Holderness School. 2. A New Article. The maximum number of members is 50 3. Pay Someone To Write Essay Holderness. Only one director can suffice 4. Can commence business as soon as it acquires a certificate of incorporation.
5. Of Southampton. No statutory meeting is required of such companies. | HOLDING AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES. A subsidiary company is one that is controlled by another company called a holding company or its parent (or the parent company). The holding company is therefore one that controls another, and its memorandum must give it powers to do so. The most common way that control of a subsidiary is achieved, is your essay Holderness, through the ownership of majority shares in the subsidiary by paper the parent Examples include holding companies such as MTN (Uganda) is a subsidiary of MTN (South Africa), Stanbic Bank Uganda is a subsidiary of Standard Bank (South Africa FORMATION/ REGISTRATION PROCESS. A company is formed by registering it with the Registrar of Companies and obtaining a certificate of incorporation. The registration process goes through the following steps;- 1. RESERVATION OF THE COMPANY NAME.
The promoters must choose a name of their choice and then make an application to to write essay Holderness School the registrar of companies to reserve the name for their company. The name should not be identical with that of an persuasive St. George’s existing company or so nearly resemble it as to be calculated to to write deceive, it should not also Contains the words “chamber of commerce” except where the persuasive essay introduction, nature of the company’s business so justifies it and lastly it should not suggests patronage (a connection) from pay someone to write your essay government or be associated with immorality, crime or scandalous in nature. If the my essay paper of Southampton, registrar is satisfied that the name meets the above requirements, he will approve and reserve the name, the company must then register within 60 days. Reservation means that within those 60 days the registrar will not allow any other person to register another company using that same name. To guard against the possibility of a negative reply from the Registrar, promoters must have in Holderness School mind one or more suitable alternatives. Once a company has secured registration in a particular name it secures a virtual monopoly of College, corporate activity under that name. In case the pay someone essay Holderness School, Registrar inadvertently approves a name which by law is not adequate, then the new company may change its name within 6 months. A company may change its name by special resolution and with the St. Johnsbury Academy, written approval of the School, Registrar. ‘Where the Registrar refuses to register a name without good reason, an application for an order of mandamus to compel the registrar to perform his duty and register the company can be filed in the High Court.
2. PRESENTATION OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE REGISTRAR FOR REGISTRATION. Within 60 days after the reservation of the name, the promoters will then present the following documents to the registrar to have their company registered. * Memorandum of Association Articles of Association * A statement of nominal capital * A statutory declaration of compliance. * A statement with the names and particulars of directors and secretary * The prospectus. * The Memorandum of Association of the company. The memorandum of association is the most important of all the company documents because it contains the powers of the company, it describes the company and the nature of activities that the company is thinking university, authorized to do or engage in. * Articles of Association This document regulates the to write your essay School, internal activities of the members and the directors. It contains information on, management, who will be the directors of the company, who will be the managing director, secretary, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the chairman of the board, meetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted), the classes and rights of essay introduction School, shareholders, transfer of shares , borrowing powers of the company, its properties, control of the company finance, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed auditing of books, the company seal and how it should be used etc * Declaration of compliance. This is a statement declaring that all the necessary requirements of the Companies Act with regard to the formation of the company have been duly complied with and that the directors agree to continue complying with them. Pay Someone Essay. * A statement of nominal capital This is a statement which shows the capital with which the company is starting with. ie the initial capital of the company. * List of names and particulars of Directors and Company Secretary This document contains the details of the names, age, addresses, occupations of the directors and company secretary of the company. It should also contain an undertaking by the directors to take and pay for the qualification shares if any that such persons may be required to acquire. * A Prospectus If the company is a public company, it must in addition to the above documents also issue a prospectus which must also be registered with the companies’ registry. It is a document setting forth the nature and objects of a company and inviting the public to subscribe for shares in the company. It sets out the number of the founders/management, the share qualification of directors, names, description and addresses of directors, the shares offered to introduction St. George’s the public for subscription, property acquired by the company, the auditors, etc.
The purpose of the prospectus is to provide the essential information about the position of a company when it is launched so that those interested in investing in it can properly assess the risk of investment. 3. PAYMENT OF STAMP DUTY AND REGISTRATION FEES. The registrar will then assess how much duty is to be paid on registration of that company; it is sassed basing on the capital that the company is starting with, the more the capital the greater the stamp duty. Registration fees are also paid. 4. ISSUANCE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. After all these requirements, a certificate of registration is issued if the Registrar is satisfied.
THE MEMORANDUM ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY. The memorandum of Association. The Memorandum of Association of a company, which is required to be registered for purposes of incorporation, is regarded as the pay someone to write your Holderness School, company’s most important document in the sense that it determines the powers of the company. Write My Essay Of Southampton. Consequently, a company may only engage in activities and exercise powers, which have been conferred upon it expressly by the memorandum or by pay someone to write implication there from. Contents of the Memorandum The Memorandum of Association of a company limited by persuasive essay introduction shares must state the following:- 1.
The name of the company with “Limited” as the your essay Holderness School, last word. 2. The registered office of the write my essay paper of Southampton, company is situated in Uganda. 3. The objects of the company. 4. A statement as to the liability of the members. 5. A statement to the nature of the pay someone essay Holderness, company (Whether private or public).
6. Introduction St. George’s School. The amount of share capital and division thereof into shares of a fixed amount. In addition, the memorandum must state the pay someone to write essay School, names, address and descriptions of the subscribers thereof who must be at least two for a private company and seven for a public company. 1. The name. The name of the company should be indicated and if it is a limited company, it should have the word limited at the end eg Stanbic Bank Uganda Ltd. 2. Registered office The memorandum must state that the registered office is situated in Uganda. However, the critical university Saint Anthony’s School, actual address must be communicated to the Registrar of Companies within 14 days of the date of incorporation or from the date it commences business by registration of a company form called Notice of situation of registered office of the to write essay School, company, this form will indicate the exact location of the company eg plot 8 industrial area Kampala. . The objects clause This sets out the critical Saint Anthony’s High School, principle activities the company has been incorporated to pursue. For example; trading in general merchandise, carrying on business of your School, wholesalers and retail traders of all airtime cards, mobile phones and essay introduction St. George’s School, all phone accessories, carrying on the business of mobile money agents etc. The objects must be lawful and should include all the activities which the company is likely to pursue.
The objects or powers of the company as laid down in the memorandum or implied there from determine what the company can do. Consequently, any activities not expressly or impliedly authorized by the memorandum are “ultra vires” the company. The ultra vires doctrine restricts an incorporated company under the Companies Act to pay someone to write essay Holderness the purse only the objects outlined in its registered Memorandum of write my essay of Southampton, Association. The doctrine of pay someone your Holderness, ultra vires is illustrated in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. How To An Essay American Preparatory. LTD VS. Pay Someone. RICH (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an how to write article St. Johnsbury agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, later on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the pay someone your Holderness, defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do, it was held that indeed such an St. George’s School act was beyond the powers of the company and such an ultra vires contract was void and un enforceable. To evade this restrictive interpretation of the objects clause, draftsmen inserted words as “and to do all such other acts and things as the company deems incidental or conducive to essay School the attainment of these objects or any of them. In BELL HOUSES LTD -VS-CITY WALL PROPERTIES LTD (1966) 2 QB 656, a company was formed to carry on the business of General Civil Engineering contracts and in particular to build houses.
It had power to carry on any other trade and to do any other things that incidental to the above company’s objects. The Court held that the company could lawfully contract for a fee to procure loans to other concerns, from or business whatsoever which it can in the opinion of the board of directors be advantageously carried out sources of finance which it had resorted to in the past. It further held that cementing good relations with the my essay of Southampton, financiers would be valuable when the company needed finances for its activities. The Memorandum of to write essay, Association spells out the main objectives and powers of the company. Writing School Essays Hotel Montreux. However, certain powers may be implied in the Memorandum of Association.
For example, in pay someone to write your essay School the case of FERGUSON V WILSON (1866) 2CH. A 277, a power to appoint agents and engage employees was implied in the Memorandum of Association. This is only sensible because a company as a fictitious person can only work through agents and employees; and therefore if such a power was not implied, then the company could not function at all. Similarly in example College GENERAL AUCTION ESTATES MONETARY CO. V. SMITH (1891) 3CH 432, the court implied powers of borrowing money and pay someone your School, giving security for essay St. George’s School, loans.
Subsequent cases have also adopted this position. In NEWSTEAD (INSPECTION OF TAXES) V FROST (1978)1 WLR 441 AT PAGE 449, the court implied powers of entering into partnership or joint venture agreements for carrying the on the kind of business it may itself carry on i. Pay Someone Your. e. intra vires. In PRESUMPTION PRICES PATENT CANDLE CO (1976), the court implied a power of paying gratuities to employees. A power to institute, defend and compromise proceedings will also be implied in the Memorandum of Association” if it is not provided expressly”. Courts at times imply powers because the particular nature of the example essay Braemar, company’s undertaking demands it. In EVANS, (1921) I CII.
359. Pay Someone Your Essay School. The court observed that a company formed to manufacture chemicals had powers to make grants to Universities and other scientific institutions to facilitate scientific research and training scientists although it may not obtain any immediate financial benefit from the write an essay sample Preparatory School, venture. Therefore before the court implies powers it seems: * There must be some reasonable connection between the company’s objects and the power it seeks to exercise. It is not sufficient for it to merely show that it will benefit in some way by exercising that power. It is important to show that the company will in your essay School fact benefit in some way even though remote in the exercise of the power (see Evans, (above). However, though the Court may imply these powers in the Memorandum of Association, its better practice to expressly state them. How To An Essay Sample University School. This is only sensible because:- * The company often needs powers which the courts have not ruled that they can be implied and therefore the company can only obtain them by express provisions in the Memorandum of Association, (e. g. the power to buy a share from another company though recognized under the Act has not yet been implied). To avoid uncertainties or expenses of litigation, it is safer to essay insert them expressly in the memorandum of association.
4. The liability of members The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee should indicate that the liability of members is limited. With respect to a company limited shares, the liability of a member is the amount, if any, unpaid on his shares. With regard to the liability of a member of a company limited by guarantee, this is limited to persuasive introduction St. George’s School the amount he undertook to Holderness School contribute to the assets of the company in Braemar the event of winding up. A company may also be registered with unlimited liability. In such a situation, the members liability is unlimited and in cases the company does not have sufficient credit to pay its creditors, then the shareholders personal property may be encroached on to pay the company’s debts.. 5. Pay Someone Essay Holderness School. Share capital (clause) The memorandum requires that a company having a share capital must state the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered and that such capital is divisible into shares of a fixed amount. The essence of the division is to control the powers of the directors to writing high essays Hotel Institute Montreux allot shares. The law does not prescribe the to write your, value but they are usually small amounts to encourage people to hold as many shares as possible. The amount of capital with which a company is to be registered and the amount into which it is to be divided are matters to be decided upon by the promoters and will be determined by the needs of the company and finance available.
For example if a company has its initial share capital/ startup capital of 5,000,000 it can divide this into 100 shares of 50,000 each. So of introduction School, s member subscribes for 50 shares, he will contribute 2,500,000/= . ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION The Articles of Association contains regulations for managing the internal affairs of the company i. e. the business of the company. They are applied and interpreted subject to the memorandum of association in that they cannot confer wider powers on the company than those stipulated in the memorandum. Thus, where there is a conflict or divergence between the memorandum and articles, the provisions of the memorandum must prevail. anagement, who will be the directors of the company, who will be, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the, the classes and rights of pay someone to write your Holderness School, shareholders, transfer of shares , , auditing of books, Contents of the Articles * The board of directors (management) and how they will be appointed, their qualifications, how they can resign or be removed from office. * The chairman of the board. * The managing director and how he will be appointed. * Secretary and his appointment. eetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted and the required quorum/ number of members that must be present to conduct a valid meeting of the company) and the different types of meeting that the company may hold from time to time voting rights of the members, the right to receive notice and to attend and how to write St. Johnsbury, vote etc. Pay Someone Your Holderness School. * powers of directors * The different classes of shares and the rights attached to different classes of shares. * Borrowing powers of the company. its properties, control of the company finance, its bankers, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed * appointment of auditors * the company seal and how it should be used etc The Articles must be printed in the English language, divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, signed by each subscriber to the memorandum in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature. The Companies Act contains a standard form of articles (table A) which applies to companies limited by write Academy shares. These regulate the company unless it has its own special articles which totally or partially exclude table A. The advantages of statutory model articles are: * That legal drafting of special articles is reduced to a minimum since even special articles usually incorporate much of the text of the model. * There is flexibility since any company can adopt the model selectively or with modifications and include in its articles special articles adapted to its needs. INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLES AND MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION.
The Memorandum of Association is the basic law or constitution of the company and the articles are subordinate to the Memorandum of Association. It follows therefore that if there is a conflict, the Memorandum of Association prevails. In other words if there is a contradiction between the pay someone Holderness, provisions of the memorandum and the provisions of the articles of essay College, association, then the provisions of the memorandum will be followed and those provisions in to write School the articles which are contradicting the memorandum will be void and of no effect. If there is no conflict, the thinking Saint Anthony’s High, Memorandum of Association and articles must be read together and any ambiguity or uncertainty in Holderness School either can be removed by the other CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION The fundamental attribute of write St. Johnsbury, corporate personality from which all other consequences flow is that “the corporation is a legal entity distinct from essay School its members”. Hence it’s capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members. In other words it has a legal personality and it is often described as an artificial person in contrast with a human being-a natural person. SALOMON Vs SALOMON CO) Since the Salomon case, the complete separation of the company and its members has never been doubted. Essay School. It is from pay someone your this fundamental attribute of separate personality that most of the particular advantages of incorporation spring and Braemar, these are: 1. LIABILITY: The company being a distinct legal “persona” is liable for its debts and obligations and the members or directors cannot be held personally responsible for the company’s debts. It follows that the company’s creditors can only sue the company and your Holderness School, not the shareholders.
In in the case of Salomon V Salomon (1897), creditors of the how to write a new article St. Johnsbury, company sought to have Solomon a managing director of the company personally liable for the debts of the company but court held that the company and pay someone to write Holderness School, Solomon were two different persons and that the company as a legal person is liable for its own debts and write my essay paper, Solomon a managing director could not be held personally responsible for the debts of the company. In the Ugandan case of pay someone Holderness, Sentamu v UCB (1983) HCB 59, it was held that individual members of the company are not liable for the company’s debts. The liability of the members or shareholders of the company is writing high essays Montreux, limited to the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. For instance, where a shareholder has been allotted 50 shares at Shs. 100,000 each, in total he should pay 5,000,000 for all the fifty shares, if he pays only Shs.
4, 000, 000 to the company, it means that he will still owe the company 1,000,000. This is what is called uncalled capital. The company may call on him to pay it any time. If that does not happen, then at the time of winding up the company, he will be required to pay someone your School pay the Shs. 1, 000, 000. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, each member is liable to contribute a specific amount to article Academy the assets of the company and their liability is to write Holderness, limited to the amount they have guaranteed to how to write an essay sample American University contribute. If the company has unlimited liability, the members liability to contribute is pay someone to write School, unlimited and their personal property can be looked at to discharge the company creditors but that is only after utilizing the company’s money and it is not enough to pay all the debts. 2. PROPERTY: An incorporated company is able to own property separately from its members.
Thus, the members cannot claim an interest or interfere with the company property for their personal gain/benefit. Thus, one of the advantages of incorporation (corporate personality) is that it enables the property of the company to write article St. Johnsbury be clearly, distinguished from that of the members. In the case of pay someone to write essay Holderness School, MACAURA Vs NORTH ASSURANCE CO. (1925) AC (see page 3 for facts). Braemar. In that case Lord Buckmaster of the House in Lords held that no shareholder has a right to any item of the property of the company, even if he holds all the shares in the company. In the case of Hindu Dispensary Zanzibar v N. A Patwa Sons, a flat was let out to a company and the question was whether the company could be regarded as a tenant, it was held that a company can have possession of business premises by its servants or agents and that in fact that is the only way a company can have possession of its premises. 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: As a legal person, a company can take action to enforce its legal rights or be sued for breach of its duties in the courts of law. If it the company being sued, then it should be sued in your essay its registered name, if a wrong or incorrect name is used, the case will be dismissed from how to write article St. Johnsbury Academy court for example in the case of Denis Njemanze V Shell B. Pay Someone To Write Your Essay Holderness. P Port Harcourt, the plaintiff sued a company called Shell B. P Port Harcourt which was a non existing company, counsel for the defendant company objected that there was no such company and the suit should be dismissed, counsel for an essay University Preparatory School, the plaintiff sought courts leave to amend and to write School, put the right part but court refused to grant the leave and dismissed the university Anthony’s School, case. In the case of Wani V Uganda Timber, 1972 HCB the to write Holderness School, plaintiff applied for a warrant of arrest against a managing director of high school Hotel Montreux, a company instead of suing the company, chief justice Kiwanoka held that a managing director of a company is not the company and cannot be sued personally, that if there is a case against the company then the company is the pay someone essay Holderness School, right party to be sued not its managing director. 5. PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: s. 15 of the critical, companies Act provides that a company is a legal entity with perpetual sucession.
This means that even if a shareholder dies, or all the shareholders die or go bankrupt, in the eyes of the law, the company will remain in existence. If a share holder dies, his /her shares will be transmitted to their executor or a personal representative. Also in case a shareholder no longer wants to be a shareholder in a company, he will simply transfer his shares to your essay School someone else and to company will continue to exist. The only way a company can come to an end is by winding up, striking it off the example of writing Braemar, register of companies or through amalgamation and reconstruction as provided by the Companies Act. This was illustrated in the case of RE NOEL EDMAN HOLDING PROPERTY all the members were killed in a motor accident but court held that the company would survive. Thus, this perpetual succession gives the certainty required in the commercial world even when ownership of your essay, shares changes there is no effect on the performance of the how to article Academy, company and no disruption in the company business. 5. TRANSFER OF SHARES: A share constitutes an item of property, which is freely transferable, except in the case of private companies. When shares are transferred, the person who transfers ceases to be a shareholder and the person to whom they are transferred becomes the shareholder. In private companies, there is a restriction on the transfer of shares for example one may not transfer his shares except to an existing member or shareholder, and not to an outsider. Holderness. This is essential and is in any event desirable if such a company is to thinking Anthony’s High retain its character of an incorporated private company.
6. BORROWING: A company can borrow money and Holderness, provide security in the form of a floating charge. Essay School. A floating charge is a security created over the assets of the company. When a company borrows money let’s say from the your Holderness, bank or any other cerditor, it may use its assets e. g. Sample American Preparatory. cars, bank accounts and other assets as security, the security/ charge will then float over those assets, in case the company defaults on payment, the charge can settle on one or all of those assets and pay someone to write Holderness, the bank/creditor of the company can sell those assets to recover their money. It is called a floating charge because it floats like a cloud over the whole assets of the company from time to time, it only settles/crystallizes if the company defaults on payment. So before the introduction St. George’s, charge settles on the assets, the company is free to essay deal with those assets even to dispose them off in the usual course of business. 6. CAPACITY TO CONTRACT.
On incorporation, a company can enter into any contract with third parties. Write My Essay University Of Southampton. In the pay someone to write your, case of Lee V Lee Air Farming Co. Ltd (1961) A. Critical Thinking University School. C 12, it was held that a company was it is incorporated it has capacity to employ servants, even the pay someone to write essay School, shareholders. THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. a) Meaning of ultra vires. The object clause of the memorandum of association of a company contains the object for which the company is formed. An act of a company must not be beyond the object clause otherwise it will be ultra vires. The expression ultra vires means beyond powers, therefore an act or transaction that is beyond the powers of the company as stated in the objects clause of the memorandum is an ultra vires act or transaction, such an act that is high Hotel Montreux, ultra vires is void and pay someone essay Holderness, cannot be ratified by the company. Sometimes the term ultra vires is also used to describe a situation where the directors of a company have exceeded the persuasive St. George’s, powers delegated to them, where a company exceeds the powers conferred upon it by its memorandum of Holderness School, association, it is not bound by it because it lacks the capacity to incur responsibility for that action, but when the directors of a company exceed the powers delegated to them, the company in a general meeting may choose to ratify their act or omission. Thinking University Saint Anthony’s. b) Distinction from illegality.
An ultra vires act or transaction is different from an illegal act/ transaction, although both are void, they attract different legal consequences and the law treats them differently. An act of your essay Holderness, a company which is beyond its object clause is ultra vires and therefore void even if it is legal. Write Paper University Of Southampton. Similarly an illegal act done by a company will be void even if it falls squarely within the pay someone to write your School, objects of the company. c) Importance of the doctrine. The doctrine of ultra vires was developed to protect the investors and how to write an essay sample American University School, creditors of the company. This doctrine prevents a company from employing the money of the investors for a purpose other than those stated in the object clause of its memorandum. Thus the investors of the company are assured that their money will not be employed for activities which they did not have in contemplation at pay someone essay Holderness, the time they invested their money into the company.
This doctrine also protects the creditors of the company by ensuring that the essay introduction, funds of the company to which they must look to to write essay for payment are not dissipated in unauthorized activities. ) Establishment of the doctrine. The doctrine was established firmly in 1875 by the House of Lords in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, the directors made this ultra vires contract on behalf the company but subsequently the company ratified this contract in a meeting. ater on the company repudiated this agreement and critical thinking Saint Anthony’s High School, did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for pay someone to write School, breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do.
It was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and how to write a new Academy, such an pay someone to write your School ultra vires contract was void and of writing essay Braemar, could not be enforced against the company. Court also held that an ultra vires contract cannot even be ratified by the company and that the subsequent act of the company purporting to ratify this contract in a meeting was void, court emphasized that an ultra vires contract is your Holderness School, void and cannot even be ratified by critical thinking Saint High School a unanimous decision of to write Holderness, all the critical Saint Anthony’s, members of pay someone to write essay Holderness, a company. In that case, the a new article St. Johnsbury, HOL expressed the view that a company incorporated under the pay someone your Holderness School, Companies Act had power to do only those things which are authorized by paper University its object clause and nything outside that is ultra vires and cannot be ratified by the company. Soon after this case was decided, its shortcomings became immediately clear, it created hardships both for the management and outsiders dealing with the company. The activities of the pay someone essay Holderness, management of the company were subjected to strict restrictions, at every step of transacting the business of the company; management was required to ascertain whether the acts which were sought to an essay University Preparatory School be done were covered by the object clause of its memorandum of association.
The business men thought this unduly restricted the frequency and ease of business, if the act was not covered by the memorandum, it would mean having to alter the object clause to add that activity and alteration of the memorandum required a lengthy procedure. Later in your essay School 1972, in England this doctrine was modified, and subsequently the courts have developed principals to reduce the example College, rigors of the doctrine of ultra vires. Your Essay. They include the following. 1. Powers implied by how to write American statute. According to this principal, a company has powers to do an act or exercise a power which has been conferred on it by the companies Act or any other Act of to write your essay School, Parliament even if such act is not covered by the object clause in the memorandum of association. 2. The principal of implied and incidental powers. This principal was established in the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO (1880) 5 AC 473, in this case the write my essay of Southampton, HOL affirmed the pay someone to write your essay Holderness School, principal laid down in the earlier case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. High Montreux. LTD VS. RICHE (1875) but made a slight departure and held that the doctrine of your Holderness, ultra vires ought to be reasonably and not unreasonably understood and applied.
Court therefore held that whatever may be fairly regarded as incidental to or consequential upon the objects of the company should not be seen as ultra vires. That case therefore led to a clear conclusion that that a company incorporated under the companies act has power to carry out the objects set out in its memorandum and also everything that is reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. High Essays Hotel Institute. ) Ascertainment of the ultravires doctrine. An act is therefore intra vires (within the powers) the company if; * It is stated in the object clause of the memorandum of association of that company. * It is authorized by the Companies Act or by your essay Holderness any other Act of how to sample Preparatory, parliament. * If it is incidental to the main objects of the company or reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. In the case of your essay Holderness, ATTORNEY GENERAL V. MERSEY RAILWAY CO (1907) 1 CH 81, a company was incorporated for high Institute Montreux, carrying on hotel business. It entered into a contract with a third party for the purchasing of furniture, hiring servants and for maintaining omnibus. The purpose or object of the company was only to carry on a hotel business and it was not expressly mentioned in the objects clause in the memorandum of the company that they could purchase furniture or hire servants. The contract was challenged on the ground that this act of the directors was ultra vires. Your Essay School. The issue before court was whether the transaction was ultra vires. Court held that a company incorporated for carrying on a hotel business can purchase furniture or hire servants and maintain an omnibus to how to write attend at the railway station to your essay take or receive the intending guests to the hotel because these objects are reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose for which the company has been incorporated, and consequently such acts are within the powers of the company, although these may not be expressly mentioned in the objects clause of the memorandum of association of that company. However not every act that is beneficial to the company is intra vires , it is not enough that the sample, act is beneficial to the company , the act must be reasonably necessary for the company to carry out the activities mentioned in the memorandum. f) Effect of ultra vires transactions. * Ultra vires contracts.
These are void and your essay, cannot be enforced by or against the company. In the my essay, Case of RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) LTD (1953) CH 131, it was held that ultra vires contracts made with the company cannot be enforced against a company. Court also held that the pay someone your School, memorandum of example of writing essay Braemar College, association is constructive notice to the public and therefore if an act is ultra vires, it will be void and will not be binding on the company and the outsider dealing with the essay, company cannot take a plea that he had no knowledge of the contents of the how to an essay sample School, memorandum because he is to write School, deemed to know them. In England, the European Communities Act 1972 has lessened the effect of application of the Ultra vires doctrine in this manner. How To American University School. In England, third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith and pay someone to write Holderness School, the ultra vires contract has been decided by the directors of the company. However in Uganda, the ultra vires doctrine has not been modified by statute or case law and there is therefore no legal provision where third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith Thus in Uganda the doctrine of ultra vires is write University School, applied strictly with the effect that where the contract entered into by the third party is found to be ultra vires the company, it will be held void and cannot be ratified by the company and the company cannot enforce it against the third party and neither can a third party enforce it against the company. * Ultra vires borrowing. In Uganda a borrowing that is pay someone to write your essay Holderness School, ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company and the lender is not entitled to sue the thinking Anthony’s School, company for the return of the loan.
However, the courts have developed certain principals in the interests of justice to protect such lenders. The reliefs include; * Injunction. If the money lent to the company has not been spent, the lender can apply to court for an injunction to prevent the company from spending the money. * Tracing. The lender can recover his money as long as it can still be found in the hands of the company in pay someone your Holderness its original form. * Property acquired under ultra vires transactions. Introduction. Where the funds of the company are applied in purchasing some property, the company’s right over that property will be protected even though the expenditure on such purchasing has been ultra vires. * Judgments from ultra vires transactions. Because the School, law considers ultra vires acts void by their very nature, the company and third parties cannot even with consent attempt to Braemar validate an ultra vires act. In RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) supra, builders of a factory for purposes which were apparently ultra vires demanded for their money and by consent it was ordered that the company should pay, on winding up, the your essay, liquidator refused to pay that debt that was arising out of an ultra vires transaction, the court held that the liquidator was well entitled to reject the claim as a company cannot do what is beyond its legal powers by simply going into court and consenting. Paper University Of Southampton. LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS ON ULTRA VIRES TRANSACTIONS . 1. Liability towards the company. It is the duty of the directors to your essay School ensure that the funds of the company are used only for legitimate purposes of the company. Consequently if the funds of the company are used for high Hotel, a purpose foreign to its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to School restore to the company the funds used for how to write a new article, such purpose. School. Thus a share holder can sue the directors to restore to the company funds which they employed in transactions which the company is not authorized to how to a new St. Johnsbury engage in.
2. Liability towards third parties. The directors of a company are treated as agents of the your essay Holderness School, company and therefore have a duty not to thinking university Anthony’s go beyond the powers that the company gives them. To Write Essay Holderness. Where the director represents to a third party that the contract entered into by them on behalf of the company is within the essay Braemar, powers of the company while in to write your School reality the company does not have such powers under its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to the third party for the loss on account of breach of warranty of authority. However to make the directors liable, the following conditions must be fulfilled. i) There must be a representation of authority by the directors. It should be a representation of fact not law. ii) By such representation, the directors must have induced the third party to make a contract with the company in persuasive introduction St. George’s School respect of a matter beyond the to write, powers of the company. iii) The third party must have acted on such inducement to enter into the contract and must prove that if it had not been for that inducement, he would not have entered into that contract. iv) That as a result, the third party suffered loss. EXCEPTIONS TO THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. 1. Property acquired /investments made by how to write article Academy the company using money from ultra vires transactions. 2. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are implied by law. 3. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are incidental or related to or reasonably necessary for the company to carry out its express objects.
4. Pay Someone To Write Your. Ultra vires borrowing, where one seeks the equitable relief of injunction or tracing. LIFTING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION A company once incorporated becomes a legal personality separate and distinct from high essays Institute its members and shareholders and capable of having its own rights, duties and obligation and can sue or be sued in pay someone to write your essay School its own name. An Essay Sample American Preparatory School. This is commonly referred to as “the doctrine or principle of pay someone essay Holderness School, corporate personality”. No case illustrated the above principles better than the noted House of example Braemar, Lords decision in Salomon v. Salomon. However, in some circumstances, the to write essay, courts have intervened to disregard or ignore the doctrine of corporate personality especially in dealing with group companies and subsidiaries and where the corporate form is being used as a vehicle to perpetrate fraud or as a “mere facade concealing the true facts. ” Upholding the abiove principal in high Hotel Institute such cases would result into and perpetuate injustice. In this topic, we will examine the concept of lifting the veil and the circumstances where the court may “pierce” or “lift” the veil of incorporation. In Dunlop Nigerian Industries Ltd V Forward Nigerian Enterprises Ltd Farore 1976 N. CL. Pay Someone School. R 243, the HC of Lagos stated that in particular circumstances, e. where the write an essay American University Preparatory School, device of incorporation is used for some illegal or improper purpose, the court may disregard the principle that a company is an independent legal entity and lift the veil of pay someone to write your School, corporate identity so that if it is proved that a person used a company he controls as a cloak for an improper transaction, he may be made personally liable to a third party. The legal technique of critical university Anthony’s High, lifting the veil is recognized under 2 heads: 1. Essay School. Statutory lifting of the veil 2. Case law lifting of the veil Statutory lifting of the veil 1. Where the number of members is below legal minimum. Under S. 33 of the Companies Act if a company carries on write an essay sample American School business for more than 6 months after its membership has fallen below the statutory minimum, (2 for private companies and pay someone essay Holderness, 7 for write an essay sample University School, public companies), every member during he time the business is carried on after the 6 months and who knows that the pay someone to write, company is carrying on business with less than the required minimum membership is critical Saint Anthony’s High School, individually liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time.
In such a case therefore the corporate veil is lifted in order to hold those members personally liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time. 2. Where the- company is not mentioned in the Bill of Exchange. S. 34 of the Companies Act provides that a bill of exchange shall be deemed to have been signed on behalf of a company if made in the name of the company, by essay Holderness School or on behalf of the company or on account of the company by any person acting under the company’s authority. How To Write Sample American Preparatory. S. 09 (4) (b) prohibits any officer of the company from pay someone essay Holderness signing or authorizing to be signed a bill of High School, exchange on behalf of the company in which the company’s name is not mentioned in legible characters/ clear letters. Any officer who does this is personally liable on that bill of exchange for pay someone your, the money or goods for that amount unless it is duly paid by how to a new Academy the company. Therefore in such case the corporate veil is pay someone to write Holderness, lifted in order to hold that officer of the company personally liable.
3. Holding and subsidiary companies. Where companies are in a relationship of holding and subsidiary companies, group accounts are usually presented by writing high Hotel Montreux the holding company in a general meeting. In this regard, the holding and subsidiary companies are regarded as one for accounting purposes and the separate nature of the subsidiary company is ignored. S. 147 of the Companies Act requires each company to keep proper books of accounts with respect to * Money received by the company and from what source. * Money spent and what it was spent on. * All sales and purchases of goods made by the company. * The assets and Holderness, liabilities of the company. High School. These accounts are meant to give a true and fair view of the state of the company’s affairs and to explain its transactions.
Directors of the company are required at least once a year to lay before the company in a general meeting a profit and pay someone essay, loss account (or income expenditure account for non profit making companies) plus a balance sheet. Where at the end of each year a company has subsidiaries, then as that parent company presents its accounts, it should also present a group account dealing with the affairs of that parent company and its subsidiaries, the group account consists of essay St. George’s, a consolidated balance sheet and a consolidated profit and to write essay Holderness, loss account of both the high essays Hotel, subsidiary and the parent company. To Write Your. 4. Reckless and Fraudulent Trading: Under sect 327, it is provided that if in the course of winding up, it appears that any business has been conducted recklessly or fraudulently, those responsible for such business may be held liable without limitation of liability for any of the company’s debts or liabilities. Sample University Preparatory School. 5. Taxation. Under the income tax Act, the veil of to write Holderness School, incorporation may be lifted to ascertain where the control and management of the company is exercised in order to determine whether it is a Ugandan company for income tax purposes. 6. High School Essays Hotel Institute. Investigation into related companies Where an inspector has been appointed by the Registrar to investigate the affairs of a company, he may if he thinks it fit also investigate into the affairs of any other related company and pay someone to write Holderness, also report on the affairs of that other company so long as he feels that the results of his investigation of such related company are relevant to American University Preparatory School the main investigation.
Lifting the your School, Veil under case law . Where the company acts as agent of the share holders. Where the shareholders of the write University of Southampton, company use the Holderness, company as an agent, they will be liable for the debts of the company. Agency is a relationship which exists whenever one person authorizes another to writing school essays act on his or her behalf. The person acting is called the agent, and to write your essay Holderness School, the one he is acting for is called the critical Saint School, principal. Where such a relationship exists, the acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. Therefore in an agency relationship, the acts of the agent are taken to be the to write your Holderness School, acts of the principal. In case of liability it is the principal who is held liable and not the agent. This is because of the dictum that he who acts through another acts for himself. Thus where share holders employ or use the company as an agent, then those shareholders will be personally liable for of writing essay College, the acts of the company as principals behind the agent. 2. Where there has been fraud or improper conduct. The veil of incorporation may also be lifted where the corporate personality is used as a mask for fraud or illegality.
In Gilford Motor Co V. Horne  Ch. School. 935 Home was the former employee of writing essays Hotel, Gilford Motor Co. He agreed not to solicit its customers when he left employment. Pay Someone To Write Your Essay Holderness School. He then formed a company which solicited the customers. Both the company and Home were held liable for breach of the covenant not to solicit. The company that Home formed was described as a “mere cloak or sham for the purpose of enabling him to commit a breach of the covenant”. In Jones V Lipman 1 W. L. R 832 Lipman in order to avoid the completion of a sale of his house to Jones formed a company and transferred the house to the company. Court ordered him and University, the company to complete payment, even though the ownership of the house was no longer in his names but in that of the formed company. The company was described as a creature of Lipman, a device and a sham, a mask which he held before his face in an attempt to avoid recognition by the eyes of equity. In Re Williams Bros Ltd. (1932) 2ch.
1, a company was insolvent but the Directors continued to carry on its business and pay someone to write essay Holderness, purchased its goods on essay credit. Pay Someone To Write School. It was held that if a company continues to carry out business and to incur debts at a time when there is to the knowledge of the essay introduction School, directors no reasonable prospects of the creditors ever receiving payments of these debts, it is in general a proper inference that the company is carrying on business with intent to defraud. R V Graham (1984) QB. 675 makes it clear that a person is guilty of fraudulent trading if he has no reason to believe that the pay someone to write essay, company will be able to pay is creditors in full by the dates when the respective debts become due or within a short time thereafter. 3. Sample University. Public interest/policy. Sometimes, courts have disregarded the separate legal personality of the to write School, company and investigated the personal qualities of its shareholders or the my essay paper, persons in control because there was an overriding public interest to be served by doing so. In Daimler Co Ltd Vs Continental Tyre And Rubber Co (1916) A. C 307, a Company incorporated in England whose shares except one were held by German nationals resident in Germany brought an action during the to write your Holderness School, First World War. All its directors were also German nationals resident in Germany, which was an enemy country at the time.
The Court disregarded the critical thinking university Saint Anthony’s High School, fact that the company had a British nationality by pay someone your incorporation in England and rather concentrated on the control of the company’s business and where its assets lay, in determining the company’s status. 4. In determining residence of a company for tax purposes. The court may look behind the veil of the company and its place of registration so as to determine its residence. The test for determining residence is normally the place of its central management and control. Usually, this is the place where the board of directors operate.
But it can also be the place of business of the writing Hotel Montreux, M. D where he holds a controlling interest. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY The control and management of a company is distributed among its principal officers and these include the auditors, accountants, Board of Directors, Managing director (if any) and any other officers of a company. There are basically two organs responsible for the management of a company. These are: – 1. The Shareholders through company meetings and 2. The Board of Directors. The shareholders and Company Meetings The shareholders have an opportunity of influencing the company’s management through the company’s meetings. There are 4 types of meetings through which the shareholders can participate in the affairs of a company. 1. Statutory Meetings: These are provided for pay someone, under S130 of the Companies Act which requires every public ltd company to hold such type of how to write American School, meeting within 30 days from the date of commencement of business. The meeting is held once in the company’s life and never again. The meeting is a must hold for pay someone essay Holderness, all public companies, private companies are not required to hold this meeting. 2.
Annual General Meeting (S. 131). Unlike the Statutory Meeting, an AGM is of writing Braemar, required of all types of companies. It must be convened by to write notice of a new St. Johnsbury, not less than 21 days. This is the most important meeting of the company and concerns a number of issues. Although the companies Act does not exactly indicate the nature of the business transacted at such a meeting, the business invariably includes appointment of pay someone essay Holderness, auditors, fixing their remuneration, declaration of dividends, consideration of the company’s profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, consideration of the of writing essay, reports of the directors, auditors and to write your essay School, election of new directors or auditors if need arises. The purpose of the annual general meeting is important for school, the protection of the pay someone your essay Holderness, members because it is the one occasion when they can be sure of write a new article St. Johnsbury, having an opportunity of meeting the directors and questioning them on the profit and pay someone to write Holderness, loss accounts, on their report and on the company’s position and prospects. It is at this meeting that normally a proposition of the directors will retire, come up for re-election:- and it is at this meeting that the members can exercise their only write a new article St. Johnsbury Academy real power over the board i. e. the to write Holderness, power of dismissal by writing high essays voting them out. Most of these things could of course be done at the extraordinary meeting but the members who want to raise these matters may not be able to insist upon the convening of such meeting, the pay someone your essay School, annual general meeting is valuable to them because the directors must hold it whether they like it or not.
If the company fails to convene such a meeting, there are two consequences that occur:- i. The registrar may himself convene that meeting or order that the meeting be convened and in extreme cases he may further order that any one shareholder present in essay College person or by proxy be deemed to pay someone to write your essay Holderness constitute the meeting. ii. Every director who is in default of convening that meeting as well as the company itself are liable to a default fine not exceeding shs 200/= and every officer of the company who is in default is liable to a default fine of shs. 40/= (1981) HCB 60). Within 18 months after incorporation, the company must hold an annual general meeting and then every 12 months thereafter. 3. Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (S 132): This is critical Saint High, usually convened by the directors at their discretion ( art 49 table A) to deal with urgent matters which cannot wait till the next annual general meeting. However the directors must hold such meeting irrespective of any contrary provision in the articles if holders of at least 10% of the company’s paid up capital or 10% of the members carrying voting rights ask/ requisition for it. To Write Your Essay. They must state the reason why they want such a meeting. If the directors do not convene the meeting within 21 days of the requisition, then the requisitionists may themselves convene the meeting and recover expenses from the company which may in turn recover the essay St. George’s School, same from the defaulting directors. 4. General meeting convened under court orders (S. 135).
It provides that if for any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of the company in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, the court may on to write essay application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to attend and vote at the meeting order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in any manner that the court thinks fit, and court may for that matter direct that only one person present at the meeting shall constitute quorum. Critical Saint Anthony’s School. PROCEDURE, ATTENDANCE AND QUORUM (17. 3. 05) 1. NOTICE OF MEETINGS. s. Pay Someone To Write Your Essay Holderness School. 133 provides that any meeting of a company must be called by a notice of a period not shorter than 21 days and any provision in that articles providing for a shorter notice is void and of no effect. The notice may be in writing or it can take any other form like word of mouth, radio or TV announcements, newspapers etc. it must state the exact date time and place where the meeting will take place and what is intended to be discussed at that meeting, if the notice does not indicate the above then it is not a proper notice and if any shareholder is absent from the write sample University Preparatory, meeting because his notice had not fully disclosed the agenda, he can seek a court order to declare such a meeting null and void.. However a meeting may be called by a shorter notice than 21 days if all the members entitled to attend and vote at the meeting agree to such a shorter notice. 2. QUORUM. This relates to the minimum number of members that must be present at essay, a meeting of the company for it to be a valid meeting.
The company’s articles will normally provide for College, the required quorum but where they are silent on this, s. 134 (c) of the Act provides for the requisite quorum as 2 members present in case of a private company and in any other case three members personally present. Quorum need not be maintained throughout the pay someone to write essay, meeting though at the beginning it must be there. 3. PROXY A proxy in Company law is a document which authorises somebody to attend a meeting on behalf of a shareholder. S. 136 provides that any member of a company entitled to St. Johnsbury Academy attend and vote at a meeting of the to write essay Holderness School, company is entitled to appoint another person to attend and a new Academy, vote instead of him of her and any notice calling for a meeting should indicate that that person is entitled to attend by proxy. To Write Your Holderness School. 4. VOTING. S. 134 provides that every member shall have one vote in respect of each share he has and in case of a company having a share capital and in paper University other cases every member shall have 1 vote. Under S 137, it is pay someone to write essay, stated that either five members entitled to vote or shareholders with at least 10% of the university High School, voting rights can demand a vote by poll. Pay Someone To Write. OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 1. Board of Directors There is no definition of a director whether in the Act or by write of Southampton case law. Nevertheless, S2 of the Act states that a director includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called. In most private companies directors are usually share holders and in public companies , there is a requirement that directors must take up qualification shares, which is not the case in private companies unless the articles provide for it. According to S 177, a public company must have at least 2 directors.
It’s an offence to have one director. Where a private company has one director, he cannot simultaneously act as the pay someone to write essay Holderness School, secretary of the company but if they are two directors then one of them can also be the secretary. Under the act, a director is defined as “any person occupying the position of persuasive St. George’s, a director by to write your Holderness School whatever name called” this definition includes a “de jure director. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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