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Build Your Construction Resume with Keywords. Did you know that making one change to essay writing University in Dubai, your could improve your chances of job search success? Adding keywords will help get your resume noticed and expose you to Anglia University (Navitas), more job opportunities. Writing Method University Of Wollongong! Keywords are terms that hiring managers enter when searching for of critical writing Roedean School, resumes on Monster. Method University In Dubai! If your resume contains keywords that match those a potential employer is searching for, you have a much better chance of writing College being found. Essay Writing! Your keywords continue to teacher The University, be helpful when an actual hiring manager reviews your resume, showing that person you have the desired qualifications for the job. Keywords can be categorized as follows: Job titles, especially the one you are pursuing. Job-specific skills and essay method University of Wollongong in Dubai, knowledge areas. The University! Soft skills (such as team player or leadership skills) Tools, equipment and technical applications.

Industry credentials, such as certifications, licenses, training and degrees. Affiliations and essay University, union membership. Essay Writing College! Keywords can appear anywhere on your resume. Use the University in Dubai, Skills section on thinking College Soleil, your Monster resume to University in Dubai, include a comprehensive list of College skill-related keywords. Think like a hiring manager: If you were hiring someone with your background, what credentials would you look for? A helpful exercise is to search for your target job on Monster and review the essay method of Wollongong, postings that come up. Article Writing Of Westminster! Look for essay method University, frequently requested skills, licenses and other useful keywords. Writing The University! The following are sample keywords for various construction specialties. Essay Writing University Of Wollongong! The lists are not exhaustive, as the keywords you should add to your resume depend on Dulwich, your experience and essay writing method University in Dubai, skills. Essay Writing Roedean School! Use the lists as a starting point for University, determining important keywords you can integrate into The University, your own resume: Keywords Related to All Trades. Soft Skills: Professionalism, results-driven, self-starter, goal-oriented, team player, communication skills, interpersonal skills, multi-tasker, honest, organized, dependable, punctual, leader, customer service.

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High School Senior Writes Essay About the Myth of Police Brutality. Conor Gough, a high school senior out of Michigan was tasked with writing an essay about essay University of Wollongong in Dubai a controversial topic. His father being a State Trooper inspired him to write a paper that dismantles the myth of a society plagued by police brutality. Conor writes: “Police Brutality: Society’s New Stance. America has reached a period of internal turbulence, and it has spread like a wildfire throughout the nation. Citizens are losing faith in critcal the ones who are supposed to protect them when they need it most, and expect that the job will be done right. Technology has changed the way that society views the essay method in Dubai, police. It is making police officers lose faith in their administration, and writing Roedean the country that they love, as their reputation is essay University in Dubai being demolished by false truths in the media.

It is easy to see which view that the majority of society holds. They are no longer standing behind the police, especially in write essay about urban areas. The government is of Wollongong in Dubai no longer making law enforcement a priority and officers are thinking twice before acting when they should only have to worry about doing their job. Teacher Marking The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS)! People react quickly to these radical news broadcasts, without questioning anything that the media shares. Citizens need to consider if this is a case of police brutality or a tragic cultural misunderstanding (Fitzgerald). The same thought applies to social media sites that are frequently used, leading to uprisings that often become violent. The Michael Brown shooting in 2015 led to a nationwide conflict between certain communities and the police.

It did not matter what had happened to lead up to his death, the media portrayed an unarmed black man being killed by unreasonable police action, so these communities rioted and looted entire cities. The American police force is writing method University of Wollongong not seen as it once was, however nothing regarding the job that they do has changed; what has changed however is the way that society sees, and ultimately reacts to what is going on in police work. Essay Roedean! The explosion of these people leads to making the police look much worse than they really are by essay in Dubai, portraying them as overly brutal. Police brutality is not a new idea, and it is writing support not a localized issue. This unfortunate incident happens around the world, in many different countries. Police brutality has been around since before America was even a country, and has been recorded from the days of the Pilgrims. It seems that today in the United States, society is behaving differently than other nations. Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai! It is giving the police force a bad reputation not only on our own soil, but also by other countries from around the world. This lack of support from society and the American government is effecting the example essay, way that police can do their jobs on method University of Wollongong, a daily basis, leading to loss of control of entire cities, such as Baltimore, Maryland after the Freddie Gray incident. What police brutality is now has not changed from when it was first recorded in the history books. “Brutality can be defined as the marking The University (NAVITAS), use of some type of writing method University of Wollongong in Dubai excessive force” (Dolan, Scariano 97-98). The definition is the same as it was over three hundred years ago.

So what has changed? Did they have a news station that disguised the truth, or social media to make rumors run rampant throughout their colonies? No. How To Write Essay About A Person Hurtwood! People today rely on these news stations to tell them what they want to hear. It might have happened, but they do not give detail of why the officer was forced to do what he did. “Some regard any incident in essay of Wollongong which they are stopped by police to be a form of bullying, brutality, or harassment” (Dolan Scariano 98). Respect for the police has diminished because of the way that technology has grown. Certain groups of people immediately react, thinking that it will change things, or make a difference, when actually it is essay writing Dulwich damaging their cause. Violence usually does not help.

Overall, the way that news is displayed has changed, and essay writing method with it, the reactions of people is dramatically exaggerated. The advancements of technology have both helped and teacher marking The University hurt the police force. Law enforcement officers can do their jobs much more efficiently due to these advancements, but at the same time, the media is in Dubai hurting their morale. How many people question these news providers today? If the true story is not known, then probably not many ask questions. The fact of the matter is, news stations want to appeal to their viewers, and to do this, they need to make the essay support Dulwich College, broadcast how the people want their news to be (Doyle). In order to do this, stories are often jumbled, and the facts are lost. For instance, the in the Michael Brown shooting, the news portrayed an innocent, caring, unarmed black man who was carelessly shot in the back. From the newscast, it looks like a terrible case of police brutality. However, they omitted multiple details.

Yes, Brown was unarmed, but he was not innocent. He had just violently robbed a convenience store, assaulting the clerk, then fled the scene. When confronted by Officer Darren Wilson, Brown fled from him. Essay Of Wollongong! Michael Brown then proceeded to how to essay about Hurtwood attack Wilson, and repeatedly struck him in his patrol cruiser. Essay Method! He then reached for Wilson’s holstered firearm, and at this point, Wilson fired, striking Brown in the hand. Once outside of the patrol car, Brown, who was six- foot four- inch and two-hundred ninety two pounds, bull rushed Wilson, in which Darren Wilson was in a fight for his life. At this point, he (Brown) was then shot and killed. With no backup and his life on Anglia University, the line, Wilson did what he needed to writing method of Wollongong in Dubai do to take control of the situation, as police officers are trained to do, and survive. When the media hides the whole truth from the public, and the people fail to The University research what actually happened and then the situation is blown out of proportion.

This overreaction is what leads the police to get such a bad name, but the news is method University in Dubai not the only source of these people’s information. Along with news stations, many forms of social media are making communication much easier, spreading the word faster, and mutating the actual story, similar to a game of telephone. Everyone always wants to be the first one to spread the news. This leads to the message at the end being totally different than when it had first been told. When the essay support College, story is essay writing method University of Wollongong changed like this, the facts are not correct, and essay writing Roedean although they may be close to what happened, leaving out key parts of an incident can change self defense into police brutality, like in the Michael Brown situation.

If Michael Brown had not have reached for Wilson’s gun, assaulted Officer Wilson, and listened to his commands, the outcome could have been completely different. When key facts are left out and the story sounds like it favors the criminals side, the police are looked upon poorly, and police brutality is the only reasonable justification from the media’s side. The way that the news is being displayed is affecting the reactions of writing University in Dubai people around the a descriptive essay Hurtwood, country. Ronald Weitzer writes, “Research shows that public confidence in the police typically erodes after a controversial incident or incidents are publicized in the news media… incidents of apparent police misconduct gain added significance when they resonate with other factors that condition an individual’s perception of, and experiences with the writing method in Dubai, police.” Minority groups feel targeted by police, and they do not think that the events that are taking place are fair. They do not think about the officer who is doing his job.

They only see a violent, out of writing The University control person who takes advantage of the power they have. What they do not understand is that the writing of Wollongong in Dubai, officer does not target anyone who is not doing anything wrong. They do not see that the policeman or woman is taking crime off the how to a descriptive essay a person Hurtwood, street, and how dangerous their job truly is. “African Americans, and young black males in particular, comprise a higher percentage of citizens arrested or killed by essay writing method of Wollongong in Dubai, police because they comprise a higher percentage of those who have negative police encounters” (Hinton “Deep Roots”). These officers who work in these high-crime areas know the (Navitas), risk, and essay writing in Dubai they do it to get these bad criminals off the streets for write a descriptive essay about, the greater good of society. The officers know that sometimes they may need to use force. It might be necessary to take control of a situation. If an officer’s life is in University in Dubai danger, and he has no other option but to protect himself, he or she might have to essay writing use lethal force. Society cannot see this action as police brutality. The whole story needs to be studied before judging an essay writing method, officer’s decision, not based on a short clipping from critcal thinking Beau, a body camera, which may not not depict the circumstances leading up to the event. The majority of the essay method of Wollongong, time, a law enforcement officer will follow the golden rule (Lesinski). They will treat you with the example of critical essay School, same amount of writing University of Wollongong respect that the suspect gives to them.

When a possible police brutality situation is first shown in the news, rallies of people throughout the nation take to the streets. During the Civil Rights Movement, despite being faced with very strong prejudice and force, the black community protested peacefully. More recently, despite already equal treatment, the black community and other minority groups storm the streets. “Rallies for article writing The University of Westminster, Trayvon Martin,… protests drew diverse crowds…” (There). They fail to essay method in Dubai survey the actual situation and see that the suspect is actually guilty of a lot more than the news shows. The “unarmed black male” is not so innocent when the write a descriptive essay about a person, truth comes out, but that does not stop organizations such as Black Lives Matter, the essay writing in Dubai, Rainbow (PUSH) Coalition, and the Black Panthers from stirring up situations to “raise awareness” throughout the country.

These people. are calling for reforms, and essay support Dulwich College advocating “hands up, don’t shoot,” which is of Wollongong in Dubai great if they would actually put their hands up and listen to the commands of the police officer. When Michael Brown was shot, his hands were not up. He was assaulting Officer Wilson very violently, but this did not stop the black community in Ferguson, Missouri from rioting, robbing, and destroying most of the city as well as damaging local businesses, store owners, and their innocent community that they lived in. Police shootings are over Ruskin (Navitas), 99% justifiable, known as ‘good-shoots’ to the police, where the officer is not charged with any crime (Lesinski and 10). Also, crime rates per one hundred thousand police officers are significantly less than non-police citizens, at 245 per hundred thousand (Smith). These criminals do not get shot for unjustifiable reasons, and the police are doing the method, unfortunate part of their job necessary for survival. The biggest misbelief some people hold is that all of the police force abuse their power.

If they believe everything the media says, then this could be a logical conclusion. Article Writing The University Of Westminster! Unfortunately as stated above, the media does not always give the whole truth, instead, “media gives us the impression that all police officers are brutal. Method Of Wollongong! Every time the police use their authority to use force it becomes police brutality” (Police Brutality). The news portrays all these violent police officers when they are actually not like that at all. Article Of Westminster! They do countless unseen acts of servitude that would be shocking to many people. Writing Method Of Wollongong! These news stations do not display the good news because that fails to attract viewers. Critcal Thinking Beau! It is upsetting, because if the media would tell more of essay writing University these positive stories, the overall opinion and support for essay, the police would be dramatically increased. However, these news broadcasters are more concerned about their ratings, and essay writing method viewers are more attracted to the violent headlines than the pleasant ones.

Policing styles have changed in attempt to bring these minority communities closer to article styles the police, all while increasing trust. Where is the media coverage of that? Hopefully this is enlightening to essay writing University in Dubai the style of the support Dulwich, media’s operation today. Policing has not become more brutal, and the police officers are not bad people. This does not mean that there are not bad cops out essay writing method University of Wollongong, there, because, sadly, this does happen. This does not support the conclusion that all of the police are brutal, and abuse their power because that is a false stereotype. In today’s day and age, the an argument essay (Navitas), streets that the police work are a very dangerous place. Writing University Of Wollongong! Sergeant Mark Lesinski, a Michigan State Police Officer says, “There is more fear in younger people today.

In highly urbanized areas, children are taught to fear the police, despite the marking of Northampton, intervention and attempts to reach out and connect to these communities.” In his almost twenty years as an essay writing method in Dubai, officer, Lesinski has experienced the bad side of police work, including being run over by a vehicle, being in serious fights nearly one hundred times, being shot at multiple times, all of Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) which occurred in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Criminals are typically armed and essay method University do not always make the best decisions. Terrorism is spreading to our soil, and guns are getting into the wrong hands. These are only some of the many threats an officer could deal with on a daily basis. Also, consider the threat of being on article writing, a road side with possible reckless, drunk or drowsy drivers. Being a police officer is an extremely dangerous career.

Criminals have always had a large arsenal at their disposal to show their strength. Essay Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai! Fully-automatic large caliber weapons, like AK-47s, are not uncommon to find, along with numerous others. Who is supposed to stop these people from taking over marking of Northampton (NAVITAS), entire cities? Police officers are highly trained to use their weapons effectively, and when dealing with these violent criminals, being outgunned is never a good situation to essay method University be caught in. Someone might think that police have too much firepower available to them, and that they have become too militarized. This is very incorrect. The police are the essay University, first line of defense in American cities. Take for instance the North Hollywood Shootout on February 28, 1997. The criminals had fully-automatic weapons and University had state of the art full body armor.

The police rounds were incapable of penetrating the an argument essay Ruskin (Navitas), shooters’ protection, and they did not have weapons big enough to eliminate the threat. Civilian lives were endangered. The police were forced to buy large caliber hunting rifles from gun shops in Los Angeles to finally take control of the situation and end the shooting spree. The police may have been able to stop the threat sooner had they a better arsenal. Trooper Kevin Doyle says, “The police need to have the writing in Dubai, same amount of firepower as criminals plus one to be on top and writing support College stay in control.” Nearly 2,000 rounds were exchanged between the police and method University in Dubai the two bank robbers in North Hollywood and it was a miracle that no civilians or police were harmed in The University of Westminster the shooting. The police need to be armed effectively and trained well in order to be prepared for a situation like this. Being a police officer is not a job for anyone, and essay writing University it is a very intense career. “The police are overstressed, overburdened, and underfunded” (Hinton “Baltimore Burning”). Law enforcement officers are faced with countless decisions in short amounts of time in stressful situations. Styles The University! A fraction of a second can be the difference between life and death of method of Wollongong a police officer (Lesinski). Hesitation kills. An officer does not know if a suspect is actually reaching for a phone, or if the person is going to grab a gun to teacher marking (NAVITAS) endanger his life.

A policeman knows himself. He does not know what a suspect is thinking, or what his next move is. The suspect could draw a gun and shoot before the essay method University in Dubai, officer could stop him from doing so. Of Critical Essay Writing! A law enforcement officer never knows what the next call will be, but they must be ready. Ready to fight or to help a family whose home just burned. Ready to hold a young girl whose family was just killed in a car accident. They do not know if any given traffic stop will go routinely, or if the person will shoot at him or her.

They are prepared to drive an ambulance to the hospital because the University in Dubai, patient could die if CPR is stopped and both paramedics need to essay writing Dulwich College work on the person. The possibilities are endless, but at the end of every single shift, all police officers want to writing University of Wollongong in Dubai go home to their own families. Despite all the teacher marking The University of Northampton, poor publicity the police receive from the media, many Americans still support the police. University Of Wollongong In Dubai! This is of critical essay important. They need to essay method in Dubai know that they are doing their job well, and that without them, our country would not be as safe as it is. They need to feel appreciated, because when someone dials 911, looking for help, they need it fast. All police lives matter, and critcal thinking College they are important.

The year 2016 has been very deadly already for the police with twenty six officers killed, up 250% from 2015 (Honoring). The thought strikes fear in the hearts of every police officer. Hashtags like #thinblueline, #bluelivesmatter, and #policelivesmatter along with others have been created to raise awareness for essay writing University, the deaths of these officers. Society’s view of the police force have changed because of the way that the media is teacher marking The University of Northampton portraying them in multiple forms. Essay! The job of a police officer has not changed, other than the Anglia Ruskin University, fact that they have more advanced tools and technology available to writing University in Dubai them, and their goal is to protect and serve the citizens of their country. Everyone is entitled to their own opinion, and each person thinks differently, but at the end of the day, facts do not lie. The facts about the article writing The University, jobs that police are doing do not hide anything, and they do not leave anything in question. Despite the writing of Wollongong, poor display by a descriptive Hurtwood, the media, the police still have a job to writing method of Wollongong in Dubai do, and Anglia University it sometimes escalates into a physical situation. “The police argue that strong force is writing needed in many arrests, especially in those dealing with violent or strongly resisting suspects; that force may look like brutality but it is really a necessary and legal action in such cases” (Dolan, Scariano 97-98).

Watching the news typically does not give enough evidence to believe that the an argument essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), police are all. brutal people. Writing Method University Of Wollongong In Dubai! Of course, there are some bad cops, but that is not enough evidence to blame entire. police departments, let alone an entire nation of law enforcement officers. It is disappointing to see that the reputation of these police officers is writing Dulwich being diminished, despite all the good that they do for their communities. When minority groups see their own people being targeted due to their illegal activity, like in the Michael Brown encounter, they destroy entire towns out of rage. in this situation, if the facts were studied, these protesters would have been astounded.

Officer Darren Wilson was indicted for legal reasons after the death of Brown. However, after an extensive six month jury trial, Wilson was proven innocent. Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai! It is amazing how statistics and hard evidence can turn a police brutality case into essay Anglia Ruskin, an officer who was simply doing his job, serving his community, and trying to go home at the end of his shift. The next time that a minority group is affected by the police and it is portrayed in the media, think twice before blaming police for “brutality” because it typically is not the case at all.” If a high school senior gets it why can’t the rest of our society?

Well done Conor, and essay writing in Dubai thanks for sharing with us. Controversial Crime Scene Photograph Explained Of Officer In Picture With Dead Person. Mobile Police Chief Delivers Epic Response to how to write a descriptive about Hurtwood Use Of Force Allegations. Dallas Teacher Payal Modi Suspended For Insane ‘Mock Assassination’ Of President Trump. OUTSTANDING and beautifully written and method of Wollongong right on target. Thank you Conner for sharing your essay and rest assured there are a great many people that will always stand with the police. I am one of them. Very good paper, insightful, well researched and convincing. You showed courage, Conner, in of critical essay writing Roedean School standing up for Law Enforcement Officers. My FB friends support the Police and we share Blue Lives Matter posts. I am sharing this on Google+ and Twitter as well as FB.

Excellent essay! Thank you for sharing. As a parent of an essay University in Dubai, officer killed in the line of duty, I wish. EVERYONE in the world could and would read this essay.

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fieldwork essay Visit the SocMag-Archive. Fieldwork in Social Work Education and Training: Issues and Challenges in the Case of Eastern and Southern Africa. Jotham Dhemba , National University of essay method Lesotho. Social work is an international profession and similarly social work education internationally has always embraced both academic and The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) practical components. Social work education comprises of a theoretical component taught in the classroom and field- based education involving integration of the academic aspect and practice. Fieldwork, which is also known as field instruction, field placement, field education, practicum or internship is therefore an integral component of social work education. Though the definition of social work seems to be a contested terrain, the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2004) convey, its basic meaning quite concisely.

They contend that, The social work profession promotes social change, problem- solving in human relationships and essay of Wollongong in Dubai the empowerment and liberation of people to College Beau Soleil enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environment. Writing Method University Of Wollongong. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. From this definition it is clear that social workers follow a formal procedure in marking of Northampton helping clients to cope with their life tasks and to realise their aspirations. This involves developing their ability to deal with their problems more effectively at any given point in time and also in writing in Dubai the future. Furthermore, social work intervention helps people connect with needed resources and to negotiate problematic situations which might also involve changes to existing structures where these present blocks to human growth and development. To this end, social work is professional discipline anchored on a unified curriculum consisting of both theory and fieldwork components.

As shall be noted later, social work education started in Europe and North America in the last quarter of the 19th century. Its history goes back to the era of the Charity Organisation Societies when students learned social work by apprenticeship, that is, learning by doing. As Royse, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) observe, students obtained firsthand knowledge of poverty and adverse conditions through “applied philanthropy”. They also note that the apprenticeship model emphasised learning by critcal thinking College doing and “deriving knowledge from that activity”. By the end of the 19th century, social work gradually evolved from the apprenticeship method with the launching of the of Wollongong in Dubai first social work training in Beau 1898. This was a summer school established at the New York City Charity Organisation Society.

Six years later, in 1904, the Society established the New York School of Philanthropy, which offered eight months training in social work. Further to these developments, George, (1982) cited in Royse, et al (2007) contents that Mary Richmond, an early social work practitioner, teacher and theoretician, advocated for complementing field learning with academic education. Royse, et al (2007) also quote Austin (1986) who observes that early in social work education, students spent about half of their academic time in field settings. From the above, it is quite evident that fieldwork is the forerunner of social work education and that theory and practice are equally important. Leading social work scholars, among them, Kaseke (1986), Mupedziswa, (1997) and Osie-Hwedie (1996) also unequivocally assert the importance of both field instruction (fieldwork) and classroom instruction. On the same note, Hall (1995:38) asserts that, “a generally accepted view today is that field instruction is writing University of equal importance to academic instruction”. Essay Writing Support Dulwich. It is therefore self-evident, even from the essay method University history of social work in Europe and a descriptive a person House North America where it originated, that social work education and training has always embraced the view that fieldwork and University classroom instruction are essential elements of social work education.

However, the reality at social work training institutions as Kaseke (1990) observes, is that fieldwork is marginalised when compared to its academic counterpart. Kaseke asserts that, “there is essay writing support very little written on this subject matter, thus leaving social work educators, students and field supervisors without any meaningful and comprehensive guide to field instruction”. Mupedziswa (1997) also corroborates this view, contenting that “social work institutions need to recast their fieldwork in order to give it equal importance to academic instruction”. This study assessed the fieldwork programme at three social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa, namely the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho (NUL) and School of method of Wollongong Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory of 2002, an umbrella body of social work training institutions lists these training institutions as members. NUL and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in social work, while at the time of the study the writing styles The University of Westminster ISW offered a three year undergraduate Advanced Diploma in Social Work as its main programme. Essay Writing University. The study focused on the Advanced Diploma (ISW) and Bachelor of Social Work students. 2 The role of fieldwork in social work education and training.

It is quite evident from the foregoing, that fieldwork has always been part of essay Ruskin (Navitas) social work training and is an essay method of Wollongong integral component of social work education. As Hepworth and Rooney and Larsen (2002) observe, fieldwork engages the student in critcal thinking College supervised social work practice and provides opportunities to marry theory and practice. A widely used definition of fieldwork is one by Hamilton and Else (1983) who view it as, “a consciously planned set of experiences occurring in a practice setting designed to move students from their initial level of understanding, skills and attitudes to essay levels associated with autonomous social work practice.” As the social work curriculum is based on both theory and teacher of Northampton (NAVITAS) practice, the essay University in Dubai provision of sound theory is critical as is marking The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) fieldwork experience. It is method University critically important for social work students to acquire, in essay writing a classroom environment, practice principles, values and ethics and the scientific basis for practice. Equally important is the need to apply the theoretical content covered in the classroom, to real life situations as part of a student’s preparation to become a professional social worker. It takes more than academic fitness, but also evidence-based knowledge, field- tested skills and a wealth of in Dubai hands-on-experience to become a fully backed social worker.

As Shardlow and Doel (1996:6) observe, “..these two contexts for learning about social work practice, class and fieldwork need to be integrated, complementary and styles mutually consistent”. Writing Method. They further point out that the challenge for the student and agency supervisor, is to make this a reality”. Kaseke (1986:55) also observes that fieldwork is an instrument of socialisation since it prepares the student for Anglia University a future role as a social work practitioner. He further asserts that, “a meaningful fieldwork placement is one that enhances the method in Dubai students understanding of the social work profession and the nature of the problems the profession addresses itself to”. Learning therefore takes place at various levels, that is, intellectually, emotionally and practically. Furthermore, fieldwork is an critcal Soleil opportunity for aligning theoretical knowledge and learning, with the needs of society and the market place. Essay Method Of Wollongong. It also affords students the essay (Navitas) opportunity to take responsibility for addressing people’s problems. Therefore, if handled effectively, fieldwork becomes an important tool in bringing about writing method of Wollongong in Dubai a social work curriculum that is critcal Beau Soleil appropriate and responsive to topical social development issues. Fieldwork also develops in students, skills that will enable them to respond appropriately to the needs of clients.

Furthermore, Safari (1986) observes that, “In the field, the student comes into contact with needy people, their problems, their reactions to the problems and their attitude towards social workers and thus the student discovers his or her ability to help”. It is through observation and doing the job and feeling responsible for essay writing method University in Dubai the job of helping people to example essay cope with their problems, that social work students acquire skills. Likewise, fieldwork is designed to give the student exposure and experience on the functioning of social welfare agencies and social welfare provisioning. The general purpose of writing method University in Dubai fieldwork is therefore, to acquaint students with actual social work situations, in preparation for professional social work practice. It is an about a person House instrument that is used to initiate students into the profession through among others, inculcation and assimilation of social work ethics, principles and values. It is widely accepted that it is a basic requirement of all professions to have a knowledge base, principles, values and ethics that guide and inform practice. Method. Similarly, it is through opportunities to how to write practice that students assimilate these principles, values and ethics of the essay writing method University of Wollongong in Dubai profession. Statement of the problem.

While ideally, the academic and The University practical components of social work education are of equal importance, there are indications that fieldwork is marginalised. Furthermore, there is evidence showing that agency supervisors who are responsible for the practical training of social work students are not sufficiently resourced to undertake their supervisory role and yet they are expected to provide opportunities for students to develop their professional knowledge and skills. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, Kaseke (1990) observes that there is not much documented literature on this subject and essay writing University as a result stakeholders do not have an adequate grasp of the issues involved, which inevitably compromises the teacher The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) quality of students learning on fieldwork. Justification of the study. Considering that there is not much literature on fieldwork in social work education and training, this study is intended to make a contribution towards filling this gap. The study builds on existing knowledge on fieldwork, including but not limited to the fieldwork curriculum, the management of essay writing method University in Dubai fieldwork and the needs and challenges faced by students, agency supervisors and styles The University of Westminster training institutions.

The aim of this study was to examine the nature, form and essay writing University in Dubai challenges experienced in writing styles of Westminster the management of fieldwork at social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. The specific objectives of the study were: · to essay writing method of Wollongong in Dubai establish the nature, form and a descriptive a person House content of fieldwork practice at selected social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. · to ascertain whether fieldwork is treated as being equally important to its theory counterpart (classroom instruction) at the selected training institutions. · to assess the needs and challenges faced by training institutions, agency supervisors and students on fieldwork. This section covers the research design for the study, target population, sample and essay method in Dubai sampling techniques, data gathering and Soleil data analysis. This study is essentially descriptive in nature though it has both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study covered fieldwork coordinators, agency supervisors and students on block fieldwork placement from the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, the National University of writing method of Wollongong in Dubai Lesotho (NUL) and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe.

An agency supervisor is an employee of the organisation providing the setting for social work students learning. He/she is responsible for the teaching and learning of writing support Dulwich College a social work student on practical attachment. A sample of 10 students and their agency supervisors participated in the study from the Institute of Social Work, where the author was on sabbatical leave in 2004. At the National University of Lesotho, a total of 78 fourth year students and six agency supervisors were covered in the study in 2009 and at essay writing University the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, a total of 16 second and third year students and their supervisors also participated the study in 2007 and 2008. Therefore, a total of 104 students and essay support Dulwich 32 agency supervisors from the three institutions participated in the study. Students and essay writing method of Wollongong in Dubai agency supervisors. In the case of the ISW and School of College Beau Social Work students and their agency supervisors, these were covered in the course of students’ assessments. The students who participated in method University of Wollongong the study were those allocated by fieldwork coordinators at the respective institutions. There was therefore no attempt to stratify the study population as data were gathered from students that were allocated for assessment. As for NUL students it was not possible to have a similar arrangement as students assessment was carried out as a team of The University (NAVITAS) school supervisors. This being the case, a 100% sample of fourth year students was covered after they had completed their fieldwork.

Purposive sampling was used for agency supervisors as it was quite convenient to select the writing method supervisors of students who participated in the study. An Argument Essay Anglia Ruskin. In the case of NUL only six agency supervisors were selected for the study also on the basis of method University convenience and willingness to be interviewed. Purposive sampling was also used for fieldwork coordinators (a member of the fieldwork committee at Institute of Social Work and a Lecturer involved with students placements at NUL) at the respective institutions. Data gathering techniques. An interview guide covering selected themes on the nature and College Soleil practice of fieldwork was used to obtain information from the target population comprising of social work students, agency supervisors and fieldwork coordinators. However, in the case of NUL, a questionnaire was used for students and essay writing University of Wollongong this was completed after they returned from fieldwork. Assessment of students at the National University of Lesotho was done as a team of school supervisors and logistically it was not convenient to interview them for the study at the time of their assessment. Relevant fieldwork documents at the selected institutions were also reviewed. Data was analysed on the basis of selected themes, including the essay writing support nature and form of fieldwork, duration of essay of Wollongong in Dubai fieldwork, agency and school supervision, and challenges experienced in critcal Beau the management and practice of essay in Dubai fieldwork among others.

Presentation and discussion of findings. The purpose of this study was basically to unravel the nature and form of fieldwork and challenges in the management of fieldwork at the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The study is premised on the view that while theory and fieldwork are of equal importance in social work education and training, the latter is marginalised and it is not accorded the importance that it deserves. The presentation and discussion of the study findings shall be done simultaneously in the sub-sections below. Forms of fieldwork. Social work training institutions generally use one of four forms of essay writing College fieldwork, namely concurrent, block, a combination of both concurrent and block and in-service placements. The block placement arrangement is method University of Wollongong in Dubai used at the three institutions. However, the ISW uses both concurrent and block placements. The National University of Lesotho also uses block placements at the undergraduate level and concurrent fieldwork at the postgraduate level (MSW).

A block fieldwork placement refers to a continuous full-time engagement of a social work student at teacher (NAVITAS) a fieldwork agency for a period ranging from at least a month to one year depending on the institution. The School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, uses the block placement system with fieldwork occurring in the second and method of Wollongong in Dubai third year for a period of three months and three weeks. At the ISW, there is support Dulwich only one block placement which occurs in the third year for a period of three months. At the National University of Lesotho, the block fieldwork occurs in the second year for a month and in the third and fourth year for two months respectively. Concurrent fieldwork at the ISW occurs at the second year level. Essay Method University Of Wollongong. As pointed out earlier, the School of Social Work uses block placements only, but first year students also go for field visits in the second semester as part of teacher of Northampton (NAVITAS) their orientation to University in Dubai the profession. Concurrent fieldwork occurs simultaneously with classroom instruction.

The students’ time is divided between classroom learning and write about a person Hurtwood House field based learning. Typically, students spend two or three days in a week at the field agency and they take classes for the remaining two or three days of the week. The beauty of the concurrent fieldwork arrangement lies in the simultaneous and immediate application of essay method University theory learnt in the classroom into practice. An added advantage of this form of fieldwork is that students can share and readily discuss their placements while at the training institution and this can contribute to effective integration of theory and practice. However a major limitation of this arrangement is that students have to be attached at agencies within the proximity of the training institution. Teacher Marking. Therefore, on essay writing University, this basis, students are denied the opportunity to work in remote rural areas where social work intervention is probably most needed as most social work training institutions are urban based. Furthermore, this arrangement may not work well as the student has to be reporting to Ruskin University both his or her training institution and the agency supervisor. In support of University in Dubai this view, Hall (1990: 31) states that, “ the disadvantage is the possibility that the fieldwork experience becomes more fragmented and students are unable to do justice to either theory or practice because of the overlapping expectations of workplace and school”. It is also difficult to come up with a structured programme for a student working on a part-time basis. There is also the risk of writing Dulwich agency supervisors neglecting or forgetting about essay writing University of Wollongong in Dubai their students as they only meet them twice or thrice in a week. It appears the rationale for styles using concurrent placements initially at first or second year levels or both levels and then blocks at higher levels is to offer students an opportunity to gradually acquaint themselves with the profession.

This is writing University of Wollongong in Dubai so considering that in article writing styles the first or second year of the course expectations are not very high. Students are required to observe the supervisor in action and to essay writing of Wollongong in Dubai perform tasks befitting their level. Placements at this level are therefore of an exploratory character with the student carrying out tasks that are not too complex. However, at higher levels the student is expected to critcal Beau Soleil be active at writing method University of Wollongong in Dubai a practical level, carrying out tasks that have considerable scope for article styles The University of Westminster increasingly independent execution of duties and skills. While the block placement allows students to immerse themselves in the work of an agency and essay writing method is more conducive to essay College the pursuit of intellectually and essay writing method in Dubai professionally stimulating tasks, it also has its weaknesses. One problem is the postponement of application of theory into practice until a certain level of theoretical knowledge is attained.

Additionally, there is a clear separation of the timing and context in which theory and practice take place as students are away from the thinking College Soleil training institution for a period ranging from one month to a year. On the other hand, in-service placements are appropriate in situations where social work training is writing designed as part of teacher marking in-service training. Students go back to their places of employment, for fieldwork experience in method of Wollongong in Dubai the context of their existing jobs. Hall (1990) cites the University (Navitas) example of the Department of writing method in Dubai Social Services, at an argument Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Kaduna Polytechnic in Nigeria which offers an in-service training course and uses in-service placements for its fieldwork programme. However, such programmes are mounted on of Wollongong, a one-off basis and are therefore not sustainable in the long term as it would be difficult to guarantee a regular supply of students from employers. It must however be appreciated that the choice of the most appropriate form or combination, is based on the demands of classroom instruction in terms of course configuration and the amount of time required for each subject. Each institution is therefore unique in terms of prevailing circumstances and conditions but it is important to writing support Dulwich College settle for the most effective form of fieldwork that guarantees professional growth and development for the student. Nature of fieldwork.

In describing the nature of fieldwork at the institutions covered in the study it is important to refer to the IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards on Social Work Education and of special interest are standards relating to duration of fieldwork, expectations and requirements for agency supervision, the fieldwork curriculum. Essay Method Of Wollongong. These shall be examined in the sections below. It also needs to be noted from the outset that it was very evident from the collation of data gathered that, in many regards, fieldwork at the three institutions is generally the same. There are however significant differences in the structure of fieldwork in essay Ruskin terms of form, level at which it takes place and the duration of fieldwork. As pointed out earlier, the University in Dubai block fieldwork placement is common at the three institutions, though there are differences in marking of Northampton (NAVITAS) duration and the levels at which it occurs.

The other notable difference, as indicated previously, is that the method University ISW and NUL (at Masters Level only) also utilise concurrent fieldwork. Duration of fieldwork. As stipulated by the IASSW and IFSW the duration of an argument Ruskin fieldwork should be sufficient and challenging enough to prepare students for professional practice. Cumulatively, the total fieldwork time for block placements at undergraduate level (at the writing of Wollongong social work training institutions covered) is as follows: No. of block placements Total duration. Institute of Social Work (one block placement) 3 months.

National University of an argument Anglia Ruskin Lesotho (3 blocks at writing University in Dubai second, third. and fourth year) 5 months. School of Social Work (2 block placements at essay College 6 months, 3 wks. Second and third year) (27 wks) It is clear from the table above, that if one considers block placements only, the essay writing method of Wollongong in Dubai total fieldwork time is longest at the School of Social Work, where it is 6 months and three weeks. It is shortest at the Institute of Social Work (as of 2004) where it is only three months.

This is probably because the Institute is not a degree awarding institution as it offers a three-year Advanced Diploma in Social Work whereas the other institutions offer four-year degree programmes. The majority of the agency supervisors and students from the Institute of Social Work were of the view that three months of teacher fieldwork is rather short. Considering that the students only method University, have one block placement, it is understandable that they preferred a longer placement which enables both students and supervisors to pursue the fieldwork objectives to the end. University. The majority of School of Social Work students and their supervisors were also of the opinion that their fieldwork was short. This is also understandable considering that the method fieldwork takes place at two levels, that is, second and third year, for 8 and Beau Soleil 15 weeks respectively. Though cumulatively, the fieldwork is longer at the School of Social Work, the time allocated per block placement was considered to be inadequate. While there are both advantages and disadvantages in having a single or multiple block placements at the undergraduate level, it is important to consider these in relation to writing University of Wollongong in Dubai the context in which training is taking place and marking The University (NAVITAS) the learning needs of students. An obvious advantage of at least two block placements is that students get varied experiences, which prepares them to function in writing method of Wollongong in Dubai any social work setting when they qualify.

A single placement limits the student particularly in example essay writing School third world contexts where resources are scarce and of Wollongong in Dubai poverty abounds. At NUL, students go for block placement at the beginning of second, third and fourth year. Though the duration of fieldwork was deemed to be generally inadequate by agency supervisors, 72% of the students expressed contentment with the two months fieldwork. Fewer students indicated that the fieldwork was too long. The main reason given for writing The University this position was that social work students do not have holidays, unlike students in other programmes. Fieldwork at NUL takes place during the long vacation from end of May to July thus denying students their much needed break in between semesters. Some students actually wished it could be reduced to one month and they argued that it should be done during semester time, like the academic courses. The other problem raised was that students on fieldwork experience acute financial hardships as they do not get adequate financial support from government. One student summed up the problems pointing out essay writing University in Dubai, that, “We endure so many hardships as a result of inadequate financial support when doing fieldwork. It is an argument essay Anglia Ruskin University actually a mystery that some of us last the two months. Two months is too long without financial support for our upkeep and transport”.

Some also indicated that they did not have much work to occupy them and they were therefore idle most of the time. However, agency supervisors were of the feeling that eight weeks was too short considering that students needed time to learn and to adjust to the new situation. While it would be difficult to prescribe the form and duration of fieldwork as training institutions are unique in their own right, what is emerging from this study is the need for block fieldwork to be long enough for students to develop and consolidate their skills. The Council on writing method of Wollongong in Dubai, Social Work Education (CSWE) (in the how to write essay about a person House USA), quoted in Royce, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) requires that undergraduate students do fieldwork for a minimum of 400 contact hours. This translates to a minimum fieldwork period of three months. Therefore, if one is to use the CSWE standard to measure the adequacy of the duration of fieldwork, then clearly, the three institutions covered in this study meet this requirement. The study found that the three institutions covered in essay writing method of Wollongong the study did not have a comprehensive fieldwork curriculum. At best, the fieldwork curriculum at the institutions is fragmented. However, when compared to its academic counterpart (classroom instruction) taught courses have a well-organised structure based on a clearly defined curriculum. Example Of Critical Essay Roedean. This makes the learning and teaching manageable and in Dubai focused.

Shardlow and Doel (1996:79-80) suggest the following advantages of having a fieldwork curriculum: the requirements of social work practice can shape the essay Anglia Ruskin content of what is learned by students through a practice curriculum. students are empowered through the essay writing method University of Wollongong in Dubai existence of an explicit written practice curriculum; they can have an understanding of required learning at the start of the article placement. practice teachers are empowered through the development of the curriculum as a common currency, so there is an opportunity and writing method of Wollongong in Dubai a reason to become connected with each other. It is possible to essay Anglia Ruskin organise practice learning so that simple or core skills, basic knowledge or fundamental values are learned before the essay more complex elements are attempted. It is possible with a practice curriculum to know when learning has been achieved in writing Roedean School given areas, and essay writing then to move on to other components of the curriculum or to find ways to compensate for deficiencies in the learning environment – if, for example, live practice with clients is not generating appropriate learning experiences, other methods of learning can be used. The curriculum allows for a range of different learning opportunities and learning methods to be used: this can be well- organised and planned before the start of the writing The University placement. The examination of practice competence can be structured and harmonized to fit with the pace of essay writing University of Wollongong learning. An analysis of the fieldwork course materials at the institutions reveals that the only documents in use are fieldwork placement forms, that is, background information forms, assessment forms, guidelines for writing fieldwork reports, contract forms in the case of the School of example of critical essay writing Roedean Social Work, and letters of essay writing method University of Wollongong in Dubai introduction for students. Of concern was the lack of Fieldwork Manuals at two of the how to write a descriptive essay House institutions. Manuals provide valuable reference material for students, agency supervisors and essay University social work educators. Though the School of Social Work has a fieldwork manual, which probably needs updating as it is a 1990 publication, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have this manual.

Commenting on the state of fieldwork at one of the training institutions one fieldwork coordinator had this to say, “Agency supervisors sometimes phone us wanting to know the expectations for fieldwork. To be honest with you we are also at a loss as to what to tell them. We do not have much documented materials on fieldwork apart from students’ fieldwork reports and fieldwork placement forms. I believe this is also compounded by the fact that our students go to a diversity of agencies which makes it difficult to come up with a universally applicable fieldwork programme”. Criteria used in the choice of fieldwork agencies.

Students covered in the study were placed in a wide range of agencies including but not limited to government ministries and departments, local authorities and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), indicating flexibility in the criteria used to select fieldwork agencies. Understandably, agencies of first choice for students were those that pay allowances and other incentives. As most students did not get allowances for fieldwork, the need to minimise costs on teacher The University, transport and other expenses prompted them to choose agencies within close proximity to their places of residence and not necessarily those with the greatest potential for provision of learning. However on essay writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, the part of training institutions, the Soleil main consideration was to writing in Dubai minimise the costs involved in fieldwork assessment visits (follow-ups). Based on this reality, most placements were in College Beau Soleil urban settings. However, at the School of Social Work, students did their fieldwork only in Harare (where it is located). Furthermore, the fieldwork coordinator at one of the institutions pointed out that “there is an acute shortage of agencies willing to take students on placement which makes it difficult to secure placements for all the students if we are to follow a rigid selection criterion.

We have to be flexible if all students are to be placed”. However, on the same note, the Council on essay of Wollongong in Dubai, Social Work Education, quoted in Royse et al (2007:5) stipulates that fieldwork should occur in settings that reinforce students, “identification with the purposes, values, and ethics of the writing support College profession, fosters the integration of empirical and writing method University practice based knowledge and promotes the article writing styles The University of Westminster development of professional competency”. Quality of agency supervision. Though the use of qualified and experienced supervisors is quite critical in any professional training this study found the supervision of essay writing method University of Wollongong students by non-social workers to be a common practice. The study revealed that, 52.5% of agency supervisors of the School of Social Work students were not social workers. 50% of the ISW students indicated that their supervisors were not social workers. 63% of social work students at NUL indicated that they were supervised by non social workers. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that there is an acute shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies and in the case of the School of Social Work in Zimbabwe this was also compounded by the massive exodus of qualified social workers during the period 2002-2009 as a result of political and economic challenges facing the country then. Also problematic is that most of the Anglia Ruskin University agency supervisors did not have a programme showing how the teaching and learning was to happen.

It was indicated that training institutions did not provide them with any guidelines and essay writing in Dubai as a result they just ended up improvising. An agency supervisor at one of the District Social Welfare Offices in Lesotho indicated that there was just an marking of Northampton (NAVITAS) understanding with the student, that in a five-day week she would spend two days doing administrative work at the office and three days in the community carrying out home assessment visits. Similarly, the essay majority of the students from the National University of Lesotho indicated that their programme was rather informal. Both students and agency supervisors revealed that school supervisors did not ask for any written material on their assessment visits. On this basis, it is essay Ruskin University clear that without a guide or programme (curriculum to follow) it is difficult to achieve the objectives of fieldwork, let alone provide quality learning and mentoring for students, particularly in the case of writing method of Wollongong unqualified supervisors. Support given to agency supervisors. It cannot be overstressed that field supervisors play an important role in the training of social workers. They are partners in the training process with responsibility to article writing styles The University manage the transition from the classroom to the field and this requires support and continuous dialogue between the training institution, the agency supervisor and the agency. It is writing in Dubai probably in article styles The University of Westminster recognition of this fact that the IASSW and IFSW spell out the need for training institutions to provide fieldwork manuals and orientation to agency supervisors.

This enables them to appreciate expectations of their role it also ensures that students are given optimum opportunity to develop professional knowledge and skill. Notwithstanding the recognition that the method University of Wollongong in Dubai role of agency supervisor is an argument Anglia ever more prominent and important, this study found that there is no clear exposition of the process and nature of the teaching and learning required on fieldwork. It was reported that the training institutions are severely constrained in their efforts to empower agency supervisors to perform their roles effectively. As pointed out earlier, the majority of the method University of Wollongong agency supervisors were just groping in the dark as they did not have a clear understanding of the nature and writing support Dulwich type of learning to provide students on fieldwork. This is consistent with the view expressed by one non-social work agency supervisor that they experience problems completing students’ assessment forms at the end of the placement as some of them are not social workers and they also do not understand what is essay method University in Dubai expected of them. ”As a result most of the assessment forms are returned to the training institution incomplete” commented the supervisor.

With the increasing use of non- social work agency supervisors, the provision of training and other supportive materials such as handbooks/manuals would go a long way in enhancing the quality of practice learning. Though the IASSW and IFSW (to which they are members) stipulate the need for training institutions to capacitate agency supervisors, none of the institutions had provided training or fieldwork materials in the five years prior to the study. In spite of the School of Social Work having a fieldwork-training manual, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have the essay Ruskin University (Navitas) manual, an indication that there is probably not much interaction between the institution and agency supervisors. Ironically, the writing method University study also found that all agency supervisors had not received any training or orientation prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Of Critical Writing Roedean. Though it was reported that training workshops had been held in the past, such workshops need to be carried out regularly. In the case of the School of Social Work, the last training workshop was said to essay method of Wollongong have taken place in essay College 2001. Essay Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai. As Shardlow and article writing styles The University Doel (1996:4) observe, “learning, for a student on placement, does not just happen by osmosis; it requires effort and planning by both student and essay method in Dubai practice teacher”. These problems were reported to critcal Beau Soleil be largely as a result of lack of or under-funding of fieldwork related activities. Challenges in the management of fieldwork. The study also sought to find out challenges experienced in the management of University fieldwork.

It was found that the shortage of qualified and experienced supervisors, shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies, inadequate funding and timing of fieldwork were the major challenges the institutions have to grapple with. These challenges are examined below: (a) Shortage of qualified agency supervisors. The shortage of qualified and experienced agency supervisors was found to be a common problem. Invariably, qualified and experienced social workers should handle practical training in thinking College social work. However, the situation obtaining in essay method of Wollongong the three countries, that is, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe is that not all social development and welfare agencies, where students can do their fieldwork, employ social workers. This is the case as it is not a requirement in the three countries for article writing one to be registered as a social worker in order to practice social work. Resultantly, there is an infiltration of the profession as some of the social welfare agencies are employing workers from other disciplines to carry out social work roles. What is also worrisome is writing method University that even in some agencies that are primary social work settings, students can be supervised by non- social workers.

A typical example is writing support Dulwich that of the Department of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe, which started employing non- social workers from around 2002, ostensibly because of the shortage of social workers. Many social workers were reported to have left the country mainly to South Africa and the United Kingdom, owing to political and economic problems experienced then. In the case of NUL, this problem is writing method also compounded by the timing of fieldwork as second, third and fourth year students go for fieldwork at the same time. This is a big challenge considering that a total of about 300 students have to be accommodated in the few agencies operating in the country. However, as social work is practiced in a variety of settings, it is inevitable that non- social workers will have to supervise social work students. Furthermore, in teacher of Northampton (NAVITAS) spite of this crippling shortage of writing in Dubai qualified agency supervisors, it needs to be acknowledged that non-social work agency supervisors have contributed significantly to the survival of the fieldwork programme at institutions covered in the study. (b) Shortage of suitable agencies for fieldwork. Both students and fieldwork coordinators confirmed that it was a nightmare securing fieldwork placements. In the case of the School of Social Work in Harare, this problem was compounded by the fact that students were restricted to Harare-based agencies only, where the School is situated. It was indicated that owing to financial constraints, it was difficult for school supervisors to follow up students on fieldwork outside Harare.

Furthermore, Departments of Social Welfare in the three countries, which ideally should host the bulk of the students on fieldwork, were reportedly seriously short-staffed and not well resourced in terms office space and transport. Example Essay. Resultantly only a limited number of students could be absorbed. Also compounding the problem was competition from other programmes at the training institutions that were also sending their students for attachment at organisations that traditionally took social workers only. Apparently this was a problem at the three institutions covered in the study. Furthermore, as pointed out earlier, the timing of fieldwork at NUL, where three groups go for the fieldwork at the same time is also contributing to writing method University the shortage of suitable agencies. The challenge is placing about 300 students at one go. Financial support for students on fieldwork. The majority of the students failed to understanding why they did not get fieldwork allowances and yet they had a longer academic year than other students. While third and fourth year students at NUL and at essay Anglia University the ISW received allowances for fieldwork, the amount was considered to be very little and essay method University in Dubai not even enough to cover their transport costs. School of Social Work students indicated that they did not get any allowances for fieldwork.

On this basis students wondered how they were expected to apply themselves seriously “on an empty stomach”. Support Dulwich. It was complained that support levels for social work students’ are the same with students in purely academic programmes without a practical component. This is also an anomaly, if one considers that the academic year for social work students, unlike students in other programmes is extended by two to three months and that they also have to contend with transport and subsistence costs while on fieldwork. Lack of essay method University in Dubai visitation by school supervisors. While school supervision visits provide opportunities for students and agency supervisors to get guidance in teacher pursuing the objectives of the essay method placement and also to assess their performance students such visits were reported to be erratic at one of the institutions. This obviously diminishes the importance of fieldwork and it also undermines the learning process. A follow-up of this matter with the fieldwork coordinator concerned revealed that fieldwork does not always get a budgetary allocation and that if allocated it is always far from adequate. The University Of Northampton. “Sometimes school supervisors use their own resources for supervision and obviously there is limit to which they can subsidise fieldwork” commented the essay method fieldwork coordinator.

Highlighting the importance of supervision visits by school supervisors, Raphael and Rosenblum (1987) observe that even the planning of these visits, has an energising effect on the placement. They assert that: “Knowing that a faculty member who represents the School will be coming on a specific date to critcal Beau Soleil review progress stimulates the field instructor and student to assess their progress. The heightened energy available at such times should be consciously used to facilitate change for educational purposes” (1987:158) Failure by school supervisors to assess students on fieldwork can have a very damaging effect on the morale of the student and agency supervisor and essay method in Dubai the placement in general. It can also affect relations between the training institution and fieldwork agencies. At one of the institutions it was reported that some agencies threatened to stop taking students if school supervisors did not make follow-up visits. While it is evident from the study that fieldwork in social work education is marginalised, there are indeed very promising prospects of raising its effectiveness and quality of training. Of significance is that the institutions covered in the study treat fieldwork as a compulsory course notwithstanding the many challenges faced in its management. Example Essay. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, it is also encouraging that the IASSW and writing method University of Wollongong IFSW came up with qualifying standards for social work education, fieldwork included. If adopted, these would go a long way in The University of Northampton transforming fieldwork practice.

Specifically, these include, among others, the need to appoint qualified and experienced agency supervisors, the need to provide orientation and training to the same, the need for social work training institutions to develop fieldwork manuals and also to ensure that the duration of fieldwork is sufficient. Furthermore, while the essay writing method University challenges confronting the fieldwork component in the training of social workers require intervention at the highest level, that is write about a person government and writing method University in Dubai management at training institutions, it is write Hurtwood also necessary that those involved in fieldwork execute their roles and responsibilities effectively. Specifically, the fieldwork coordinator, agency supervisor, students and school supervisors should be competent and resourceful in discharging their roles and responsibilities. Suggestions on essay University in Dubai, strengthening fieldwork. It is clear that fieldwork in social work education faces a number of challenges. While the primary responsibility for addressing these challenges lies with the social work department or unit, there are issues that need the intervention of central administration at the training institution. Chief among these is inadequate funding for fieldwork related activities. Second is the teacher marking The University of Northampton lack of a clear learning content for fieldwork. Third, and on a related matter, is the lack of training for agency supervisors. In order to develop fieldwork to essay method in Dubai its fullest potential and to enhance the quality of learning, it is necessary to adopt the following measures:

There is need to allocate and to increase the budget for fieldwork. Social work is writing a professional discipline that has both theoretical and practical components. There is therefore need for training institutions to allocate a separate budget for fieldwork in order to cater for the training of agency supervisors, school supervision, development of fieldwork manuals and other related activities. Development of fieldwork manuals. It is imperative that schools of social work develop their own fieldwork manuals, covering the teaching and method in Dubai learning content for fieldwork. This is particularly important considering that each institution is unique in terms of the styles The University of Westminster prevailing socio-economic conditions, challenges and experiences, the social work education curriculum in a given country.

Manuals are a useful resource for social work educators, students and agency supervisors. Introduction of a taught course on essay method, fieldwork theory and practice. While the academic component of social work education (theory courses) also prepares students for their field education, it is the view of the author that fieldwork should have a taught component (in class). This will address two concerns. First, is the concern that students lack knowledge and understanding of learning experiences on fieldwork. This would therefore prepare students for actual practice and also facilitate the learning process during fieldwork. Secondly, there seems to be a lack of interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars, which partly explains the paucity of literature on the subject. A taught component on write a descriptive essay a person Hurtwood, fieldwork would contribute towards generating research interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars.

In making this suggestion, the method of Wollongong in Dubai author is aware that the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania has a theory course on field instruction that students take before proceeding for field practice. Total duration of block fieldwork. While the duration of fieldwork varies at the three institutions, it is teacher marking recommended that the total duration be at least six months, which is 960 contact hours. This is based on the view that fieldwork needs to be long enough for students and field supervisors to accomplish their objectives for the placement. With regard to the number of placements at the undergraduate level, it is necessary to have two, preferably in the last two years of training. Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai. However, this should be at different agencies, which gives students varied experience through learning to adjust to new situations. Dominelli, L. Of Critical Essay. (2002) International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory.

UK, IASSW and Department of Social Work, University of Southampton. Hall, N. Essay Writing University Of Wollongong. (1990) Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual. Harare, Journal of Social Development in example writing Africa. Hepworth, D.H, Rooney, R. and Larsen, J.A. (2002) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Method In Dubai. U.S.A., Brooks/Cole.

IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards for article The University the Education and Training of the Social work Profession. Bern, Switzerland, Sage. Kaseke, E. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in Social Work Training, in: Social Development and writing method Rural Fieldwork. Essay Writing Support College. Proceedings of a workshop held in Harare. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp. 52-62. Kaseke, E. (1990) Foreword, in: Hall, N. Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual.

Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Mupedziswa, R. (1997) Training Social Workers in method of Wollongong in Dubai an Environment of Economic Reforms: The Mother of all Challenges? In: Social Work/Maatskaplke Werk Vol. 33 (33) Osei-Hwedie, K. (1996) The Indigenisation of Social Work Practice and writing support Dulwich College Education, in: Africa: The Dilemma of Theory and Method in Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 32 (3) Raphael, F. B. and Rosenblum, A. F. (1987) “An Operational Guide to the Faculty Field Liaison Role”, in: Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, March, pp.156-163. Royse, D., Dhooper, S. and Rompf, E. (2007) Field Instruction: A Guide for Social Work Students. Writing University In Dubai. Boston, Pearson Educational Inc. Safari, J. (1986) The Role of example essay writing Roedean Fieldwork in the Training of Social Workers for Rural Development in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork, Proceedings of a Workshop held 10-14 June, Harare.

Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in method University of Wollongong Africa, pp 74-80. Shardlow, S. and Doel, M. (1996) Practice Learning and Teaching. London, Macmillan Press Ltd.