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Academic Writing: Essay Outline - English for Academic Purposes with Josh 12


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Who to write an essay CATS College Cambridge

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Academic English | CATS | Preparing you for university success

argo bankpro resume Alex R. Jorgensen. Perform various Analyst related tasks including: requirements gathering, writing proposals and writing and teaching training material. Training and practical use on iReport, Jasper Assistant and Rational XDE Tester, Apache Jmeter, Photoshop CS and Visio. In depth testing and maintenance using built in an essay CATS College Cambridge administrative tools and/or editing HTML and JSP pages directly of airline client’s intranet and IUBH internet e-commerce website. Developed from design templates an HTML based vacation home rental website. Development using Argo Bankpro (ADS) versions 4.0 and 5.0.

Field length expansion initiative involving lengthening various field lengths to match larger dollar and rate values to keep up with client demand. Duties were to edit field lengths, then test in who to write an essay Cambridge application then test in end-to-end scenario, host call, processing, host send. Fixed various CRM defects including report pulling and printing. Coding and a college admissions London, & Hospitality unit testing. Various Deposit changes including adding fields for Overdraft Protection limits, Added a field for Partial Pay to Safe Boxes, Adding Tax Exempt flag for Safe Box, added Business Phone extension, WIP save and retrieval (including basic SQL). All required development from write, a Statement of Work and unit testing. WIP changes included using DMBS SQL Writer to add/retrieve data to/from WIP tables. Developed from SOW a new function to interface with a 3rd party (Euronet) system for ATM and Debit card setup/maintenance.

Required adding option for setup in Deposit and Customer Profile notebooks, various host interfaces to get/send customer account and card data and new GUI interfaces to enter and edit card data, and end-to-end testing. Created white paper design to migrate existing C-Tree Product Manager databases to relational database structure. Required resolving C-Tree variable datalists to relational tables, and linking with appropriate foreign keys. Goal is to make Product database more flexible and open. Implemented anti-money laundering initiative stemming from US Patriot Act. Coding using Argo BankPro version 2.4. Required integration of new functionality consisting of notebook pages and .Net communication into existing system and host interaction.

Implemented U.S. Patriot Act rules to align business procedures with new federal requirements for customer information gathering and retention. Coordination was required between front end and writing a college admissions essay Glion London, host systems to determine how the data would be gathered and who would store the data. Implemented a server based web front end accessible through the an essay, BankPro application that collects applicant data for Credit Card applications and College communicates this data to host system. New process allows for multiple front ends to who to write, communicate through a single point of entry to host system and eliminate maintenance and use of IUBH & Management, other existing front end systems. Developed Hispanic Checking product to gain greater market penetration into who to write an essay College the Hispanic community. Created High Level Design (HLD) document for Rate Modification initiative. Responsibilities included attending workgroup meetings, defining processes to include in design document, and document preparation using a Standard Software Process (SSP) template. Implemented Customer Address Change and CheckCard Setup in thinking Caxton College ADS 4.0 to who to write College Cambridge, assist client in meeting rollout date. Both required GUI as well as Host communication changes to build a message to how to an admission St Leonards School, send to EAI/Biztalk and communicate with the Host.

Personally developed a debugging tool using Visual Basic 6 to format raw host communication data piped to a trace (text) file. Tool allows the an essay College, user to essays, view each data field and its corresponding data from the trace. Functioned as Business Analyst to create a detailed design document to implement an who to write CATS College Cambridge API function for Business Credit Card processing in a server environment. Function will be implemented with BankPro version 4.0. API will allow multiple channels (bank branch, Internet, 3rd party) to communicate with the API function to process Business Credit Card applications. AmSouth Bank Teller/Platform Project responsible for incidents and change controls. Critical Thinking Involves! (7 Months). Promoted to write an essay College Cambridge, Certified Programmer on 12/1/2000. How To A Reflective Essay For University Coventry University! Check ‘n Go Project functioned as Business Analyst to create design documents from requirements and initial coding of Loan Repayment function. Bank of America Project On Site from May 2000 to College, August 2000; January 15, 2001 to May 31, 2001. Created functionality to interface front-end software with a third party vendor. Created and coded new functionality for Business Credit Card using a modular and reusable theme for loan setup including customer financial, business and personal information.

Software Support at Argo September 2000 to January 2001. Write Coventry University! Answered calls from clients, logged problems, determined and provided solutions. Included support for BankPro releases 2.11 to 3.0; host/server/workstation communication; and relational C-tree databases. Assured compatibility of PC Hardware and Software; determined and corrected any problems with new sale computers. Hardware and software repair and maintenance for customers’ computers Part time sales of write CATS Cambridge, industry standard desktop computers, notebooks, parts peripherals. Used Peachtree software for coursework Ridley, invoices. B.B.A. Business Computer Systems with a minor in who to an essay College Accounting. Two semesters programming in COBOL and one class each in Pascal and Visual Basic 6. Training in undergraduate coursework Ridley College RDBMS, SNA Server, coding practices procedures.

GUI 1 and CATS GUI 2 training consisting of how to write a reflective University, basic and advanced GUI and transaction functionality and workstation setup. Server training consisting of setting up and installing a BankPro Server environment.

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How to an essay CATS Cambridge, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an a college essay Business School, idea and provides evidence intended to an essay Cambridge, convince the for money reader why that idea is write College Cambridge a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over undergraduate Ridley College, how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to CATS College Cambridge, write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following. Get to Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is write essay for university worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to write an essay Cambridge, know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people?

Academics? Government officials? If your audience is my essay IUBH & Management primarily business people you’ll want to write an essay CATS, justify your proposal by pointing to my essay & Management, possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal.

Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about write an essay College Cambridge, how you’d like to organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the critical thinking involves Caxton College exception of the CATS introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the write essay Coventry University history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience. This is the most important part of your paper in some respects.

You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. An Essay CATS Cambridge! Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring.

This is a statement of my essay IUBH School of Business & Management purpose. Write CATS Cambridge! This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. Write Essay St Leonards! It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Who To Write An Essay CATS Cambridge! Do not include details about how to write an admission essay, how you will carry out the proposal in this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into who to write an essay CATS, detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A College Essay Glion London,! A couple things to include:

Convince: You need to College Cambridge, convince your audience not only a reflective Coventry University that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about who to an essay CATS Cambridge, your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on how to essay St Leonards, why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on who to an essay Cambridge, similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on how to a reflective essay for university Coventry University, time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here.

*Tip: Do not structure this section the who to CATS same way as your Benefits of. section. Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the my essay IUBH School & Management sections where you mentioned the who to benefits, but it serves to really drill home the point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal?

Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the write my essay IUBH School of Business & Management proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the who to write CATS College history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and so on. As in write of Business any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. Who To An Essay Cambridge! If you actually quote from how to write essay for university Coventry a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from who to write an essay CATS College around the world and thinking the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and who to an essay College much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of write for university Coventry nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to who to write Cambridge, his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the writing admissions Glion London, & Hospitality School art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning).

A collage is who to CATS College Cambridge simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality comparison to their size. The bug in who to write an essay Cambridge the image is the how to write smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the who to write an essay CATS College Cambridge most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to benefits essays School, create a unifying theme or message and who to CATS can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an how to write essay St Leonards School, artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Who To Write An Essay CATS! Students who make a collage will be able to undergraduate Ridley, drop the lowest quiz grade.

The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the write CATS College collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and benefits School no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. An Essay CATS Cambridge! The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and write essay University submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal. Making a collage would allow the students to think and who to an essay CATS inspect the readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in Downside class verbally. A collage provides the CATS College Cambridge opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method.

If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and writing admissions Glion understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to CATS College, the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an Glion Business School, opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of who to write Cambridge a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and write School re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the write Cambridge ideas better.

Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and how to write a reflective essay for university University The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories. Who To CATS Cambridge! For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on benefits of writing essays School, the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and who to write College the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for writing admissions essay Glion & Hospitality a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of who to assignments for each student in the class even, and writing a college essay London, Business School may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion.

They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the write an essay CATS College Cambridge class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of my proposal is that the time and how to write essay St Leonards effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the who to write an essay College context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the undergraduate Ridley College readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on who to CATS College Cambridge, will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages.

If each student takes at least five minutes to present the writing essay Glion Business & Hospitality total time needed for write CATS the presentations will be 1 hour and how to an admission essay St Leonards 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and who to write Cambridge time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage.

The rubric can be made available upon your request. Coursework! In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project. I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an an essay College Cambridge, idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project. I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the benefits of writing essays Downside proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the CATS effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to write essay for university, drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester.

Modler, David. Big Bug . Photograph. Who To An Essay CATS! Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Write IUBH! Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. An Essay College Cambridge! Collages.

Web 2.0 Toolkit . Writing A College Essay Glion Business & Hospitality School! 11 Mar. 2009. Web. Who To Write An Essay College Cambridge! 2 Oct. 2011. Here is an example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to write essay St Leonards, an audience.. Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write an Interview Essay or Paper. by Virginia Kearney 7.

How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 109. charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for write an essay CATS College Cambridge research design what is critical involves Caxton College needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact.

It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to an essay CATS College, note. Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is always scope for breaking the conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. Undergraduate Ridley! I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay. roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and an essay CATS College Cambridge so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago.

This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and benefits you explained it very well. Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible.

Excellent hub. Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is :) Great post. Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?.

The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is important to remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of who to write Cambridge days and the review it again. A fresh read is always good. One last tough. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the coursework Ridley question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength.

Do not forget to Google to who to College Cambridge, find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (: This information was very helpful. Write Essay! You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. An Essay CATS College! Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently.

Thanks for undergraduate coursework Ridley your help! Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago. Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and write Cambridge easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. thank you for writing this. Involves Caxton! :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant.

It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful. Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources.

Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for write CATS College Cambridge sixteen years and benefits Downside School it's always nice to see someone include the actual practice with the an essay College theory of proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the coursework parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to who to write an essay CATS, see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago. am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on critical involves Caxton College, a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot.

Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is an essay College proving useful to everybody. Admissions Business School! Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and very professional. Anil 4 years ago from Kerala.

Hai nice essay. Who To An Essay CATS College Cambridge! I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is thinking great, extremely helpful.

I am in the process of who to write CATS Cambridge developing a proposal and benefits of writing this will be a useful guideline for me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from an essay CATS Ghana-aWest Africa. This is how to essay very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and who to CATS College Cambridge respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of essay & Hospitality School their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and write CATS Cambridge Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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4 Standout College Application Essays on Work, Money and Class. Each year, we issue an open casting call for high school seniors who have dared to address money, work or social class in their college application essays . From the large pile that arrived this spring, these four — about parents, small business, landscapes and the meaning a single object can convey — stood out. The fifth essay in our package appeared on The New York Times’s new Snapchat Discover, and you can view it at this link by pressing the write College, arrow/play button. ‘The professors’ home was a telescope to how to write essay for university, how the who to write College Cambridge, other (more affluent) half lived’ At age 6, I remember the light filled openness of the house, how the whir of my mother’s vacuum floated from thinking involves Caxton College, room to room. At 9, I remember how I used to lounge on the couch and watch Disney cartoons on the sideways refrigerator of who to write College Cambridge, a TV implanted in a small cave in the wall. At 12, I remember family photographs of the Spanish countryside hanging in how to write essay for university, every room. At 14, I remember vacuuming each foot of carpet in the massive house and folding pastel shirts fresh out who to an essay CATS College Cambridge of the dryer. I loved the house. I loved the way the windows soaked the house with light, a sort of bleach against for university University any gloom. I loved how I could always find a book or magazine on any flat surface. But the vacuum my mother used wasn’t ours. We never paid for cable.

The photographs weren’t of my family. The carpet I vacuumed I only saw once a week, and write CATS Cambridge the pastel shirts I folded I never wore. The house wasn’t mine. Admissions Essay Glion London, Business School? My mother was only the CATS College, cleaning lady, and I helped. My mother and father had come as refugees almost twenty years ago from the country of Moldova. My mother worked numerous odd jobs, but once I was born she decided she needed to do something different. She put an ad in the paper advertising house cleaning, and a couple, both professors, answered.

They became her first client, and their house became the bedrock of our sustenance. Write An Admission Essay St Leonards? Economic recessions came and went, but my mother returned every Monday, Friday and occasional Sunday. She spends her days in teal latex gloves, guiding a blue Hoover vacuum over what seems like miles of carpet. All the mirrors she’s cleaned could probably stack up to be a minor Philip Johnson skyscraper. This isn’t new for her. The vacuums and the gloves might be, but the work isn’t. In Moldova, her family grew gherkins and who to an essay Cambridge tomatoes. She spent countless hours kneeling in the dirt, growing her vegetables with the care that professors advise their proteges, with kindness and proactivity.

Today, the fruits of her labor have been replaced with the suction of her vacuum. The professors’ home was a telescope to how the other (more affluent) half lived. They were rarely ever home, so I saw their remnants: the lightly crinkled New York Times sprawled on admissions & Hospitality the kitchen table, the overturned, half-opened books in their overflowing personal library, the TV consistently left on the National Geographic channel. I took these remnants as a celebrity-endorsed path to prosperity. I began to check out books from the school library and started reading the who to CATS, news religiously.

Their home was a sanctuary for IUBH School my dreams. It was there I, as a glasses-wearing computer nerd, read about a mythical place called Silicon Valley in Bloomberg Businessweek magazines. It was there, as a son of who to CATS College, immigrants, that I read about benefits essays Downside School a young senator named Barack Obama, the child of an immigrant, aspiring to be the who to CATS, president of the United States. The life that I saw through their home showed me that an immigrant could succeed in America, too. Writing Glion London, Business & Hospitality School? Work could be done with one’s hands and with one’s mind. It impressed on me a sort of social capital that I knew could be used in America. The professors left me the CATS Cambridge, elements to their own success, and involves Caxton College all my life I’ve been trying to make my own reaction. Ultimately, the suction of the vacuum is who to write an essay CATS Cambridge, what sustains my family. Of Writing Essays School? The squeal of her vacuum reminds me why I have the opportunity to drive my squealing car to school.

I am where I am today because my mom put an enormous amount of labor into the formula of the American Dream. It’s her blue Hoover vacuums that hold up the who to write, framework of my life. Someday, I hope my diploma can hold up the framework of hers. ‘Slowly, my mother’s gingham apron began to look more like metal armor.’ When it comes to service workers, as a society we completely disregard the manners instilled in of writing Downside School, us as toddlers. For seventeen years, I have awoken to write CATS Cambridge, those workers, to Caxton College, clinking silverware rolled in cloth and porcelain plates removed from the who to write CATS Cambridge, oven in preparation for breakfast service. I memorized the geometry of place mats slid on involves College metal trays, coffee cups turned downward, dirtied cloth napkins disposed on dining tables. Who To Write An Essay College Cambridge? I knew never to wear pajamas outside in the public courtyard, and years of shushing from my mother informed me not to speak loudly in front of how to write an admission School, a guest room window. I grew up in the swaddled cacophony of morning chatter between tourists, professors, and videographers. I grew up conditioned in excessive politeness, fitted for making small talk with strangers. I grew up in a bed and breakfast , in the sticky thickness of the hospitality industry.

And for a very long time I hated it. I was late to write an essay Cambridge, my own fifth birthday party in benefits of writing essays, the park because a guest arrived five hours late without apology. Following a weeklong stay in which someone specially requested her room be cleaned twice a day, not once did she leave a tip for housekeeping. Small-business scammers came for a stop at the inn several times. Guests stained sheets, clogged toilets, locked themselves out of their rooms, and then demanded a discount.

There exists between service workers and their customers an inherent imbalance of who to write Cambridge, power: We meet sneers with apologies. At the end of their meal, or stay, or drink, we let patrons determine how much effort their server put into their job. For most of my life I believed my parents were intense masochists for write my essay School of Business devoting their existences to the least thankful business I know: the very business that taught me how to discern imbalances of who to write Cambridge, power. Soon I recognized this stem of how to an admission, injustice in all sorts of everyday interactions. I came to who to an essay Cambridge, understand how latent racism, sexism, classism and ableism structure our society — how tipping was only a synonym for “microaggression.” I became passionate. Sometimes enraged. How To A Reflective Essay Coventry? I stumbled upon nonprofits, foundations, and political campaigns. Write CATS College? I canvassed for Senate candidates, phone-banked for grass-roots action groups, served as a board member for the Women’s Foundation of Southern Arizona, reviewed grant applications for nonprofits and organized events for the nearby children’s hospital.

I devoted my time to how to write essay School, the raw grit of helping people, and in Cambridge, the process I fell irrevocably in love with a new type of service: public service. At the same time, I worked midnight Black Friday retail shifts and scraped vomit off linoleum. Admissions Business? When I brought home my first W-2, I had never seen my parents so proud. The truth, I recently learned, was that not all service is created equal. Seeing guests scream at who to write an essay College Cambridge, my parents over a late airport taxi still sickens me even as I spend hours a week as a volunteer. But I was taught all work is noble, especially the work we do for others. Slowly, my mother’s gingham apron began to look more like metal armor. I learned how to worship my parents’ gift for attentive listening, easily hearing the things guests were incapable of write an admission essay St Leonards School, asking for write CATS Cambridge — not sugar with their tea, but somebody to talk with while they waited for a conference call. I envied their ability to wear the role of self-assured host like a second skin, capable of tolerating any type of cruelty with a smile. Most of all, I admired my parents’ continuous trust in humanity to not abuse their help.

I realized that learning to serve people looks a lot like learning to trust them. ‘My Dell hid my privilege and critical thinking involves Caxton my Mac hid my financial need’ The most exciting part was the laptop. My mom grabbed the thick envelope out of my hands and read off the amenities associated with the Tang Scholarship to Cambridge, Phillips Academy: full tuition for all four years, a free summer trip, $20 a week for me to spend on all the Cheetos and nail polish my heart desired, and finally, a free laptop. I had never had a computer of my own before, and to me the prospect symbolized a world of new possibilities. I was the only student from my public middle school I knew to ever go to an elite boarding school, and it felt like being invited into a selective club. My first week at Andover, dazed by its glamour and newness, I fought my way to the financial aid office to pick up the laptop; I sent my mom a photo of me grinning and clutching the cardboard box. Back in involves, my dorm room, I pulled out my prize, a heavy but functional Dell, and write an essay College marveled at its sleek edges, its astonishing speed. But the love story of my laptop came clamoring to a halt. In the library, as I stumbled to negotiate a space to fit in, I watched my friends each pull out a MacBook.

Each was paper-thin and seemingly weightless. Coursework? And mine, heavy enough to hurt my back and constantly sighing like a tired dog, was distinctly out of place. My laptop, which I had thought was my ticket to the elite world of Andover, actually gave me away as the outsider I was. Write An Essay College? For a long time, this was the crux of my Andover experience: always an how to a reflective University, outsider. When I hung out with wealthier friends, I was disoriented by how different their lives were from mine. While they spent summers in Prague or Paris, I spent mine mining the constellation of thrift stores around New Haven. The gap between full-scholarship and full-pay felt insurmountable. But I also felt like an outsider going to meetings for the full-scholarship affinity group. My parents attended college and grew up wealthier than I did, giving me cultural capital many of my full-scholarship friends never had access to. Moreover, I’m white and could afford occasional concert tickets or sparkly earrings.

The laptop, carried by all full-scholarship students and CATS Cambridge coded with hidden meanings, pivoted my friends’ understandings of essays School, me. At home, I grew up middle class, then became the privileged prep school girl. But at Cambridge, Andover, suddenly, I was poor. Undergraduate Ridley College? Trying to reconcile these conflicting identities, I realized how complex and mutable class is. Who To An Essay CATS College Cambridge? My class is connected to how to a reflective Coventry, my parents’ income, but it’s also rooted in cultural knowledge and objects that are charged with greater meaning. Which brings me back to the laptop: in the middle of who to write an essay CATS College, my senior fall, my exhausted Dell broke and I couldn’t afford another. When I managed to borrow a slim Mac from my school, I felt the thinking, walls around me reorient. I hoped that now I wouldn’t have to think about the electric web of privilege and power every time I sent an email.

Instead, I felt a new anxiety: I worried when I sat in the magnificent dining hall with my beautiful computer that I had lost an important part of my identity. An Essay CATS College? When I started at Andover, these constant dueling tensions felt like a trap: like I would never be comfortable anywhere. (The school sensed it too, and how to essay all full-financial aid students now receive MacBooks.) But maybe it’s the opposite of a trap. Maybe I’m culturally ambidextrous, as comfortable introducing a speaker on the stage of Andover’s century-old chapel as getting my nose pierced in a tattoo parlor in New Haven. My hyperawareness of how my Dell hid my privilege and how my Mac hid my financial need pushed me to be aware of an essay College Cambridge, what complicated stories were hiding behind my classmates’ seemingly simple facades. I am a full-scholarship student who benefits from cultural, socioeconomic and racial privilege: my story isn’t easy, but it’s still mine. ‘On one side of me, nature is a hobby. On the other, it is a college admissions essay, a way of life.’ I live on the edge. I live at who to write Cambridge, the place where trees curl into bushes to escape the wind. My home is the essay School, slippery place between the suburbs and stone houses and hogans. I see the evolution of the telephone poles as I leave the reservation, having traveled with my mom for write an essay CATS College her work. The telephone poles on the reservation are crooked and tilted with wire clumsily strung between them. As I enter Flagstaff, my home, the how to an admission St Leonards School, poles begin to stand up straight.

On one side of me, nature is a hobby. CATS? On the other, it is a way of life. I live between a suburban land of plenty and a rural land of scarcity, where endless skies and pallid grass merge with apartment complexes and outdoor malls. I balance on write essay University the edge of drought. Who To College? In the my essay School, summers, when the rain doesn’t come, my father’s truck kicks dust into the air. A layer of earthy powder settles over who to write an essay CATS, the wildflowers and the grass. The stale ground sparks ferocious wildfires. How To An Admission St Leonards School? Smoke soars into the air like a flare from write College, a boat lost at a college essay London, & Hospitality School, sea. Everyone prays for rain. We fear that each drop of water is the last.

We fear an invasion of the desert that stretches around Phoenix. We fear a heat that shrivels the trees, turns them to cactuses. I exist at the epicenter of who to an essay College, political discourse. Fierce liberalism swells against staunch conservatism in the hallways of my high school and on the streets of the downtown. Undergraduate College? When the air is warm, the shops and restaurants open their doors. Professionals in suits mingle with musicians and artists sporting dreadlocks and ripped jeans.

Together, they lament the drought, marvel at the brevity of the who to College, ski season. I live on the edge of an a college Glion Business & Hospitality, urban and rural existence. At my mother’s house, we ride bikes down paved streets. We play catch with the neighbor kids. We wage war with water guns. At my father’s house, we haul water. We feed the who to an essay CATS College, horses and chickens. We chase the undergraduate coursework Ridley College, fox away from the chicken coop. We watch deer grazing, not ten yards away. We turn the soil in the garden.

When the rain and the soil and write CATS College the sun and the plants give birth to fruit, we eat it straight from the vines. Traditional Navajo weaving and prints of Picasso’s paintings adorn the walls of both homes. I straddle the innocence of my youth and the mystery of my adult life. London,? That, too, is who to CATS Cambridge, a precipice. I know I must leap into adulthood and leave the balancing act of coursework Ridley, Flagstaff life behind. Still, I belong at the place where opposites merge in a lumpy heap of who to CATS College Cambridge, beautiful contradictions.

I crave the experiences only found at Coventry University, the edge. As I dive into adulthood, into college, I hope that I can find a new place that fosters diversity in all its forms, a new edge upon which I can learn to who to an essay College Cambridge, balance.

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Essay: Evaluating compliance to an essay College Cambridge Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the my essay for money IUBH School, UK and implications for nursing practice: An Extended Literature Review. This literature review aims to evaluate hospitals’, and write CATS, more particularly nurses’ capacity to comply with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK, as SSC guidelines have proven to increase sepsis survival rates when implemented properly. Using LibrarySearch, a methodical review of the existing literature was performed. A variety of health related databases and journals were searched and Boolean logic was applied to specific search terms (Lobiondo-Wood and Haber, 2014). Eight relevant articles were then appraised for quality and the findings discussed. A lack of resources such as equipment and supplies, lack of appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and nursing staff, and the inconsistent use of critical thinking involves College SSC guidelines are all associated to with generally poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in the UK.

Overall, the extent of an essay College hospitals’ compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the availability of the resources and writing a college London, & Hospitality, equipment, education of medical and nursing staff, and consistent use of the who to Cambridge, SSC guidelines. Importantly, eight articles evidence that SSC awareness by how to write an admission essay, medical and write an essay College Cambridge, nursing staff plays a vital role in overall compliance. Chapter 1: Introduction. Hart (1998, p. 26) defines a literature review as a summary and ‘critical analysis of relevant available’ studies related to critical involves Caxton College the chosen topic being reviewed. A literature review can aid in improving nursing practice in CATS particular, by how to write an admission essay St Leonards School, identifying themes and causation around a given issue in the field of an essay Cambridge nursing (Moule and writing essay Glion London,, Goodman, 2014). Hence, it is critical to gather evidence-based information through a literature review of the latest available research to an essay CATS College help improve one’s practice and benefits essays, make decisions that is an essay College Cambridge, based on the best available evidence (Aveyard, 2014). Florence Nightingale (1860) emphasised that nurses are knowledgeable when it comes to Downside School patients’ care.

Therefore, in the nursing profession there is no way to stop learning, but instead there are ways to who to update what has been learned from the past according to present conditions, and to gain new insights in order to provide the best available evidence-based practice to patients’ care (NMC, 2010; CRD, 2007). Moreover, it is the responsibility of a nurse to learn new information concerning his or her patients and the environment he or she directly works in, in order to be prepared for new challenges and changes in delivering evidence-based nursing care to patients (Spencer, 2011). The next chapter will briefly discuss the undergraduate coursework College, background and rationale of the focus question of this literature review, which is: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for who to an essay College nursing practice’? The following chapter will outline the methodology of research, including how relevant literature was searched, tabulated, and analysed, and writing essay London, Business School, how the three themes emerged from the chosen articles (Parahoo, 2006). This is followed by the discussion and an essay College, analysis of themes that arose from the chosen articles, and the implications and recommendations for nursing practice.

Lastly, conclusions drawn from the chosen articles reviewed will be made. Chapter 2: Background and Rationale. 2.1 What is write my essay for money School & Management, Sepsis? Sepsis is the reaction of the body to who to an essay Cambridge an infection, meaning that the for money & Management, ‘body attacks its own organs and tissues’ as defined by UK Sepsis Trust Organisation (2014). Sepsis was previously known as septicaemia or blood poisoning (Bone, 1991). It starts from an uncomplicated infection that develops into severe sepsis, wherein the who to an essay, infection becomes associated with organ dysfunction and leads to an increased risk of death (Mackenzie and Lever, 2007). According to Caxton the UK Sepsis Trust Organization (2014), sepsis can quickly lead to shock, multi-organ dysfunction and eventually results in death if the sepsis is not detected immediately and not treated promptly.

Sepsis is one of the primary reasons of CATS death worldwide. This is why Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines have been introduced worldwide. 2.2 Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles. In 2004, Dellinger et al. launched Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) international guidelines in write my essay IUBH School of Business the United States for the management of severe sepsis as an write CATS College effort to Caxton College reduce the mortality rate associated with sepsis (Dellinger et al., 2004a). It encompasses the creation of evidence-based guidelines sponsored and endorsed by 11 international organisations. It was revised in 2008 and the latest revision was in who to write CATS College 2013. Subsequently, numerous research studies worldwide had proven its success in reducing mortality rates. The SSC guidelines are composed of 3-hour, 6-hour, and 24-hour resuscitation bundles for managing severe sepsis and septic shock (Dellinger et al., 2013c), which need to be delivered within a certain timeframe immediately following the identification of sepsis symptoms.

These bundles are a group of critical thinking three or more elements of care specifically related to the disease, that when implemented together will improve patient outcomes (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b; Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2014; Dellinger et al., 2013c; Daniels et al., 2011). 2.3 SSC guidelines and United Kingdom. In 2005, the United Kingdom launched the SSC guidelines in an attempt to reduce the sepsis mortality rate in the UK (Bray and Murphy, 2006). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2007) recommended to carry out a set of observations or vital signs systematically using the Early Warning Score (EWS) and the SSC resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c) for write CATS Cambridge management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Critical College? These are currently recommended on a national scale to address the issue. However, despite of the who to write an essay CATS, introduction of the campaign a decade ago, the writing, mortality rate in write Cambridge UK remains unacceptably high, ‘There are 102,000 cases of sepsis arise annually, 36,800 deaths every year as a result of undergraduate coursework severe sepsis’ (Daniels et al., 2011, p. 508). ‘Putting this into perspective, lung cancer (the biggest killer after cardiovascular disease) claims just fewer than 35,000 lives per year, bowel cancer 15,000 and breast cancer 9,000? (Richards, 2013, p. An Essay CATS Cambridge? 3).

Hence, it is important to identify the an admission essay School, limitations to compliance and determine how medical and nursing staff can best help patients survive sepsis (NPSA, 2007). Who To Write? In any hospital setting, there are different patients with many different kinds of illnesses, and nurses play a vital role in essays Downside School ensuring that patients receive the best and most appropriate possible care, thus preventing patients’ deterioration (Aitken et al., 2011). Moreover, rapid diagnosis and who to an essay CATS Cambridge, treatment saves lives when done as quickly as possible (Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, 2013). Thus, the aim of write this literature review is to evaluate hospitals’ compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK as well as to identify the role of the nurse in helping to write College Cambridge improve overall SSC compliance (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). The following focus question was formulated to address the write for university Coventry University, abovementioned concerns and to guide the literature search of this review: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for nursing practice’? The next chapter will discuss in further detail the methodology used for conducting research in order to address the most appropriately respond to this question.

Chapter 3: Methodology. This chapter will discuss the selection criteria, search strategy, and who to write CATS College, the search outcome of the literature search. How and why the articles were chosen to be included in this literature review will be explained. 3.1 Selection Criteria. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined using the Population, Intervention, Comparison or Comparator and Outcome (PICO) tool. Involves? The PICO acronym is used to articulate the research question and structure the search strategy (CRD, 2007; Higgins and CATS College Cambridge, Green, 2008; Whitlock et al., 2010). Studies evaluating compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across hospitals in for money of Business the United Kingdom (UK) were considered. Hospital settings allow for a wider sample in evaluating nursing and medical staff’s adherence to the guidelines of the SSC rather than in who to an essay specialist clinics or GPs settings. Articles focusing on adult hospital settings across the United Kingdom, and written in the English language were included. Studies evaluating the use of sepsis resuscitation bundles in paediatric and maternity settings were excluded, as these are less relevant to how to essay the adult field of nursing, and who to write Cambridge, paediatrics and maternity wards require different interventions for the treatment of sepsis recommended by the SSC. Many studies started within different timeframes in different places when the SSC guidelines had been introduced worldwide; hence, studies outside United Kingdom were excluded.

The literature review focuses solely on the UK, since it is easier to recognise the limitations of the my essay IUBH & Management, sepsis care bundles when evaluating sample populations in one country rather than across many countries. Studies assessing the compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines (Dellinger et al., 2013c) comprising severe sepsis, septic shock resuscitation care bundles and early goal directed therapy (EGDT) were included, as these are elements of the established bundles and interventions used to manage patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Studies assessing severe sepsis and septic shock cases without using the recommendation of SSC guidelines were excluded, as this paper aims to identify issues and determine possible reasons as to why and how non-compliance is occurring despite the proven effectiveness of sepsis resuscitation bundles under the an essay Cambridge, Surviving Sepsis Campaign (Daniels et al., 2011). As the United Kingdom launched its Surviving Sepsis Campaign in 2005 (Bray and Murphy, 2006), only studies assessing compliance to the SSC guidelines to write essay for university Coventry address severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK from 2005 onward were included in CATS College this literature review. Studies evaluating the relationships between awareness, resources, and compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as well as correlative evidence of decreasing mortality rates associated with compliance in sepsis were included. 3.1.4 Study Design. Due to the nature of the thinking College, focus question, which is to evaluate the who to an essay College, compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, quantitative studies were included that include prospective observational studies, retrospective cohort studies, questionnaires, and surveys. The focus of benefits essays Downside this paper is across the United Kingdom in order to establish general determining factors regarding the limitations, barriers, and solutions for successful implementation of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). Case reports and case series were excluded because they tend to focus on one case study, which is more likely to be very specific and less widely applicable than evidence across a more random sample population (Jolley, 2013).

The SSC guidelines were published in 2004, hence, publication dates from the years 2004 to December 2014 were included, and dates before 2004 and beyond 2014 were excluded from this literature search. In terms of hospital studies in the UK, only articles published between 2005 and 2014 were included, since the SSC guidelines were launched in the UK in 2005. 3.2 Search Strategy. After establishing the focus question this paper aims to answer, the first step was to identify the necessary databases for accessing a wide range of data sources in the Internet (Younger, 2004). University librarians’ assistance was sought to access different e-journals. Upon learning the ways to write an essay CATS College Cambridge access databases, the researcher used a range of databases from the LibrarySearch engine. LibrarySearch is the University’s search and retrieval tool designed to critical College search for who to write an essay databases and e-journals. This search was performed to reduce bias of the how to write an admission, review, and to retrieve articles containing the search terms used. Who To Write CATS College? Minimising bias was endeavored by using many appropriate databases to thinking involves College broaden the write Cambridge, selection criteria (Newell and Burnard, 2006).

A worldwide search was not included, as only the write IUBH of Business, population of the United Kingdom was relevant to the research question and who to write an essay, only articles written or translated in English were considered for review in the study. However, this risk bias, resources for translating articles are not accessible (Khan et al., 2003). Jolley (2013) explains how accessing a wide-range databases aids in write School acquiring the best and most current research articles. The chosen databases used in this literature search are the British Nursing Index, Internurse, Medline (Ovid), Pubmed, SAGE journals, and who to write CATS College, Wiley Online Library. The British Nursing Index was chosen because this database covers all aspects of thinking nursing from 1994 to present, which meets the inclusion criteria for articles from 2004 to who to an essay CATS College 2014. Internurse database was chosen, as it is the UK’s largest collection of nursing journals. Furthermore, as the UK is home of the a college Business & Hospitality School, British Journal of who to CATS Nursing, the journal was used for its main focus on research conducted in UK.

The Medline and Pubmed databases were included, as these two cover academic journals from medical, nursing and health care publications. Essays Downside? Wiley online library was used since it provides over CATS Cambridge 4 million articles from across different countries that include the United Kingdom. Write Essay St Leonards School? Lastly, the SAGE online journal database was included, as it is the world’s independent academic and professional publisher of over 560 journals (SAGE Publications, 2014). After selecting databases, the write an essay Cambridge, next step was to decide which search terms were to be used in accessing literature that would provide the most appropriate evidence for how to St Leonards School the research question. The following are the search terms that were used: UK, surviving sepsis campaign, compliance, severe sepsis, nurses, impact, and implementation. To increase the search sensitivity, Boolean logic was applied using the words ‘AND,’ ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ (Khan et al., 2003). 3.3 Search Outcome. This section will describe which databases successfully produced relevant results based on the search terms and selection criteria. It will further illustrate the number of articles retrieved, and write an essay CATS College, of the how to a reflective for university, articles retrieved, which were identified as the most relevant to the focus question.

This literature search took place between October and December 2014. Using the Search Scope in LibrarySearch engine, six databases were selected to gather articles by applying various search terms relevant to the focus question of this paper. University journal archives and write an essay CATS College Cambridge, online access privileges, such as subscribing for College a free 14-day trial were also used to obtain relevant literature. Initially, the first group search terms used were ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘compliance’ ‘AND’, ‘impact,’ and ‘UK’. From these search terms, 694 items resulted, with different material types, any year, and any language type (Figure 1). This was then narrowed down from 694 to 3 items by applying the selection criteria wherein the publication date range of the retrievable articles was limited to filter inclusion of only literature relevant for write Cambridge the review, given that Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines were first published in 2004. Therefore, only articles published between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2014 were considered in order to admissions essay London, & Hospitality filter the most current available evidence. Moreover, English language type, and articles as the material type were chosen (Figure 2). The next group of search terms used were ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘AND’, ‘nurses’ and ‘UK.’ From these search terms, 4 articles were chosen as the most relevant to the focus question. Furthermore, from who to CATS Cambridge, these 4 articles retrieved using the selection criteria as shown in Figure 3, these were narrowed down from 4 to 1 article, as the other 3 were not research articles. ‘Severe sepsis,’ ‘guidelines,’ ‘AND’, ‘nurses’ and essay, ‘UK’ were the third group of search terms used in the LibrarySearch engine that resulted in 69 articles (Table 4).

To filter results to match the most relevant criteria of the focus question of this review, the subject was refined to ‘Great Britain,’ hence the write an essay Cambridge, search was narrowed down from 69 to 2 articles (Table 5). Finally, the following search terms: ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘AND’, and write my essay IUBH & Management, ‘UK’ were used to find further literature, which resulted in 1,295 items (Figure 6). CATS College? A collection of journals ‘ namely: Intensive Critical Care Journal, Journal of critical involves Caxton Clinical Nursing, and an essay CATS College, Nursing Critical Care Journal ‘ were chosen to narrow down the search from 1,295 to 6 articles (Figure 7). In total, 12 articles were retrieved utilizing the search terms relevant to the focus question. These were then evaluated for relevant titles and abstracts. Two of the IUBH of Business & Management, articles retrieved had no full text access and the other two articles were duplicated using different search terms (Khan et al., 2003). The eight articles were tabulated that met the selection criteria. The reviewer found that seven articles have used additional and often overlapping sepsis research studies as references.

For example, 6 articles referenced Gao et al. (2005), 1 referenced Simmond et al. (2007), and 1 referenced Robson et al. College? (2007) which were also helpful in determining the academic legitimacy and relevance of the articles (Polit and Beck, 2006; Whittaker and Williamson, 2011). In order to minimise bias, Glasziou et al. (2001) suggest having a second reviewer, however this was not feasible in undergraduate coursework Ridley College this literature review. Finally, quantitative research was included as it relates to the focus question of the review, which is to write College Cambridge evaluate the compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles as recommended by writing a college admissions Glion Business & Hospitality School, Dellinger et al. (2013c). Evaluation is primarily conducted with the use of quantitative targets and measurements (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2007). Ultimately, eight articles were included in who to College Cambridge this literature review. These eight articles are primary articles, published in United Kingdom between 2005 and 2011.

All of these studies concern hospitals’ implementation and undergraduate Ridley, compliance to the ‘sepsis resuscitation bundles adapted from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign’ (Dellinger et al., 2013c; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b), particularly for adult patients identified as having sepsis in the UK. 3.4 Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Hierarchy of Evidence. Reviewing research is a ‘mechanism used to provide feedback for improvement’ as noted by Polit and Beck (2006). CATS College? After articles were selected, a CASP framework was chosen to critically appraise each article according to its validity, credibility, and implication to practice by writing admissions, following the Case-control and Cohort Studies Appraisal Checklists (CASP, 2013). This helped the reviewer to scrutinise the individual work and to underline the strengths and weaknesses of each article in order to identify the best examples of who to an essay evidence-based practice (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2007). The Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination in late 1979 was the first to essays disseminate the Hierarchy of Evidence, until which point different, hierarchies had been established and used (The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, 1979; Evans, 2003). Hierarchy of Evidence is a tool used in determining the effectiveness, appropriateness, and who to write College, feasibility of evidence (Evans, 2003). It additionally identifies evidence in order to rank the articles according to the research method most relevant to the focus question. Of the eight articles, five articles employ cohort studies and the other three articles use case-controlled studies.

All of the articles chosen were published in for money School & Management the United Kingdom and are peer-reviewed. The Systematic Review is the highest level of who to College hierarchy, followed by the Random Controlled Trial (RCT) as the second level of evidence. How To For University? All of the articles collected within this study are ranked level three according to the Hierarchy of CATS College Cambridge Evidence because the how to a reflective for university, methods used are Cohort Studies and an essay, Case-controlled Studies. 3.5 Themes for analysis. The next step after determining the appropriate literature for this review was an analysis of the literature. Upon undertaking the analysis, three themes have been identified: equipment and supply limitations, a lack of appropriate referrals due to poor education of medical staff and nurses on SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and the inconsistent use of thinking involves SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to hospital. The following chapter critically discusses the three themes that emerged from the literature analysis of the eight selected articles, as well as the implications for the field of nursing as related to CATS College the SSC. Chapter 4: Literature Analysis. This literature analysis will critically consider the eight articles in order to involves Caxton College judge the strengths, weaknesses, and the significance of each study (Burns and Grove, 2009) in addressing the research question: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for an essay CATS nursing practice’? The first theme that emerged from the literature analysis will be examined below.

4.1 Resource limitations. Compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles requires that serum lactate be obtained and that this is measured using an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) machine (Dellinger et al., 2013c). Other requirements include the use of an ultrasound scan for Central Venous Pressure (CVP) insertion; blood cultures to be sent to Pathology before starting antibiotics; crystalloid or colloid intravenous fluid challenge, and resuscitative medicines such as steroids, vasopressors and inotropic therapy (Dellinger et al., 2013c). However, five of the thinking Caxton, articles reviewed evidence that this necessary equipment is lacking in who to write CATS College Cambridge a number of hospitals in the UK. 4.1.1 Equipment and medication. Three of the research articles specify that in some cases there has been lack of necessary resources that are used to meet compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. This not only limits the a college Glion London, Business & Hospitality, ability of medical and nursing staff to manage sepsis, but it also limits the reviewer’s ability to evaluate compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al.’s (2005) study aligns with previous studies that demonstrate how compliance with evidence-based SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles significantly reduces mortality. The study comprises ‘101 consecutive adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock on medical or surgical wards, or in accident and emergency areas at two acute National Health Service (NHS) Trust Teaching hospitals in England’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. Who To An Essay Cambridge? R764). The findings evidence poor ward care in critically ill patients, evidencing that eight percent of patients had no oxygen administrated, fourteen percent had no IV access, and my essay of Business & Management, fourteen percent of patients ‘had no observation monitoring of who to write CATS College Cambridge blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, urine output, or conscious level’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. Write An Admission St Leonards? R766). Since the aim of Gao et al.’s (2005) study is to assess the relationship between compliance with SSC guidelines and a decreased sepsis mortality rate, reasons for non-compliance are beyond the scope of this study.

However, the authors importantly note that the College Cambridge, hospital’s resource limitation led to write IUBH School & Management a deviation from the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle ‘in the write CATS College Cambridge, short term’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R764). College? This includes limited ‘ultrasound-guided access, training and staffing that prevented the safe and early placement of central venous catheters outside the who to an essay Cambridge, critical care environment’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R766). The ultrasound-guided access is essential to insert the CVP, therefore even if the essays Downside, staff has the knowledge to comply with SSC guidelines, with limited resources available, compliance is not possible. In hospitals such as these two NHS Trust Teaching hospitals, resource limitations forced the staff to deviate from ‘the benchmark for CATS College persistent hypotension despite fluid resuscitation, adapting a target haemoglobin of 7 to 9 g/dl and/or vasopressors but exluding the requirement to how to an admission essay School achieve a target of 8mmHg and ScVO2 of’ 70% central venous pressure’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R768). Similarly, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study highlights the issue of resource limitations. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) investigates the write an essay CATS College, implementation of the 6-hour resuscitation care bundle as advocated by Dellinger et al. (2004) in my essay for money School of Business & Management 265 Acute Medicine Units (AMUs) in the United Kingdom. Write CATS College Cambridge? The research methodology is critical thinking Caxton College, a questionnaire with 10 questions about the delivery of the 6-hour SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle, sent to each of the participating AMUs.

The data was collected and tabulated per percentage by who to write an essay CATS College, region. Thirty-five percent of the 162 respondents claimed to an admission St Leonards School have implemented the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle in write CATS College Cambridge their own hospital, although seventy-one percent had access to outreach teams, and only forty percent had enhanced care beds. Essays Downside School? Moreover, ‘the minimum facilities to comply with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle were the availability of enhanced care beds, ability to measure arterial blood gas lactate, measure CVP and to administer inotropes’ (McNeill, Dixon and who to an essay Cambridge, Jenkins, 2008, p. 164). These minimum facilities varied in different regions in UK. The findings of McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’, (2008) study identified that only six hospitals had successfully implemented the complete sepsis resuscitation bundle and that thirty-five percent AMUs claimed to have implemented the thinking involves Caxton College, SSC guidelines despite eighty-eight percent of AMUs lacking the minimum facilities to comply. Although resource availability is not the main focus of either of the abovementioned studies, this emphasis on limitations indicates that the extent to which a hospital can comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends largely on the resources available. McNeill, Dixon and who to an essay CATS College, Jenkins, (2008) results indicate that in contrast to the evidence of resources limitations presented by Gao et al.’s (2005) study, it is apparently possible to comply even when there is a lack of resources. However, the respondents’ claims based on the questionnaire alone are unverifiable, as the results were based on participant’s subjective responses. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) have no way of a reflective essay for university University proving that the participants responses are honest, although they do suggest that clinical audits to be conducted for future studies. Nevertheless, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study identifies the importance of the facilities needed to effectively deliver the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle across AMUs in UK, and finds that resources are lacking overall.

This includes sixty percent with no access to enhanced care beds, and only twelve percent of AMUs having the minimum facilities available to fully comply with SSC guidelines. Baldwin et al.’s (2007) audit in Kent determines compliance with the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle according to appropriate referrals between nurses and relevant medical staff. It finds that even where communication was adequate between nurses and doctors, ‘there were instances when the appropriate antibiotics was out of stock in A#038;E’ (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. 255) particularly with a shortage of the College Cambridge, antibiotic Tazocin. It is evident therefore, that compliance with the SSC guidelines not only requires that one follow all of the elements of the my essay for money of Business, sepsis resuscitation bundle, but also that nursing staff monitor and communicate the need for essential medicine supplies more frequently. 4.1.2 Financial resources. Another significant resource limitation relating to SSC compliance is the financial capacity of a given hospital. Who To An Essay College? Gao et al. (2005, p. Writing Admissions Business School? R765) state that ‘severe sepsis is expensive, such as in USA average cost per is $22,100’. Even ‘in an who to an essay age of financial austerity,’ Page et al. How To Write A Reflective Essay For University Coventry University? (2011, p. Write CATS Cambridge? 314) suggest on one hand, that a sticker and poster program could provide an affordable means of ensuring universal SSC compliance. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) on the other hand, suggest that there should be funds for nurse education and training as solutions to ensure compliance.

Regardless of which authors are more justified in critical Caxton their claims, both suggestions are made in reaction to resource constraints within hospitals in the UK. Page et al.’s (2011) study further implies that staffing levels particularly influence compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c). The study notes that ‘compliance was better in Accident #038; Emergency (A#038;E) than in the Clinical Decisions Unit (CDU) due to who to write an essay CATS a sixty-three percent staffing level in A#038;E as compared to the low staffing level of thirty percent in CDU’ (Page et al., 2011). A#038;E doctors moreover had ‘continuous support of how to an admission St Leonards their nurse’ (Page et al., 2011, p. 314). Write An Essay Cambridge? This study therefore indicates that a major influencing factor for ensuring compliance is adequate staffing levels, which is undergraduate, particularly challenging given hospitals’ current funding limitations (Hurst and Williams, 2012). Furthermore, findings suggest that compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the nurse’s role in performing the initial triage for who to an essay CATS Cambridge patients. 4.1.3 Implications for nursing practice.

The level of effectiveness of compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in the UK is partially, but also significantly contingent on levels of resource availability. How To Write A Reflective Essay For University? This integrates into nursing practice, as it is important for nurses to who to write College Cambridge know how limited resources can impact compliance to College the sepsis resuscitation care bundles for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, it is the write an essay CATS College, nurse’s responsibility to ensure that ‘medication ordering systems are in place to benefits Downside minimize dose omissions and delay; utilize staff resource efficiently’ (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Prescribing Organisation, 2008). Assuring that there is proper inventory of medical supplies and medication, and CATS Cambridge, that the proper equipment is in working order and within easy access for a college admissions essay Glion London, use by medical staff are all within the scope of responsibilities and who to write an essay CATS Cambridge, duties of a nurse. In essence, nursing is an act of utilising the environment to assist patient’s recovery (Nightingale, 1860), and coursework College, compliance with SSC guidelines to decrease patient mortality rates is no exception to this duty. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study highlights the an essay, issue of resource limitations in addressing sepsis. However, further investigation is recommended to determine the reasons for the lack of essays Downside School resources and solutions as to how resource availability could be improved to ensure that compliance is feasible not only with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle, but also to identify sepsis in the first place. Additionally, an audit of the 265 AMUs surveyed is recommended in order to write CATS increase accuracy of results. This would also help to explain the reasons why despite having limited resources, some hospitals have found it possible to comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. The next section will discuss the second theme identified in addressing the research question, which is a lack of writing admissions Glion London, Business & Hospitality School appropriate referrals due to poor education of medical and an essay CATS College Cambridge, nursing staff on the implementation of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.2 Lack of appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and nursing staff.

One of the writing a college essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, evident reasons for general poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the write an essay CATS College Cambridge, UK is a lack of critical Caxton referrals for who to patients displaying symptoms of sepsis. Coursework? Seven of the eight articles reviewed evaluated compliance of the medical and nursing staff’s implementation of the sepsis resuscitation bundles as related to SSC education. Only one article evaluated the CATS College, compliance of the how to a reflective essay Coventry University, medical staff alone. The articles under review evidence that better compliance outcomes of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles relies largely on medical and nursing staff having a proper awareness of the SSC guidelines for the management of CATS College severe sepsis and writing essay School, septic shock, particularly in terms of identifying sepsis, and subsequently in providing appropriate referrals. 4.2.1 Identifying sepsis. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) audited seventy-three registered nurses in ‘medical, surgical and orthopaedic wards’ in Chesterfield Royal Hospital. The audit took place in 2005 over the three-month period and identifies the extent to which nurses understand ‘definitions of who to an essay CATS College sepsis, and the recommendations for its initial management’ (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 86). It was reported as an audit because the nurses were tested against the ‘standard definitions and evidence-based management guidelines’ of the SSC (Robson, Beavis and how to write essay for university Coventry University, Spittle, 2007, p. 87). Similarly, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ study evaluates the ‘key critical care skills and knowledge required to’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. An Essay Cambridge? 22) implement the early goal directed therapy (EGDT) as recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Organization (2014b) in Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in anaesthetics, ‘general surgery and general medicine throughout Scotland’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 22). However, this is the undergraduate coursework Ridley College, only article that does not include nursing staff in their study, amongst the eight articles in this review. Seventy-three nurses from junior to senior grades completed the questionnaire created by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) in the form of test.

The questions included diagnosing patients with sepsis or severe sepsis based on the signs and symptoms, five case studies to CATS explain management plans, and ten ‘true or false’ statements (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. Write My Essay School & Management? 86). Write An Essay CATS? In the first phase of the questionnaire, six systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria could indicate that a patient has sepsis. Of the respondents, ninety-seven percent correctly indicated an increased temperature above 38??C and only nineteen percent correctly answered that higher than 4 white blood cell count is an indicator of sepsis. A College Admissions Glion Business? Moreover, ninety-one percent wrongly identified a suspected infection as an indicator (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007). Who To Write An Essay CATS College Cambridge? This study shows that ward nurses appears to have ‘general lack of awareness that low temperature, low white blood cells are signs of sepsis’ (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 87).

McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2007, p. 23) questionnaire ‘was open for completion within a 3-month period and a single email reminder was sent’. Caxton College? This study aimed to ‘survey at least fifty percent of general surgical trainees and an equivalent number from other specialities, and a statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13 using the Chi-squared test’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 23). The respondents were asked about the write an essay CATS College, years of training, previous critical care experience, their attitudes towards the write a reflective for university, awareness of EGDT and the SSC guidelines. ‘A power calculation ‘indicated that 30 replies per specialty would’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2007, p. 23) be required to detect a thirty percent difference between specialties. Overall, although McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) did not focus on nurse’s SSC protocol knowledge, they similarly found that medical staff in Specialist Registrars lacked knowledge of EGDT elements. A number of nurses surveyed by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) had reportedly taken some life-support courses such as the Acute Life-threatening Events Recognition and Treatment (ALERT) course by Smith, Osgood and Crane (2012) where any patient with low BP should receive 500-1000ml of fluid, and may be repeated as necessary. However, there is no specification on to the length of courses or the extent, which sepsis was studied. In the ALERT book, sepsis is discussed in CATS Cambridge a separate chapter, which means that nurses may not have been educated on sepsis. According to McClelland and Moxon (2014), the nurse’s role is vital in early detection and write an admission essay School, recognition of sepsis, hence nurses ought to possess a full awareness of identifying sepsis and managing it beyond identification.

Since grade doctors provide immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) focused only on Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in anaesthetics, general surgery and general medicine. Although McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) suggest the development of working relationships amongst anaesthetic staff, trainee physicians and CATS Cambridge, surgeons in write of Business & Management order to ensure proper referrals and compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundes, nursing staff are absent from the study. This inaccurately assumes that only an essay College Cambridge grade doctors can give provision of immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, despite the a college admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality, researchers’ admittance that nurses are the first to write an essay Cambridge identify a deteriorating patient and how to a reflective for university Coventry University, inform the doctors to come and see the patient. Page et al.’s (2011) study took place in Blackpool Victoria Hospital, wherein it showed that within 48 hours of admission, there was a high patient mortality rate; hence SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented, which included a heavy focus on educating staff in their hospital. During the study, they introduced an education campaign to CATS College Cambridge motivate the undergraduate Ridley College, staff in implementing the who to an essay CATS College, sepsis resuscitation bundles. Activities within the education campaign included lectures for Ridley all the junior doctors, pocket cards detailing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and small group tutorials to all nurses. In addition, posters were placed in CATS College Cambridge every department. Page et al. (2011) proved the effectiveness of this ‘sticker campaign’ in improving the identification and treatment of of writing essays School sepsis by who to CATS College Cambridge, comparing the hospital’s sepsis compliance with nearby Preston Royal Hospital that did not implement the same campaign, and where compliance with all the elements ‘was not achieved in any patient’ (Page et al., 2011). The authors thus fail to provide a strong comparison based on controlled variables (examples are the number of patients, staff members, and sepsis protocols). Nevertheless, they propose that the critical thinking involves College, sticker programme should be transferrable to almost any acute hospital and that the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles could be achieved in a district general hospital. Page et al. Who To Write CATS College Cambridge? (2011) started staff member SSC education during their study whilst Baldwin et al. (2007) indicated that there was education across their Trust, particularly for the critical care outreach nurses and ICU consultants where educational sessions outlining the a college admissions essay School, surviving sepsis campaign and its components were conducted.

Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2009); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) do not state if there were education campaigns occurring in the UK hospitals studied, despite the fact that they all suggest better staff education about sepsis and its management. Who To Write CATS? Lack of staff education on sepsis is evident across all articles reviewed; however, the reason for this lack is coursework, not clearly explained, and who to write, requires further research. 4.2.2 Critical care referral. None of the eight articles evidence a hospital that achieved 100% compliance with the SSC guidelines, and all reviewed articles mention the importance of education and undergraduate Ridley College, awareness of the sepsis care bundle across all disciplines in terms of appropriate and timely patient management and referral. Simmonds et al.’s (2008) study took place in Queen’s Medical Centre (QMC) in Nottingham, under informed consent by the Trust Audit Committee. The study comprises 229 adult patients with significant positive blood cultures. Simmond et al. (2008, p. 124) used an expanded version called the QMC Sepsis Measurement Tool, which includes: the ‘timing of who to write an essay College Cambridge sepsis resuscitation bundles interventions, seniority of doctors and the level at thinking College which care was given.’ The findings were that patients experiencing severe sepsis were only seen by any doctor after a median of 1.1 hours. Similarly, Cronshaw et al.’s (2011) study shows that patients’ waiting times exceeded an hour to see a doctor in an essay CATS the Emergency Department (ED).

Of the write an admission essay School, 255 severe sepsis patients (SS), seventy-one percent of SS had no documentation discussion regarding the who to write College Cambridge, ITU referral (Cronshaw et al., 2011), hence noted that communication between ED and intensive care colleagues need to develop. ‘[D]espite severely abnormal physiology’ (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. 125), only sixty-one percent were referred for critical care opinions and only sixty percent of those patients were reviewed by a specialist in critical care within 12 hours of meeting severe sepsis criteria according to the SSC. Of the 46 patients, 19 received level 3 care (Intensive Care Unit) within a six-day median stay, and 19 received level 2 care (High Dependency Unit) within a five-day median stay. Thirty-three percent of the writing admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, sepsis patients died within 90 days and who to write an essay CATS College Cambridge, thirty-five percent within a year (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. 126). This analysis of different levels of care indicate that mortality is undergraduate coursework College, higher outside of critical care and who to CATS Cambridge, this correlates to the authors’ findings that there is a lack of sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance outside of write essay critical care areas. Who To Write Cambridge? Cronshaw et al.’s research study evidences that only twenty-nine percent of the patients were referred to ITU staff, and were considered not suitable or were labeled ‘do-not attempt resuscitate’ and write for money IUBH, seventy-one percent of severe sepsis patients had no documented discussions for referrals to an essay College Cambridge the ITU (2011, p. 671).

Simmonds et al.’s (2008) and write my essay & Management, Cronshaw et al.’s (2011) findings therefore, demonstrate that a lack of referrals is who to write an essay Cambridge, one of the factors that contribute to poor SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance. Simmond et al. (2008) suggest that SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles are to be investigated beyond the intensive care in order to improve the capacity of the entire hospital system to write Coventry address sepsis. Who To An Essay? McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) study supports Simmond et al.’s (2008, p. 165) suggestion, because the findings of McNeill, Dixon and write a reflective essay for university University, Jenkins, indicate that only ‘few AMUs across the who to write an essay, UK hospitals can comply with the thinking Caxton, sepsis care bundle that have systems in place to resuscitate a patient with sepsis’. AMU is categorised as first level of care; therefore, it is essential to survey the an essay CATS College Cambridge, compliance of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles at Coventry University this level. Although SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles ought to who to an essay College Cambridge theoretically be implemented in any level of care in the hospital setting, implementation at different levels of care does not guarantee overall compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as proven by Glion School, Cronshaw et al. (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008); Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Page et al. (2011). Nevertheless, one essential factor for ensuring compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is the awareness of an essay staff members on how and when to refer the patient as quickly as possible from the point at which the patient is how to St Leonards School, diagnosed as having sepsis. 4.2.3 Communication between levels of care. Baldwin et al. (2007) argue that the reason fifty percent compliance to the administration of the antibiotics is due to poor communication between the prescribing doctor and the nurse who is meant to administer the antibiotics.

The study claims that some elements of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were not implemented due to who to write an essay CATS issues around the doctors wherein junior medical staff were primarily attending to write School of Business & Management the patients’ treatment (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. 255). 4.2.4 Implications for an essay nursing practice. Robson, Beavis and Spittle’s (2007) questionnaire particularly affirms that ward nurses generally fail to involves College recognise patients as having severe sepsis or septic shock and are not confident to give intravenous fluid to those patients with lowered systolic BP or urine output as they may have fears of causing fluid overload for the patient. Simmonds et al. (2008, p. 127) recommend that this lack of awareness could be addressed through the recent advent of who to write College Cambridge course initiatives such as the ‘Ill Medical Patients Acute Care and Acute Care Undergraduate Teaching needs to be routinely part of postgraduate medical and nursing education.’ Equally, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) suggest that education of my essay School of Business & Management nursing staff is needed, and similarly, Robson, Beavis and write an essay College Cambridge, Spittle’s (2007, p. Writing A College Admissions Essay Glion London, Business School? 89) study identifies that a ‘deficit in knowledge of nurses could lead’ to poor compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. A nurse’s capacity to render the best possible care for a patient with severe sepsis is achievable through education. This is a key to implementing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and who to write CATS Cambridge, patients’ survival relies on the healthcare professionals who will accurately execute the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Moreover, it is essential that a nurse has good communication skills (Webb, 2011) coupled with improved collaboration with multidisciplinary teams (Goodman and critical thinking involves Caxton College, Clemow, 2010). Good communication skills and collaboration are the result of staff education and awareness on compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and are essential in ensuring the patient’s continuity of care. Robson, Beavis and Spittle’s (2007) evidence implies that nurses’ awareness of sepsis management demonstrated limited awareness, with less than half of respondents knowing each of the sepsis symptoms, however there is a lack of write confidence on how to essay Coventry, implementing the an essay Cambridge, interventions specified in the SSC guidelines. Therefore, it is worth recommending that nurses require more exposure and opportunity to practice their skills on managing sepsis, through utilisation of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles.

Page et al. Critical Caxton College? (2011) state that their sticker programme and posters may be an efficient alternative to costly education and Cambridge, training programmes as these are affordable and consistent means of educating staff. However, the authors would have more effectively proven that their methodology was successful in preventing high sepsis mortality rates had the comparison between this campaign’s compliance results been made with past SSC interventions in the same hospital rather than with a nearby hospital that did not undertake the same campaign. Whichever hospitals endeavour to implement the sticker programme should evaluate SSC compliance by comparing the present sepsis related mortality rate with the sepsis related mortality rate achieved through said programme in essays Downside order to achieve more accurate measurements of compliance. Also there should be tangible training on CATS College Cambridge, how to use the sticker programme. McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2009) suggest that a minimum education on how to initiate EGDT is important, however what exactly covers a ‘minimum education’ ought to be clarified. Hence this cannot be recommended. Awareness and education without good communication and collaboration will affect the effectivity of compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, therefore, further study to evaluate the multidisciplinary team collaboration in relation to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is recommended. The next section will address the third and final theme, which is the inconsistency of the use of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.3 Inconsistent use of write essay St Leonards Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. The SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles compliance is evident when there is consistency on the use and implementation of the standard guidelines. Below are findings that indicate inconsistency in the use of SSC guidelines as influencing factors on the extent to which compliance with SSC resuscitation bundles can be evaluated in the UK.

4.3.1 Management in addition to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Three of the articles reviewed that took place in hospitals across the who to an essay CATS, UK have added different forms of writing a college admissions essay Glion London, Business School management to the existing SSC guidelines, which creates difficulty challenge in evaluating overall compliance. Simmond et al. (2008, p. 125) used a ‘QMC Sepsis Measurement Tool’ regarding the timing and seniority of doctors and the level of care given. The tool, which is who to an essay CATS College Cambridge, not part of the SSC recommended guidelines, was used to determine the entry levels of write for university Coventry care for patients suspected to have sepsis. Gao et al. (2005) added to the SSC’s ‘6-hour basic ward care’ using the median Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) (Heart of write College Cambridge England, 2010). However, these authors’ modifications are helpful as far as the MEWS helped to identify that less than 15% of the patients received basic ward care. Cronshaw et al. (2011) followed the College of writing a college admissions essay Emergency Medicine (CEM) guidelines to manage sepsis. An Essay CATS Cambridge? The CEM require 1, 2, and how to a reflective for university, 4-hour targets depending on the standard of care, and when a patient is within the 6-hour bundle, the practitioner then follows the SSC standard guidelines. The CEM standards for the management of severe sepsis (SS) and septic shock (SS) are ‘eight recommendations to write College the Emergency Department (ED) within 4-hours’ (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. 670). Additionally, 1-hour ‘sepsis six’ protocol comprises six standards: oxygen administration, serum lactate measurement, IV fluid administration, blood culture, IV antibiotics, and write my essay for money & Management, urine output measurement (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. 671).

Even if the an essay College, CEM guidelines and sepsis six protocol add incongruity to to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, there is still consistency on thinking involves, implementation of the six-hour sepsis care bundle under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC). Nevertheless, none of the aforementioned studies are easily transferable across a range of who to an essay CATS College Cambridge hospitals in the UK, as they have all altered the SSC guidelines in some way. 4.3.2 Modified elements under the SSC guidelines. Two articles were found to have changed particular elements within the undergraduate Ridley, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al. (2005, p. R765) used ‘haemoglobin target instead of haematocrit and used remaining hypotension after fluid resuscitation for threshold of inotropes instead of write an essay College Cambridge central venous oxygen saturation’, which is the standard for the sepsis care bundle. Write My Essay IUBH School Of Business? Likewise, Page et al. (2011) mention that there were some doctors who opted not to apply certain elements of the write an essay CATS Cambridge, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, such as giving the full 20 ml/kg bolus to the patient, and documented the reason for not giving it as professional discretion. Gao et al. (2005) could have provided clarification as to the altered SSC guidelines by providing rationale, such as the discretionary reasons distinctly explained by Page et al. (2011). In nursing practice, any decision about the care for individual patient must be evidence-based (Sacket et al., 1996) and any clinical judgment made by the doctor if agreed upon by the team and clearly documented is the right decision to take.

This is evidently emphasized by the SSC, which states: ‘these guidelines cannot replace the clinician’s decision-making capability’ (Dellinger et al., 2008b, p. Writing A College Admissions Essay Glion London, Business School? 19) hence, clinician can use own discretion. However, the extent to which a clinician alters the who to, SSC care bundles either in writing or in practice will still have a significant impact on researchers’ capacity to evaluate SSC compliance across hospitals in the UK, as is the discrepancy in this particular literature review. While three studies have used different formats of the write essay, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and two studies modified the elements, five of the articles reviewed found overall consistency in the use of the SSC guidelines and have positive implications for compliance. Cronshaw et al. (2011); Baldwin et al. (2007); Page et al. (2011) adhere to the SSC’s 6-hour sepsis bundle guidelines, and McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2009) study follows each element of write CATS Cambridge Early-goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) (Rivers et al., 2001) through the SSC. Finally, Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) test the for university Coventry, ‘ward nurses’ knowledge of who to Cambridge standard sepsis definitions according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign management guidelines. 4.3.3 Implications for nursing practice. In nursing practice, a systematic approach that comprises evidence-based management for patients suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock, or critically ill patients, that is universal and can be transferrable from write my essay School, one hospital to another is write an essay CATS, desirable (Gerrish, 2010).

But given the apparent inconsistency of how to write a reflective essay Coventry SSC care bundles due to different formats used and implemented beyond the SSC guidelines, nurses and medical staff will encounter difficulty in complying with SSC recommended sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to hospital. Moreover, the continuity of care for the patient will not be consistent, especially in cases where a patient must be transferred from one hospital to another. An updating of who to CATS College skills and fostering nursing knowledge about SSC guidelines, sepsis recognition, assessment, interventions and critical involves Caxton College, management, is who to write, essential because most of the time nurses are the bedside clinicians of the patients. It is therefore fundamental for nurses to be given initiatives to update and enhance their knowledge and skills regarding the SSC guidelines. One hospital might have different sepsis management from write for money IUBH of Business & Management, another hospital as demonstrated by the studies of Gao et al. (2005); Cronshaw et al. (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008). Hence the health outcomes will vary from one hospital’s version of the SSC guidelines to who to write CATS College Cambridge another’s. If the how to essay St Leonards, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented universally then it would be much easier to identify evidence and determine trends pertaining to who to write College compliance. Seven articles in this literature review have rated their study compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles by the use of thinking involves College percentage, whereas Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by the use of who to write an essay CATS College Cambridge ‘all’ or ‘none’ as pass-fail for the elements of the my essay for money School of Business, sepsis care bundle. Had Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by the use of an essay Cambridge percentage, it would be easier to discern which criterion of the Ridley, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles needs to be implemented or may not work for patients with sepsis.

This would provide specific evidence of compliance and effectiveness according to the 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Despite adding inconsistency to the SSC guidelines, Gao et al.’s (2005, p. R765) ‘6-hour basic ward care’ using the median MEWS is particularly helpful. Because basic ward care is a crucial obligation that every nurse must undertake, and these include the ability to recognise and prevent delay in intervention or transfer of critically ill patient to an appropriate place for patient’s safety (NPSA, 2007). Moreover, the one-hour sepsis six protocol in Cronshaw et al. (2011) study, which was originally formed by Daniels et al. (2011) is worth recommending to include in the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles internationally as this protocol has already been implemented in some hospitals across the UK. The sepsis six management for patients is also being taught in the ALERT course (Smith, Osgood and Crane, 2012) as part of the nursing degree final year curriculum in some universities across the UK, hence a newly qualified nurse is expected to be knowledgeable on the sepsis management, particularly of sepsis six. Write? Therefore, it is worth suggesting to conduct further enquiry into critical thinking student nurses’ knowledge towards SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK.

Chapter 5: Strengths and limitations of this extended literature review. The reviewer included articles measuring compliance of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK. The publications are recent articles and hence provide good evidence and insights of clinical practice regarding SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in who to Cambridge hospitals across the UK (Aveyard, 2014). All articles included in the review are primary articles and represent a variety of a college admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality School hospitals across the UK with larger sample sizes (Burns and CATS Cambridge, Grove, 2009). This includes adult patients with sepsis in benefits of writing Downside Birmingham, Blackpool, Derbyshire, Edinburgh, Kent, and who to write College, Nottingham, thus helping to writing a college essay Glion Business & Hospitality determine overall compliance trends across the UK. All eight articles reviewed suggested the importance of education and awareness of the sepsis resuscitation bundles across all disciplines.

The overall strength of the findings from this review is that the evidence from the articles helped to determine that nurses play a critical role in improving the write an essay Cambridge, ‘golden hour’ in the delivery of write for money of Business sepsis care bundles, in who to an essay CATS Cambridge terms of identifying, prioritising, and rapidly referring the patient diagnosed with sepsis (Lovick, 2009). Four articles have added some interventions aside from the SSC guidelines. Furthermore, studies by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. A Reflective Essay Coventry University? (2008); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) stress that education is who to CATS, needed, but do not elaborate upon any specific training that the nursing and medical staff have undergone before the study, or what kind of education the authors are recommending. Page et al. (2011) claim that a sticker education program is equal to greater compliance; however, the authors’ fails to compare with past SSC compliance ratings within the same hospital, which weakens their argument and how responses to questionnaires regarding compliance cannot be verified, whereas an audit provides a more thorough indication of compliance in a given hospital. Chapter 6: Conclusions. The aim of this literature review was to Downside School evaluate hospitals’ compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK as well as to identify implications for the role of the nurse in complying with the SSC guidelines. Three main factors that influence overall compliance with the SSC guidelines were found through a critical analysis of the studies included in this literature review. Firstly, the availability of resources and who to an essay CATS Cambridge, equipment such as enhanced care beds and medicinal supplies within the School, hospital appears to be limited in Baldwin et al., (2007); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008).

Secondly, at the very least, the lack of SSC awareness by hospital nursing staff is a significant concern, because nurses are the first point of Cambridge contact for patients, and are therefore largely responsible for involves College identifying sepsis. Trainee doctors and medical staff also need proper SSC education, as McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2009) evidence that only CATS Cambridge anaesthetic staff are sufficiently knowledgeable about sepsis resuscitation bundles. Lastly, inconsistency in the use and a reflective for university Coventry University, subsequently in the implementation of the SSC guidelines ‘ such as a change or elimination of certain SSC elements, whether due to write an essay Cambridge lack of resources or practitioner discretion ‘ significantly limit researchers’ capacity to evaluate SSC compliance across the UK. If hospitals seek to demonstrate evidence of overall compliance with the SSC guidelines as compared with other hospitals in the UK, then the entirety of the SSC guidelines must be followed, even if Dellinger et al. (2008b) have only highly recommended it. A uniform reference to the entirety of the criteria will help researchers to thinking evaluate medical practitioners’ and nurses’ compliance with the SSC guidelines. Moreover, adherence with the SSC guidelines will help hospitals to determine the relevance of each element for sepsis management, and therefore provide a rationale as to whether an element may be appropriate or not, rather than modifying the guidelines from the outset.

Nevertheless, since the SSC guidelines were published in 2004 and has been revised every two years, there is who to an essay CATS College, still time and opportunity to write for money School of Business & Management gather all current evidence-based data regarding the implementation of the SSC guidelines. Even in a time of economic austerity recommendations for write sepsis management could be replicated in hospitals across the UK through the appropriate and more consistent use of SSC guidelines by nursing and medical staff in order to write an admission essay both benefit patients’ health conditions and decrease mortality rates. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on who to write an essay Cambridge, hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to write for money School a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Who To Write An Essay College? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in College your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to write an essay CATS us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of Caxton this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay: Evaluating compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the UK and implications for nursing practice: An Extended Literature Review . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-evaluating-compliance-to-surviving-sepsis-campaign-ssc-resuscitation-bundles-in-hospitals-across-the-uk-and-implications-for-nursing-practice-an-extended-literature-review/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 11-08-17 - Smoking habits of university students - CARDIOVASCULAR GENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 01-08-17 - Effects of stress and anxiety-related disorders on the brain - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 09-07-17 - Enzyme instructed self-assembly (EISA) 28-05-17 - Glaucoma, Diabetes mellitus and write Cambridge, Intra ocular pressure 23-05-17 - Seven functions of self-injury 18-05-17 - Neurodegenerative diseases 14-05-17 - Warafin genotyping in patients 04-05-17 - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and how to a reflective essay for university University, Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

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Guide to Writing Essays - King s College London

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