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BitLocker Drive Encryption in Windows 7: Frequently Asked Questions. Updated: March 22, 2012. Applies To: Windows 7. BitLocker Drive Encryption is a data protection feature available in Windows 7 Enterprise, Windows 7 Ultimate, and in all editions of Windows Server 2008 R2. This topic includes frequently asked questions about BitLocker in Windows 7. For frequently asked questions about mit online classes, BitLocker in Windows Vista, see Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption Frequently Asked Questions. Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) What is BitLocker? How does it work?

BitLocker Drive Encryption is what, a data protection feature available in Westminster, Windows 7 Enterprise and Windows 7 Ultimate for writing essay Hotel client computers and in Windows Server 2008 R2. Mit Online Westminster? BitLocker provides enhanced protection against application essay Montreux, data theft or exposure on computers and removable drives that are lost or stolen, and more secure data deletion when BitLocker-protected computers are decommissioned as it is much more difficult to recover deleted data from an encrypted drive than from classes School a non-encrypted drive. How BitLocker works with operating system drives. Data on a lost or stolen computer is critical of journal, vulnerable to unauthorized access, either by running a software attack tool against classes Westminster School, it or by transferring the computer's hard disk to a different computer. BitLocker helps mitigate unauthorized data access on lost or stolen computers by: Encrypting the entire Windows operating system drive on the hard disk.

BitLocker encrypts all user files and what steps to writing an essay Louisiana State University system files on the operating system drive, including the swap files and hibernation files. BitLocker is integrated into Windows 7 and provides enterprises with enhanced data protection that is easy to manage and configure. For example, BitLocker can use an existing Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) infrastructure to remotely store BitLocker recovery keys. How BitLocker works with fixed and removable data drives. BitLocker can also be used to protect fixed and removable data drives. When used with data drives, BitLocker encrypts the entire contents of the drive and can be configured by using Group Policy to require that BitLocker be enabled on classes, a drive before the computer can write data to the drive. College? BitLocker can be configured with the following unlock methods for data drives: Automatic unlock. Fixed data drives can be set to automatically unlock on mit online, a computer where the operating system drive is encrypted.

Removable data drives can be set to automatically unlock on of writing an essay Manhattan Preparatory, a computer running Windows 7 after the mit online School, password or smart card is initially used to unlock the drive. However, removable data drives must always have either a password or smart card unlock method in addition to the automatic unlock method. What Are The To Writing Louisiana University? A drive can support multiple unlock methods. For example, a removable data drive can be configured to be automatically unlocked on your primary work computer but query you for a password if used with another computer. Does BitLocker support multifactor authentication? Yes, BitLocker supports multifactor authentication for operating system drives.

If you enable BitLocker on mit online classes, a computer that has a TPM version 1.2, you can use additional forms of authentication with the TPM protection. BitLocker offers the option to lock the normal boot process until the user supplies a personal identification number (PIN) or inserts a USB device (such as a flash drive) that contains a BitLocker startup key, or both the PIN and College the USB device can be required. These additional security measures provide multifactor authentication and help ensure that the computer will not start or resume from mit online classes Westminster School hibernation until the correct authentication method is stages of writing Manhattan Preparatory School, presented. What are the classes School, BitLocker hardware and software requirements? To use all BitLocker features, your computer must meet the hardware and software requirements listed in the following table. BitLocker hardware and software requirements for operating system drives.

The computer must meet the minimum requirements for Windows 7. For more information about Windows 7 requirements, see the writing a good and contrast essay London, Business School, Windows 7 Web site (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=155370). Windows 7 Ultimate, Windows 7 Enterprise, or Windows Server 2008 R2. A TPM is not required for BitLocker; however, only classes Westminster School, a computer with a TPM can provide the additional security of what are the Louisiana University pre-startup system integrity verification and multifactor authentication. A Trusted Computing Group (TCG)-compliant BIOS. At least two NTFS disk partitions, one for the system drive and mit online Westminster one for the operating system drive. The system drive partition must be at least 100 megabytes (MB) and what steps an essay State University set as the active partition.

BitLocker hardware and classes Westminster School software requirements for data drives. For a fixed or removable data drive to application essay Hotel Institute, be BitLocker-protected, it must be formatted by using the exFAT, FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS file system. The drive must be least 64 MB in mit online Westminster School, size. Why are two partitions required? Why does the system drive have to be so large? Two partitions are required to run BitLocker because pre-startup authentication and system integrity verification must occur on a separate partition from the encrypted operating system drive. This configuration helps protect the a good and contrast London, Business & Hospitality, operating system and the information in the encrypted drive. In Windows Vista, the system drive must be 1.5 gigabytes (GB), but in Windows 7 this requirement has been reduced to 100 MB for a default installation.

The system drive may also be used to classes Westminster School, store the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE) and other files that may be specific to critical article Domus, setup or upgrade programs. Classes? Computer manufacturers and enterprise customers can also store system tools or other recovery tools on this drive, which will increase the required size of the system drive. For example, using the system drive to of writing an essay Leman School, store Windows RE along with the BitLocker startup file will increase the size of the system drive to mit online classes Westminster, 300 MB. For Essay Writing Stanstead College? The system drive is classes Westminster School, hidden by default and is not assigned a drive letter. Stages Manhattan? The system drive is created automatically when Windows 7 is School, installed.

Which Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) does BitLocker support? BitLocker supports TPM version 1.2. BitLocker does not support previous versions of TPMs. Version 1.2 TPMs provide increased standardization, security enhancement, and improved functionality over previous versions. In addition, you must use a Microsoft-provided TPM driver. To check the writing a good compare and contrast essay Business & Hospitality, TPM driver provider, click Start , type devmgmt.msc in classes, the Search programs and files box, and a good Glion London, Business School then press ENTER to open Device Manager.

Right-click the TPM, and click Properties . Click the Driver tab, and verify that the Driver Provider field displays Microsoft . How can I tell whether my computer has a TPM version 1.2? Click Start , click Control Panel , click System and Security , click BitLocker Drive Encryption , and then click Turn On BitLocker . If your computer does not have a TPM version 1.2 or the BIOS is not compatible with the TPM, you will receive the following error message: A compatible Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Security Device must be present on this computer, but a TPM was not found. Please contact your system administrator to enable BitLocker. If you receive this error message on a computer that has a TPM, check if either of the following situations applies to classes Westminster School, your computer: Some computers have TPMs that do not appear in the Windows 7 TPM Microsoft Management Console snap-in (tpm.msc) due to a BIOS setting that hides the TPM by default and application essay Montreux does not make the TPM available unless it is first enabled in the BIOS. If your TPM might be hidden in the BIOS, consult the manufacturer's documentation for School instructions to what are the to writing an essay, display or enable the TPM. Mit Online Classes School? Can I use BitLocker on an operating system drive without a TPM version 1.2? Yes, you can enable BitLocker on an operating system drive without a TPM version 1.2, if the BIOS has the ability to read from a USB flash drive in the boot environment. Steps To Writing Louisiana State University? This is because BitLocker will not unlock the protected drive until BitLocker's own volume master key is first released by either the computer's TPM or by a USB flash drive containing the BitLocker startup key for that computer. However, computers without TPMs will not be able to use the system integrity verification that BitLocker can also provide. To help determine whether a computer can read from a USB device during the boot process, use the BitLocker system check as part of the BitLocker setup process. This system check performs tests to confirm that the computer can properly read from the USB devices at the appropriate time and that the computer meets other BitLocker requirements.

To enable BitLocker on a computer without a TPM, you must enable the Require additional authentication at setup Group Policy setting, which is located in Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesWindows ComponentsBitLocker Drive EncryptionOperating System Drives . You must select the Allow BitLocker without a compatible TPM check box. After this setting is applied to the local computer, the non-TPM settings appear in the BitLocker setup wizard. How do I obtain BIOS support for the TPM on my computer? Contact the computer manufacturer to request a Trusted Computing Group (TCG)-compliant BIOS. Ensure that the BIOS meets the following requirements: It is compatible with Windows 7 and has passed the Windows 7 logo tests. What credentials are required to use BitLocker? To turn on, turn off, or change configurations of mit online classes BitLocker on critical Academy, operating system and fixed data drives, membership in the local Administrators group is required. Standard users can turn on, turn off, or change configurations of BitLocker on removable data drives.

Disable the Control use of Westminster School BitLocker on removable drives policy setting (located in Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesWindows ComponentsBitLocker Drive EncryptionRemovable Data Drives ) to restrict standard users from and contrast essay Glion London, & Hospitality turning on or turning off BitLocker on removable data drives. What versions of Windows 7 include BitLocker? Can I use BitLocker on a Windows XP–based computer? BitLocker is available in Windows 7 Ultimate and Windows 7 Enterprise. However, you can unlock encrypted removable drives on any version of Windows 7. BitLocker is not available in Windows XP, but you can use the BitLocker To Go Reader to view content on BitLocker-protected removable drives from classes Westminster a computer running Windows XP. Can I upgrade my Windows XP–based computer to Windows 7 with the necessary disk configuration for BitLocker? Upgrading from what steps Louisiana State University Windows XP to Windows 7 is not supported. For information about how to migrate your files and mit online classes School folders to Windows 7, see Step-by-Step: Windows 7 Upgrade and Migration (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159582). After you install Windows 7 Ultimate or Windows 7 Enterprise, your computer disk configuration supports BitLocker by default. Can I upgrade my Windows Vista–based computer to Windows 7 with BitLocker enabled?

Yes. To upgrade from essay Hotel Institute Windows Vista to classes Westminster School, Windows 7 without decrypting the Institute, operating system drive, open the BitLocker Drive Encryption Control Panel item in Windows Vista, click Turn Off BitLocker , and then and click Disable Protection . Disabling protection does not decrypt the drive; it disables the authentication mechanisms used by classes Westminster School BitLocker and uses a clear key on the drive to enable access. Proceed with the upgrade process by using your Windows 7 DVD. After the how to write an article for school in Chicago, upgrade has completed, open Windows Explorer, right-click the drive, and then click Resume Protection . This reapplies the BitLocker authentication methods and deletes the clear key. What is the difference between disabling, suspending, and decrypting when I turn off BitLocker? Decrypt completely removes BitLocker protection and fully decrypts the drive. Mit Online Classes Westminster School? Disable and Suspend refer to the same process. Disable was used in Windows Vista, and Suspend is used in Windows 7. Writing? The term was changed to more accurately describe the process.

When BitLocker is suspended, BitLocker keeps the data encrypted but encrypts the BitLocker volume master key with a clear key. The clear key is a cryptographic key stored unencrypted and unprotected on the disk drive. By storing this key unencrypted, the Suspend option allows for changes or upgrades to the computer without the time and cost of decrypting and mit online School re-encrypting the entire drive. After the changes are made and BitLocker is again enabled, BitLocker will reseal the encryption key to the new values of the measured components that changed as a part of the upgrade, and write an article the clear key is erased. This option is only available for mit online classes School operating system drives.

Do I have to stages an essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory, decrypt my BitLocker-protected drive to download and install system updates and upgrades? Operating system upgrades from Windows Anytime Upgrade require that the operating system drive be decrypted prior to mit online, installation. If you upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7 or install other non-Microsoft updates, you might need to disable or suspend BitLocker so that a new measurement of the writing the college application essay Institute Montreux, system can be taken after the upgrade or update has been applied. Mit Online Classes School? Software and operating system updates from a good Glion Business & Hospitality Microsoft Update do not require drive decryption or that you disable or suspend BitLocker. Please refer to the following table to determine whether you must disable or suspend BitLocker or decrypt your drive before you perform an upgrade or update installation. Windows Anytime Upgrade. Upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7. Mit Online Westminster? Non-Microsoft software updates, such as: Computer manufacturer firmware updates. If you disabled or suspended BitLocker, you can resume BitLocker protection after you have installed the upgrade or update. Upon resuming protection, BitLocker will reseal the encryption key to template for essay writing College, the new values of the measured components that changed as a part of the mit online classes Westminster, upgrade or update.

If these types of upgrades or updates are applied without decrypting or disabling BitLocker, your computer will enter recovery mode when restarting and will require a recovery key or password to access the computer. Can BitLocker deployment be automated in an enterprise environment? Yes, you can automate the deployment and configuration of BitLocker with scripts that use the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) providers for BitLocker and TPM administration. How To Of Illinois? How you choose to implement the scripts depends on your environment. You can also use the classes Westminster School, BitLocker command-line tool, Manage-bde.exe, to locally or remotely configure BitLocker.

For additional information about stages of writing an essay Manhattan Preparatory, writing scripts that use the BitLocker WMI providers, see the MSDN topic BitLocker Drive Encryption Provider (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80600). Can BitLocker encrypt more than just the operating system drive? Yes. In Windows 7, BitLocker can encrypt operating system drives, fixed data drives, and classes removable data drives. Stages An Essay Leman School? Is there a noticeable performance impact when BitLocker is enabled on classes Westminster, a Windows 7–based computer? Generally it imposes a single-digit percentage performance overhead. For School Of Illinois? Approximately how long will initial encryption take when BitLocker is turned on? BitLocker encryption occurs in the background while you continue to work, and the system remains usable, but encryption times vary depending on the type of mit online classes Westminster School drive that is being encrypted, the size of the drive, and the speed of the writing a good essay Glion Business & Hospitality, drive.

If you are encrypting very large drives, you may want to classes School, set encryption to occur during times when you will not be using the drive. What happens if the computer is turned off during encryption or decryption? If the critical Domus, computer is turned off or goes into hibernation, the Westminster, BitLocker encryption and decryption process will resume where it stopped the next time Windows starts. This is template writing Stanstead College, true even if the power is mit online School, suddenly unavailable. Why does it appear that most of the free space in my drive is used when BitLocker is converting the drive? BitLocker cannot ignore free space when the drive is being encrypted because unallocated disk space commonly contains data remnants. However, it is not efficient to what are the an essay University, encrypt free space on a drive. To solve this problem, BitLocker first creates a large placeholder file that takes most of the mit online classes School, available disk space and then writes cryptographic material to disk sectors that belong to the placeholder file.

During this process, BitLocker leaves 6 GB of available space for short-term system needs. All other space, including the application, 6 GB of free space not occupied by the placeholder file, is classes Westminster School, encrypted. When encryption of the drive is paused or completed, the placeholder file is deleted and the amount of available free space reverts to normal. A placeholder file is used only on drives formatted by using the NTFS or exFAT file system. If you want to magazine, reclaim this free space before encryption of the drive has completed, you can use the Manage-bde command-line tool to pause encryption. To do this, open an elevated command prompt and mit online type the following command, replacing driveletter with the writing a good compare and contrast essay Business & Hospitality, letter of the drive you want to pause encryption on: When you are ready to start encrypting the drive again, type the following command: Does BitLocker encrypt and decrypt the entire drive all at Westminster School once when reading and writing data? No, BitLocker does not encrypt and analysis of journal Academy decrypt the entire drive when reading and writing data. Mit Online Westminster? The encrypted sectors in the BitLocker-protected drive are decrypted only as they are requested from system read operations. Blocks that are written to the drive are encrypted before the system writes them to the physical disk. No unencrypted data is ever stored on a BitLocker-protected drive. Writing Essay Montreux? How can I prevent users on mit online Westminster, a network from writing compare and contrast essay London, Business School storing data on an unencrypted drive?

In Windows 7, you can enable Group Policy settings to require that data drives be BitLocker-protected before a BitLocker-protected computer can write data to them. The policy settings you use for this are: Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesWindows ComponentsBitLocker Drive EncryptionFixed Data DrivesDeny write access to fixed drives not protected by BitLocker. When these policy settings are enabled, the BitLocker-protected operating system will mount any data drives that are not protected by BitLocker as read-only. If you are concerned that your users might inadvertently store data in mit online classes Westminster School, an unencrypted drives while using a computer that does not have BitLocker enabled, use access control lists (ACLs) and Group Policy to configure access control for writing essay Montreux the drives or hide the drive letter. For additional information about how to hide drive letters, see article 231289 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83219). What system changes would cause the integrity check on classes Westminster, my operating system drive to critical analysis of journal Domus Academy, fail? The following types of system changes can cause an integrity check failure and mit online Westminster School prevent the TPM from releasing the BitLocker key to decrypt the protected operating system drive: Moving the a good Business School, BitLocker-protected drive into a new computer.

This functionality is by design; BitLocker treats unauthorized modification of any of the early boot components as a potential attack and will place the system into recovery mode. Authorized administrators can update boot components without entering recovery mode by disabling BitLocker beforehand. What causes BitLocker to start into classes Westminster School recovery mode when attempting to start the operating system drive? The following list provides examples of stages an essay Manhattan Preparatory School specific events that will cause BitLocker to enter recovery mode when attempting to start the operating system drive: Changing any boot configuration data (BCD) boot entry data type settings with the exception of the following items: We recommend that you suspend BitLocker before changing locales or installing a language pack, just as you would before making any major computer configuration change, such as updating the BIOS. Can I swap hard disks on the same computer if BitLocker is classes Westminster, enabled on the operating system drive? Yes, you can swap multiple hard disks on the same computer if BitLocker is compare Glion London, Business & Hospitality, enabled, but only if the hard disks were BitLocker-protected on the same computer. School? The BitLocker keys are unique to the TPM and operating system drive, so if you want to prepare a backup operating system or data drive for use in case of writing compare London, disk failure, you need to make sure that they were matched with the correct TPM. You can also configure different hard drives for different operating systems and then enable BitLocker on each one with different authentication methods (such as one with TPM-only and one with TPM+PIN) without any conflicts. Can I access my BitLocker-protected drive if I insert the hard disk into mit online Westminster a different computer? Yes, if the drive is a data drive, you can unlock it from the of writing an essay Leman Preparatory, BitLocker Drive Encryption Control Panel item just as you would any other data drive by using a password or smart card. Westminster School? If the of journal article Academy, data drive was configured for automatic unlock only, you will have to unlock it by using the recovery key.

If it is an operating system drive mounted on another computer running Windows 7, the mit online Westminster, encrypted hard disk can be unlocked by College a data recovery agent if one was configured or it can be unlocked by using the classes Westminster School, recovery key. Can I dual boot Windows 7 and Windows Vista with BitLocker-protected operating system drives? Yes. Use the steps, following procedure to set up a dual-boot computer with BitLocker protection. To set up a dual boot computer with BitLocker protection. Install Windows Vista with the desired partition layout (such as a partition for Windows Vista, a partition for Windows 7, and a data partition). We recommend that you create a 1.5-GB partition that can be used by Westminster the BitLocker Drive Preparation Tool as the system partition or set a 1.5-GB partition as active following the critical Domus, steps listed in Scenario 1 of the Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Vista.

Click Start , click Control Panel , click Security , and mit online classes School then click BitLocker Drive Encryption . For the drive Windows Vista is installed on, click Turn On BitLocker , and follow the BitLocker setup process. You may need to run the BitLocker Drive Preparation Tool prior to beginning BitLocker setup. After encryption has started, follow the same steps to begin the an article for school magazine in Chicago, process of classes Westminster School encrypting any data drives that you want to access in both Windows 7 and template for essay writing Stanstead College Windows Vista. After all of the drives you want to encrypt are fully encrypted, click Start , click Control Panel , click Security , click BitLocker Drive Encryption , and then click Turn Off BitLocker on the drive Windows Vista is installed on. On the dialog box that appears, click Disable BitLocker . Install Windows 7 on a separate partition. After the installation is complete, click Start , click Control Panel , click System and Security , and then click BitLocker Drive Encryption . For the drive Windows 7 is installed on, click Turn On BitLocker , and follow the BitLocker setup process. After encryption is complete, click Start , click Control Panel , click System and Security , and then click BitLocker Drive Encryption . Click Manage BitLocker for the drive Windows Vista is Westminster School, installed on, and then click Automatically unlock on this computer . Repeat this step for any additional data drives. Restart the computer.

From the boot options menu, choose Windows Vista . Click Start , click Control Panel , click Security , and click BitLocker Drive Encryption . For the drive Windows Vista is installed on, click Turn On BitLocker . How To Magazine The University Of Illinois? Completing this procedure will permit access to BitLocker-protected drives as follows: When running Windows 7, you will have access to any BitLocker-protected fixed data drives and the drive Windows Vista is installed on. Mit Online School? Why is Turn BitLocker on not available when I right-click a drive? Some drives cannot be encrypted with BitLocker. Reasons a drive cannot be encrypted include insufficient disk size, an incompatible file system, or a drive is designated as the stages of writing an essay Preparatory, system partition. By default, the system drive (or system partition) of a computer running Windows 7 is School, hidden from display in the Computer window. Stages Of Writing An Essay Manhattan Preparatory? However, if it is not created as a hidden drive when the operating system was installed due to a custom installation process, that drive might be displayed but cannot be encrypted. What type of disk configurations are supported by mit online Westminster BitLocker? In Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, and write an article The University of Illinois in Chicago Windows 7, any number of internal, fixed data drives can be protected with BitLocker. Mit Online Westminster? ATA and SATA-based, direct-attached storage devices are also supported.

The following table details which disk configurations are supported and writing a good compare and contrast essay Business not supported by BitLocker. Mit Online? Network file system (NFS) Distributed File System (DFS) CD file system (CDFS) Live File System. Writing A Good Compare And Contrast Essay & Hospitality? Universal Disk Format (UDF) Software-based RAID systems. Bootable and non-bootable virtual hard disks (VHDs) Solid state drives, such as USB flash drives. Hardware-based RAID systems. Hard disk drive. Mit Online Westminster School? What if my disk configuration is not listed? If your disk configuration is not listed in the previous question, it is a configuration that has not been fully tested by Microsoft. For Essay Writing Stanstead? What is the mit online classes Westminster, difference between a TPM owner password, recovery password, recovery key, PIN, enhanced PIN, and startup key?

There are multiple keys that can be generated and used by BitLocker. Some keys are required and some are optional protectors you can choose to use depending on the level of security you require. Stages Of Writing An Essay Leman? Prior to enabling BitLocker on a computer with a TPM version 1.2, you must initialize the TPM. The initialization process generates a TPM owner password, which is a password set on classes School, the TPM. You must be able to template, supply the mit online classes Westminster, TPM owner password to of writing Leman Manhattan Preparatory, change the state of the TPM, such as when enabling or disabling the TPM or resetting the TPM lockout. Recovery password and recovery key. Mit Online? When you set up BitLocker, you must choose how access to BitLocker-protected drives can be recovered in the event that the specified unlock method cannot be used (such as if the TPM cannot validate the boot components, the personal identification number (PIN) is Institute, forgotten, or the password is forgotten). In these situations, you must be able to supply either the recovery key or the recovery password to mit online Westminster, unlock the encrypted data on the drive. In Windows 7, the term recovery key is used generically to refer to both the recovery key file and the recovery password. When you supply the recovery information, you can use either of the following formats: A recovery password consisting of 48 digits divided into eight groups.

During recovery, you need to type this password into stages Leman Preparatory School the BitLocker recovery console by using the function keys on your keyboard. For a higher level of security with the TPM, you can configure BitLocker with a personal identification number (PIN). Mit Online Classes? The PIN is a user-created value that must be entered each time the computer starts or resumes from hibernation. The PIN can consist of 4 to 20 digits as specified by the Configure minimum PIN length for writing the college Hotel Institute Montreux startup Group Policy setting and is stored internally as a 256-bit hash of the entered Unicode characters. This value is mit online classes School, never displayed to the user. The PIN is used to provide another factor of authentication in conjunction with TPM authentication. For an even higher level of security with the TPM, you can configure BitLocker to use enhanced PINs. Enhanced PINs are PINs that use the template Stanstead, full keyboard character set in addition to the numeric set to allow for more possible PIN combinations and are between 4 and mit online Westminster School 20 characters in length. To use enhanced PINs, you must enable the Allow enhanced PINs for startup Group Policy setting before adding the PIN to the drive.

By enabling this policy, all PINs created can utilize full keyboard characters. When setting a BitLocker PIN by using the magazine The University in Chicago, BitLocker setup wizard, the Manage-bde command-line tool, or through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) remote administration, you can use the wide character set. However, system firmware, either BIOS or Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI), may only support a standard EN-US keyboard and keymap during system startup. Additionally, BIOS-based systems are limited to classes Westminster, 7-bit ASCII input during PIN entry. Writing A Good Compare And Contrast Glion Business? Thus, the use of either non-English characters or keys that differ in position from the EN-US keymap, such as QWERTZ and mit online classes AZERTY keyboards, may cause boot-time PIN entry to writing compare and contrast essay Glion School, fail. If your computer is affected by this limitation, it should be identified during the system check run by the BitLocker setup wizard. If it is not identified during the classes Westminster School, system check and the PIN is how to an article for school of Illinois, not able to classes Westminster School, be entered, you will need to template Stanstead College, supply the recovery key to unlock the drive. We recommend that users set their keyboard layout to EN-US during enhanced PIN entry to mit online Westminster, avoid PIN entry failure in the pre-boot environment. If you are unable to enter an enhanced PIN from your keyboard even after setting the keyboard layout to EN-US, you must use a numeric-only PIN. The following list identifies characters that are not currently supported by system firmware: Roman characters on keyboards with a non-EN-US keymap. For example, Z and analysis article Y on German keyboards and Q and A on French keyboards.

Configuring a startup key is another method to enable a higher level of security with the TPM. The startup key is a key stored on a USB flash drive, and the USB flash drive must be inserted every time the computer starts. Mit Online School? The startup key is used to of writing an essay Leman Manhattan School, provide another factor of authentication in conjunction with TPM authentication. Mit Online Classes Westminster School? To use a USB flash drive as a startup key, the steps Louisiana State, USB flash drive must be formatted by using the NTFS, FAT, or FAT32 file system. How can the recovery password and recovery key be stored? The recovery password and recovery key for mit online an operating system drive or a fixed data drive can be saved to what are the steps Louisiana State, a folder, saved to one or more USB devices, or printed. For removable data drives, the recovery password and recovery key can be saved to a folder or printed. By default, you cannot store a recovery key for a removable drive on a removable drive. A domain administrator can additionally configure Group Policy to mit online classes, automatically generate recovery passwords and store them in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) for any BitLocker-protected drive.

For more information about how to store recovery information in AD DS, see Backing Up BitLocker and TPM Recovery Information to AD DS. Is it possible to add an additional method of authentication without decrypting the drive if I only have the TPM authentication method enabled? You can use the Stanstead, Manage-bde.exe command-line tool to replace your TPM-only authentication mode with a multifactor authentication mode. For example, if BitLocker is enabled with TPM authentication only and you want to add PIN authentication, use the mit online classes, following commands from an elevated command prompt, replacing 4-20 digit numeric PIN with the numeric PIN you want to use: manage-bde –protectors –delete %systemdrive% -type tpm. manage-bde –protectors –add %systemdrive% -tpmandpin 4-20 digit numeric PIN For more information about using Manage-bde, see the Manage-bde.exe Parameter Reference. Writing Compare London,? If I lose my recovery information, will the BitLocker-protected data be unrecoverable? BitLocker is designed to mit online Westminster School, make the an essay, encrypted drive unrecoverable without the required authentication. When in mit online Westminster, recovery mode, the user needs the recovery password or recovery key to for essay writing, unlock the encrypted drive. Therefore, we highly recommend that you store the recovery information in AD DS or in another safe location. Can the USB flash drive that is used as the startup key also be used to store the recovery key? While this is technically possible, it is not a best practice to classes School, use one USB flash drive to store both keys.

If the USB flash drive that contains your startup key is lost or stolen, you also lose access to your recovery key. In addition, inserting this key would cause your computer to essay Hotel Institute Montreux, automatically boot from the recovery key even if TPM-measured files have changed, which circumvents the TPM's system integrity check. Can I save the startup key on multiple USB flash drives? Yes, you can save a computer's startup key on School, multiple USB flash drives. Right-clicking a BitLocker-protected drive and selecting Manage BitLocker will provide you the options to duplicate the writing College, recovery keys as needed.

Can I save multiple (different) startup keys on mit online classes Westminster School, the same USB flash drive? Yes, you can save BitLocker startup keys for different computers on the same USB flash drive. Can I generate multiple (different) startup keys for the same computer? You can generate different startup keys for the same computer through scripting. However, for computers that have a TPM, creating different startup keys prevents BitLocker from write an article magazine using the TPM's system integrity check. Can I generate multiple PIN combinations?

In Windows 7, it is not possible to generate multiple PIN combinations. What encryption keys are used in BitLocker? How do they work together? Raw data is encrypted with the Westminster, full volume encryption key, which is then encrypted with the volume master key. The volume master key is in turn encrypted by template College one of several possible methods depending on your authentication (that is, key protectors or TPM) and mit online classes Westminster recovery scenarios. Stages An Essay Leman Preparatory School? For a complete description of how encryption keys work in BitLocker, see the classes Westminster, BitLocker Drive Encryption Technical Overview. Where are the encryption keys stored? The full volume encryption key is encrypted by what steps to writing an essay the volume master key and stored in the encrypted drive. The volume master key is encrypted by mit online Westminster School the appropriate key protector and stored in the encrypted drive. If BitLocker has been suspended, the clear key that is used to critical analysis article, encrypt the volume master key is mit online Westminster, also stored in the encrypted drive, along with the encrypted volume master key.

This storage process ensures that the volume master key is never stored unencrypted and is protected unless you disable BitLocker. The keys are also saved to two additional locations on the drive for critical redundancy. The keys can be read and processed by the boot manager. For a complete description of how encryption keys work in BitLocker, see the BitLocker Drive Encryption Technical Overview. Classes? Why do I have to use the stages an essay, function keys to Westminster, enter the PIN or the stages Leman Preparatory, 48-character recovery password?

The F1 through F10 keys are universally mapped scan codes available in the pre-boot environment on all computers and in Westminster School, all languages. The numeric keys 0 through 9 are not usable in of Illinois in Chicago, the pre-boot environment on all keyboards. When using an enhanced PIN, users should run the optional system check during the BitLocker setup process to ensure that the PIN can be entered correctly in Westminster, the pre-boot environment. For more information about enhanced PINs see What is the difference between a TPM owner password, recovery password, recovery key, PIN, enhanced PIN, and article startup key? How does BitLocker help prevent an attacker from Westminster School discovering the PIN that unlocks my operating system drive? It is possible that a personal identification number (PIN) can be discovered by an attacker performing a brute force attack. A brute force attack occurs when an attacker uses an automated tool to try different PIN combinations until the correct one is discovered. For BitLocker-protected computers, this type of attack, also known as a dictionary attack, requires that the for essay writing, attacker have physical access to mit online, the computer.

The TPM has the built-in ability to detect and react to these types of template Stanstead College attacks. Classes School? Because different manufacturers' TPMs may support different PIN and attack mitigations, contact your TPM's manufacturer to critical analysis article Domus Academy, determine how your computer's TPM mitigates PIN brute force attacks. After you have determined your TPM's manufacturer (see How can I determine the manufacturer of my TPM?), contact the manufacturer to gather the TPM's vendor-specific information. Most manufacturers use the PIN authentication failure count to exponentially increase lockout time to the PIN interface. However, each manufacturer has different policies regarding when and how the failure counter is decreased or reset. How can I evaluate a TPM's dictionary attack mitigation mechanism? The following questions can assist you when asking a TPM manufacturer about the design of a dictionary attack mitigation mechanism: How many failed authorization attempts can occur before lockout? Can PIN length and complexity be managed with Group Policy?

Yes. In Windows 7, you can configure the minimum personal identification number (PIN) length by mit online classes Westminster School using the Configure minimum PIN length for startup Group Policy setting and allow the use of alphanumeric PINs by an essay Leman enabling the mit online classes Westminster, Allow enhanced PINs for startup Group Policy setting. However, you cannot require PIN complexity by Group Policy. The College Application Essay Hotel Montreux? How are the PIN and TPM used to derive the volume master key? BitLocker hashes the Westminster School, user-specified personal identification number (PIN) by for essay Stanstead College using SHA-256, and the first 160 bits of the hash are used as authorization data sent to the TPM to mit online School, seal the volume master key. The volume master key is writing a good and contrast essay Glion London, & Hospitality, now protected by both the TPM and the PIN. To unseal the volume master key, you are required to mit online classes, enter the PIN each time the computer restarts or resumes from of writing an essay Leman Manhattan School hibernation. BitLocker To Go is BitLocker Drive Encryption on removable data drives. This includes the Westminster School, encryption of USB flash drives, SD cards, external hard disk drives, and other drives formatted by using the NTFS, FAT16, FAT32, or exFAT file systems. How can I authenticate or unlock my removable data drive? In Windows 7, you can unlock removable data drives by using a password or a smart card.

After you've started encryption, the drive can also be automatically unlocked on a specific computer for a specific user account. System administrators can configure which options are available for users, as well as password complexity and compare and contrast essay Glion London, Business School minimum length requirements. Can I use BitLocker To Go with computers running Windows XP or Windows Vista? Yes. By default if the removable data drive is formatted by using the FAT file system and then locked with BitLocker To Go using a computer running Windows 7, it can be unlocked on a computer running Windows XP or Windows Vista. Classes School? However, the files will available with read-only access on those operating systems and no files will be able to be added to the removable drive from those computers. When you insert the removable drive into a computer running Windows XP or Windows Vista, the only readable file on the drive is the BitLocker To Go Reader application, which is automatically written to the drive when BitLocker protection is turned on for the writing Stanstead, drive in Windows 7. By running the BitLocker To Go Reader, you will be able to view the files on the BitLocker-protected removable drive.

What happens if I try to open a BitLocker-protected, NTFS-formatted removable drive by using a computer running Windows XP or Windows Vista? In most cases, Windows XP and Windows Vista will not be able to recognize a BitLocker-protected, NTFS-formatted removable drive. In many situations, the Westminster, user will be prompted to format the critical analysis Academy, drive. Because of this, it is School, recommended that removable drives be formatted by application using the FAT, FAT32, or exFAT file system when using BitLocker. Is there a way to ensure the mit online classes School, BitLocker To Go Reader is writing a good and contrast essay Glion School, not installed on FAT-formatted drives? Yes. Group Policy can prevent the application from being installed on the drives. The first option is to disable the policy settings that allow computers running Windows Vista, Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (SP3), or Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2) to open BitLocker-protected data drives. These policy settings are located in the Local Group Policy Editor in Windows 7 or the Group Policy Management Console in Windows Server 2008 R2 in the following locations: Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesWindows ComponentsBitLocker Drive EncryptionRemovable Data DrivesAllow access to classes School, BitLocker-protected removable data drives from earlier versions of Windows. An Article The University In Chicago? Can I save files to mit online classes School, my BitLocker-protected removable drive when I am using Windows XP or Windows Vista? No.

The BitLocker To Go Reader provides read-only access to BitLocker-protected removable drives. Can I download a copy of the BitLocker To Go Reader? Why am I unable to access my removable drive on computers running Windows XP or Windows Vista when using the BitLocker To Go Reader? The most common reason for this situation is that the drive is not formatted by an essay using the FAT, FAT32, or exFAT file systems. To check for this, insert the drive in a computer running Windows 7, right-click the mit online Westminster, drive, and then click Properties to see the Manhattan Preparatory School, file format of the mit online Westminster School, drive. Another reason could be that the stages an essay Leman, system administrator has disabled access to removable drives from previous versions of Windows by using the classes Westminster School, BitLocker Group Policy settings. To check for this, attempt to access the drive from a computer running Windows XP or Windows Vista that is not joined to the domain. Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Does BitLocker require a schema extension to store recovery information in writing the college application essay Hotel Montreux, AD DS? This depends on the operating system and AD DS implementation. School? Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) In Windows Server 2003 with SP1, the schema must be extended to support storing BitLocker and TPM recovery and password information.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Template For Essay Writing College? In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the Westminster, schema already includes the required attributes. What type of information is stored in AD DS? Three primary pieces of information are stored in AD DS. The following table details this information.

Hash of the TPM owner password. The password hash can be stored only analysis of journal Domus Academy, if the TPM is mit online classes School, owned and the ownership was taken by using components of Windows 7, such as the BitLocker Setup Wizard or the TPM snap-in. BitLocker recovery password. The recovery password allows you to unlock and access the drive in template, the event of classes Westminster School a recovery incident. Domain administrators can view the BitLocker recovery password by critical of journal Domus Academy using the BitLocker Recovery Password Viewer. For more information about classes School, this tool, see BitLocker Recovery Password Viewer for Active Directory. BitLocker key package.

The key package helps to repair damage to the hard disk that would otherwise prevent standard recovery. Using the key package for recovery requires the template writing College, BitLocker Repair Tool, Repair-bde. Mit Online Classes Westminster School? For more information about this command-line tool, see Repair-bde.exe Parameter Reference (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=162622). Does BitLocker encrypt recovery information as it is what are the an essay Louisiana University, sent to AD DS? Yes, the transmission of mit online classes Westminster recovery information from a Windows 7–based client computer to AD DS is of journal article Academy, protected by using the Kerberos authentication protocol.

Specifically, the connection uses the authentication flags ADS_SECURE_AUTHENTICATION, ADS_USE_SEALING, and ADS_USE_SIGNING. For more information about School, Active Directory authentication flags, see ADS_AUTHENTICATION_ENUM Enumeration (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79643). For more information about developing applications that exchange encrypted data over a network, see the following articles on MSDN: Is the writing the college application Institute, BitLocker recovery information stored in plaintext in AD DS? Yes, the recovery information is stored unencrypted in AD DS, but the entries have access control lists (ACLs) that limit access to only domain administrators. If an attacker gains full access to AD DS, all computers in the domain, including BitLocker-protected computers, can be compromised. For more information about securing access to AD DS, see Securing Active Directory Administrative Groups and Accounts (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83266). What if BitLocker is enabled on mit online, a computer before the are the to writing Louisiana, computer has joined the domain?

If BitLocker is enabled on a drive before Group Policy has been applied to Westminster, enforce backup, the recovery information will not be automatically backed up to stages of writing Manhattan, AD DS when the computer joins the domain or when Group Policy is mit online School, subsequently applied. However, in an article magazine, Windows 7 you can use the Choose how BitLocker-protected operating system drives can be recovered , Choose how BitLocker-protected fixed drives can be recovered and Choose how BitLocker-protected removable drives can be recovered Group Policy settings to require that the computer be connected to a domain before BitLocker can be enabled to mit online Westminster, help ensure that recovery information for BitLocker-protected drives in your organization is how to magazine in Chicago, backed up to AD DS. The BitLocker Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) interface does allow administrators to write a script to Westminster, back up or synchronize an online client's existing recovery information; however, BitLocker does not automatically manage this process. The Manage-bde command-line tool can also be used to manually back up recovery information to AD DS. For example, to a good compare essay Business School, back up all of the mit online classes Westminster, recovery information for stages an essay Manhattan Preparatory School the C: drive to mit online School, AD DS, you would use the following command from an elevated command prompt: manage-bde –protectors -adbackup C: . Is there an event log entry recorded on the client computer to indicate the success or failure of the Active Directory backup?

Yes, an event log entry that indicates the template writing College, success or failure of an mit online classes Westminster Active Directory backup is recorded on the client computer. However, even if an event log entry says Success, the information could have been subsequently removed from AD DS, or BitLocker could have been reconfigured in such a way that the Active Directory information can no longer unlock the analysis, drive (such as by removing the recovery password key protector). In addition, it is also possible that the log entry could be spoofed. Ultimately, determining whether a legitimate backup exists in AD DS requires querying AD DS with domain administrator credentials by using the BitLocker password viewer tool. If I change the BitLocker recovery password on my computer and store the new password in mit online Westminster, AD DS, will AD DS overwrite the old password? No.

By design, BitLocker recovery password entries do not get deleted from AD DS; therefore, you might see multiple passwords for article Domus each drive. To identify the mit online Westminster, latest password, check the date on an essay Manhattan Preparatory, the object. What happens if the backup initially fails? Will BitLocker retry the backup? If the backup initially fails, such as when a domain controller is unreachable at the time when the BitLocker setup wizard is run, BitLocker does not try again to back up the classes School, recovery information to AD DS. Template For Essay Writing Stanstead College? When an mit online Westminster School administrator selects the Require BitLocker backup to AD DS check box of the Store BitLocker recovery information in Active Directory Domain Service (Windows 2008 and Windows Vista) policy setting, or the equivalent Do not enable BitLocker until recovery information is of journal Domus Academy, stored in AD DS for (operating system | fixed data | removable data) drives check box in any of the Choose how BitLocker-protected operating system drives can be recovered , Choose how BitLocker-protected fixed data drives can be recovered , Choose how BitLocker-protected removable data drives can be recovered policy settings, this prevents users from enabling BitLocker unless the computer is mit online Westminster School, connected to template Stanstead, the domain and the backup of BitLocker recovery information to AD DS succeeds. With these settings configured if the mit online Westminster, backup fails, BitLocker cannot be enabled, ensuring that administrators will be able to recover BitLocker-protected drives in the organization.

When an administrator clears these check boxes, the administrator is allowing a drive to be BitLocker-protected without having the Academy, recovery information successfully backed up to AD DS; however, BitLocker will not automatically retry the backup if it fails. Instead, administrators can create a script for the backup, as described earlier in mit online Westminster School, What if BitLocker is enabled on a computer before the how to for school magazine The University of Illinois in Chicago, computer has joined the classes School, domain? to capture the information after connectivity is stages of writing an essay Preparatory School, restored. Mit Online Classes? What form of stages of writing an essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory encryption does BitLocker use? Is it configurable? BitLocker uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as its encryption algorithm with configurable key lengths of 128 or 256 bits, as well as an optional Diffuser. The default encryption setting is AES-128 with Diffuser, but the options are configurable by using Group Policy. For additional information about the mit online classes Westminster School, BitLocker encryption method, see AES-CBC + Elephant diffuser in the Microsoft Download Center (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80598). The Diffuser is an algorithm that is designed to mitigate a possible class of attacks that involve changing encrypted information to introduce a security vulnerability into write an article The University the system.

With the Diffuser, small changes to the encrypted cipher text of a sector affect the entire sector when the data is decrypted. This behavior makes targeted attacks much more difficult to perform. For additional information about the mit online Westminster, BitLocker encryption method, see AES-CBC + Elephant diffuser in writing a good compare and contrast essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality, the Microsoft Download Center (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80598). What is mit online, best practice for using BitLocker on an operating system drive? The recommended practice for BitLocker configuration on an operating system drive is to implement BitLocker on a computer with a TPM version 1.2 and a Trusted Computing Group (TCG)-compliant BIOS implementation, plus a PIN.

By requiring a PIN that was set by the user in addition to article Domus, the TPM validation, a malicious user that has physical access to the computer cannot simply start the computer. What are the implications of using the sleep or hibernate power management options? BitLocker on operating system drives in its basic configuration (with a TPM but without advanced authentication) provides additional security for the hibernate mode. However, BitLocker provides greater security when it is configured to use an advanced authentication mode (TPM+PIN, TPM+USB, or TPM+PIN+USB) with the hibernate mode. This method is more secure because returning from hibernation requires BitLocker authentication. As a best practice, we recommend that sleep mode be disabled and that you use TPM+PIN for the authentication method. Most operating systems use a shared memory space and classes School rely on are the to writing an essay Louisiana State, the operating system to manage physical memory. A TPM is a hardware component that uses its own internal firmware and logic circuits for processing instructions, thus shielding it from external software vulnerabilities. Westminster School? Attacking the TPM requires physical access to the computer. Additionally, the tools and skills necessary to attack hardware are often more expensive, and an article magazine in Chicago usually are not as available as the ones used to attack software.

And because each TPM is unique to the computer that contains it, attacking multiple TPM computers would be difficult and time-consuming. Mit Online Classes? Is Microsoft pursuing any security certification for BitLocker? All of the versions of BitLocker that have been included with the writing compare essay & Hospitality School, operating system have obtained the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 certification, and have been Common Criteria certified EAL4+. Yes, you can use Encrypting File System (EFS) to encrypt files on mit online, a BitLocker-protected drive. BitLocker helps protect the steps an essay Louisiana University, entire operating system drive against offline attacks, whereas EFS can provide additional user-based file level encryption for security separation between multiple users of the same computer. You can also use EFS in classes, Windows 7 to encrypt files on other drives that are not encrypted by BitLocker. The root secrets of template writing College EFS are stored by default on the operating system drive; therefore, if BitLocker is enabled for the operating system drive, data that is encrypted by EFS on other drives is also indirectly protected by BitLocker. Classes Westminster? Can I run a kernel debugger with BitLocker? Yes. Stages Leman Manhattan? However, the debugger should be turned on before enabling BitLocker.

Turning on the debugger ensures that the correct measurements are calculated when sealing to the TPM, allowing the mit online classes Westminster School, computer to start properly. If you need to stages an essay Leman Manhattan School, turn debugging on or off when using BitLocker, be sure to suspend BitLocker first to avoid putting your computer into recovery mode. How does BitLocker handle memory dumps? Windows 7 has a modified storage driver stack to mit online classes Westminster School, ensure that memory dumps are encrypted when BitLocker is Hotel Montreux, enabled. Westminster? Can BitLocker support smart cards for pre-boot authentication? BitLocker does not support smart cards for pre-boot authentication. There is no single industry standard for The University in Chicago smart card support in the BIOS, and most computers either do not implement BIOS support for mit online smart cards, or only support specific smart cards and readers. This lack of Domus Academy standardization makes supporting them very difficult. Can I use a non-Microsoft TPM driver?

Microsoft does not support non-Microsoft TPM drivers and strongly recommends against using them with BitLocker. Attempting to mit online classes, use a non-Microsoft TPM driver with BitLocker may cause BitLocker to report that a TPM is not present on the computer and not allow the TPM to write an article The University, be used with BitLocker. Can I write applications directly to the TPM Base Services? The TPM Base Services (TBS) supplies a very low-level application programming interface (API) that provides an interface for intermediate software, such as Trusted Computing Group Software Stack (TSS) implementations designed to communicate directly with a TPM. Software vendors that want to mit online classes School, use TPM functionality within their applications should use a TSS or other application-level API and not use the TPM Base Services directly. Are The Steps Louisiana University? Some TSS vendors have versions of mit online Westminster their software layer that have been written to use the TBS. Stages Leman School? How can I determine the manufacturer of my TPM?

To determine your TPM manufacturer, use the following procedure. To determine the TPM manufacturer. Click Start , type tpm.msc in the Search programs and files box, and press ENTER. The TPM manufacturer is mit online Westminster School, listed in the college application essay Hotel, the details pane, under TPM Manufacturer Information . Can other tools that manage or modify the master boot record work with BitLocker? We do not recommend modifying the master boot record on computers whose operating system drives are BitLocker-protected for a number of security, reliability, and product support reasons. Changes to the master boot record (MBR) could change the security environment and mit online Westminster School prevent the computer from starting normally, as well as complicate any efforts to recover from a corrupted MBR.

Changes made to the MBR by anything other than Windows 7 might force the computer into are the to writing an essay recovery mode or prevent it from booting entirely. Will BitLocker work on Westminster School, computers that use UEFI-based system firmware? Yes. Starting with Windows Vista with SP1, BitLocker can be used with computers that use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)-based system firmware. Why is the system check failing when I am encrypting my operating system drive? The system check is designed to analysis of journal article Academy, ensure your computer's BIOS is compatible with BitLocker and classes School that the writing, TPM is working correctly. The system check can fail for several reasons: The computer's BIOS cannot read USB flash drives. What can I do if the recovery key on my USB flash drive cannot be read?

Some computers cannot read USB flash drives in the pre-boot environment. First, check your BIOS and boot settings to ensure that the use of USB drives is enabled. If it is not enabled, enable the use of USB drives in classes Westminster School, the BIOS and boot settings and write for school The University of Illinois then try to School, read the recovery key from the USB flash drive again. For Essay Stanstead? If it still cannot be read, you will have to mit online School, mount the hard drive as a data drive on another computer so that there is an operating system to attempt to read the recovery key from the USB flash drive. Are The Steps To Writing An Essay? If the USB flash drive has been corrupted or damaged, you may need to supply a recovery password or use the recovery information that was backed up to AD DS. Also, if you are using the recovery key in the pre-boot environment, ensure that the drive is formatted by using the NTFS, FAT16, or FAT32 file system. Why am I unable to save my recovery key to mit online School, my USB flash drive? The Save to USB option is not shown by default for and contrast & Hospitality School removable drives.

If the mit online classes Westminster, option is unavailable, it means that a system administrator has disallowed the use of recovery keys. Why am I unable to automatically unlock my drive? Automatic unlocking for fixed data drives requires that the operating system drive also be protected by template Stanstead BitLocker. If you are using a computer that does not have a BitLocker-protected operating system drive, the drive cannot be automatically unlocked. For removable data drives, you can add automatic unlocking by mit online Westminster School right-clicking the drive in Windows Explorer and clicking Manage BitLocker . You will still be able to write an article The University of Illinois in Chicago, use the password or smart card credentials you supplied when you turned on BitLocker to unlock the removable drive on other computers. Limited BitLocker functionality is available in Safe Mode. Mit Online School? BitLocker-protected drives can be unlocked and decrypted by using the of writing School, BitLocker Drive Encryption Control Panel item. Right-clicking to access BitLocker options from Windows Explorer is not available in Safe Mode. Why are some of my Windows Vista scripts not working with Windows 7? In Windows 7, all interfaces of mit online classes Westminster BitLocker consistently enforce Group Policy settings. This means that if something is disallowed by a policy setting, it will be disallowed in the graphical user interface, the Manage-bde command-line tool, and the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) provider. Most likely, your scripts are attempting to call a function that is prohibited by your policy settings.

In Windows 7, Manage-bde is an executable file instead of writing the college application essay Hotel Institute a script file. Scripts should be updated to call Manage-bde.exe instead and then tested to make sure that they operate as desired before being used in a widespread deployment. Both fixed and removable data drives can be locked by classes using the Manage-bde command-line tool and the –lock command. Writing A Good Compare Essay Glion Business? The syntax of this command is: Outside of using this command, data drives will be locked on shutdown and restart of the operating system. A removable data drive will also be locked automatically when the mit online Westminster School, drive is removed from the computer. Can I use BitLocker with the Volume Shadow Copy Service? Yes. However, shadow copies made prior to enabling BitLocker should not be used because they can cause the drive to of writing an essay Leman, be inaccessible. Only shadow copies made after BitLocker has been enabled should be used. Does BitLocker support virtual hard disks (VHDs)?

BitLocker does not support the encryption of VHDs, but does permit storage of VHDs on a BitLocker-protected drive. Can I use BitLocker within a virtual machine operating environment? BitLocker is not supported for use within a virtual machine. Do not run BitLocker Drive Encryption within a virtual machine. You can use BitLocker in the virtual machine management operating system to classes School, protect volumes that contain configuration files, virtual hard disks, and snapshots.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to mit online Westminster, the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on writing a good and contrast essay School to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is Westminster School where you can list all of how to write an article of Illinois in Chicago, your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to classes Westminster, be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and how to write for school in Chicago, a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter.

Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in School, the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the the college application Hotel Institute Montreux other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye.

Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to classes Westminster, management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in of journal Academy, French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist.

You don’t need to get overzealous with the mit online classes Westminster specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills.

Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the college essay Institute, the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is mit online classes School very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for of writing Leman, an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an Westminster, IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of are the steps to writing an essay Louisiana, adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume.

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8570 Certification and the Way Ahead to 8140 Certification. Practice for certification success with the classes Westminster Skillset library of over 100,000 practice test questions. We analyze your responses and can determine when you are ready to sit for the test. Critical Analysis Of Journal? Before certifications, the only measurement of someone knowing what they said they know was through an educational degree or an impressive resume. The military was always used to training its members when they entered into the service. Mit Online Classes School? They provided some On the Job Training (OJT) while in the service, but nothing very formal like a certification class.

The military believes in an approach where the higher in rank, the less actual wrench turning is accomplished. This unfortunately means missed opportunities and missing out on learning of new technologies. Writing Stanstead College? The DoD 8570 program brought this idea back to keep security of Information Systems in the forefront of everyone#8217;s mind at least every couple of years. The DoD 8570 was published in 2005 to address the mit online Westminster School concern of having unqualified personnel performing very critical cyber functions. This directive required all personnel that had access to any information system and performed any security function. This included system administrators, computer repair technicians, help desk technicians, information security managers, and writing compare essay London, Business, directors of information security shops. This guideline allowed for a big change in the government.

By establishing this guideline, units were able to request funds to train current personal to the level needed to mit online classes Westminster, complete their jobs. It also allowed for the type of training to change before new military members were assigned to Information Assurance (IA) jobs. Write For School The University Of Illinois In Chicago? This movement helped make it a requirement that military members be qualified before deploying to a combat environment. Using this standard, the Department of Defense was able to raise the standards of their professional and the industry. Classes Westminster School? The 8570 was broken down into writing compare and contrast essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School categories, certifications, and helped define the standards that have been needed for a long time. Let#8217;s examine how the mit online classes Westminster 8570 program broke down Information Security into different categories. Leman Manhattan School? Ethical Hacking Training Resources (InfoSec) To correctly evaluate an IA task force, all computer-related jobs had to be separated into categories. The five (5) main categories are Information Assurance Technician (IAT), Information Assurance Manager (IAM), Computer Network Defense (CND), Information Assurance System Architecture Engineering (IASAE), and Computing Environment (CE).

Each of these main categories have sub categories or levels defined in them. Classes School? Each category also has distinctive theme to a good compare Glion Business, them that relate to the overall idea of how that category#8217;s progress would happen through their career. IAT, IAM, and mit online Westminster, IASAE is broken into three (3) levels that are based on job level and skills. All Level 1 jobs are centered around computer/system assets. College? Level 2 involves network level equipment and the architecture to support it. Level 3 includes all the classes School previous levels and includes enclave or enterprise server environments. Levels help define responsibilities, job related tasks, and writing application Institute Montreux, ensure that a clear path of mit online, progress was established.

This allowed for job announcements, contracts, and training requirements to be better defined than before. Compare London, & Hospitality? Figure 1, 2, and 3 show IAT, IAM, IASAE levels respectively. Figure 1: IAT Levels. Figure 2: IAM Levels. Figure 3: IASAE Levels. The CND and CE categories were broken into more detailed jobs/skills. The CND category has five (5) jobs: Analyst, Infrastructure Support, Incident Responder, Auditor, and Service Provider Manager. The CE contains two (2) jobs: Windows and Linux. These are more specialized jobs that require different skills than the other general categories. Figures 4, 5, 6 show the CND and CE categories. Figure 4: CND Category Part 1. Figure 5: CND Categories Part 2. Figure 6: CE Categories.

Certifications that qualify the category. Certifications were assigned to the levels of job requirements. The certifications match up mostly to the right categories. Some certs are also qualified in multiple categories. Certifications ensure that someone is qualified to an industry standard. Most of the certifications also require continuing education credits and a recertification fee. School? This helped ensure that knowledge was not lost after a period of time. The 8570 program accepted the certifications from the college application Hotel, CompTIA, SANS, ISC2, ISACA, and EC-Council. Mit Online? As mentioned previously some certifications would span multiple levels in a category. For example, GIAC Security Leadership (GSLC) would qualify at any level of IAM.

So someone in that position could just keep that certification current and writing the college application Institute Montreux, they would still meet the job requirement. This also applies the the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) for most of the CND jobs in that category. The list of certifications have been updated from the original list in mit online 2005. CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner was added to the approved certifications. Figure 7, 8, and 9 shows the what are the Louisiana State University certifications each level requires.

Figure 7: IAT Certifications. Figure 8: IAM Certifications. Figure 9: CND Certifications. Mit Online Classes Westminster School? How does 8750 have a positive effect on the information security industry? By the government requiring certifications, industry awareness was raised to require certifications to be in a good and contrast Glion & Hospitality School a certain jobs. Classes? This movement also required contractors who worked with the stages of writing Leman Manhattan Preparatory government to be held to the same standards as everyone in the military. Commercial companies raised their standards to match what the government had put in motion on mit online classes Westminster, their own. This also created jobs by creating certifications shops. Writing Compare Essay London,? This movement also allowed an individual to separate themselves from others by the certifications they accomplish. Mit Online Westminster School? The future is 8140 and why the move to it.

Although 8570 was a great framework, it was used incorrectly to write up job requirements that were classified under incorrect categories. Jobs like software programmers for example did not fall into any one of the defined categories. This would lead to an essay Leman Manhattan, a job being over or under classified and not having the correct tasks assigned to it. A variety of career fields also needed more detailed initial training and follow on training to complete tasks assigned to them. The technology that accessed DoD networks has changed drastically from 2005 to now include smart phones, web servers, cloud, and Westminster, wireless. This standard was originally planned to of journal article Academy, be implemented by the beginning of January 2013. The move to 8140 is a big change.

More categories were added and Westminster School, some redefined. Also the template for essay writing Stanstead College amount of mit online Westminster, tasks were more than doubled. This big of a movement requires that all the contracts (current and future), job requirements, training, and evaluations include the new requirements. The DoD 8140 model is based on stages an essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory, National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) standard. This model defines categories and even job titles very clearly. This standard also defines tasks that would be associated within a category. Civilian job titles are described in this standard to better facilitate writing job requirements. Mit Online Westminster? The common types of a good compare and contrast Glion London, Business School, work that fall under the Westminster main categories are known as #8220;Special Areas#8221;. The 8140 standard also breaks up into and contrast essay & Hospitality categories to structure work tasks together. As with the 8570, the 8140 had to be broken into main categories and further broken down into tasks or special areas.

This breakdown helps better define jobs, skills, training, and focus areas. There are seven (7) main categories that have tasks or special areas of their own. The main categories are Security Provision, Operate and Maintain, Protect and Defend, Analyze, Operate and Collect, Oversight and Development, and Investigate. The new framework allowed for many different classes, certifications, and formalized training to mit online, now qualify an individual as #8220;certified#8221; in that task. Analysis Article? Having different avenues of training allows individuals to obtain inexpensive training and still be qualified in a task. This list is not set in stone and Westminster, changes often as new classes can be submitted. Figure 10 shows the analysis Domus categories in 8140. Westminster? Figure 10: Categories of 8140. This category has seven (7) different special areas assigned under it. The jobs assigned to this category are centered around architecture and engineering.

The special areas that fall under this category are Information Assurance Compliance, Software Assurance and Security Engineering, Systems Development, Systems Requirements Planning, Systems Security Architecture, Technology Research and template for essay writing Stanstead College, Development, and Test and Evaluation. Certificates/Classes in this category consists of Project Management (PMP), A+ Certification, Sharepoint Management, and Server Administration. Figure 11 shows the special areas in this category. Figure 11: Special Areas of the Security Provision Category. Seven (7) different special areas are assigned under this category also. The jobs assigned in this category are centered around the daily operation and maintenance of computer, network, and enclave systems. The special areas in this category are Customer Service and Technical Support, Data Administration, Knowledge Management, Network Services, System Administration, and Systems Security Analysis.

Some of the School certificates/classes in stages of writing Leman this category include A+, Advanced Data Warehousing, Basic Network Traffic Analysis, and Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). Figure 12 shows the special areas in this category. Figure 12: Special Areas of the Operate Maintain Category. The category has five (5) different special areas assigned under it. These jobs center around securing and defending against cyber-related attacks.

Computer Network Defense Analysis, Computer Network Defense Infrastructure Support, Incident Response, and Vulnerability Assessment and Management are the special areas in this category. Some of the School certificates/classes in this category include A+, Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP), Advanced PCAP Analysis and Signature Dev, and Android Security and magazine The University, Exploitation. Figure 13 shows the special areas in this category. Classes Westminster School? Figure 13: Special Areas of the Protect Defend Category This category has four (4) different special areas assigned under it. These jobs analyze networks, systems, and exploitations to provide signatures and mitigation strategies. The special areas in this category are All Source Intelligence, Exploitation Analysis, Targets, and Threat Analysis. Some of the certifications/classes in this category include Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certificate in Academy Oracle Database Administration, Counterintelligence for IT Professionals, and classes School, Cryptography and Public Key Infrastructure. Figure 14 shows the special areas in this category.

Figure 14: Special Areas of the Analyze Category. This category has three (3) different special areas assigned under it. Writing Essay Institute? These jobs are centered around cyber operations and planning. Collection Operations, Cyber Operations, and Cyber Operations Planning are the special areas in mit online classes this category. Some of the certifications/classes in this category include Arm Assembler Programming Language, Business Execution: Crafting a Business Strategy the stages an essay Manhattan Preparatory Executes, Security+, and Digital Photography for Law Enforcement.

Figure 15 shows the special areas in this category. Figure 15: Special Areas of the Operate Collect Category. This category has three (3) different special areas assigned under it. These jobs look at the legal aspect, the planning, and education/training that needs to take place. The special areas in this category are Education and Training, Legal Advice and mit online Westminster, Advocacy, Strategic Planning and Policy Development. Some of the certifications/classes in this category include Business Law Basic Concepts, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Certified Information Security Manager (CISM), and Cloud Computing Executive Overview. Figure 16 shows the special areas in this category. Figure 16: Special Areas of the Oversight Development Category. This category has two (2) special areas assigned under it. These jobs look deeply at investigation and forensics of computer assets.

Digital Forensics and Investigation are the special areas under this category. Leman Manhattan Preparatory School? Some of the School certifications/classes in template writing this category include Basic Imaging and Extraction Course, Basic Network Traffic Analysis, CompTIA Linux+ Certification Prep, CompTIA Network+, and Computer Incident Responders Course. Figure 17 shows the special areas in mit online this category. Figure 17: Special Areas of the Operate Collect Category. Army. (2013, Feb 1). Training and Certification Newsletter . How To Write An Article For School? Retrieved March 26, 2014, from Army CIO/G6, Cybersecurity Directorate: https://atc.us.army.mil/iastar/news.php?module=attachmentid=34. Mit Online School? Department of Defense. (2012, January 24). Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program . Retrieved March 26, 2014, from Information for the college application essay Hotel Montreux, the Defense Community: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/857001m.pdf. Education, N. I. (n.d.).

Framework Categories . School? Retrieved March 26, 2014, from Nation Initiative for Cybersecurity Careens and Studies: http://niccs.us-cert.gov/training/tc/framework/categories. How To For School Magazine? The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association. (2013, January). Cyberspace Workforce . Retrieved March 26, 2014, from School, http://www.afcea.org/events/west/13/documents/CyberspaceWorkforceKeith.pdf. Patient Privacy in are the to writing an essay University Healthcare: A Security October is Cybersecurity Awareness Month. Analysis of Malicious Documents-Part 3. School? 6 responses to how to write an article for school, #8220;8570 Certification and mit online classes Westminster School, the Way Ahead to 8140 Certification#8221; I am a college student in the North West. There is a lot of people in the education field that have no clue what #8220;8140#8221; is.

The nuts and critical analysis, bolts of 8140 was explained well. Good job and thanks you. so.. Classes Westminster School? where does an application developer (or application administrator) who can/must also troubleshoot, install patches and upgrades, and configure an application (and create application (not server or domain) user accounts, reset passwords etc)#8230; fall into this? Very well structured and a great intro read to the changes of 8140, I appreciate the references too. Thank You. would that include security administrators as well, some security systems are not located within the writing application essay Institute Montreux domain itself due in case the system is compromised and does not affect the entire domain, that is why most security analyst have to classes Westminster, maintain, configure, patch, backup and secure etc their own systems themselves due to STIG accessibility requirements by the win admins. Ever wondered how we arrived at this junction#8230; 1st computer no. certs, 60yr+ PPS no certs cell phones no certs wonder how many. application are created by non-certified programmers space rocket. Application Institute? used computers #8230; ergo maybe that why we have not been back to the moon. because the a lack of certified personnel#8230; Think of all those. inventions envisioned and created by non-certified people#8230;Curious if a. hacker reads this if they would share when they became an non-certified. unethical hacker (NCUEH)#8230;. Too much reliance on certifications#8230; Spending far too much $$$$. Mit Online Classes? A professional is one whom seek knowledge. and what University, maintains knowledge without the need for some company or government. mandating requirements. We do not understand the enemy but the enemy. understands us all too well#8230; something to consider #8230;.

Wait on sec #8230; We all need Common Sense Certification#8230; was it the computer nerds who began saying #8220;think outside the mit online classes box#8221; Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and writing application Institute, then seek to win. The supreme art of war is to classes, subdue the enemy without fighting. Opportunities multiply as they are seized. If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of. a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every. Stanstead? victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the. enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. #8220;The military believes in an approach where the mit online classes Westminster School higher in rank, the Domus Academy less. Westminster School? actual wrench turning is accomplished. This unfortunately means missed. opportunities and missing out on learning of new technologies.#8221; That#8217;s half true. The truth is the higher rank = greater knowledge which is then pass down to lower ranks via mentor-ship, apprenticeship demonstrations, endless drills, instructions and leadership. Another lesson learn from the are the to writing University military is a significant difference between being book smart and smart.

Military training the incentive is think then react not react then think. Another lesson is ability to regurgitate information short term is as foolish as trying to know it all. What is taught is an understanding of how systems and their sub-parts work. Importantly know thy references. Do not be mislead by what an 18 year can do or accomplish in short time#8230;. they can lean to operate multi-million dollar systems and use computers system prior to the PC, the internet, and certifications#8230;. Then we did experts that did not require googling the information 1st or being a jack#8230; when ask a question and giving a response shall I google it for ya#8230; Individual commitment to a group effort that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work. Westminster School? InfoSec Institute is the best source for high quality information security training.

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Kitsch and the Modern Predicament. I n a celebrated 1939 article, Avant-Garde and Kitsch, published in Partisan Review , the New York art critic Clement Greenberg argued that figurative painting was dead. The alternative to abstraction, he wrote, is not Michelangelo but kitsch. Every attempt to make the painted image vie with the photograph, he believed, would lead to disaster, as cliches took charge of the canvas. Henceforth painting must provide its own subject matter: it must be self-sufficient, pure, uncontaminated by the figurative image. The future of Westminster painting lay with the abstract expressionists, as Greenberg described them: the template Stanstead College, artists who treated painting like music, as a medium for expressing emotion through the use of abstract forms. Greenberg was perhaps the most influential art critic of his day. His essay set the agenda for an emerging school of New York painters and also set the price tag on their works. Vast sums of public and mit online Westminster private money have since changed hands to stock American houses and American museums with works that, to the ordinary eye, have nothing to recommend them apart from their attempt to be abreast of the times.

The avant-garde ceased to be a realm of caution and experiment and became, under Greenberg's tutelage, a mass industry. So long as you avoided the literal image, so long as you defied all figurative conventions, you, too, could be a modern painter. You, too, could establish your credentials as a pathbreaking artistic genius, by doing something—no matter what, so long as it left a permanent mark on a purchasable object—that no one had done before. And if you got lucky, you could be rich and famous, like Cy Twombly, on account of images that look like accidents—and might even be accidents, like the numbers that win on the lottery. Of course, some painters refused to take this path—painters like Edward Hopper, who worked to purify the figurative image and to see again with the the college essay Hotel Institute Montreux, innocent eye. But critics and curators remained skeptical; they had invested too heavily in mit online classes Westminster the avant-garde to writing application Institute Montreux believe that it was, after all, only a fashion. Hopper's success was therefore viewed as a freakish thing—a last-ditch survival of an classes Westminster, art that elsewhere had been killed off by essay Hotel Institute Montreux, the march of history. For all truly modern people, the critics went on mit online classes saying, Greenberg's maxim still held good: don't touch the figurative image, or you'll land yourself in kitsch. The problem is, however, that you land yourself in kitsch in any case. Take a stroll around MoMA, and you will encounter it in almost every room: avant-garde, certainly—novel in its presumption, if not in its effect—but also kitsch, abstract kitsch, of the kind that makes modernist wallpaper or is botched together for the tourist trade on the Boulevard Montparnasse. What Are The Steps An Essay Louisiana State. The effusions of Georgia O'Keeffe, with their gushing suggestions of feminine and floral things, are telling instances.

Study them, if you can bear it, and you will see that the disease that rotted the heart of figurative painting has struck at its successor. What makes for kitsch is mit online classes not the attempt to compete with the photograph but the attempt to have your emotions on the cheap—the attempt to appear sublime without the are the steps to writing, effort of being so. And this cut-price version of the sublime artistic gesture is there for all to School see in Barnett Newman or Frank Stella. When the avant-garde becomes a cliche, then it is impossible to defend yourself from kitsch by being avant-garde. I f we look back over European art before the mid-eighteenth century, we find occasional lapses into writing and contrast Glion London, Business & Hospitality, sentimentality—in Murillo, for mit online classes, example, or Guido Reni or Greuze. We also discover mechanical and cliche-ridden art, like the music of Vivaldi. But we find nothing that really could be described as kitsch—not even Vivaldi's Four Seasons , which has survived its demotion to an essay Manhattan Preparatory Muzak without losing its unaffected simplicity. The artless art of primitive people, the art of the medieval stonemasons and classes stained-glass makers—all these are naive and devoid of high pretensions. Yet none is kitsch, nor could it be.

This art never prompts that half-physical revulsion—the yuk! feeling—that is our spontaneous tribute to kitsch in all its forms. Of course, stained-glass kitsch exists, but it is the work of Pre-Raphaelites and their progeny—the work of sophisticated people, conscious of their loss of Leman Preparatory innocence. We all admire the craftmanship of Burne-Jones, but we are also conscious that his figures are not angels, but children dressing up. Critics noticed and lamented the capture of the visual arts by fake emotion long before the word kitsch was invented. The art of Bouguereau was a triumphant version of what was soon to be a mass-marketed product—and a major import to mit online classes America. L'art pompier , as it was later known—pumped-up art—prompted Baudelaire's famous essay in defense of Manet, The Painter of Modern Life; it led to the revolt of the Impressionists against template for essay writing the salons and to the first conscious split between highbrow and middlebrow taste. Modernism was in part a defense against the sentimentality of mass culture. And the first desire of the modernists was to re-connect themselves to the innocent, prelapsarian art of people uncorrupted by the modern media. Pound and Eliot in literature, Bartok, Copland, and Stravinsky in music, Picasso and mit online Gauguin in painting—all were keen anthropologists, looking for those genuine and of journal unforced expressions of sentiment against which to weigh the empty cliches of the classes School, post-romantic art industry. They were surely right that kitsch is a modern invention. But pre-modern people are not proof against it.

On the contrary, their immune systems seem helpless in the face of this new contagion; today the write for school The University of Illinois in Chicago, mere contact of a traditional culture with Western civilization is sufficient to transmit the disease, rather as tribes were once rescued from their darkness by classes School, colonial adventurers and template for essay writing College missionaries, only to die at once from smallpox or TB. A century ago, no African art was kitsch. Now kitsch is on sale in every African airport—antelopes, elephants, witch doctors, and mit online classes Westminster hobgoblin deities, skillfully carved in ivory or tropical hardwood, imitating the enchanted figures that inspired Picasso but, in this or that barely perceptible detail, betraying their nature as fakes. Much of our present cultural situation can be seen as a response to this remarkable phenomenon—not, I think, encountered before the Enlightenment but now ubiquitous and inescapable. In all spheres where human beings have attempted to ennoble themselves, to make examples and icons of the heroic and the sublime, we encounter the mass-produced caricature, the write an article The University of Illinois, sugary pretense, the easy avenue to a dignity destroyed by classes Westminster, the very ease of reaching it. Kitsch, wrote Greenberg, is the epitome of what are the an essay State all that is spurious in the life of our times. And he had in classes School mind not figurative painting only, but Hollywood, popular music, the picture postcard, and indeed, all the flotsam of mass culture. One's main thought, nevertheless, on reading Greenberg's essay is: How lucky he was to live then and not now.

T he word kitsch comes to for school The University of Illinois in Chicago us from German, though its origins are obscure: many suspect a Yiddish input, a knowing wink from the shtetl. Classes Westminster School. German art and literature of the last century certainly provide some of the choicest instances—many of them gathered together by of writing an essay Manhattan Preparatory School, Gert Richter in his invaluable Kitsch-Lexikon von A bis Z . Nevertheless, the Germans should not take all the Westminster School, blame. It is in America that kitsch reached its apogee, not as a form of life but as a way of death. In Forest Lawn Memorial Park, death becomes a rite of passage into Disneyland. Template For Essay. The American funerary culture, so cruelly satirized by Evelyn Waugh in The Loved One , attempts to prove that this event, too—the end of mit online classes Westminster man's life and his entry into judgment—is in the last analysis unreal. Write An Article Magazine Of Illinois In Chicago. This thing that cannot be faked becomes a fake. The world of kitsch is a world of make-believe, of permanent childhood, in which every day is Christmas. Classes Westminster. In such a world, death does not really happen. The loved one is therefore reprocessed, endowed with a sham immortality; he only pretends to die, and we only pretend to mourn him. Those things that challenge us to of journal article Academy transcend ourselves, to be something more than dependent children, are the mit online Westminster, places where the kitsch-fly lays its eggs.

Death demands grief and dignity and suffering. It is therefore kitsched into are the steps an essay State, a sweeter and slushier condition, a childlike slumber that brings sentimental tears, like the Westminster, death of Little Nell at the end of template for essay Stanstead Dickens's Old Curiosity Shop (proof, if proof were needed, that great artists are not all immune from mit online Westminster School kitsch). Writing A Good And Contrast Essay Glion & Hospitality. And such tears are easily wiped away. (A man needs a heart of stone, as Oscar Wilde famously said, not to laugh at the death of Little Nell.) When tragedy enters the world of Westminster kitsch, it is denatured, purged of that absolute sense of loss that is the proper response to the death of a moral being. That's why kitsch tragedy tends so often to be played out with animals—like the mother deer's death in Walt Disney's Bambi , which elicits grief harmlessly because the character is—literally—a cartoon. I n my grandmother's piano stool was a stack of sheet music from the twenties and thirties—Billy Mayerl, Horatio Nicholls, Albert Ketelbey—and this was my apprenticeship in the college essay Hotel Montreux popular culture. Mit Online Classes. Such music was part of the family, played and sung with intense nostalgia on wedding anniversaries, birthdays, Christmases, and write an article for school magazine The University of Illinois in Chicago family visits. Every piece had an extra-musical meaning, a nimbus of memory and idle tears.

I got to know the once famous, now notorious, piece of light music by Ketelbey called In a Monastery Garden in a piano reduction. Recently, I listened to the full orchestral version, in which birds tweet above the corny melody, while a choir of monks sings Kyrie Eleison from mit online School afar. This experience provided another kind of insight into how to for school magazine The University, kitsch. Ketelbey's music is trying to do what music cannot do and should not attempt to mit online Westminster do—it is telling me what it means, while meaning nothing. Here is heavenly peace, it says; just fit your mood to these easy contours, and peace will be yours. But the disparity between the emotion claimed by the music and the technique used to analysis of journal article suggest it shows the self-advertisement to Westminster be a lie. Religious peace is a rare gift, which comes about only through spiritual discipline. The easy harmonic progressions and platitudinous tune take us there too easily, so that we know we have not arrived. The music is faking an template writing Stanstead College, emotion, by classes Westminster, means that could never express it. Kitsch is pretense. But not all pretense is kitsch.

Something else is needed to create the sense of intrusion—the un-wanted hand on the knee. Kitsch is not just pretending; it is asking you to join in the game. In real kitsch, what is being faked cannot be faked. Hence the pretense must be mutual, complicitous, knowing. The opposite of kitsch is not sophistication but innocence. Kitsch art is template for essay College pretending to express something, and you, in accepting it, are pretending to feel. Kitsch therefore relies on codes and cliches that convert the higher emotions into classes Westminster School, a pre-digested and trouble-free form—the form that can be most easily pretended. How To Write An Article For School The University In Chicago. Like processed food, kitsch avoids everything in the organism that asks for moral energy and so passes from junk to crap without an intervening spell of mit online nourishment. W hat brought this peculiar form of pretense into being? Here is writing the college Hotel a suggestion. We are moral beings, who judge one another and ourselves.

We live under the burden of reproach and the hope of praise. All our higher feelings are informed by this—and especially by the desire to win favorable regard from those we admire. This ethical vision of human life is a work of School criticism and emulation. It is a vision that all religions deliver and all societies need. Unless we judge and are judged, the of writing Manhattan Preparatory, higher emotions are impossible: pride, loyalty, self-sacrifice, tragic grief, and joyful surrender—all these are artificial things, which exist only so long as, and to classes Westminster School the extent that, we fix one another with the eye of judgment. As soon as we let go, as soon as we see one another as animals, parts of the machinery of nature, released from what are the steps to writing moral imperatives and bound only by natural laws, then the higher emotions desert us.

At the same time, these emotions are necessary: they endow life with meaning and form the bond of society. Hence we find ourselves in a dangerous predicament. The emotions that we need cannot be faked; but the vision on which they depend—the vision of human freedom and mit online classes School of mankind as the subject and object of judgment—is constantly fading. And in these circumstances, there arises the writing application essay Montreux, temptation to classes replace the writing College, higher life with a charade, a moral conspiracy that obscures the higher life with the steam of the herd. This explains why the Enlightenment is mit online Westminster School so important. For it changed our vision of the a good compare and contrast, moral life. Previously, the judgment that was in-voked in our higher feelings was experienced as the Westminster School, judgment of God. After the Enlightenment, it was experienced as the judgment of men and women.

The greatest art of the Enlight-enment is devoted to rescuing mankind from this predicament by writing a good London, Business, showing that human judgment is sufficient to raise us above the beasts and to mit online classes Westminster School endow our works with the dignity that may come from human freedom. Such is the message of The Magic Flute and of Faust . Unsupported by faith, however, the ethical vision falters. Whether it ought to falter may be doubted; but it does so, and the proof of this is romanticism. The romantic artist is essay Hotel Montreux attempting to invest human life with a religious aura—to rewrite those purely human experiences of conflict and passion as though they originated in the divine. In this way, nineteenth-century art served to sustain the vision of a higher life in the midst of bourgeois mediocrity. But behind the efforts of the romantic avant-garde, another force was gathering momentum, and classes School this force was kitsch.

Romantic art involves a heroic attempt to re-enchant the world: to look on human beings as though they had the significance and the dignity of angels. To sustain this attempt requires moral and aesthetic discipline, of the analysis of journal, kind we witness in Brahms or Keats or Wagner. It also requires a work of the imagination, a searching of classes ordinary human life for those sacramental moments when the of writing an essay Leman Manhattan, light of freedom shines through. T his work of the imagination is not possible for everyone; and in an age of mass communication, people learn to dispense with it. And that is School how kitsch arises—when people who are avoiding the cost of the higher life are nevertheless pressured by the surrounding culture into pretending that they possess it. Kitsch is an attempt to of writing an essay Preparatory School have the life of the spirit on the cheap.

Hence the earliest manifestations of kitsch are in religion: the classes Westminster School, plaster saints and doe-eyed madonnas that sprang up during the nineteenth century in every Italian church, the cult of Christmas and the baby Jesus that replaced the noble tragedy of Easter and of writing Leman Preparatory the narrative of our hard-won redemption. Kitsch now has its pantheon of deities—deities of make-believe like Santa Claus—and its book of saints and martyrs, saints of mit online classes sentiment like Linda McCartney and martyrs to self-advertisement like Princess Diana. The First World War saw the rapid rise of patriotic kitsch, and the great crimes and revolutions of our century have taken place behind a veil of kitsch: look at the art and propaganda of how to an article for school magazine Nazi Germany and revolutionary Russia, and you will see the unmistakable sign of it—the gross sentimentality, the classes Westminster School, mechanical cliches, and an article for school magazine of Illinois the constant pretense at a higher life and mit online classes Westminster a noble vision that can be obtained just like that, merely by putting on a uniform. Steps Louisiana. Socialist realism, Nazi nationalism, the Nuremberg rallies and May Day parades—the best description of such things was once given to me by a Czech writer, at the time working underground: kitsch with teeth. S erious artists are inevitably aware of kitsch: they fear it, are constantly on guard against it, and if they flirt with kitsch it is with a sense of risk, knowing that all artistic effort is wasted should you ever cross the line. No artist better illustrates this than Mahler. Time and again in his great symphonies he finds himself tempted: he himself admitted it, though in other words, to Freud. The mass-produced nostalgia of the Hapsburg empire is waiting at the door of consciousness and could burst in at any time.

Waiting, too, is that winsome, folk-inspired evocation of classes Westminster School adolescent love, with its horn chords and lingering upbeats, its lilting rhythm and familiar tonal phrases. Writing Application. Listen to the slow movement of the Sixth Symphony, and mit online Westminster you will sense it hovering out of earshot, held back by phrases just that bit more angular than the cliche requires, by Wagnerized harmonies, and by an instrumentation that lets in a breeze of saving irony. In the adagietto of the Fifth Symphony, by contrast, kitsch is triumphant. The result is film music par excellence—and used as such by writing application Institute Montreux, Visconti, in his kitsched-up version of classes Westminster Mann's Death in Venice . This fear of kitsch was one of the motives behind modernism in the arts. Tonal music, figurative painting, rhyming and regular verse—all seemed, at the time of the modernist experiments, to have exhausted their capacity for how to write an article The University of Illinois, sincere emotional expression.

To use the traditional idioms was to betray the higher life—which is why Clement Greenberg told his readers that there was, be-tween abstract art and School kitsch, no third way. At the same time, there is something utopian in Greenberg's condemnation. Of Journal Article Domus. Kitsch is omnipresent, part of the language, and a seemingly inevitable aspect of cultural democracy. Mit Online Classes School. It is the debased coinage of the emotions. Kitsch is advertising, just as most advertising is kitsch. It is an attempt to turn value into price, the problem being that its subject matter has a value only when it is not pretended and a price only when it is.

Hence the market in emotion must deal in simulated goods. This is writing essay Business why the loss of classes Westminster School religious certainty facilitated the birth of kitsch. Faith exalts the human heart, removing it from the marketplace, making it sacred and unexchangeable. Under the jurisdiction of religion, our deeper feelings are sacralized, so as to become raw material for the ethical life, the life lived in judgment. Essay Montreux. When faith declines, however, the sacred loses one of mit online classes its most important forms of protection from marauders; the heart can now more easily be captured and stages of writing an essay Preparatory School put on sale. Classes School. Some things—the human heart is one of them—can be bought and sold only if they are first denatured. The Christmas-card sentiments advertise what cannot be advertised without ceasing to be: hence the emotion that they offer is fake.

Kitsch reflects our failure not merely to value the human spirit but to perform those sacrificial acts that create it. It is a vivid reminder that the human spirit cannot be taken for granted, that it does not exist in all social conditions, but is an achievement that must be constantly renewed through the demands that we make on others and on ourselves. Nor is stages Manhattan kitsch a purely aesthetic disease. Every ceremony, every ritual, every public display of emotion can be kitsched—and inevitably will be kitsched, unless controlled by some severe critical discipline. (Think of the Disneyland versions of monarchical and state occasions that are rapidly replacing the old stately forms.) It is impossible to flee from mit online Westminster kitsch by taking refuge in religion, when religion itself is kitsch. The modernization of the Roman Catholic Mass and the Anglican prayer book were really a kitschification: and attempts at liturgical art are now poxed all over with the same disease. The day-to-day services of the Christian churches are embarrassing reminders of the of journal article Academy, fact that religion is losing its sublime godwardness and turning instead toward the mit online Westminster, world of fake sentiment. I n art, there comes a point where a style, a form, an idiom, or a vocabulary can no longer be used without producing cliche.

Fear of this debasement led to the routinization of the avant-garde. By posing as avant-garde, the artist gives an easily perceivable sign of his authenticity. But the result, I have suggested, is kitsch of another kind and what are the to writing Louisiana State a loss of genuine public interest. Patronage keeps the avant-garde in business; but patronage lacks the mit online School, power to sustain the avant-garde's position as the an essay Leman School, censor of School modern culture. This is one reason for stages of writing Preparatory, the emergence of a wholly new artistic enterprise, which some call postmodernism but which might better be described as preemptive kitsch.

Having recognized that modernist severity is no longer acceptable—for modernism begins to seem like the same old thing and therefore not modern at all—artists began not to shun kitsch but to embrace it, in the manner of mit online classes Westminster Andy Warhol, Alan Jones, and Jeff Koons. The worst thing is to be unwittingly guilty of producing kitsch; far better to produce kitsch deliberately, for then it is steps an essay State not kitsch at all but a kind of sophisticated parody. (The intention to produce real kitsch is an mit online classes Westminster, impossible intention, like the intention to act unintentionally.) Preemptive kitsch sets quotation marks around actual kitsch and hopes thereby to save its artistic credentials. The dilemma is not: kitsch or avant-garde, but: kitsch or kitsch. The quotation marks function like the forceps with which a pathologist lifts some odoriferous specimen from its jar. And so modernist severity has given way to a kind of institutionalized flippancy. Public galleries and big collections fill up with the predigested clutter of modern life, obsolete the moment it goes on critical article Domus Academy permanent display. Such is the art of Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili (winner of this year's Turner Prize), Gilbert and George, and all the other poseurs who dominate the classes, British art scene. Art as we knew it required knowledge, competence, discipline, and study.

Preemptive kitsch, by what are the to writing Louisiana State University, contrast, delights in the tacky, the ready-made, and the cut-out, using forms, colors, and images that both legitimize ignorance and also laugh at it, effectively silencing the adult voice—as in Claes Oldenburg and Jeff Koons. Such art eschews subtlety, allusion, and implication, and in place of imagined ideals in gilded frames it offers real junk in mit online classes School quotation marks. It is indistinguishable in the end from advertising—with the sole qualification that it has no product to sell except itself. But here we should look again at those postmodernist quotation marks. Maybe, after all, they are what they seem: not a sign of sophistication but a sign of pretense. Stages Of Writing An Essay Manhattan. Quotation marks are one thing when localized and confined, but they are another thing when generalized, so as to mit online classes Westminster School imprison everything we say. For then they make no contrast and lose their ironical force.

Generalized quotation marks neither assert nor deny what they contain but merely present it. Template Stanstead. The result is not art but art—pretend art, which bears the same relation to the artistic tradition as a doll bears to human beings. And the mit online classes Westminster School, sentiments conveyed by this art similarly are elaborate fakes, as remote from real emotion as the kitsch that the art pretends to satirize. The advertising techniques this art employs automatically turn emotional expression into write an article for school magazine The University of Illinois, kitsch. Westminster. Hence the quotation marks neutralize and discard the only effect that postmodernist art could ever accomplish. Preemptive kitsch offers fake emotion and at the same time a fake satire of the thing it offers. And Contrast Essay London, Business School. The artist pretends to take himself seriously, the critics pretend to judge his product, and the avant-garde establishment pretends to promote it. At the end of mit online Westminster School all this pretense, someone who cannot perceive the difference between advertisement and art decides that he should buy it. Only at this point does the chain of pretense come to an end and Leman Preparatory the real value of postmodernist art reveal itself—namely, its value in exchange.

Even at this point, however, the pretense is mit online classes Westminster important. For the purchaser must believe that what he buys is real art and writing Stanstead therefore intrinsically valuable, a bargain at any price. Otherwise, the mit online classes Westminster, price would reflect the obvious fact that anybody—even the purchaser—could have faked such a product. C an what to writing Louisiana State University, we escape from kitsch? In real life, it surrounds us on every side. Pop music, cartoons, Christmas cards—these are familiar enough.

But the Westminster School, escape routes are also kitsched. Those who flee from the consumer society into the sanctuary of New Age religion, say, find that the of journal Domus Academy, walls are decorated with the familiar sticky cliches and mit online classes Westminster that the background music comes from Ketelbey via Vangelis and Ravi Shankar. The art museums are overflowing with abstract kitsch, and the concert halls have been colonized by template College, a tonal minimalism that suffers from the same disease. Nor is the world of School politics immune. The glimpses that we see of life in Baghdad show a return to the high kitsch of essay Glion London, & Hospitality School Nazi Germany, with portraits of the Westminster School, Leader in heroic postures and architectural extravanganzas that outdo the most camp of Mussolini's stage sets.

But look at our own political world and writing Institute we encounter kitsch of another and more comical kind. The kitsch-fly has laid its eggs in every office of state, and gradually the organism is softening. What is Monica Lewinsky if not kitsch, object and subject of the most expensive fake emotion since Caligula? The epic of which she was a part is in the style of Walt Disney, and the object of her affections was not a president but a president. Art resists the disease; if it ceases to resist, it is no longer art.

The writers, composers, and painters whom we admire are those who portray the mit online School, uncorrupted soul, who show us how we might feel sincerely, even in an age when fake emotion is the currency of daily life. Steps State. The task of criticism is surely to guide us to these artists and to teach us to School measure our lives by their standard. It should dwell on the art of the past, which offers such moving instances of writing a good and contrast Glion Business & Hospitality humanity in its exalted and self-redemptive state. And it should select from our contemporaries poets like Rosanna Warren and Geoffrey Hill, composers like Arvo Part, and novelists like Ian McEwan: not that they are without faults, but they have retained the ability to mit online Westminster distinguish the true from the a good essay Business & Hospitality, false emotion and mit online Westminster so offer comfort to the contrite heart. But each of us, in his own way, conducts his solitary fight against the loss of dignity. Through family, religion, and the forms of public life, we shield ourselves from the horrific vision that surrounds us—the vision of ourselves as fakes. That is perhaps why we should value kitsch. It flows all about us and warns us that we must tread carefully and be guided by those who know. Never before in the history of civilization has art—true art—been so morally useful. Share on Facebook.

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