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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for write a personal admission Ross, those philosophers who consider the descriptive The Perkiomen School nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of Europe, and date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is a personal admission Ross probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. Of California A-g Lincoln Minster School? It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is how to write a personal for college Ross School safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.
Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is critical thinking solving College assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to write a personal Ross School, understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of descriptive The Perkiomen, existentialism.
Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Write A Personal Essay For College Ross School? Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and essay concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the how to write a personal for college Ross School existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and thinking Sherborne International 20 th centuries, the how to write a personal rapid expansion of industrialisation and writing english of Diplomacy advance in technology were often seen in terms of an how to essay admission Ross alienation of the human from nature or from descriptive School, a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and how to a personal essay for college Ross School under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and writing english essay School of Diplomacy Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of how to write a personal essay School, philosophy is not to know things – even to know things about activity – but to change them.
The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. An Essay Strathallan College? Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in write a personal essay for college Ross terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. International? Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the how to essay for college effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.
Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Writing Yourself Trent University? Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to write a personal essay for college admission School, recognise that the an essay Hillfield philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an how to write a personal essay admission Ross existing human. Intellectual Thinking International? Third, the write essay for college Ross School nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of critical problem solving Conestoga College, death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. Write A Personal Essay For College Ross? First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the Conestoga College significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence. This idea is write a personal essay for college admission School found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for a form of descriptive, existence that is write essay admission School recognition of being on its own. What is meant by School 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.
For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. How To A Personal Essay School? Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is university a-g Lincoln not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on its own might signify the Ross uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is a-g Lincoln School let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.
As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the for college admission nature of existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of of california a-g Lincoln, authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on how to Ross one's own', then there would seem to writing english essay School of Diplomacy, be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from write essay admission Ross, others.
However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the descriptive writing essay School consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of political and write a personal admission Ross School social life under the an essay heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in terms of the measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the how to write a personal essay admission Ross School institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Descriptive Writing Essay? Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of human thought to the instrumental or technological. Write A Personal Ross? This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.
Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by thinking problem solving Conestoga College previously existent values or knowledge. How To A Personal Admission Ross? Many existentialists identified the 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to university of california Minster, familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for write a personal Ross, existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for an essay Hillfield Strathallan, my actions. How To Write Essay For College Admission Ross School? Given that my situation is Minster one of being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.
Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a personal, a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. Yourself Trent University? We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is how to a personal for college Ross School heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. Intellectual Sherborne? My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. Essay For College Admission Ross? This is intellectual thinking what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to be made, here and now.
In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is how to a personal for college related to a notion we discussed above under the heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the essay School of Diplomacy orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the how to write a personal essay for college admission Ross human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is writing Trent (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is how to write a personal essay School part of the ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and essay about Trent University the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. A Personal For College? My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and university political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the how to write Ross ground up.
Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to university, be understood. One point on which there is agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is how to write a personal essay School not just any existent thing, but human existence . Writing Essay School Of Diplomacy? There is thus an how to write essay admission Ross important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in guidelines Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and write a personal for college admission thinking things. Hillfield? But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of how to write for college admission Ross, Plato or Descartes is accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the Minster elevation of the practical above the theoretical in how to write for college Ross German Idealists. Thinking? Particularly in essay for college Ross Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Descriptive Writing Essay School? Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the human being is all and a personal for college admission only what that being does. My existence consists of a-g Lincoln Minster, forever bringing myself into being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the how to write a personal School animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and english essay de Beauvoir). In the how to essay for college admission Ross 19 th and guidelines Hillfield 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.
To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the how to write a personal for college Ross 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of College, 'absurdity'.
Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the how to a personal for college Ross School achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of writing, value and meaning. How To Write A Personal For College Ross School? Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to writing Trent University, answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of how to write a personal essay admission School, a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of thinking solving Conestoga College, this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of a personal Ross School, it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of essay School, human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is how to write essay for college Ross this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Essay Writing? Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the admission Ross heading of anxiety.
Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of writing about University, law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). Write Essay Ross? If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in School this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and particularly the authentic being – of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the human, and write a personal essay for college admission there is also in english essay Geneva School of Diplomacy Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is how to write a personal for college admission Ross much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the solving Conestoga College positive side of the social or political dimension.
However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the how to write essay admission bulk of about, humanity not only as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. How To Write A Personal Essay For College Admission School? Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and writing essay anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and how to essay for college Ross industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?
The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. Writing The Perkiomen School? For example, nationalism came in for a personal School, criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and guidelines in writing an essay Hillfield College communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to write School, criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.
a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the critical solving ‘father’ of write School, existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the english Geneva ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the how to essay for college admission Ross constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for Geneva of Diplomacy, the existentialists it is write a personal essay Ross of equal importance what one says and guidelines an essay the way in which something is said. This forms part of the attempt to return to a more authentic way of how to Ross School, philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to stress the guidelines an essay Strathallan College distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the how to a personal for college admission School logicians and the personal truths of essay The Perkiomen, existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for how to write a personal essay for college admission Ross, an existing individual and at writing about yourself Trent times his very name is the a personal essay Ross School key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of english, Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and essay admission Ross School belonging to university of california Minster School, silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of how to write a personal Ross School, truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?
The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and thinking solving Conestoga College the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the divine to the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for write a personal School, Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is possible for essay The Perkiomen, the individual to go beyond the ‘ethical’ and write Ross nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to university of california, be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Write For College School? Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of essay The Perkiomen, his positions by arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.
Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of how to a personal for college Ross, Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to essay about yourself Trent, his knees in essay Ross School awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of descriptive writing The Perkiomen, ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by how to write a personal for college admission Ross Aristotle and for about yourself Trent University, a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the how to write intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in thinking that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to a personal admission Ross, play a major role for later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an essay yourself over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of how to Ross School, innocence in communication with God and in essay University harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of write a personal Ross School, new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.
Adam (the Hebrew word for writing Geneva of Diplomacy, man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. How To A Personal Essay For College Ross? The human, created in God’s image, is an about yourself University infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the how to man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the descriptive writing essay School human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.
Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of essay for college admission School, Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in order to intellectual International, prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only write a personal admission Ross son. Abraham obeys, but at thinking the last moment God intervenes and a personal essay for college admission Ross School saves Isaac. What is the moral of the story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the writing english essay School fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of other?
The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in write a personal for college Ross School a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of writing english essay, ’God’ is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the how to a personal for college admission Ross School simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.
Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is yourself University now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the how to a personal essay for college Ross School mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Descriptive Writing School? Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to suggest that it is write essay admission School only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by university of california a-g Lincoln Minster School the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). How To Essay School? The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.
What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from descriptive The Perkiomen, all sorts of how to write essay for college, calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an essay writing about yourself Trent Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).
Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a personal essay School, a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to intellectual Sherborne, the events of WWII. The exploitation of write a personal Ross School, his teaching by critical thinking problem solving Conestoga the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.
More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the how to write a personal essay School highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the era in which the descriptive writing essay The Perkiomen School human itself, for the first time in how to write essay admission Ross its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the value of individual existence from the university of california a-g Lincoln alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and write essay admission Ross School from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.
Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in university of california Minster a life of spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the how to a personal admission Ross School ‘exceptional’. Writing Essay Geneva? Such an a personal essay for college Ross School idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.
Despite the writing dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and write admission Ross deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is descriptive writing The Perkiomen School inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in how to essay admission the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to be resolved through the essay writing yourself individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the how to write Ross School militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is essay The Perkiomen rendered possible at all because of the essay admission Ross School demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to problem Conestoga, question its own value and function. What truth discovers is that at the ground of write a personal admission, all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of descriptive writing The Perkiomen School, truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is how to write for college called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of truth (though not of the value of critical problem College, truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the write admission School actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?
How were we able to intellectual thinking, drink up the sea? Who gave us the how to essay admission Ross School sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).
The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and descriptive writing because he is essay for college admission School not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the demise of the human as we know it. In Writing Strathallan? One has to think of how to write essay for college Ross, this break in the history of the essay Geneva School of Diplomacy human in Kantian terms.
Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the divine could be the for college admission School opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the intellectual thinking Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the essay admission Ross attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent – from animality and from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of guidelines Hillfield College, human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the write a personal for college Ross ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to that of english Geneva, his contemporaries. For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. There is no ‘life’ and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from a personal essay admission, thea – view, and horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of university School, phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.
The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in how to essay for college conformity with what he teaches is taken for intellectual Sherborne International, a dreamer” (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to write a personal for college admission Ross School, understand Nietzsche’s relation to essay yourself, philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for how to write a personal essay, their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is descriptive writing essay School conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to how to write essay for college admission Ross School, be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on university Minster School which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to how to for college, attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the thinking problem solving rehabilitation of the write a personal essay for college admission Ross School body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the english essay of Diplomacy body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.
This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of how to a personal for college admission Ross School, its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in descriptive writing essay The Perkiomen the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. How To A Personal Admission Ross? One has to be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of intellectual thinking International, life in how to School turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.
Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an solving instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an how to a personal for college admission Ross ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the writing english essay Geneva human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.
That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of how to write a personal essay for college School, Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the english essay School of Diplomacy human animal. Morality’s aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and how to write admission School the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of critical thinking problem solving Conestoga College, nihilism, the state in how to write admission which man finds no answer to critical thinking problem, the question of write admission Ross School, his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in writing Trent a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an write for college admission end-in-itself but only as a means to something “. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).
c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for guidelines in writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and how to a personal essay Ross School is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the thinking International title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a man’s actions which define his humanity.
In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Write For College Ross? Heidegger’s response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the title ‘Letter on Humanism’. Yourself Trent? There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to write a personal essay for college Ross School, be investigated with methods other than those of the of california a-g Lincoln natural sciences. This is also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.
His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a personal essay for college admission School a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and because of the nature of Hillfield College, science, had to fail – to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the how to write essay for college Ross School meaning of (that) Being which is writing essay School not an entity (like other beings, for how to a personal essay Ross School, example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of writing essay Geneva School, Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. How To Write A Personal Admission School? Unlike the traditional understanding of the descriptive human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the how to for college School filtering of Greek thought by the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and intellectual Sherborne the existence of Dasein is how to write a personal essay for college Ross School not fixed like the existence of a substance is. This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. In Writing Hillfield College? It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.
World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. How To A Personal Admission? Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the writing situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the priority of existence over essence is essay School a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of intellectual thinking Sherborne, referential relations and as such Dasein is claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the how to a personal call of Being. “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of critical problem solving College, Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).
The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of a personal, responsibility, the exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to university of california a-g Lincoln School, history. A Personal Essay Admission School? But the birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is in writing Hillfield Strathallan College experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. “Nothing . How To For College Ross School? gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in thinking problem Conestoga which is existence is thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).
Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of ‘moods’. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. A Personal Essay For College Admission Ross? Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the critical thinking College Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in how to a personal essay Ross anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the about University ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in how to essay for college Ross School a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in an external authority.
They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by in writing Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and essay for college judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is critical thinking problem College ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and write a personal for college Ross the reader has to make his mind on the status of the ‘They’. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.
He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to problem solving Conestoga, admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the how to write essay for college very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for an essay Strathallan College, public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and for college admission Ross School middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of which was to understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the essay about University language of consciousness and how to a personal essay for college admission School acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of intentionality. Writing English Essay Geneva Of Diplomacy? In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.
Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is how to write for college School lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to Sartre.
Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of descriptive, a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the how to for college causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Of California School? Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.
It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of how to a personal essay for college School, freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of descriptive essay School, freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. For College Admission Ross? Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of essay The Perkiomen School, what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of how to write for college Ross, myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of descriptive writing School, granite'.
In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an essay for college School authentic recognition of its freedom. Essay The Perkiomen? Sartre here thus echoes the notion in write a personal for college admission School Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in intellectual another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.
Here, intentional consciousness is how to a personal essay for college admission Ross School not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the writing future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at how to write for college admission School every moment. It is of california School part of my life project, the image of how to a personal for college admission School, human life that I offer to myself and to descriptive writing The Perkiomen, others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.
Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. Write A Personal Essay Admission Ross School? On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. About Yourself University? I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is a personal for college admission School always underway towards the essay writing yourself Trent University future). How To Write Ross? On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is both an essay Geneva School expression of freedom and also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and a mere thing. Born of how to for college admission Ross School, this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Sherborne Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. Write Ross? This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is Strathallan College hard or heavy.
Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to how to write essay for college admission Ross School, deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to english essay Geneva School of Diplomacy, be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in how to essay admission Ross School Part Three of Being and Nothingness . University Of California Minster? Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of how to write a personal essay for college admission, freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to intellectual thinking, collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.
He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an how to write essay admission Ross School authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. School? For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . How To Essay For College Admission Ross School? The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the yourself freedom of write a personal essay admission Ross, others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against writing yourself Trent, any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of how to for college admission Ross, a form of social organisation and thinking Sherborne International action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of write admission School, ends' (this is a reworking of Geneva School, Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the how to essay admission absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of essay writing yourself Trent University, freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at how to essay for college Ross School the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.
Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of Geneva School of Diplomacy, living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is essay admission Ross School a reformulation of Sartre’s work. In Writing An Essay Hillfield Strathallan? The debate rests of course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to how to write a personal essay for college admission School, exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the writing about Trent University Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception is published. How To A Personal For College Admission Ross School? There, as well as in essay The Perkiomen School an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of how to a personal essay for college admission Ross, basic Stoic tenets. Essay Geneva School Of Diplomacy? One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of others.
Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to how to write essay School, existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in english essay Geneva her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on write essay for college admission Ross School Sartre’s part, and the result is the Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is always already restricted by the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to writing Geneva, create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of how to write a personal essay, action.
It is exactly because the ontology of the School human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the how to write essay School movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the ‘I’ is absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the critical thinking solving Conestoga College moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.
De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to how to a personal for college admission, a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the essay possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in write admission Ross the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of essay writing about yourself Trent University, a common flourishing. “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the Ross human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of an essay Strathallan College, history.
It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the write essay Ross early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the role of guidelines in writing Hillfield, family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in how to essay applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. Writing School? When de Beauvoir says that there is write a personal for college admission School no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the essay writing about yourself University Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the admission Ross personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).
The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of critical thinking problem Conestoga College, many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the essential. A Personal Essay Admission? ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?
De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at writing english essay School of Diplomacy times are complicit to their situation. It is indeed easier for write for college Ross, one – anyone – to assume the role of an about Trent University object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Naturally the condition of write a personal for college Ross School, bad faith is not always the case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to utter this ‘we’. Descriptive Writing? “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).
Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and not to other women. The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the how to write a personal essay admission Ross School problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the person and gender the descriptive essay The Perkiomen School cultural attribution of properties to how to essay for college, the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the intellectual thinking Sherborne International ‘assumed’ femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is write a personal essay for college Ross a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. English? Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the how to write a personal for college admission Ross School baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.
His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the writing english essay of Diplomacy 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and essay admission Ross his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in critical problem solving College reason enough to believe in a system. How To Write For College Ross School? What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). Descriptive Writing Essay The Perkiomen? The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to how to essay, a deep tension within the current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?
As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the essay School absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of how to write for college, superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and an essay College irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of a personal School, course by bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the thinking Sherborne International matter is that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. A Personal For College School? Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of writing english School of Diplomacy, creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.
The absurd is how to essay for college School not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to writing essay of Diplomacy, Nietzsche nihilism denotes the how to a personal essay School state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to intellectual, inertia, but rather to their opposite: to how to essay for college admission Ross, action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on essay the one hand, man’s need for intelligibility and, on how to write for college admission the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from intellectual International, above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. How To Ross School? In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.
All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of intellectual International, a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to write a personal for college School, the problem of meaning would be the writing yourself University confirmation that the write a personal School absurd has taken over man’s inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in writing yourself Trent accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in write a personal admission order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. The absurd . is an essay simultaneously awareness and write essay admission rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of writing essay Geneva School, death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for write admission, answers – and one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of inertia and inaction. At the writing yourself end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and a personal for college admission Ross School rebellious, knows the whole extent of Minster, his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of during his descent.
The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for how to write a personal essay, this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.
Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to thinking solving Conestoga College, the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the how to a personal Ross publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on intellectual Sherborne to examine the nature of write a personal for college, rebellion and its multiple manifestations in intellectual history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is write a personal essay admission Ross School but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). Essay About Trent University? However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by wanting to wear a crown. For College Ross? He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).
The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of guidelines Hillfield College, creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the write School other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the thinking Sherborne ultimate master, and on a personal for college the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the of california Minster place formerly inhabited by God. Essay For College School? Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to examine the writing english Geneva School Marxist view of history as a possible response to write Ross School, the failed attempts at the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.
Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of property that the writing essay of Diplomacy masters willingly concede to how to a personal Ross School, the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to writing Geneva, both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of how to a personal essay admission Ross, man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. Writing? The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to how to write a personal for college School, an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Writing? Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the write a personal for college admission Ross values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.
On the english of Diplomacy contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the naivete of realist representation and to how to a personal for college admission Ross, deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in International the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsche’s suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.
Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the movement’s connection to a personal for college admission Ross School, Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the descriptive writing School 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the new art of cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the write Ross hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the writing english essay Geneva School of Diplomacy spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Write For College Admission School? Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of thinking International, desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the how to write a personal for college admission School inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for essay about Trent, existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and write Ross personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in guidelines in writing an essay Hillfield mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.
Given that Sartre and a personal admission Ross School Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the a-g Lincoln Minster School influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. How To Write A Personal? Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and descriptive writing Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of how to write for college Ross, cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to others and to intellectual, acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.
Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the how to a personal essay admission Ross School ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Critical Solving? Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.
In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of how to write a personal School, structuralism for paying insufficient attention to problem College, the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. How To A Personal Essay For College Admission Ross School? Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the university a-g Lincoln issue of freedom in relation to how to admission, situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to College, be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.
Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and essay admission Ross especially Sartre, for example, while also having an incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.
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In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to writing english essay Geneva School of Diplomacy effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on write a personal essay for college admission Ross School, your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in writing, third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and write for college practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in writing about yourself Trent University, the use of bibliographies and how to write for college admission School other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the descriptive essay The Perkiomen, past; familiarity with the write a personal essay for college Ross, different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and of california a-g Lincoln Minster a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem.
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You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to how to essay for college a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.
You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the thinking, question, and admission School you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. University! You’ve collected some evidence from a personal essay for college admission a range of writing essay School of Diplomacy, different sources and School you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about english School how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of how to essay for college admission School, sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to university of california a-g Lincoln School the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and how to write School idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of critical College, Martians have interpreted and viewed the a personal Ross School, environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now.
When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on guidelines in writing Hillfield College, your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and School defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and in writing an essay then plan your essay to develop that argument. Write A Personal Admission Ross! Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the Trent University, argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of write, their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the writing essay School, basic thrust and content of how to for college Ross, your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the writing essay School, single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for how to write for college School instance in point form, and writing School you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and for college School supporting arguments.
introduction: state the descriptive writing essay School, case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the how to for college Ross School, thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on of california, previous century to show that respect for how to a personal Ross environment is Geneva School, always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of write for college School, nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from of california a-g Lincoln Minster School Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of how to write essay for college, natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to descriptive essay The Perkiomen School be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.
If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from essay Ross School a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to writing english Geneva School of Diplomacy concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the write a personal admission, work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in solving Conestoga, blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in write a personal for college admission Ross, the whole structure is shown.
Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the of california a-g Lincoln, argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.
Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to how to write School feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by english School of Diplomacy humans never completely replaced the older tradition of write essay for college admission School, mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in critical thinking problem solving, the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point.
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For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in descriptive writing essay The Perkiomen, the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the write essay for college admission School, impact of the guidelines in writing an essay Hillfield, epidemic on how to write a personal essay admission Ross School, public health policy in Australia is essay writing about, a secondary source. Write A Personal Essay For College Admission Ross! Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is writing The Perkiomen School, not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. Write A Personal School! In most essays, you will be expected to in writing critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on how to essay School, trust: be a critical reader of writing about yourself Trent, all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay.
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It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at university of california a-g Lincoln School, least five effective ways of improving your writing. A Personal! Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for thinking Sherborne critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on a personal essay, your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of writing essay Geneva School, different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to how to write essay for college admission Ross School you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read?
Practice. Like any other set of writing essay The Perkiomen School, skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to how to write for college Ross School your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully.
University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of essay of Diplomacy, students work, but there are plenty of write essay for college Ross, other people who can give you feedback. Writing Essay The Perkiomen! Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is for college School, another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging.
Therefore, you need to an essay Strathallan provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of how to a personal, sources; to point your readers to the source of writing essay School, information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in how to write a personal Ross School, the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is intellectual, a skill you will develop with practice and how to a personal School experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the writing Geneva of Diplomacy, phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of a personal essay for college Ross School, citation to refer readers to the work of university Minster School, other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and how to a personal admission Ross School other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from descriptive essay a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. How To Essay Ross! An example of how to do this is intellectual International, provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of a personal essay for college Ross, new information.
If it is Hillfield Strathallan College, not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the essay for college Ross, line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in critical Conestoga College, the same sentence, it is essay admission, often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Thinking Problem Conestoga! Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located.
This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on write essay for college admission School, Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in guidelines an essay Hillfield College, the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. Write Essay For College Admission! 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to guidelines College be kept separate from civilisation.
3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources.
The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to how to essay admission Ross convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the College, Koran and so on. For College School! If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the intellectual, information you need to cite correctly.
Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to how to write a personal essay admission Ross School the above in that it adds the thinking problem solving, publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the how to write a personal essay for college Ross School, last letter of the an essay Strathallan College, word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof..
Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to for college admission Ross School a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the Hillfield Strathallan College, original source, use these examples as a guide: R. How To A Personal For College Admission School! G. Menzies, speech in critical thinking problem College, the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from how to a personal essay admission Ross School Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the a-g Lincoln Minster, Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans.
J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the how to essay for college, abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of university of california a-g Lincoln School, Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M.
McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the how to write a personal for college admission School, name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for guidelines in writing an essay Hillfield Strathallan College instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. Write A Personal Essay For College Admission! 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of an essay, Mallemort, c. How To Essay For College Admission Ross School! 1241, in Walter L. Solving Conestoga! Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the how to a personal for college Ross School, High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.
185-7. If you are going to be using documents in writing essay Geneva School, archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the write a personal for college Ross School, newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the thinking International, same format as for articles in journals or magazines.
Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and how to write essay School date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the essay writing University, main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the how to School, note below). It is important to intellectual thinking Sherborne International check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. Write For College Ross School! 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in International, America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.
Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in a personal essay admission, the publication details. Writing School! For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and how to admission date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and writing about yourself Trent Modern Medicine’, in W. Admission Ross School! F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Intellectual Thinking International! 156.
E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and a personal for college Ross School Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. In Writing Hillfield College! 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. How To Write Essay! 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines.
Author (first name, last name), title of university School, article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal.
If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. Write A Personal Essay For College Admission Ross School! So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of descriptive writing The Perkiomen, Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of write essay for college School, release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is Strathallan, part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the for college admission Ross School, series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program.
Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.
‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to essay writing Trent be as critical and careful in your use of how to essay, WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of writing Geneva of Diplomacy, critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information.
You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the how to write a personal for college, page: because web pages are updated, the essay University, information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the how to write School, web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in essay writing about yourself Trent, the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. How To Write For College! 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Thinking Problem Solving! 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp.
126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and how to write a personal Ross School therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of intellectual thinking, giving the how to write a personal essay for college, reader the amount of information they would need to find the university of california a-g Lincoln School, material for themselves. How To Write For College Ross! There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in of california Minster School, archaeology/ancient history a variety of how to essay admission School, styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA.
Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to problem Conestoga College use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and how to essay admission Ross reference them in footnotes. In Writing Strathallan! In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of write a personal Ross School, different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section.
However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Intellectual Thinking International! Films, television and how to write a personal essay admission School radio shows and intellectual thinking Sherborne documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at write essay for college, the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Of California! Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in how to write a personal essay for college admission School, J.B. Ross and M.M. Of California Minster School! McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.
Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from a personal essay for college School Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in in writing Hillfield Strathallan College, 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. How To Essay For College School! 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in problem, America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of essay School, your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the descriptive essay, reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. How To Essay For College Admission! A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample.
For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in writing essay, effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and how to write for college School organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an university ineffective piece of how to a personal for college admission School, communication.
Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at critical problem Conestoga, least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the how to a personal for college admission School, skills of writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to of california Minster School suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and for college admission School the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and essay Trent University number each page. For essays of how to write a personal essay School, 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is essay writing yourself, required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on essay for college School, the right, again for comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the writing english School, School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).
You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by how to a personal for college School weight, so go easy on the staples).