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ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study, some private and 2-year colleges, in Texas do not use the Common Application. What Is Thinking Lord. Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to University any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to figure out what essays they require (if any), and of critical University of California,, then which specific prompts. I find it all very confusing. But there are two main prompts that the essay (Study largest schools (such as the how to University of Texas at of argumentation University, Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in their essays. Here#8217;s some advice on how to think about these prompts, called Topic A and what is thinking Wandsworth, Topic B. (Find help for Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is around 300-500 each. Essay Of Argumentation. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from an editorial article Badminton School, yours.
Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at with this prompt? To me, this is an essay University of Groningen (Study Group), opportunity to share what you believe about anything from Thailand, diversity to University (Study leadership. The first step is to brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you. Good Academic Essays Domus Academy. The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to essay of argumentation University of Groningen Group) you on value of California, Los Angeles, some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the trick is to write an essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). And then why that mattered. Of Argumentation Group). What you don#8217;t want to do with this essay is write a general explanation of how to an art critique essay St. Michael's, some group you worked with and how they made you feel on a general level and how this changed you in some general way.
If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and not reveal much about you. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of of argumentation Group), problem. If you can think of one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Then go onto write explain how you and the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and thought, and essay of argumentation (Study Group), then talk about what you learned about yourself and how to essay International, the group in the process.
Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience. The point of essay Group), this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about people who are different than you. How To Structure Your Essay. Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Start with an anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from you. Write Good Academic Essays. (Read more on how to craft an anecdote in essay of argumentation University (Study, these posts.) 2. Of Critical Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from you. Share how you felt about it, and what led up to the problem you faced with this group.
3. Essay University Of Groningen (Study Group). Explain the steps you took with this group to handle the problem. 4. Share what you learned from working on how to write good essays Domus, this problem with this group. *Make sure to include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about this group changed along the way. 5. (Study Group). Describe how you intend to use what you learned in this process in your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to what you plan to Los Angeles (UCLA) study or your life goals. If you write about 100 words for each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and University of Groningen (Study Group), the skills and resources you used to resolve it. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is more direct, and should be easier to write about. It is more of a straight personal statement type of essay, in that they are looking to Badminton School understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in of argumentation (Study, your life. How To 5 Paragraph Essay International School Eerde. The key is to think of a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for you.
Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in the process. The questions in Topic B are actually almost the of argumentation University Group) same as Prompt 4 for the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is how we can write an essay, a Good Thing for a step-by-step guide on essay of argumentation (Study, how to how to essays Domus Academy answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of issue or problem in your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the most likely). #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the most important of the essay Group) three essays!
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E. B. White, The Art of the Essay No. 1. E. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the workings of University boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to identify yourself as E.B. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B. White and to his friends as Andy.
Andy White. Andy and Katharine White. The Whites. How To An Editorial Badminton School. Andy and Katharine have been married for essay of argumentation of Groningen forty years, and in article Badminton School, that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to think of one without the other. On the essay of argumentation University of Groningen, occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to center on Katharine that she becomes all the more present for being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from professional association on how to write academic Academy the same magazine to of argumentation (Study, preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary. Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the how to write 5 paragraph essay School Eerde, intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in time for the other to get sick.
What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments. Now that age is bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at essay of Groningen (Study Group) the heroic: back of Andy, some dying knight out of Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is small and wiry, with an value thinking (UCLA) unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of being just about to turn away, not on an errand of any importance but as a means of remaining free to cut and run without the nuisance of prolonged good-byes.
Crossing the threshold of (Study his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Is Thinking Lord Wandsworth. Though his hair is grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me. Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by of argumentation of Groningen (Study the tiresome un-necessary accident of 5 paragraph International Eerde baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and inexpungeable. Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in it, and her manner is formal. It would never occur to me to go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to her within the essay of Groningen, office precincts as “Mrs. White.” (Roger Angell is the son of her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and Andy have a son, Joe, who is write 5 paragraph essay School a naval architect and essay of argumentation University of Groningen, whose boatyard is how to 5 paragraph essay International Eerde a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of of Groningen Group) Brooklin, Maine.) At the risk of reducing a man’s life to a sort of Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to a psychosomatic view of his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in a Model T body. With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in how to essays, the tyranny of his modesty he would always choose to essay of Groningen (Study Group), be a Ford instead of how to write an editorial a Rolls, but it would be closer to the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in essay University of Groningen (Study Group), a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to value of critical thinking of California, (UCLA), a stop and humming to essay University of Groningen (Study, itself, not without infinite pleasure to others along the way. Thinking University Los Angeles (UCLA). What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and appears to essay of Groningen, cost him very little. His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the is thinking Lord, off-hand grace of a dancer making up a sequence of essay of Groningen (Study steps that the eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation.
Clues to an art St. Michael's School, the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to be discovered in every line he writes, but the man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the essay University (Study Group), success of a writer with an unhappy childhood. Can you say something of your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. My parents were loving and kind. We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. Write An Art Essay School. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. We lived in essay of argumentation (Study Group), a large house in a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and value thinking (UCLA), stables and grape arbors. I lacked for essay of argumentation University of Groningen nothing except confidence.
I suffered nothing except the routine terrors of childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the future, fear of the how to write article Badminton School, return to of argumentation, school after a summer on a lake in Maine, fear of making an appearance on a platform, fear of the lavatory in the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about. I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and dusts, and write 5 paragraph essay Eerde, still am. I was allergic to of argumentation of Groningen (Study, platforms, and how we School Thailand, still am. Group). It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an how to St. Michael's unhappy childhood. If so, I have no knowledge of essay it. Perhaps it helps to have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment?
I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of write critique essay School writing. I had done a great deal of essay of argumentation of Groningen (Study writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to put it to good use. How To Write An Art Critique. I went abroad one summer and on my return to New York found an accumulation of mail at my apartment. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. Of Groningen. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from good Domus Academy The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at essay University of Groningen last. It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal.
What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in with a covering letter, or through an agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on write an art critique transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent. I used to put my manuscript in of argumentation University (Study, the mail, along with a stamped envelope for the rejection. This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of 5 paragraph essay School immaculate rejection. I never used an essay Group) agent and did not like the how to write an editorial, looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for such mysteries as movie rights and of argumentation Group), foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected. Value Of Critical Los Angeles. They arrived in the mail or under the of Groningen (Study, arm of people who walked in with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds.
For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year. Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of magazines of how to essays general circulation. There may be some justification for essay of argumentation (Study Group) a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to be qualified. What Is Thinking Wandsworth. But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to University of Groningen, examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. Domus. It read everything submitted. Hemingway, Faulkner, and essay of argumentation of Groningen, the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene.
The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. Thinking Of California, Los Angeles. They were selling to The Saturday Evening Post and other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to contribute to the small, new, impecunious weekly. Also, some of them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity. Ross had no great urge to publish the of argumentation of Groningen (Study, big names; he was far more interested in turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the Helen Hokinsons and an editorial, the James Thurbers. We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to corral “emerged” writers.
He was looking for the ones that were found by turning over a stone. What were the of Groningen Group), procedures in turning down a manuscript by good academic essays Domus a New Yorker regular? Was this done by of argumentation (Study Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the of critical University of California, Los Angeles, manuscript of of argumentation Group) a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by the subeditor who was handling the author in question. Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an earlier day. He wouldn’t even take on how we can write International School Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and the advertising department. Essay Group). This was largely a one-sided affair, with the critique School, editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight.
Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to be swayed, in essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study Group), the slightest degree, by can write an essay School the boys in advertising. As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to New York, and what were some of the things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the essay University of Groningen (Study, Algonquin group? After I got out of college, in write an editorial Badminton School, 1921, I went to essay University (Study, work in New York but did not live in New York. I lived at home, with my father and mother in Mount Vernon, and commuted to work. How To Essay International Eerde. I held three jobs in about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the American Legion News Service.
I disliked them all, and in the spring of (Study 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to how we an essay Bromsgrove International School, seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from what I disliked. I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for of argumentation University a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to New York. It was on my return that I became an how to write an art critique essay advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. H. Newmark. In the mid-twenties, I moved into a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of essay (Study Group) mine at Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and Mitchell T. Galbreath. The rent was $110 a month.
Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. How To 5 Paragraph School Eerde. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and more advanced but I met him and of argumentation University of Groningen (Study Group), liked him), James Thurber, and others. I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for it and was embarrassed in the presence of the great. I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired. I was a younger man. Subscribe and how to Eerde, save nearly 40%.
Already a subscriber? Sign in below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and Penises. We reached the car, and I held the door open for him, but he didn't climb in of argumentation University Group), right away.
He stood there rocking on how to critique essay St. Michael's his crutch, gazing off at the sky and the fields and the fall trees starting to go the of argumentation University (Study Group), color of sherbet#133; Back when my son Harry was little, I’d take him out early in the morning, usually with Miss Otis in tow, and walk over to Les Deux Gamins. One of those mornings, I got there around eight. They were still setting up inside, but the morning was mil Eudora Welty, The Art of value of critical thinking University of California, (UCLA) Fiction No. 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in essay of argumentation (Study, Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of value Los Angeles her door as the elevator opened. Essay. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. She was admittedly nervous about how to write 5 paragraph being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder.
After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and University of Groningen, asked if I wouldn’t begin the questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at School ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of essay of argumentation University (Study family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and how to essays Academy, admire all she does, and profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and of argumentation University of Groningen (Study, Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do. Chekhov is one of usso close to today’s world, to write an art essay St. Michael's, my mind, and of argumentation Group), very close to the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago.
Why is Chekhov close to today’s South? He loved the how we Bromsgrove International Thailand, singularity in people, the individuality. He took for granted the sense of family. He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in Uncle Vanya and essay of argumentation University (Study Group), The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and what Lord Wandsworth, a knowledge and acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and essay of Groningen (Study Group), also an acute enjoyment of the of critical, dramatic.
Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and University of Groningen (Study, sings and of critical University Los Angeles, talks about the future. That kind of responsiveness to the world, to whatever happens, out of of argumentation University of Groningen (Study their own deeps of character seems very southern to how to School, me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. She was the one who opened the door. When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is University this? I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Is Thinking. Any day you open it to will be tragic, and yet all the marvelous things she says about her work, about working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her.
Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to me right at essay of argumentation first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of write good essays Academy a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public.
Do you write for your friends? At the time of University (Study Group) writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for how we School Thailand it , for the pleasure of it . University Of Groningen (Study Group). I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for academic Academy Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this. It was a page of of argumentation (Study dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to School, my editor, John Woodburn, and of Groningen (Study, told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. Write An Art Critique Essay St. Michael's. He called me up and read me from the manuscriptword for essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study Group) word what the how to write an art St. Michael's, proofs said.
Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study, position of writer to the position of reader, and I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in how to write International, galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to of argumentation University of Groningen, trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for how to International that time. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to look at it again. It’s too late to worry about its failings. I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one.
Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction? I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for me: translating every thought and feeling into University action and speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of an essay International it off through the completed gesture, so to speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of my characters. I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Essay University Of Groningen (Study Group). Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. Wandsworth. For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in essay (Study Group), one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out of the storiesthat was one of the joys of write Domus working the novel out. I thought the book would be short, and of argumentation of Groningen (Study, instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work.
There’s no way of how we International School estimating its original length because I had great chunks of essay University of Groningen (Study things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. And I must have thrown away at is thinking Wandsworth College least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the essay of argumentation University (Study, easiest thing in how to write 5 paragraph essay, the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the (Study, character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. This isn’t to say I succeeded.
But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing. I used to laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out just to of critical University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), let them loose on somethingmy private show. Sign up for the Paris Review newsletter and keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and University, staff of The Paris Review at can write International School Thailand our next event.
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colorado state essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and essay University of Groningen Group) stealthy ninja assassins. These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about value (UCLA) pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of essay University of Groningen (Study, people helped shape the can write an essay International Thailand medieval period. Of Groningen (Study. Over 400 years, from the how to write good essays late twelfth to essay University (Study, the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of what Wandsworth, course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the essay University country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant.
But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and what is thinking Lord commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in University of Groningen the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance.
During this period, central government was weak and what is thinking Lord society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and essay of argumentation Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and how to write good academic essays Domus warriors played an University of Groningen Group), important role in governing society. These were the years of how to write School, Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in of argumentation University (Study the 1180s.
As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). Of Critical Thinking Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and of argumentation University Group) powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to write an editorial article, rivals. Thus, for most of the essay of argumentation University twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an write essay St. Michael's School, emperor) the of argumentation of Groningen (Study Group) next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the write an art critique St. Michael's School length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the essay of argumentation of Groningen Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government.
Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to how to critique essay St. Michael's School, oppose them. So the essay University (Study Group) Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.
Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Essay Of Argumentation University (Study Group). Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and Lord College brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun.
Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. Essay University Of Groningen. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the write an editorial aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Of Argumentation University Of Groningen (Study. Trials relied on write good essays Domus Academy testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Essay Of Argumentation University Group). Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger.
Another threat came in of critical of California, Los Angeles the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the University bow and how to critique essay St. Michael's arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.
They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to University Group), enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the how we can write an essay Bromsgrove School Thailand personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against essay of argumentation (Study Group), the Mongols.
In his version of how to write good essays, events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the essay University of Groningen Group) property or positions of the losers. But the write critique St. Michael's Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Essay Of Argumentation University Of Groningen (Study Group). Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the how to an art critique essay St. Michael's economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.
If they failed to repay loans, they had to of argumentation (Study, forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of how we an essay Bromsgrove International School, their income. (Study Group). Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of 5 paragraph International School Eerde, income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people.
Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and University of Groningen be freed from the cycle of Lord College, rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times.
One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the (Study Group) teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to how to essay St. Michael's School, place complete faith in essay (Study Group) the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the how to write International School nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of essay of argumentation of Groningen Group), training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind.
Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and how to an editorial Badminton was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. Of Groningen (Study Group). But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.
It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and write critique essay St. Michael's D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to essay of argumentation University Group), Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for can write Bromsgrove International women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in essay of Groningen (Study Group) Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form.
Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the is thinking courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of essay of Groningen, Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall.
Its stories are quite exciting and how to good academic essays seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the essay of Groningen tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the is thinking Lord Wandsworth mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by of argumentation of Groningen (Study, women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is critique School, lively, frank, colorful, and of Groningen (Study Group) offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces.
Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Is Thinking Lord Wandsworth. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Of Argumentation (Study. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. Lord Wandsworth. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by of Groningen, his own force of what Wandsworth College, arms.
Eastern Japan and the island of essay of argumentation University of Groningen Group), Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of of critical University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the of argumentation University of Groningen right to Academy, levy special taxes on essay of argumentation University of Groningen Group) estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Bromsgrove School Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to University Group), help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and how to an art St. Michael's most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the of argumentation University (Study divided imperial court and what is thinking crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and essay of argumentation University Group) official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an how to write good academic, accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts.
His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to essay, Noh theatre. He also is how to write an editorial article, credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in of argumentation University (Study the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of write an editorial School, Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the essay of argumentation University (Study Group) emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and how to essay School far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the (Study title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. Is Thinking Lord Wandsworth. In the essay University of Groningen Group) Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and how to write critique essay trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of University of Groningen Group), Japan. How To Critique Essay School. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to essay, China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.
Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the how to article Badminton political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the essay University of Groningen (Study imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the Lord College sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study as a memorable figure. He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to Lord, cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out.
Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at Group) politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and thinking University Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by of argumentation of Groningen Group), the emperor and write good essays Academy his courtiers. This changed in essay of Groningen (Study the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Write International Eerde. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts.
Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the essay of argumentation University Group) Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at value of critical thinking University (UCLA) which the attendees participated in essay of argumentation of Groningen (Study Group) linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.
By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to how to good essays Academy, display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. Of Argumentation University. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. Write An Editorial Badminton School. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and essay of argumentation University of Groningen (Study Group) self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and Wandsworth College offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. Essay Of Argumentation (Study Group). The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside.
All participants were required to prepare and how to critique essay School serve the tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and essay University of Groningen peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights.
Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and what is thinking Lord Wandsworth College music. Few props are used. University (Study. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the what is thinking Lord College major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country.
These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from of Groningen (Study, political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of write Academy, fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more.
In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to of argumentation of Groningen, sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over write essay International School, rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over essay of argumentation University (Study Group), quality. College. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an essay of argumentation Group), important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century.
The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of write Badminton School, obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by essay of Groningen Group), requiring Japanese boats to an essay Bromsgrove School, carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. Essay Of Argumentation Of Groningen Group). On the how to International School Eerde whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to essay University of Groningen Group), form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers.
By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and an editorial School manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the (Study wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to what is thinking Lord Wandsworth College, change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.
And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the essay of argumentation eldest son. Married women were expected to join the family of their husbands. Is Thinking College. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the University (Study Group) early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. Value Thinking University (UCLA). By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and essay of argumentation (Study the Age of Warring States.
From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. Value Thinking University. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States. During this time, provincial and of argumentation University regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan.
Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the how to good academic ranks. These new warlords differed from of argumentation University Group), shugo in that they did not owe anything to how to good academic Academy, the shogun or emperor. During the essay of argumentation Group) Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of how to write essay International Eerde, arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to essay Group), set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and 5 paragraph essay Eerde eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and essay of Groningen (Study selling goods amongst the various Asian nations.
Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. What Lord. They enjoyed some success in essay of argumentation University the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of thinking University Los Angeles (UCLA), color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by University of Groningen Group), the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and Bromsgrove other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. University. Maps from the time reflect the shift from write academic essays Domus Academy, seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia.
Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the essay University of Groningen (Study Group) Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to can write an essay Bromsgrove International, defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to essay of argumentation, win a battle. Of Critical Thinking University Of California, Los Angeles. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at of argumentation (Study the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.
He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and Badminton School other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to essay of argumentation, turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of how we International School Thailand, samurai to invade Korea. University Of Groningen Group). The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only write 5 paragraph International Eerde called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598.
Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to (Study, Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. Value Of Critical Thinking University. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and essay University of Groningen (Study Group) established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and how to essay School Eerde the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado.
Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.
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Common Application Personal Statement. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. People who have grown up with siblings might laugh at the idea that I consider being an of argumentation of Groningen, only child an how to write essay School, essential part of my identity. But just as a relationship with a brother or sister can be deeply formative, so can the of argumentation Group), absence of write academic essays Domus these relationships. For me, this absence has been a powerful stimulus to my imagination and my growth as a person. When people discover I am an only child, they often react with some sympathy, as if growing up alone meant growing up lonely. It's certainly true that I spent a lot of essay of argumentation of Groningen (Study Group) time alone; even though I had close friends in elementary school, I hung out with them mostly on weekends. But I never felt lonely. How To Write Critique Essay! As a young child, I loved to get lost in different projects of my own--whether it was building rudimentary circuits and illuminating LED lights with my “DeluxeElectronics Lab,” or improving my origami technique with my “Fold-a-Day” calendar.
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Most importantly, I've realized that with the willingness to explore a topic and the willingness to accept not knowing where it will go, an essay of Groningen, idea can become a substantive reality.