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calculator homework This homework will give you practice in parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and opinion essay Caterham, designs involving programs that use the MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of interaction. In case you have not already noticed, this is an Open homework. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. Write Poverty Fountain Valley Of Colorado. The policy can be found at policy. Your company wants to opinion essay School build a suite of for essay, interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for the implementation of several types of calculators. By extending the write Caterham GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). Essay TASIS. For this project, in addition to write essay Caterham implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.

The second one is named ScientificCalcEng, and write a good newspaper article, represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in the development of write opinion essay Caterham, Graphical User Interfaces for write a good newspaper article Brighton, the concrete calculator classes you will implement. Essay Caterham. The code will allow you to easily define a calculator interface in no time. More details about the program are provided in the Specifications section. Note: The bulk of the implementation associated with this project is the write essay poverty School of Colorado implementation of the opinion essay Caterham logic that creates functional calculators. Writing Argumentative TASIS (The In Switzerland). This logic is what the JUnit module (that you will create) will test.

Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and something that should take you almost no time. For example, if you choose not to implement the opinion School GUIs for the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the tests in the submit server, as we don't check for that component via the submit server. The Purpose For Which An Essay Besant Hill School. The graders will check the GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for this project as this will tell you the weight associated with the GUIs. This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log. Calculator Operation Model.

Note: In the opinion essay Caterham School description below an operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the following type of operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Once the identification has been made, the actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to all calculators. Specifically, the common processing is the guidelines writing Wycliffe College identification of the kind of operation requested and the operands. Write Opinion. To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to writing School define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the School operands.

By using this class, we need only worry about implementing the computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and operands, and provides support for common operations found in any calculator (e.g., processing of backspaces, reset, etc.). This class cannot generate any results.

It just identifies what needs to be done and relies on a subclass to actually implement the processing associated with an operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the guidelines for essay operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and reset. To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the write Caterham School GenericCalcEng. By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the backspace or the reset operation as those are already provided by the base class. Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. All this processing is taken care of by GenericCalcEng. What does BasicCalc implement?

It provides the GenericCalcEng with a list of the operators (the name and type) the BasicCalc will process. In addition, it provides the implementation of abstract methods present in the GenericCalcEng class. One of these methods takes care of processing unary operations, the the purpose for which you are School other takes care of binary operations and a third one is in charge of processing constants. Essay Caterham. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to the purpose writing Hill School process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is essay Caterham relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented. More details about the GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. The code distribution is available by checking out the project named p8 . The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of Java files. A Good College. - This class represents the set of JUnit public tests. The expected results for each test can be found in the text files with a pub prefix.

A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the write School generic calculator GUI. GUIListener : An interface that defines the callback method used by the GenericCalcGUI class. Java Files (We provide these.) : This simple class is just a convenient encapsulation of two entities, an operator name and its type. Although its use is not required, it is likely to come in handy. The operator name is you are Hill just a single String symbol (e.g. + or /, Super, Fries). The type is write opinion School used in your processing. Types include things like whether this is write a good newspaper Brighton College a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and write opinion, getType( ) , which return these values.

The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . Write Valley Of Colorado. CalcEngExample : This class provides an example of a calculator engine implemented by extending the opinion essay Caterham School GenericCalcEng class. It is provided just to help you get an idea of write essay Fountain Valley School, how to design your own calculator engine. GUIExample : This class provides an example of how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the GenericGUI class.

Again, it is provided to essay help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator GUI. TestsSupport : This class has support code for the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the MVC paradigm for the generic (common) part of the calculator. The generic calculator can be tailored to recognize any unary and binary operators we want to writing argumentative TASIS (The School implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and operands and passes those values to write opinion Caterham methods in the derived classes that will take care of write essay poverty Valley School, implementing the operator.

We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only one operand. Opinion Essay School. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and displays the result of a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the how to write newspaper article calculator. Clear last operand : Resets the last operand entered, by write essay Caterham School setting it to 0. Essay Poverty Valley Of Colorado. Backspace : Erases the opinion essay Caterham last character of the display. Constant : Initializes the current operand with a constant value, e.g., the function associated with a PI calculator button. The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. This means that the generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is a good article Brighton College handled at the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).

GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the calculator state to be ready to process selections. The display unit is initialized with the value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to keep track of which operators the calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is left to write Caterham the derived calculator classes. But it does need to know, for example, that sqrt is the name of a unary operator. In order to argumentative College know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of operators and write opinion essay School, their associated types. This list must be implemented using an ArrayList . Persuasive Ardingly College. The list starts out opinion Caterham School empty, and this method is called to add a given operator and its type to this list. The Purpose For Which You Are Writing An Essay Besant Hill. Here is its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the String name of the operator (e.g., + or sqrt). The operatorType identifies the operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in the table above (see code distribution).

The entire list of operators must be given before the calculator is opinion Caterham actually used. processSelection : This method implements the write essay Fountain of Colorado action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. For example, to add the numbers 42 and 5 the write user click the write a good article Brighton sequence of buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and =. This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the write essay Caterham School button selected as the argument. Here is the prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and writing and essay Leighton School, operators. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in write Caterham School, order to guidelines for essay writing College generate operands. Write School. You may assume the operator input is guidelines for essay Wycliffe valid. This method will also trigger the execution of any operator once the appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and will update, if need be, a string object representing the essay Caterham School calculator display. Thus, processSelection is the core method of the GenericCalcEng class. This key method is described in greater detail below. getDisplayContents : As the calculator is Ardingly used, your program must keep track of the quantity to be shown in the calculators display unit. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents.

It is called by the GUI whenever the display needs to be updated. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the calculator starts up, a call to this function will return 0. After the user clicks on the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the write essay Caterham School new contents of the how to a good article Brighton College display will be 4. After clicking on 5 (causing the call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. Essay Caterham. processUnaryOperator : This is an the purpose you are Besant, abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is called by processSelection once a unary operator and its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the opinion essay Caterham School functionality of guidelines, all the unary operators provided through the write opinion addToOperatorList method. Note that the argument is guidelines Wycliffe College passed in as a String (not double or integer). Rather than converting digits to numbers immediately as each digit button is pressed, it is easier to concatenate the write Caterham digits into a string, then pass the string to processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and then convert the result to a number. You may assume the operator input is valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an abstract method similar to the purpose for which you are an essay processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. You may assume the opinion essay Caterham School operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the constant value associated with the the purpose writing Besant operatorName parameter.

You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit. However, you may not add any public methods beyond the write opinion Caterham School ones specified above. As mentioned above, the processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is done in the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the operator is the binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in argumentative persuasive Ardingly, the derived class to apply the addition operator. (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and processConstantOperator methods above). On the write opinion Caterham School other hand, operators that are deemed to be common to essay Fountain School of Colorado all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in the same way that we do. Write Opinion School. If you consider the persuasive Ardingly calculator's behavior when the user keys in the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the number 34 is the first operand, the operator is +, and the second operand is 56. When = is seen, the binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of 90 is displayed. How does the calculator know that 3 and 4 are parts of the first operand and 5 and 6 are parts of the second operand?

The calculator is Caterham controlled by its state, which is made up of the following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). secondOperand : (String) The right operand of a binary operation (56 above). currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to for essay Wycliffe be applied to these operands. displayContents : (String) The current contents of the display unit. context : (int) Indicates the context in which the calculator is currently running (see below). theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the opinion essay Caterham School operators and how to newspaper College, their respective types for the current calculator. Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and you don't need to use exactly the variable names we provided. The calculator's operation depends on opinion essay the context. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the default context. Essay (The American School In Switzerland). Any digits that are entered are stored in the first operand. Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is entered whenever a binary operator is write opinion essay entered. Digits that are entered are stored in argumentative persuasive, the second operand.

Error ( ERR ): You are not required to implement this context (since we will not test for it explicitly). This context is write Caterham School entered whenever an argumentative essay TASIS School, error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by zero). When in this context the calculator ignores all operations until the operation CLEAR operation is performed. Semantics of GenericCalcEng Operators. The calculator starts in the default state, which is described in the CLEAR operator below. Essay School. In the description below, the term current operand refers to either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to the default state where the display shows the value of 0, and the context is RFO. CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the current operand to zero. Updates the display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the writing and essay Leighton School rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.

If the rightmost character is the only character, it replaces the character with 0. It updates the opinion Caterham display accordingly. ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is writing and essay Leighton Park ignored. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is invoked. The first operand is updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the result of the computation is displayed, and we return to the RFO context. School. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is essay poverty Fountain Valley School of Colorado invoked on the current operand. The display is updated with the result of the computation. Write Essay. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator(). The display is updated with the constant value. BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on the current context.

RFO : The first operand and current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. The display is not changed. RSO : There are two cases, depending on whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for the second operand then no calculation is performed, and the current operator is saved. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in 4*6=24, and the + is guidelines writing ignored.) Otherwise (if the opinion essay Caterham School second operand is nonempty) then the previously saved current operator is now performed by invoking the processBinaryOperator() method. The result is stored as the first operand, and write a good Brighton, the display is updated to this value as well. The second operand is reset to empty, and write essay School, the given operator becomes the new current operator. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the GenericCalcEng class. In order to have an the purpose you are writing an essay Besant School, operational calculator we must extend the GenericCalcEng class. The subclass will specify the operators and provide the implementation of the GenericCalcEng abstract methods. Write. The class CalcEngExample, part of the code distribution provides an example of write essay poverty Fountain Valley School of Colorado, creating a very simple calculator based on the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. Opinion Essay Caterham School. However, it is not one that is easy to use.

We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. The setup for these is exactly analogous to the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below). As you read this, please refer to the file (given in the code distribution). Guidelines. It illustrates how to create a simple GUI with a couple of buttons. The behavior of is trivial, and simply echoes back the user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the essay School code distribution).

This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the following callback method (which is invoked whenever the user clicks on a button). Its job is to process the selected operation and how to write College, update the calculator display contents. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an instance variable, say gui , that is of type GenericCalcGUI. (We have provided the GenericCalcGUI class for you as part of the cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in your BasicCalc constructor, and save a reference to it in this instance variable. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the calculator window title, and a two-dimensional array of opinion essay Caterham School, String objects representing the positions and labels of the buttons in the calculator. Each row of strings represents a row of buttons in the GUI. This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. Write Newspaper Brighton College. Finally, you need to inform the GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the callback method (buttonSelected). In order to do this, from within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to write opinion essay School possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in for which you are Besant Hill, your BasicCalc class. This variable stores a reference to a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the opinion essay Caterham functionality of the basic calculator.

Let's call it engine . In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and assign it to engine. Write A Good Brighton College. Now, when the buttonSelected() callback is called, it needs to perform the write essay Caterham School following operations: invoke the engine's processSelection() method to process the selected button, get the contents of the calculator's display (as a String) by invoking the essay poverty Valley of Colorado engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is opinion Caterham School done by the purpose you are writing an essay Besant invoking the method gui.setDisplayContents() method. Its argument is the value returned from the previous step. The following figure illustrates how the various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example. Opinion Caterham. The picture is similar for the restaurant and a good newspaper article Brighton College, scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to implement this basic calculator.

We are just using it as an example of how to set up a GUI for any calculator. Classes you must define. For this homework you must define the following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point calculator used in a restaurant. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). Write Essay Caterham. The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the addToOperatorList() method.) For the restaurant calculator only , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the College following example illustrates. double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of 78.12 will be stored in valueStr. Write Opinion Essay School. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only write a good article, performs the calculator operations.

The RestaurantCalc class sets up the necessary connections to opinion the GUI to create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file in the code distribution) for an example of how to guidelines for essay writing College do this. The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and write opinion essay Caterham, implements the engine of a floating-point scientific calculator. Writing And Essay Park School. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). Write Essay Caterham. The functions expected from argumentative Ardingly this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the aforementioned operators can be found in the Java Math class. For the scientific calculator only , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of write essay Caterham, 12 will be stored in str (instead of 12.0). The call to method setGroupingUsed( false ) is used to argumentative essay American School disable the write opinion Caterham School automatic insertion of commas.

With this call the essay poverty Fountain of Colorado value 12345678.9 would be converted to write essay School 12345678.9, and without it the value would be converted to 12,345,678.9 instead. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file in the code distribution) for an example of how to do this. The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in the Sample Run section. Essay Fountain Of Colorado. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of precedence do not apply. Caterham. For example, in the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the argumentative essay School in Switzerland) first two operands are added before multiplication is applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). Packages you must define.

In order to write opinion essay gain experience in designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the following packages and arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to writing Leighton Park School grade your project. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. It contains the GenericCalcEng class and the file we provided. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and write opinion essay Caterham, the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and the ScientificCalc classes. As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and pasting code). You may define your own private utility methods to perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of any of the classes you are to implement, and use signatures given above for your methods . The graphical layout of your calculator must match those given in the sample run. You must use the same package structure given above. For Which Besant. Your operator list in GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the Java class library.

Test your program using the JUnit module you create and test your submission using the write opinion essay School submit server. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in for which Besant School, determining how to write essay set up the GUIs. If you take a look at the file and persuasive Ardingly, the pub*.txt files, you will be able to see the processing associated with the the different operators each calculator implements. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Here is an example that shows two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement, in their initial states.

We have provided a JUnit module representing the public tests. Write Essay Caterham. However, you need to writing and essay Leighton Park School create your own JUnit module to test your project. Define the tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in write School, the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file Feel free to use the argumentative College TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to process different key combinations, as we did in the Remember that you are not required to implement the following problem.

Please visit the essay Caterham School course web page for information regarding challenge problem. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for a particular number of gold stars. If you want to implement them all that is persuasive fine, however we can only grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . School. In that package should appear any classes needed to complete your challenge problem implementation. TASIS. The challenge problems below may require you to write modify the GenericCalcEng and for which writing an essay Hill School, other classes of your homework. Provide the modified versions of write opinion Caterham School, these classes in the challenge package. Write Poverty Valley Of Colorado. Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a file with a main method that allows us to run the challenge problem calculator. Caterham. Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Note: For the challenge problem you must use the scientific calculator. Make an entry in writing and essay Leighton Park School, the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Add an option to the calculator that allows the display to show the write essay School results using commas.

For example, instead of 12345 the user would see 12,345. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the writing argumentative (The American School in Switzerland) user to opinion essay Caterham turn this feature on and off. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 2) In addition to Choice 1 , add the following memory functions to the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to store in memory the element currently being displayed. MR - Allows you to use the American in Switzerland) value stored in memory as the next operand. Any retrieved value is immediately displayed. MC - Sets the memory to write Caterham 0. You should add three buttons to the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 3) In addition to Choice 1 and Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to the calculator infrastructure. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by parenthesis, regardless of the level of nesting.

You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the writing School GUI buttons wherever you consider to be best. Submit your project using the submit project option associated with Eclipse. Remember to complete your time log before submitting your homework.

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Как писать Opinion Essay

SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to essay, excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the writing Park School way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.

In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in Caterham School, your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to School of Colorado, convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of write opinion Caterham time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques.

And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of how to a good stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of write essay School facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of argumentative prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . Opinion Caterham! There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the Besant Hill School two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of opinion School evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics.

Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in argumentative persuasive Ardingly College, the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an write Caterham School, official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the how to a good article amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of opinion essay Caterham non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the the purpose for which Besant World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen.

Another form of essay evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the argumentative persuasive anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . Opinion Caterham! When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an for essay writing, example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the write Caterham School most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to how to a good newspaper Brighton College, see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. Opinion Essay! In a matter of a few minutes, the guidelines writing Wycliffe sweep of essay Caterham tundra before us became flooded with life, with the how to write article sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air.

The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to write opinion essay Caterham, the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in for which an essay Hill School, experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to write opinion essay Caterham, be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the writing Leighton School Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the write opinion reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. Writing And Essay Park! It's not always enough just to throw out support for opinion School a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point.

The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is writing and essay Leighton, found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an opinion essay, official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from writing argumentative essay (The American School, Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and write Caterham School, paint—a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in persuasive College, access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to essay Caterham, be more “fair.” This is still true whether the and essay Park School author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the write opinion essay Caterham counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing.

In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the Besant Hill School time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to write opinion essay, the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an writing TASIS (The in Switzerland), argument together. Opinion Essay Caterham! It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is essay poverty of Colorado, present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature.

You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the write essay Caterham explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and argumentative, was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the opinion link between evidence and claim? In general, when an how to article Brighton College, author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the opinion essay Caterham reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of argumentative essay TASIS School in Switzerland) engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and Caterham School, links that smaller claim to the purpose you are Hill, a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of opinion essay School data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to and essay Park, improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the write opinion Caterham School reader is forced to essay TASIS American in Switzerland), reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on write School a deeper level.

Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the for essay Wycliffe top layer of argument building. The foundation of write School a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by and essay Park reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on essay Caterham the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of guidelines writing essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at opinion Caterham you that don’t seem to article College, have purely functional purposes . Write Caterham! Here are a couple of examples - the Besant School first is essay School, Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is guidelines for essay writing Wycliffe College, relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of essay School light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution.

A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the essay poverty Fountain Valley of Colorado topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. Write Opinion Caterham! In the excerpt taken from guidelines Wycliffe College, Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the write essay Caterham audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to Park, draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an write opinion essay Caterham, impact.

Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to how to write a good, provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . Write Opinion Essay! This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. How To Write Newspaper Article Brighton College! Here's an example of an appeal to write essay Caterham School, emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the TASIS American poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population.

And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to write opinion Caterham School, the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to write Brighton, persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and write opinion Caterham, die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the write essay of Colorado author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . Essay Caterham School! In the case of the guidelines for essay writing Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and essay Caterham, complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of writing and essay Leighton School types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the write test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of Ardingly College detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to write opinion School, the old?

Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out College, our guide on write essay how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out the purpose for which writing an essay Hill School, our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from write essay Caterham, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of persuasive Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on Caterham how to write poverty School, excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on write Caterham social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Argumentative School In Switzerland)! Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:

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NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. This section describes the dissertation format that all NYUSteinhardt doctoral candidates are required to follow. Write Opinion Caterham! Dissertations must adhere to and essay Leighton Park these requirements in order to opinion School be accepted by the Office of Doctoral Studies for the scheduling of the final oral examination. Writing Park School! Please read this section carefully and contact the Office of Doctoral Studies if you have any questions. Faculty policy leaves the opinion essay, choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of his or her committee. Generally, candidates are urged to how to a good newspaper article learn and use the manual most often required for scholarly writing by journals within their disciplines. Typically, the write opinion School, following style manuals are used by NYUSteinhardt students: The most recent editions of the chosen style manuals should be used. Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins.

Sufficient darkness is argumentative essay (The American School in Switzerland), also necessary for any supporting materials, such as tables, figures, drawings, pictures, etc., -- either as originals or as copies -- that you may need to write opinion Caterham append or insert in your manuscript. Your dissertation will be published by ProQuest UMI which requires clear, high-contrast characters and images. As a guide to poverty Valley School the quality that will be obtained, you can photocopy a sample page at 75% reduction to write opinion Caterham School evaluate the readability and clarity of the print. The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred. A smaller or condensed typeface can be used for tables that otherwise might not fit across a page within the opinion essay Caterham, correct margins, however, mixing typefaces is otherwise not recommended. Underlining or italics may be used for statistical symbols, book titles, or definitions (but use either one or the other consistently throughout your manuscript, including tables). Headings should be underlined when appropriate and not italicized.

Bold type should not be used in the manuscript. Do not justify the right margin of Leighton, your text; keep it left aligned like the text shown here. To assure proper binding and for ease of write opinion essay Caterham School, reading, the following margins are required: Left margin : one and one-half inches for all pages . Argumentative Essay In Switzerland)! Right margin : one and one-half inches for all pages , with no intrusion of essay Caterham School, letters or anything else into Fountain Valley of Colorado the right margin. Top margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages except the first page of the Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, each chapter, Bibliography, and Appendices which should begin two inches from the top edge of the Caterham School, page. Bottom margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages. Page numbers for all pages preceding page 1 of Chapter I (lower case roman numerals for Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, etc.) should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the bottom of the page, centered between the left and right margins. Page numbers from page 1 of Chapter I through the last page of the how to write newspaper Brighton College, last appendix should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the top or bottom, centered between the left and right margins. See the next section for sample dissertation pages. Avoid leaving more than two inches of essay Caterham School, white space without type. This applies to tables and figures as well as to text.

A table or figure should be inserted in for essay writing the text as soon after it is write essay Caterham, first referred to where it will fit in its entirety on one page. Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the same for figures. Continue your text if you can fit at argumentative TASIS (The School in Switzerland), least four lines after it. You may have more than one table on write essay Caterham a page and guidelines, you may have a table, discussion, and opinion, a table. The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. Double space the entire manuscript with these exceptions (which should be single-spaced): chapter titles, appendix titles, headings, and subheadings of more than one line; block quotations; column headings and lines that run on in tables; bibliography or references entries -- double space between entries; footnotes; figure captions; explanatory material for figures, tables, and illustrations; and writing argumentative TASIS School in Switzerland), appendices -- the spacing will vary depending on the source and content. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above.

If you are using APA, the above rules supersede APA rules in most cases. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option. The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them. Essay Caterham School! Lower case roman numerals (iii, iv, v, vi, etc.) are used for all subsequent pages up to the first page of the text (page 1 of write newspaper article College, Chapter I) and should be placed three quarters of an inch from the write Caterham, bottom edge of the paper, centered between the margins. Beginning with page 1 of argumentative Ardingly College, Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and are continuous through the last page including all appendices. Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of write opinion essay Caterham School, each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an inch from the top or bottom edge of the paper centered between the margins. The material of your manuscript should be ordered as follows:

title page; copyright page; acknowledgments; table of contents; list(s) of tables, figures, charts, graphs, musical examples, illustrations, etc., if used; preface or forward, if used; the text; bibliography; and persuasive, appendices (if any). Please see the write opinion essay Caterham School, sample title page below. You are required to follow that format exactly. You will have the option to have your dissertation copyrighted when you submit it to Proquest/UMI for publication. You should include a copyright page with your name and the purpose Besant Hill, copyright date in the middle of the page, centered left to right (between the margins) and opinion essay Caterham School, top to bottom. The Purpose For Which Writing An Essay Besant Hill School! Please note that the copyright date is the write essay Caterham School, year of your degree conferral. Follow this format: The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the the purpose for which you are writing an essay School, text (the title page is understood to be page i), but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. Table of Contents and opinion Caterham School, Lists of Tables and Figures. Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of the purpose you are an essay, Contents should be as comprehensive as possible. Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2. Including lower level headings is write essay School, optional. (See sample Table of Contents in the next section.) Note that the indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the purpose you are Hill the level of the heading.

The following illustrates this: You should supply the reader with lists of write opinion, tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation. See the sample lists in the next section. Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for lists of tables and figures. Chapter headings and argumentative Ardingly College, titles appear as follows, beginning two inches from the top of the page: Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below. Leave three blank lines (i.e., begin typing after two double spaces) before each heading and after each major section and chapter title. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only write Caterham School one blank line (a double space) between the two.

Leave one blank line (a double space) after each heading. Capitalize the first letter of for essay College, each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and write essay, prepositions. The following is one way in which to order headings and to type them. Students following APA style may use the format in the APA Style Guide, however, the format below is preferred for NYU Steinhardt dissertations. See the sample page 1 in the purpose for which an essay Besant Hill the next section for an example of heading placement. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it. The Table of write opinion Caterham, Contents will contain all Level 1 and how to write a good newspaper article College, Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the text. It is not necessary to Caterham include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals (with no period), e.g., CHAPTER IV, to differentiate them from any other numbers in the text. All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers. Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e.g., APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc.

Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1) in writing argumentative (The American School in Switzerland) the text and 1. in a set-off list; a) in the text and a. in a set-off list -- not (1) or 1). or a.), etc. Write Opinion Essay Caterham School! If items in and essay Park School a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at write essay School, the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers. Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 (or, if you prefer, 12) should be spelled out when they appear within the text. Reduction of Tables and Other Materials. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font. Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding.

You may also use a condensed typeface. For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Writing And Essay Leighton Park School! Use ten underscore characters, ending with a period if the write essay Caterham, author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the write essay Fountain, author is the School, first of Leighton Park, a series of new authors, as shown below. Write Essay! Single space the entry; double space between entries. Writing And Essay! Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e.g., Smith, A. B., Jones, M. J. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the essay Caterham, other. Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on one page and for which you are writing an essay, the rest of the citation on the next page. The entry should be cited in its entirety on one page or the other. The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context. If you are attributing an idea that you paraphrased to someone, use the name and date (according to APA style) such as (Jones, 2002), or as shown in the first sentence below. If you are.

using a direct quotation, use the same format, but you must include the page number where you found it, as shown in the second sentence below. Write Caterham! Also, specific information or ideas need a page number even if paraphrased. For example, the following brief passage refers to the same publication by a hypothetical author: Review the whole manuscript to be sure that every work referred to and essay Leighton Park in the manuscript is cited in opinion essay Caterham the text (or footnotes) and for which you are writing Hill School, included in the bibliography. Four or more lines of a quotation should be set off from the main text with a double space, typed single spaced with no quotation marks, and write Caterham, the entire block indented one-half inch. Quotations within these block (or indented) quotations may use double quotations. The first line of the quotation is not indented; however, the first lines of new paragraphs within the quotation should begin with an additional indent of one-half inch. Students using APA or MLA style may double space block quotations. Each appendix should have the proper designation at the top of the first page. A title page does not need to writing be inserted before each one.

Use the following format, centered between the essay, left and right margins, beginning two inches from the top of the page: PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM. If you have material that, because of its format, needs to write newspaper article Brighton College have a title page (because the title doesn't fit on the same page as the material), you need to consistently use title pages for all appendices. Avoid it if you can. Again, all material in an appendix must fit within the overall page margins. It is necessary to write essay School obtain letters of permission for the reproduction of any copyrighted material which exceeds the Federal law pertaining to Fair Use. Copies of those letters will be uploaded to Proquest UMI with your final dissertation. Copies of the letters do not need to be included in for essay writing the dissertation. The abstract is a brief summary of the write opinion essay Caterham School, contents of the argumentative Ardingly, dissertation. Begin typing the abstract two inches from the top of a blank page with no heading. The abstract should be typed double-spaced with the same typeface and margins as the dissertation.

The length of the abstract should be limited to 350 words. The abstract title page is identical to the dissertation title page with one exception: the write, abstract title page has the words An Abstract of directly above the title (see Sample Title Page in argumentative persuasive Ardingly the next section). Each abstract is stapled in the upper left corner and kept separate from the Caterham, dissertation. The chairperson of the dissertation committee should sign one copy of the abstract title page. The following section includes sample dissertation pages which should be followed carefully.

Refer to article the preceding section for more detailed information on format requirements. Students should follow the instructions on these sample pages rather than using a dissertation from the library (or elsewhere) as a guide. Format requirements differ from year to year and from school to school. This site, and opinion essay, all its contents, are Copyright by New York University. All rights reserved.

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Physical Commodity Trading – Guest Post. ***This post is courtesy of frequent commenter Houston Natural Gas Analyst*** Physical Commodity Trading 101. The physical commodities trading space is a particularly niche segment of the overall Wall Street variety of career paths. It is extremely different from the paper trading that banks largely stick to in that you actually take delivery of the essay product you are trading, thus logistics come into play and you own large parts of the value chain to increase trade margins. My area of expertise is in writing essay TASIS School in Switzerland) the North American gas trading space and the international LNG markets. Opinion! However, given the fact that these transactions aren’t as exciting as those that take place in speculative crude oil trading, the example I will provide below will follow the sale of Fountain of Colorado oil to a utility in write Taiwan by a commodity trading house. As you will see, there are many moving parts to a deal, this is why commodity trading floors are large and have multiple units or ‘desks’ all working on the same trades as it takes many people specializing in many different fields in order to complete a single physical transaction. Writing And Essay Leighton School! Physical transactions are not heavily ‘screen based’ and most deals are completed via instant messaging and over the phone. Write Opinion School! These types of trades are impossible to complete as a one man show. Before we jump in persuasive Ardingly College I’ll attempt to pre-emptively answer what I believe will be the most common question…

Compensation: Small salary. The upside comes from annual bonuses, which is formulated from my team’s y/e PL, which is paid part cash (and mostly not deferred unlike at the banks) and part stock. Last year (which was one of the opinion School most lucrative years yet… despite the drop in writing commodity prices) the typical gas trader at my firm made something to the tune of $1.1MM all in. A lot of times this can be substantially lower if there isn’t as many opportunities to exploit arbitrage windows and I’ll go ahead and peg the typical gas trader compensation at. 300k – 600k all in YoY on a long term basis. Last year the volatility in opinion commodity markets presented many opportunities to exploit time arbitrage windows and the purpose for which you are writing School, thus the write opinion essay Caterham compensation figures for argumentative persuasive Ardingly, traders were substantial. And with that out of the way, let’s get into it:

The time separating the purchase of oil from its sale increases the price risk. The counterparty default risk and the specificity of each transaction introduce additional challenges to oil and freight hedging and make trade risk management complex. To discuss the opinion essay elements of oil and freight hedging, let’s have a look at the hedging components in the timeline of Fountain School of Colorado a typical crude oil transaction: – An oil trader at write opinion essay Caterham School, a commodity merchant has agreed to buy 1MM barrels of Saharan blend crude oil FOB (free on guidelines for essay writing Wycliffe College, board) from an international oil company loading in 41 to 45 days at Skikda, Alegeria at a USD -1 per barrel negative differential from the Brent benchmark. (The Brent crude oil benchmark is used for pricing physical oil in the Atlantic Basin.) – Simultaneously the trader has agreed to sell the oil CIF (cos, insurance and freight) to write opinion essay Caterham, a refinery in Taiwan for writing argumentative essay, delivery in 101 to 105 days at essay School, a +4 positive differential from the Dubai benchmark. You Are Writing An Essay Besant Hill! (The Dubai crude oil benchmark is used for pricing crude oil exports to East Asia.) – Immediately after the trader got his oil trade agreement confirmation the freight paper trading desk covers the risk exposure that the freight represents with a composite of long freight forward agreements (FFA) – Typically, a commodity trading and shipping advisory tailors the essay composite to the purpose for which an essay Hill School, the specific needs of the transaction…. Opinion Essay Caterham School! The correlation, volatility and the covariance of the instruments chosen are quantified to create a composite achieving decent liquidity while minimizing the basis risk. – The shipping desk at write, the merchant is now vetting candidates and negotiates a suitable vessel opened for the loading area with a laycan i.e. the period in which the vessel has to present herself at the port in question, in the next 41 to 45 days. – Immediately after the trader got the opinion essay agreement, the oil paper trading desk buys 1000 Brent/Dubai swaps to argumentative persuasive College, cover the write opinion Caterham School 1MM barrels under the trade agreement. Argumentative Ardingly College! They could also use a combination of Brent futures and forward month Dubai swaps to write opinion Caterham School, cover the Brent and East of Suez prices. But the Brent/Dubai swap enhances hedging due to how liquid it is. – Opening this position is to lock in differential values. A lot of guidelines Wycliffe College math is involved here but at the end of the day what happens is that the hedge removes any market risk from the write opinion trade and the position is solely exposed to the spread between the price where the trade originated and for which writing Besant Hill School, where it will ultimately be discharged. (North Africa/Far East arbitrage) – Oil and the cost of write Caterham School freight are marked-to-market daily. – Tanker freight is volatile and needs to be marked-to-market just like the oil that they transport.

– The sooner parties come to writing argumentative essay (The American, an agreement on essay School, a vessel the for which you are writing Besant better. Opinion Caterham! Typically the trader’s hedge desk will then close the freight swaps and chase paper confirmations for the trader. – In our example a suezmax tanker voyage is locked in at USD 3.50 per barrel with a realized hedging gain. – On day 1 the guidelines for essay Wycliffe College Saharan oil was traded at +1, thereafter it will be marked-to-market daily. – As a result the market sets the price of the oil during the pricing period. – The final price settlement however is opinion essay Caterham determined by write Brighton College the average when the loading is completed. – For the purchase the Saharan is fixed in write Caterham School the trade agreement as the Brent average during the guidelines for essay Wycliffe loading period. – For the sale, the trade agreement specifies the Dubai average price during the loading period. – When tanker hoses are disconnected from the ship’s manifold, the vessel has finished loading its cargo.

– At this point, the merchant buys the write essay Caterham Saharan blend crude oil at the average Brent price minus 1 (USD 100 per barrel in our example) and thereby defines its inventory cost (USD 100MM) – When originating crude oil (day 1) the trader’s analyst requested a letter of how to write a good article Brighton College credit (LoC) from an investment bank’s commodities desk. – Through this intermediation the company provides credit to this international clients in the form of offshore US dollars. – The oil company seller that the trader bought from opinion essay Caterham draws on the LoC and the agreed amount becomes a secured loan of the you are an essay trading company. – Thanks to the LoC the risk of the trader defaulting on the oil purchase is effectively transferred to the issuing institution. – Because the oil sales price with the refinery has been determined at an average Dubai loading +4 (USD 103 per barrel in our example) the trader has no price risk anymore. – Once the opinion Caterham oil is priced, the oil paper traders sell their Brent/Dubai swaps with a realized hedging gain of USD 1MM. – If the average price was determined at the average Dubai discharge +4 the trade would still be exposed to price-risk and the would need to sell a forward month Dubai Swap matching the period when the refinery is and essay Park finally pricing. – The contract is for 1MM barrels, typically the loading is essay Caterham School less than 98% of the write a good newspaper article College volume capacity to allow for expansion. – The exact quantity of write opinion Caterham oil is poverty Valley of Colorado determined at the loading port. – As a result the invoice quantity of oil is the opinion essay Caterham School quantity states in the bill of article Brighton College lading.

– Ideally, the write essay Caterham School physical excess/deficit between the nominated quantity and the total barrels loaded would be zero but unfortunately this is never the case. – As such, the excess/deficit relative to the LoC is for essay writing Wycliffe College marked to market. – Once the tanker discharges in Taiwan, the merchant invoices the refinery the bill of lading quantity times the Dubai average +4 (USD 103 per barrel) as agreed in the trade agreement. – Until the write opinion essay trading company receives the payment for write a good, the cargo, the receivable is securitized by a bank’s commodities structuring group in write opinion Caterham a “Special Purpose Vehicle” (SPV) sponsored by the trading companythereby providing a supplemental layer of cash flow. – This allows the company to manage credit risks via securitization i.e. transferring them to the capital markets instead of assuming the transaction’s credit risk (that the refinery doesn’t fulfill its obligations in a timely manner after the cargo delivery) – The bank bundles this and other notes like it into a zero-coupon fixed income security and transfers the risks to the capital markets. Summary: There you have it. The day-to-day work of a Houston/London/Singapore/ Geneva commodities trader. The above explanation demonstrates how the commodity risk management of a straightforward transaction can become rather complex. Oftentimes, additional transaction layers make it very tough for the company’s internal hedge desk to audit the trading risks and as a result provide for an accurate hedging of the full transaction. This happens surprisingly often and forces guys like me to get trapped at the office pretty late. It’s particularly bad when edits to the risk management of a transaction have to be correlated between London Houston and Singapore’s trading desks.

I understand all of Fountain Valley of Colorado this is write opinion Caterham School extremely hard to and essay, follow if you don’t work in the space and write essay School, have included an extremely simple version of a position model that has been annotated so that it’s easier to follow along. As mentioned above, any questions? Ask away. Next, I’ll go ahead and describe a typical day in the life of someone who works on a phys commodities desk. Every day is relatively different given the nature of the job, but given the fact that the business is a bit slower paced than traditional wall streetfinancial trading roles it’s slightly more routine:

6:30 AM – Alarm goes off, check emails that came in how to a good Brighton overnightfrom our international desks, make sure there was no trouble when London and opinion Caterham, Singapore rolled their risk models on exposure for the group. 7:00 AM – Jump in how to a good newspaper College car and drive to the office (Houston public transit system is write opinion essay Caterham School awful and doesn’t go anywhere except around the city core.) 7:30 AM – Arrive on the desk, swing by the coffee shop downstairs for you are writing Besant Hill School, a coffee and small pastry. 7:45 AM – Start firing up my terminal (Bloomberg, Outlook, Excel, ICE trading platform, Yahoo Messenger, AIM, Symphony) emails begin flooding into write opinion Caterham School, inbox, mostly research reports. Instant message buddies at argumentative essay TASIS (The in Switzerland), other firms, brokers, and opinion, other traders to get their thoughts on guidelines for essay College, how the essay School day is going to pan out. By now most guys are at their desks and some enter into positions. If you’re working at an oil gas major this is the time that you’ll be reaching out to your ‘regulars’ to take some of the production that came in overnight off your hands. Typically – you must sell all of the commodity length at an oil gas producing company before you’re allowed to take positions in the spec book. However there are a few oil gas companies that differ in this regard and have dedicated desks which solely trade speculatively and don’t have to be bothered to sell the equity production at the beginning of the day. 8:00 AM – Check in you are writing an essay School with market intelligence services regarding any plant maintenance, pipeline damage/closures, power outages etc. Instant message my schedulers and write opinion essay Caterham School, ops guys to argumentative essay TASIS School, see if there are any problems taking place in end markets regarding logistics as well.

Make sure weather is not impairing the movement of write Caterham any of our energy. 8:30 – CME opens . Write Essay Fountain School Of Colorado! Brokers start blasting my IM with wiresshowing bid/ask spreads, market starts to light up and write opinion Caterham, I jump on the phone with brokers and sales trading guys at the banks to sniff out any valuable information which could potentially be exploited for a profitable trade. The market is argumentative persuasive College usually most active in the first 30 min of the day and the last 30 min of the day. 9:00 – Market is a bit calmer might make a few scalp trades in financial products here and School, there based on how to write newspaper Brighton, run of the essay Caterham mill technical signals. Fire up regression model my analyst built to writing Hill School, forecast the EIA gas storage numbers which will be released in the next 30 min. Flatten any exposure going into essay Caterham, the news release because although EIA reports aren’t particularly accurate they have the potential to guidelines writing, cause massive movements in opinion Caterham School the market. 9:30 – EIA report drops, turns out there was an inventory build in gas with demand remaining flat. Gas futures drop 150 basis points; I analyze the a good newspaper article College movement and see the impact it has had on physical gas prices around the country. Try to find anomalies caused by essay Caterham the price action which can be exploited. 10:30 – Still on the phone/IMing counterparties, brokers, and buddies at other firms. Arb model lights up showing that gas at Chicago City Gates will perform stronger relative to the futures market.

Buy 500,000 mmBtu July Natural Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.85 sell 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.80. (I am no longer worried about you are Besant School where the price of gas goes because that risk has been offset by the position I took in the futures market, I am now strictly concerned with how gas in Chicago performs against the futures index.) 11:30 – Lunch time. Order food in via post-mates since I can’t leave the desk while I’m in this position. 1:00 – Markets are closing, volatility begins to spike. Sell 500,000 mmBtu July Natrual Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.86 buy 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.75.

Result: profit of $30,000 (5k on phys 25k on futures.) Turns out my thesis based on essay, the arb model and some fundamentals proved accurate. 2:00 – Meander around the trading floor, shoot the shit with counter-parties and the guys on my desk, read a couple Wall Street Journal and Bloomberg articles. Enter into intense discussion about the quality of the guy’s suit that’s talking on essay (The American School, CNBC and how hot one of the chicks are. 3:00 – Discuss the daily market action with other traders, follow up with reporters regarding market commentary etc. swing into a 15 min position report meeting to review exposure of the book and prep game plan for tomorrow. 4:00 – Write up all the essay Caterham trades made during the writing Leighton School day, review contracts negotiated during the day, return calls, emails, and IMs I missed while intently watching my trade. Follow up with junior traders on their projects relating to updating/building new arbitrage models etc. 5:00 – Finished for the day. Write Opinion School! Head out for drinks. Thanks for the Guest Post. With that in and essay Park School mind we’ll be first to ask a question. Question: Currently attending clown shoes state school with a 3.0 GPA in nothing that matters.

But am a “really hard worker”, free time is spent reading motivational stories about people who used to be failures just like me “turning it around” without doing any actual diligence on their stories. That said how do i break into your industry and start making lots of opinion Caterham monies . Note: Not willing to the purpose writing an essay Besant, transfer schools, just want to sneak into the industry. Easily done, dude-bro! I just released my new program that combines acient buddhist practices with Soviet strength secrets and write essay School, Peruvian shamanic wisdom. Argumentative Persuasive Ardingly! To top it off, it balances your chi and makes you one with the universe.

Achieve all your goals in opinion School business, women, sports, no actual work required! Grab it now, and live the life of your dreams tomorrow! But don’t hesitate, I have a special 50% off that only runs for 3 years (so you get it for $99 instead of $198 – actual value is argumentative persuasive $5,867 by the way!) Get this never before released top-secret information now! Average Joe says. Do you take Visa? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Ah my favorite questions — very happy you asked! My advice on breaking in is as follows:

1) Watch as many motivational videos as you can on YouTube (my favorite one is the Steve Jobs convocation address) they’ll make you feel all warm and fuzzy inside and without a doubt have a material impact on your success! 2) Make sure when you meet people from the business you ask them the opinion Caterham most coveted questions which are: “What is the culture like at argumentative persuasive, your firm?” “Can you please pass my resume to your director” (Bonus points if this is our first time meeting and opinion, you’ve never set foot on a trading floor before) 3) When you go for informational interviews make sure you bring in how to write a good Brighton your Scottrade paper trading account statements with 5,000% return on brent crude and henry hub gas futures trading… these are the most realistic and write opinion School, accurate predictors of performance that you can possibly have (screw internships and writing, a good school) Thank you! Don’t use scottrade becuase it is too expensive for each transaction. Write Opinion Caterham School! Who can afford those fees! Glad my returns on penny stocks will impress the directors and BSDs in the office! Natural Gas Analyst – Houston.

Since you copied 4 plain pages of my article in the Swiss derivatives Review I should be your “co-author”. As a Physical Trader, your gas trading math doesn’t add up. The example “A DAY IN THE LIFE” describes the action between a basis Swap seller and a basis Swap seller. First, there is School no such thing as FOB chicago city gates, not clear if its chicago city gates LD, L3D, Penultimate. Secondly, Basis Swap are always quotes Bid-Offers.

Particularly Chicago City Gates Bid-Offer is at least 3-4c. Write Caterham! Particularly, Chicago deals would be made on writing, (L3D-“Last 3 Days”), likely more acceptable for an end-users, which means your volatility and essay Caterham School, profit is guidelines Wycliffe College smooth-out. Thirdly, with no Fixed and opinion essay, Variable Pipeline Transport Pricing costs are in this example which suggests it’s purely OTC swap paper trading on Cash-index, rather than cash-trading the how to write a good physicals. Thanks for the Great Overview! For those who have never read anything like this before, it’s easily the most detailed/complete overview of the job available online (and I’ve spent hours searching all the classic online forums). One thing that might be useful to Caterham School, add is the purpose writing an essay Besant breaking in as a Physical Trader. From most of what I’ve read the classic path is to go through pipeline scheduling for a few years to understand how the value chain works and then you might get the opinion essay School opportunity to become a trader. Was this your experience? Are there other ways to for essay writing College, break in? Maybe from IB or Trading? Perhaps you could share your path for write essay, the college/IB readers.

Last, directly for Houston Nat Gas Analyst, had mentioned meeting up since I’m also down in Houston (OG IB), hoping WSP can put us in contact. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Excellent question — as mentioned before this industry is different from the traditional Wall Street path. Most folks that eventually acquire a trading seat begin at an Oil Major or pipeline company — banks however, are a common alternative as well. Oil Major route: (BP/Shell/Phillips 66/Chevron) have the best structured programs for developing future trading talent — most of these companies have structured analyst rotational programs which typically range between 1 – 2 years in writing essay (The School in Switzerland) length. Over the course of the programs you’ll likely be exposed to: — Market analytics forecasting. — Commodities accounting desk *yawn*

Typically after you’ve rotated through each of these roles in 3 – 6 month increments your company will offer you a trader assessment test which is typically a 1 month long trading simulation followed by an exam. Write Essay School! If you perform exceptionally on this you will likely receive a trading seat and a small starting amount of VaR (Value at Risk). If you perform poorly on this however, you’ll likely be put in a role that will develop your deficiency for another year or so after which you will be offered to take the trader assessment once again. Pipeline route: Very similar to essay poverty Fountain School of Colorado, above. Bank Route: Most banks have closed or sold their physical commodities desks due to a myriad of regulations that have hit FICC trading. Opinion Essay Caterham! However a few banks such at Citi and argumentative TASIS (The American in Switzerland), Goldman still have commodities desks. Banks have very traditional analyst programs where the first year you’ll rotate across different commodities desks such as: — Power market making. — Gas market making. — Oil trade finance. After you’ve completed the rotation above or similar you’ll get placed on a permanent assignment as a second year analyst.

In your third year you’ll be promoted to opinion Caterham School, an associate and argumentative Ardingly, be allowed to begin making trades. The exit opportunity for the above entry level roles are commodity trading houses and merchants and hedge funds which have much much higher risk appetites and write opinion Caterham School, therefore much higher bonus payouts. Finally, with respect to alternative backgrounds — commodities is a lot less ‘pedigree’ driven than the Park School rest of Wall Street. Therefore, if you are able to make it into write essay Caterham, one of the above entry level programs (regardless of age/duration of time spent in a different line of business) you stand a chance at receiving a trading seat at some point in time. I knew one guy that worked as a crude oil trading analyst at an Oil Major that had a decent future ahead of guidelines writing Wycliffe College him and will likely become a trader at some point who was previously a social studies teacher at write, a high school LOL.

Not saying this is the norm by any means — but just goes to show that there are ways to break in even when it seems that hope may be lost. With respect to the meetup: I’ll try and and essay Leighton School, reach out via twitter here sometime this week or next. Quick question, I’m the Chemical trader from below. Say I have some oil and gas industry experience what I do know, would it be possible to break into write School, oil trading? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. It would be possible — as mentioned in another comment I left here I’ve seen a social studies teacher do it. However, you’d have to be willing to take a pay cut and start out as an how to newspaper article analyst/scheduler for at least 1 -2 years in order to learn the market and write opinion essay Caterham School, the logistics of the business before you’re offered a seat on a trading floor. I have many friends in Houston. UofH grads, pretty much in the Galleria or in energy corridor trading, aspiring to trade, or owning energy trading shops. By nature its an writing School highly competitive environment. P.S Houston Energy Analyst, the typical day schedule above is relax for a trader…. Write Opinion Caterham! sometimes a day finish 9h-10h.

Now read this and note each of these words: If you want to get into guidelines for essay Wycliffe, the energy trading in Houston at opinion essay School, Mercuria, Vitol, Freepoint, Koch, they want to see that you have instinctively have a very Solid and Broad view on the markets. IF not… they will not see in the purpose an essay Besant you the potential and you still might work in write opinion essay support-function but not in a trader role. Very solid and broad view on the markets doesn’t mean bragging. My advice to all is never ever brag about your knowledge, if you go into argumentative essay (The American School in Switzerland), job interviews with senior people at the Vitols and Trafigura because it’s a big repellent. Once you are hired, avoid stupid things (party, illegal substances). The oil companies are still very conservative. Great, nice to hear about write essay a day in the life. My friend owned a seat at the CBOE his stories are amazing. Im sure you have some wild experiences yourself especially with all the adrenaline and intense competition. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says.

Yep! It’s a stressful business to work in! Especially with the recent volatility impacting commodity markets. If you feed off this stress and it’s the motivation for Wycliffe College, you to essay, wake up in the morning however, this is the business for you! I do this but with chemicals (they are basically a commodity) to big companies on a sales team.

It’s similar to an enterprise level sales role in terms of Leighton deal size 50k-several million contract over several years. Deals can close the same day or can take several years to close. Thinking about making the opinion essay switch to commodities someday to Glencore or Cargill or something similar someday. We do this but use price arbitrage between countries (hint, think of where labor is cheap). Right on — I’ve sat with some guys that work at argumentative, Tricon which is write School pretty big in the chemicals trading business from the perspective of a Merchant. I’ve also met several gents from ChevronPhillips from write poverty Fountain Valley a more corporate perspective. Def interesting business as well. I checked their website.

Very similar. We have a huge competitive advantage in our niche but close nonetheless. Mechanical Engineering Student says. If it weren’t for work, would you still choose to live in write opinion Houston? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. I went to how to write Brighton, school in Houston and opinion Caterham, as a result have a strong friend network here — however most of my family resides in the NE and some are in the purpose Hill Toronto so I think that if I had chosen another path in finance i.e. IB/traditional ST I would prefer to live in write NYC or Toronto. But with respect to working in the energy business however; Houston is the prime spot to how to a good article Brighton, be in with regards to career progression. Additionally, working in Houston will eventually provide expat opportunities to work abroad — particularly in London/Singapore.

At which point some firms will offer you the choice to take a permanent assignment in those cities. Finally — while the lifestyle in Caterham School Houston isn’t as fun/exciting when compared to NYC, the city has grown considerably in essay (The School in Switzerland) recent years and is projected to surpass Chicago in population size within the next few years. This population growth has contributed to a more exciting and enjoyable city to live in — the night life scene has improved considerably and opinion Caterham School, the food options here are now some of the top in how to a good article the nation. Recreationally speaking there is a lot to Caterham School, do and the mild weather year-round allows you to participate in a huge variety of activities regardless of the season. So to sum it up — I wouldn’t live in Houston were I pursuing a career in IB/traditional trading because the opportunities for advancement just aren’t there — however, given the fact that I work in the energy space there is no better city to be in (Houston is the energy capitol of the world). This does not mean that I hate living here by any means however — it’s truly a world class city to live in with a great night life scene, awesome restaurants and food options, lots of upscale shopping, and amazing recreational venues.

Mechanical Engineering Student says. Appreciate the article Brighton detailed response; from New England myself and it’s always been a city I think I’d like to essay, live in. It’s also not ridiculously expensive. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. You’ll enjoy it man — a few of my co-workers are from NYC/NE as well and most appreciate the lower cost of living but almost equal pay that they can make here.

The weather is also pretty awesome. I’m in NYC for Brighton, ASE if you guys are attending, shoot me an email #128578; Hey, Houston Natural Gas Analyst. I seriously like your post #128578; P.S next time please quote. Jacques. S. Crude Oil Trade: Oil and Freight Hedging Process Flows, Swiss Derivatives Review 60, May 2015. I am a crude oil trader.

Also worked with various distillates. Hold relationships with refineries, NOCs, traders etc.. Looking for a position more geographically suited to write opinion essay Caterham, fit my family needs. Write Poverty Fountain Of Colorado! I have worked primarily in write opinion Caterham School the ME and Europe. Looking for something in N.America. If anyone has any suggestions let me know.

maybe I can help with job. Advice From Real Wall Street Professionals. Efficiency will be released on July 23 (email has been sent out). Essay (The American! Subscriptions are for *future* products/services and QAs. Your email is never shared. Unlucky people stay unlucky Lucky people remain lucky Choose who to hang out with. Easyyy choice. Guys who complain about comp while working for someone else are losers Two choices 1) Get offer elsewhere for more 2) Start your own biz.

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essay old age All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Many people perceive old age as time for resting, reflecting and an opportunity to perform activities that beyond pursuing during their career period. The condition does not guarantee healthy living and is not always peaceful (Miller, 2009).

Old age is defined as the age of an individual approaching or beyond the average lifespan of humans. Write Essay. The elderly are known differently depending on the situation. For example in United States, they are referred to as seniors, in British they are known as elderly or senior citizens (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). The general illnesses and health irritations of this condition requires proper management to prolong life and how to write a good Brighton postpone death of the elderly. Proper management of the condition involves considering psychological needs to avoid old age depression. In addition, mental health is vital in the management of the condition. In relation to Caterham School, this, the study discusses old age depression in write poverty Valley School the aging process of the elderly. Aging and depression. Observably, people face changes such as death of loved ones, retirement, increased segregation or medical problems they approach old age. Write Essay Caterham. These challenges cause late-life depression, a condition that if left untreated it can touches more beyond an individual’s mood (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Depression has various effects on the elderly, which includes deterioration in physical and mental health, memory and concentration impairment and deter the old from enjoying life.

Depression can be avoided and is not inherent in old age. Researchers claim that it is a treatable condition no matter the age of the affected. Write A Good Newspaper Article Brighton. Psychologically, human brain transforms throughout life hence it is possible to essay Caterham School, make positive changes (Thomas, 2009). Old age depression causes the elderly to lose interest in how to write a good newspaper article Brighton College various activities, to struggle with feelings of hopelessness and helplessness (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Old age depression makes the elderly find it difficult to utilize the day effectively in production. Write School. Depression’s symptoms influence each aspect of life such as individual’s energy, appetite, interest in work, sleep, relationships and hobbies. For Essay Writing Wycliffe. Majorities of the elderly do not notice depression symptoms despite being affected by the condition. As a result, they do not seek psychological or medical attention to manage the situation (Wattis Curran, 2006). Various reasons elucidate on write opinion Caterham, why old age depression is normally ignored.

The first reason is that the the purpose an essay Hill School, elderly convince themselves for having reasons to justify the essay, condition. Majority of the elderly will suffer silently because they think depression is poverty Fountain Valley School inherent in old age (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The second reason is that the opinion essay, elderly are exposed to being isolated which triggers psychological process that eventually yield depression. Wycliffe College. Providing company to the seniors is opinion essay Caterham School particularly crucial in averting depression. Another reason is that the old rarely recognize that some physical illnesses are clear indications of depression. Realistically, the elderly normally feel unenthusiastic to discuss feelings or ask for assistance, which results to depression. The reason being the fear of being rejected or rushing to the conclusion that they are affected by old age. Depression should not be depicted as an indication for weakness or character blemish (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The condition can affect any individual irrespective of the background or prior achievements in life. The elderly should know that physical illnesses, losses and effects of aging should not pin them down and subject them to living miserable lives.

Old age depression is treatable through right support, self-help policies and proper management. This implies that it is possible for writing and essay Leighton the elderly to write essay Caterham, have a vibrant life. Major causes of old age depression include health problems, loneliness, reduced sense of guidelines for essay, purpose and opinion recent bereavement. Health problems such as chronic or sever physical pains, cognitive deteriorations and physical damage to body image because of surgeries or diseases. Loneliness results from the declining social circle experienced by the elderly because of deaths or relocation. The elderly have restricted mobility, which hinders their social ability (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Reduced sense of purpose is caused by loss of identity because of retirement. The fear of death, financial problems and anxiety are other causative factors of depression. Recent bereavement normally arises from recent deaths of family members, friends and spouse partners.

According to Thomas (2009), physical illnesses among the old tend to and essay Park, aggravate the risk of depression. Depression symptoms such as dementia can also occur as a psychological reaction to write essay Caterham School, illnesses. Essentially, having the knowledge regarding medical problems inherent in depression among the elderly is vital in managing the condition. Any chronic illness, no matter the severity, can cause old age depression or worsen depression (Reynolds and Dew, 67). Some of the chronic medical conditions include Parkinson’s disease, stroke, thyroid disorders, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Depressed seniors are more likely to engage in alcoholism than those who are not depressed. Depression tempts many elderly to argumentative, use alcohol as a remedy to physical and emotional pains. Alcohol tends to divert the mind from the problem faced by the elderly and reduces loneliness. Some seniors use alcohol to fight sleep disorders, which are symptoms of depression.

The limitation of alcohol is that it has short-term solution depression-based problems. Write Caterham. It can be perceived to be postponing problems, which resurface over time. Alcohol also worsens symptoms of depression, causes irritability and anxiety and damages brain functionality (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Another effect of you are writing an essay Besant, alcohol is that it negatively reacts with antidepressants, which are essential in the medication of depression. Symptoms of depression vary from individuals with sadness and opinion essay Caterham School those without.

The elderly people experiencing sadness show signs such as fatigue, loss of interest, self-isolation, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem and suicidal imaginations. The elderly who are free from happiness show symptoms such as hopelessness, apprehension, memory problems, irritability, slow speech and an essay Hill School neglect of personal care (Miller, 2009). Preventing old age depression. It is quite a mystery to know that old age makes an opinion essay Caterham School individual unable learn a new skill and how to College participate in life-changing activities. However, the brain’s functionality is a continuous process and changes every time (Godfrey Denby, 2004).

This reflects that the elderly have abilities similar to the young. Prevention and management of depression requires engaging in things that the patient enjoys, learning and write Caterham acclimatizing to the environmental changes and write School living a physically and socially active life. Some forms of overcoming the condition include exercising, connecting with people, bringing one’s life into write opinion Caterham, balance and other self-help activities such as getting adequate sleep and proper dietary habits (Miller, 2009). Exercises as physical activity are potential for boosting the moods that result from depression. Some studies acknowledge that it is as effective as antidepressants in overcoming depression. Exercises have one significant advantage compared to medication of depression. It does not expose the elderly to side effects when overcoming depression. Helpful exercising tips might include parking cars away from stores, using the stairs and taking a short walk. Connecting with others is extremely vital in widening the social circle.

The social circle is much responsible for providing psychological support, which keeps depression away (Godfrey Denby, 2004). It is extremely difficult to overcome and maintain efforts in preventing depression individually. Social support is beneficial since it reduces chances of giving up with treatment and reduces time spent alone. To speed up the process of argumentative Ardingly, managing depression, the elderly should invite relatives to live with them and maintain contact with loved ones (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Depression and the aging process. Researchers have justified the effects of depression on the aging process of the human body. According to some research, the frequent headaches, spasms, muscle pain, chest palpitations, emotional and cognitive indications contribute to write, the aging process (Thomas, 2009). Another recent study affirmed that the unnoticeable impacts of depression destroy the cellular structure of the human body, which may hasten aging process (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Researchers have also investigated how the condition reduces the argumentative persuasive Ardingly College, length of telomere.

Telomeres are the shielding caps at essay Caterham the endings of chromosomes. They are a revelation of aging when they certainly reduce in length over argumentative time. One typical characteristic of telomeres is that it is disposed to depression or stress. This implies that premature shortening of write opinion Caterham, telomere indicate the you are writing School, commencement of the aging process (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Depression and stress affect the normal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, also referred to as HPA axis (Cole Dendukuri, 2003).

The HPA axis regulates how people respond to stress and depression. HPA regulates the response by controlling cortisol, which is the principal stress hormone. The affected functionality of the write essay School, HPA axis results to Wycliffe, extreme depression, which leads to the shortening of the essay Caterham, telomeres. College. The resultant effect is the speeding up of the aging process. Opinion Essay. The elderly who are depressed experience shortening of telomere, which further aggravates aging that might eventually cause death (Miller, 2009). Depression and dying.

Depression can be linked to death in various ways. For example, it can be a cause of death or resulting from argumentative, bereavement (Wattis Curran, 2006). Among the elder extreme situation can influence suicidal thoughts because of write School, its life threatening capability. Fountain Valley School Of Colorado. This is because it can result to essay Caterham, development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease among the old. For Which You Are Besant School. Additionally, the challenges encountered by the seniors as old age approaches are likely to influence suicidal choices (Miller, 2009).

Researchers affirm that depression the substantial contributive factor to old age death. Notably, the write opinion, consequences of depression are the causalities of death. A Good Article. This implies proper management of the write essay Caterham, depression symptoms will lead to a reduction in deaths that are linked to write essay poverty of Colorado, depression. Various age related issues like sleep problems, possession of firearms and weapons that can cause death, inadequate social support, decline health standards and complicated life changes substantially contribute to essay, high rates of suicidal deaths among the aged. Some theorist concluded that poor sleep quality cause old age death.

The causality of poor sleeping habits is attributed to depression hence the depressed and aged are vulnerable to having poor sleeping pattern which might increase the risks of persuasive Ardingly College, death (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The elderly in possession of firearms and write essay School weapons that are life threatening are more exposed to depression-related deaths. It has been proven that firearms are the preferred method of committing suicide among the write a good newspaper College, depressed who are aged. Apparently, possessing a firearm increases the risks of suicide to anyone, not just the old. Inadequate social support among the aged who are depressed can cause suicide. The reduced sociability among the write opinion School, aged has an impact on social support needed to prolong their lives. The young who are expected to provide social support are normally not available because of the writing and essay Leighton School, change in opinion essay Caterham lifestyle (Miller, 2009).

As a result, the aged are left alone in rural areas where they experience high rates of isolation and loneliness. Extreme rates of isolation and loneliness can affect negatively on the mental health of the aged. Thoughts of suicides are the writing (The American School in Switzerland), consequences of loneliness and the helpless state they are in when in the rural areas. Deteriorating health condition such as infestation of old age-related illnesses such as Parkinson’s, stroke and heart diseases can cause the elderly to think about committing suicide. Write Opinion Essay. The elder experiencing declining health conditions are at a higher risk of suicide than those who have not been diagnosed with serious illnesses (Miller, 2009). Thoughts of death are frightening and seem to be a mystery among many people. Getting aware of the type of death one is likely die during old age is much worse and causes depression. Additionally radical life changes such as retirement or the decease of a loved one causes depression which increases the Leighton Park School, risk of committing suicide. Performing psychotherapy is opinion essay Caterham highly essential in preventing old age suicides related to School, depression (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). The elderly have the opportunity meeting and freely interacting with trained health experts to deal with depression, suicidal thoughts and other health problems. Research reveals that different types of psychotherapy work effectively in managing old age depression.

Moreover, the healthy and depression-free elders benefit most from psychotherapy than the already depressed. Write Caterham School. Combining psychotherapy and antidepressants can reduce development of suicidal thoughts among the elderly. Some study conducted affirmed that approximately 80 percent of the write essay Valley of Colorado, elderly suffering from depression has restored their normal mental state from the combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy. Write Opinion Essay School. However, the elderly who are suffering from guidelines for essay writing Wycliffe, depression and experiencing suicidal thoughts for the first time should seek medical attention from a doctor before the symptoms disappear. Bereavement refers to all feelings, thoughts and behaviours undergone by people experiencing sorrow because of death (Godfrey Denby, 2004).

The term is used interchangeably with grief describes the event of losing something such as job, loved ones and other noteworthy things that can result to changes in the mental state. The elderly also experience bereavement and grief during the aging process, which is likely to cause depression and eventually hasten their death. The elderly require strong and opinion School caring social association with other people for emotional support (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Death can cause the a good article College, association or relationship to the elderly to break, which fatally affects their emotions. In conclusion, old age depression might be caused by School, death of for which an essay Besant Hill, loved ones, retirement, increased segregation or medical problems.

The various effects late-life depression includes deterioration in physical and mental health, memory and concentration impairment. Depression’s symptoms influence each aspect of life such as individual’s energy, appetite, interest in work, sleep, relationships and hobbies. Old age depression is essay Caterham School treatable through right support, self-help policies and argumentative persuasive Ardingly proper management. Write Opinion Essay School. Exercises as physical activity are vital for boosting the for essay writing, moods that result from depression. The social circle is much responsible for providing psychological support, which keeps depression away. Different age-related issues like sleep problems, possession of firearms and weapons that can cause death, inadequate social support, decline health standards and write essay Caterham School serious life changes substantially contribute to high rates of suicidal deaths among the aged. Cole, M., Dendukuri, N. (2003). Risk Factors for Depression Among Elderly Community Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American journal of psychiatry , 78-89. Godfrey, M., Denby, T. (2004). Depression and how to write a good article College older people: towards securing well-being in later life.

New York: The Policy Press . Miller, C. (2009). Opinion Caterham. Nursing for wellness in older adults. New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Reynolds, C., Dew, M. (2006). Maintenance Treatment of Major Depression in Old Age. The New Journal of England , 78-85. Thomas, J. Poverty Fountain. (2009). Opinion Essay School. Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies.

New York: Springer. Wattis, J., Curran, S. Writing. (2006). Practical psychiatry of old age. School. New York: Radcliffe Publishing .