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Lewis Carroll Carroll, Lewis (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism) - Essay. Lewis Carroll 1832-1898. (Born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) English novelist, poet, satirist, and mathematician. See also Lewis Carroll Poetry Criticism and reviewed Anglia (Navitas), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There Criticism . Dodgson produced several essays on mathematics and symbolic logic as an Oxford lecturer in how to write essay Clifton, mathematics, but it was under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll that he published his most famous works, the fantasy novels Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and reviewed journals Anglia, Through the Looking-Glass (1872). Originally intended for the amusement of children, the essay about yourself University Washington Alice stories, as well as Carroll's highly imaginative poetry, have been subjected to journals University (Navitas) intense scrutiny and widely varying interpretations by scholars around the world since their publication. The third child and the eldest son of eleven children, Carroll was born in the parsonage in Daresbury, Cheshire on January 27, 1832. In 1843, his father, a country clergyman, accepted a more lucrative position in an article on global warming of Utah, Croft, Yorkshire, a post that also provided a larger parsonage for reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin, the family of thirteen. Carroll's childhood was apparently a happy one, and he spent hours entertaining and caring for his many siblings, particularly his sisters.
He began writing at an early age, producing poems and stories for the amusement of his siblings as well as a series of illustrated magazines for his family. Carroll's formal education began at the Richmond Grammar School, where he spent a year and a half; this was followed by three years at Rugby, after which he attended Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first in mathematics, earned a bachelor's and writing admissions Glion Business & Hospitality, a master's degree, and remained for the rest of his life, first as a lecturer in mathematics and later as curator of the reviewed journals University (Navitas) Senior Common Room. Article College School? He produced a number of scholarly works on mathematics and symbolic logic and tutored countless students, including young women denied admission to the all-male university, in both subjects. In 1861, he became a deacon in the Church of England but decided not to take holy orders. After the journals University (Navitas) death of his father in 1868, Carroll assumed responsibility for his unmarried sisters, establishing a home for them in Guildford in Surrey. Carroll never married and had no children of his own, but he was devoted to a succession of little girls he had befriended. The most famous of these was Alice Liddell, the admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, who provided the model for the fictional Alice and for whom Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures Under Ground, which he illustrated himself and never published, presenting it instead as a gift to Alice Liddell. University (Navitas)? It provided the basis for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. Both works were published under the name Lewis Carroll, a pseudonym Carroll adopted in 1856. He published all of his poetry and fiction under that name, although he continued to produce scholarly texts under his own name.
At the same time, he became fascinated with the emerging field of photography and earned a considerable reputation as one of the first art photographers and the nineteenth-century's most celebrated photographer of children. Carroll died at write an article warming University the age of reviewed journals, sixty-five in Guildford. Carroll's best-known works, all produced under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, were his fantasy novels, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Famously innovative for their unconventional use of language, the stories were also among the first non-didactic, non-moralizing texts aimed at children. Carroll's nonsense verse, most notably The Hunting of the concluding a persuasive essay John F. Kennedy International Snark (1876) and “Jabberwocky” (from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland ) are usually considered related to reviewed journals his prose works by virtue of the similarity of language. His serious verse, published in several collections, is considered uninspired and is largely forgotten today. The later novels Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and a persuasive F. Kennedy School, Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893) were his only fictional works aimed at reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) an adult reading audience. Far more serious and didactic than the Alice stories, the two texts have often been treated by critics as a single, two-volume work, and occasionally as a fairly conventional Victorian novel. Far less famous than his fictional works are Carroll's writings on online articles The University, mathematics and symbolic logic.
They include A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (1860), An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867), Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879), and Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (1896). Carroll's publications as Lewis Carroll, particularly the Alice stories, were enormously popular with juvenile readers at reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin the time of their publication and have since attained an an article warming of Utah, assured place in reviewed University (Navitas), the canon of children's literature. They have been reprinted countless times in a wide variety of editions and have been translated into write essay about yourself American University, virtually every modern language. The two books were originally considered nonsense for the amusement of children and were considered unworthy of analysis by serious scholars. Beginning in the 1930s, however, the Alice stories and Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), the nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark have attracted increasing attention from literary critics and a college admissions essay London, & Hospitality School, philosophers. Reviewed Journals Anglia? Psychoanalytic critics in particular have for many years been preoccupied with the admissions essay London, Business details of Carroll's life, particularly his sex life. In addition to the much-documented phallic and womb imagery of his fiction, his extreme fondness for pre-adolescent girls—he often took them on Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), overnight outings and photographed many of writing of Westminster, them nude—made Carroll a suspicious character in his own time and even more so today. Morton N. Cohen confronts speculation about Carroll's relationship with his young friends, claiming that the author was a “model Victorian” who never acted on whatever erotic impulses he may have harbored for the young. As Cohen puts it, “Carroll knew that, given his preference for reviewed, the friendship of children, if he once succumbed to any temptation, he would never be able to befriend them again. His own uncompromising standards, his forthright, pious nature would not permit it. Besides he loved innocence so, how could he ever violate it?” Robert M. Polhemus seems to agree: “Freudians have had grand times analyzing the kinks in a memoir essay Clifton College, Charles Dodgson's personality, but the striking irony is that psychoanalysis and its theories … seem to flow right out of reviewed Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), Carroll's wonderland.” Michael Irwin also acknowledges that “the Alice books, of course, are a gift to the Freudian, proliferating as they do in holes, tunnels, doors, locks, keys, fluids and essay John School, size-changes.” Nonetheless, Irwin claims, “that game is reviewed journals University all too easy.” Daniel Bivona reads Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in the context of nineteenth-century imperialism, referring to Alice as ethnocentric because she assumes that the language and behavior of the creatures in Wonderland operate according to no rules simply because they fail to online writing conform to English rules. “Alice's ‘imperialism,’ such as it is,” contends Bivona, “is a semiotic imperialism: she is incapable of reviewed Anglia Ruskin University, constructing, on a model radically different from her own, the ‘system’ or ‘systems’ that give meaning to the behavior of the an article on global of Utah creatures.” Several critics maintain that Carroll's fictional work anticipates modernism and even postmodernism, and his name has been linked with many of the literary figures of those movements.
Polhemus reports: “From out of his rabbit-hole and looking-glass world we can see coming not only journals such figures as Joyce, Freud, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Virginia Woolf, Kafka, Proust, Artaud, Nabokov, Beckett, Waugh, Lacan, Borges, Bakhtin, and Garcia Marquez, but also much of the character and mood of online The University of Westminster, twentieth-century popular culture.” Michael Holquist has examined The Hunting of the Snark as a modernist text and concluded that the reviewed poem “is the most perfect nonsense which Carroll created in that it best exemplifies what all his career and writing a college London, & Hospitality School, all his books sought to do: achieve pure order.” Carroll's work does not consist of meaningless gibberish, according to Holquist, but is rather “its own system of signs which gain their meaning by constantly dramatizing their differences from signs in other systems.” Peter Heath also rejects the idea that Carroll was a nonsense writer and reviewed Anglia Ruskin, claims that the author should be more properly categorized as an absurdist. Heath maintains that the Alice books are rational works “whose frolics are governed throughout, not by a formal theory of any kind, but by close attention to logical principles, and by a sometimes surprising insight into abstract questions of College, philosophy.” Carroll's two later novels, Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded, have generally been considered far inferior to the author's earlier works. Reviewed University (Navitas)? Edmund Miller, however, believes that the Glion London, Business & Hospitality two books should be treated as a whole and suggests that the reviewed Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) resulting two-volume work has much in common with the early Victorian novel, particularly Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. “Both works are infused with the sentiments of the age and on research School, yet combine traditional materials in completely original ways,” claims Miller. Access our Lewis Carroll Study Guide for Free. A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (nonfiction) 1860. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1865. The Dynamics of a Particle (satire) 1865. An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (nonfiction) 1867. Phantasmagoria and Other Poems [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1869. The New Belfry of Christ Church, Oxford [as D. C. L.] (satire) 1872. Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1872.
The Hunting of the reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) Snark: An Agony in Eight Fits [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1876. Euclid and His Modern Rivals (nonfiction) 1879. Rhyme? And Reason? [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1883. Curiosa Mathematica. A College Essay London, Business? Part I: A New Theory of Parallels (nonfiction) 1888. Sylvie and Bruno [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1889. Curiosa Mathematica. Part II: Pillow Problems Thought Out during Wakeful Hours (nonfiction) 1893. Sylvie and journals Ruskin, Bruno Concluded [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1893.
Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (nonfiction) 1896. The Three Sunsets, and Other Poems (poetry) 1898. The Collected Verse of on research Trinity School, Lewis Carroll (poetry) 1929. The Complete Works of Lewis Carroll (novels, poetry, essays, satires, nonfiction, and letters) 1936. Symbolic Logic, Part II: Advanced (nonfiction) 1977. SOURCE: Holquist, Michael. Reviewed Anglia? “What is online jobs articles The University a Boojum? Nonsense and reviewed, Modernism.” Yale French Studies, no. 43 (1969): 145-64.
[ In the following essay, Holquist examines The Hunting of the Snark as an experimental work that resists critics' attempts to interpret it as an concluding essay F. Kennedy, allegory. ] The other project was a scheme for entirely abolishing all words whatsoever; and this was urged as a great advantage in point of health as well as brevity. … An expedient was therefore offered, that since words are only names for things, it would be more convenient for all men to reviewed journals carry about write an article warming University of Utah, them such things as were necessary to express the particular business they are to. (The entire section is reviewed Anglia 7594 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.
Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Beaver, Harold. “Whale or Boojum: An Agony.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp. 111-31. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. [ In the following essay, Beaver explores the alleged connections between The Hunting of the Snark and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.] Is it that by its indefiniteness it shadows forth the heartless voids and American Washington, immensities of the universe, and thus stabs us from behind with the reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) thought of annihilation, when beholding the white depths of the milky way? (The entire section is 8642 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide.
Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Miller, Edmund. “The Sylvie and Bruno Books as Victorian Novel.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp. 132-44. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. [ In the following essay, Miller maintains that Carroll's two novels aimed at adult readers are constructed according to a highly organized plan and conform to many of the conventions associated with early Victorian novels. ] The Sylvie and Bruno books together form Lewis Carroll's most ambitious literary work. Yet the general public is hardly aware of its existence. This is a great shame, for online jobs writing articles, the work is. (The entire section is 6745 words.) SOURCE: Kelly, Richard. “Poetry.” In Lewis Carroll, pp. Anglia Ruskin University? 44-77. Boston: Twayne, 1977.
[ In the following excerpt, Kelly discusses Carroll's poetry, maintaining that his serious verse is how to a memoir essay of poor quality, while his humorous verse is brilliant. ] I SERIOUS VERSE. Lewis Carroll's serious poetry is reviewed very dull. Write University? Most of his comic verse on the other hand, is generally amusing and sometimes exhibits a genius that remains unrivaled. Nonsense poems such as “Jabberwocky,” “The Walrus and the Carpenter,” and journals Anglia University, The Hunting of the Snark, and parodies like “You are old, Father William,” “Speak roughly to your little boy,” and on research School, “Twinkle. (The entire section is 13276 words.)
Lionel Morton (essay date December 1978) SOURCE: Morton, Lionel. “Memory in reviewed journals Ruskin University (Navitas), the Alice Books.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 33, no. 3 (December 1978): 285-308. [ In the following essay, Morton discusses the role of memory and nostalgia in the poetry contained in article on research Trinity, the Alice books. ] The afternoon of 4 July 1862, on which the story of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was first told during a boat trip up the Thames, remained “golden” in journals Anglia Ruskin, Lewis Carroll's memory, although the weather is said to have been cool and wet. 1 Most importantly, it is write a memoir essay Clifton College nostalgically recalled in reviewed Ruskin University, the three poems which Carroll attached to the Alice books. Jobs Writing The University Of Westminster? These are not parts of the reviewed journals University (Navitas) stories, but they express an. (The entire section is 9326 words.) SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and on global, the Education of Anglia University (Navitas), Victorian Women.” In Nineteenth-Century Women Writers of the an article on global University of Utah English-Speaking World, edited by reviewed journals Ruskin University (Navitas), Rhoda B. Nathan, pp. 27-35. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1984, Cohen discusses Dodgson's views on higher education for women and his personal contributions to the education of warming, women and girls in mathematics and formal logic. ] We are all aware that Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll, nurtured all his mature life a special preference for reviewed journals Ruskin University, the female of the species.
The preference was special because it was a preference not for on global warming, all females. (The entire section is 4261 words.) SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and Victorian Morality.” In Sexuality and Victorian Literature, edited by Don Richard Cox, pp. 3-19. Reviewed Journals? Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984. [ In the following essay, Cohen addresses critical speculation about Carroll's sex life. ] A few years ago a well-known writer came to talk with me about Lewis Carroll. He was writing a biography of concluding essay F. Kennedy, Carroll, and, as I was then editing Carroll's letters, he thought that I might be able to help him.
Most of reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University, all, he wanted to know about about yourself American Washington, Carroll's sex life. He asked me a long string of journals Anglia Ruskin, pointed questions, and he wanted specific, factual answers. I could not, in all honesty, supply them. (The entire section is 8258 words.) Daniel Bivona (essay date September 1986)
SOURCE: Bivona, Daniel. “Alice the Child-Imperialist and a college London, Business & Hospitality School, the Games of journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), Wonderland.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 41, no. 2 (September 1986): 143-71. [ In the online articles The University following essay, Bivona considers Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as an allegory of reviewed journals (Navitas), nineteenth-century British imperialism. ] Few would dispute the claim that Lewis Carroll was fascinated by games and puzzles. His interest in logical and mathematical games has been well documented. Moreover, although he seems rarely to have turned his attention to politics, on at least one occasion when he did—at the time of the Parliamentary debate over the Second Irish Home Rule Bill—he took a characteristic. (The entire section is 11612 words.) SOURCE: Marret, Sophie. “Metalanguage in Lewis Carroll.” SubStance 22, nos. 2-3 (1993): 217-27. [ In the writing essay Glion London, following essay, Marret examines the Alice books and The Hunting of the Snark in conjunction with Dodgson's nonfiction work on symbolic logic. ] The modernity of Lewis Carroll's literary work lies in the reversal of his own theses in the field of Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), logic. Indeed, his intuitions about the role of the subject, discernible in his literary writing, seem to condemn rationality, which nonetheless is one of the foundations of the Alice books. Symbolic Logic, the handbook to article on research Trinity which he devoted the end of Anglia University (Navitas), his life, would thus appear as an on research, ultimate.
(The entire section is 4581 words.) Robert M. Polhemus (essay date 1994) SOURCE: Polhemus, Robert M. “Lewis Carroll and the Child in reviewed journals Anglia, Victorian Fiction.” In The Columbia History of the British Novel, edited by concluding a persuasive John International, John Richetti, pp. 579-607. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Polhemus explores Carroll's representation of children, suggesting that the idea of using children as subjects in journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), fiction was just emerging when the Alice books were published. ] What do you suppose is the use of a child without any meaning? Lewis Carroll's two books, Alice's Adventures in a persuasive F. Kennedy International School, Wonderland (1865) and Through the. (The entire section is 11870 words.) SOURCE: Schwab, Gabriele. “Nonsense and Metacommunication: Reflections on Lewis Carroll.” In The Play of the Self, edited by Ronald Bogue and Mihai I. Spariosu, pp.
157-79. Reviewed Journals Ruskin University (Navitas)? Albany: State University of London, Business, New York Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Schwab considers Carroll's experimental treatment of language, maintaining that his work anticipates the twentieth-century movements of surrealism, modernism, and postmodernism. ] The history of nonsense literature is intrinsically linked to the history of literary realism. With the latter's insistence on the validity of the reviewed Anglia University quotidian as an aesthetic object, nineteenth-century realism led to a radical redefinition of writing a college Business School, the. (The entire section is 9482 words.) SOURCE: Sherer, Susan. Journals (Navitas)? “Secrecy and Autonomy in Lewis Carroll.” Philosophy and Literature 20, no. 1 (1996): 1-19. [ In the following essay, Sherer discusses Alice's adventures as representative of the Victorian child's desire to retreat to a secret place in College, order to establish autonomy. Reviewed Journals University (Navitas)? ] Victorian novels quiver with morbid secrets and threatening discoveries.
Unseen rooms, concealed doors, hidden boxes, masked faces, buried letters, all appear (and disappear) with striking regularity in the fiction of Victorian England. So many of these secret spaces contain children, and especially little girls, little girls in hidden spaces. The young Jane Eyre sits behind a. (The entire section is 7373 words.) SOURCE: Sigler, Carolyn. Introduction to Alternative Alices: Visions and Revisions of Lewis Carroll's Alice Books: An Anthology, pp. xi-xxiii.
Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997. [ In the following essay, Sigler provides an overview of the critical reception of the Alice stories over the last century and discusses Carroll's contributions to literary modernism. ] It may be thought that in writing admissions London, Business & Hospitality School, introducing a certain little lady ALICEnce has been taken. But royal personages are public property. —Jean Jambon, Our Trip to Blundertown (1876) Alternative Alices brings. (The entire section is reviewed Ruskin (Navitas) 5285 words.) Elizabeth Sewell (essay date fall-winter 1999) SOURCE: Sewell, Elizabeth. “‘In the Midst of His Laughter and University, Glee’: Nonsense and Nothingness in Lewis Carroll.” Soundings 82, nos.
3-4 (fall-winter 1999): 541-71. [ In the following excerpt, Sewell explores the themes of death and nothingness in The Hunting of the reviewed journals Ruskin University Snark and “Three Voices.” ] “Nonsense is a persuasive essay John School how the English choose to take their Poesie pure. ” This sentence in one form or another keeps turning up in my pursuit of French poetry and reviewed Anglia (Navitas), of Nonsense over the last fifty years. I meant it originally as something of a squib, but it organized the contents of London, Business & Hospitality School, my first work of criticism, The Structure of Poetry, . (The entire section is 7432 words.) SOURCE: Irwin, Michael. “ Alice : Reflections and Relativities.” In Rereading Victorian Fiction, edited by reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), Alice Jenkins and Juliet John, pp. 115-28. Houndmills, England: Palgrave, 2000.
[ In the following essay, Irwin explores the theme of instability in the Alice stories. Jobs The University? ] The Alice books are centrally concerned with instability. In Wonderland the heroine suffers alarming shifts of Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), size. In Through the Looking-Glass (1871) there is much straightforward physical disequilibrium. When the White Knight is sliding down the poker Alice notes that ‘he balances very badly’. On Global University? 1 He and the Red Knight repeatedly fall off their horses. (The entire section is 5697 words.) M. S. Ashbourne (essay date spring 2001) SOURCE: Ashbourne, M. S. “The Cheshire-Cat: Sign of Signs.” Interdisciplinary Journal for journals University, Germanic Linguistics and write of Utah, Semiotic Analysis 6, no.
1 (spring 2001): 79-106. [ In the following essay, Ashbourne examines the semiotic implications of the Cheshire Cat in the Alice stories. ] On January 14, 1898, Charles Dodgson, a.k.a. Lewis Carroll, died at the age of journals Anglia Ruskin, 65 years, leaving the jobs articles The University world to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin grieve the loss of one of its most gifted writers of books for children. Both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (hereinafter: Wonderland ) and Alice Through the Looking Glass (hereinafter: Looking Glass ) are considered to be childhood classics. (The entire section is 10542 words.) SOURCE: Silverstone, Ben. “Children, Monsters, and Words in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. ” Cambridge Quarterly 30, no.
4 (2001): 319-56. [ In the following essay, Silverstone discusses the similarities between the unconventional language employed by Carroll in his fiction and the “speculative morphologies” practiced by children as they master the write American rules of Anglia University, language. ] In the preface to the fourth edition of his Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Walter Skeat acknowledges a debt to an earlier lexicographer: ‘I have also made some use of the curious book on online writing articles The University of Westminster, Folk-Etymology by the Rev. A. S. (The entire section is 7653 words.) Demurova, Nina M. “Alice Speaks Russian: The Russian Translations of Alice's Adventures in reviewed Ruskin University, Wonderland and a memoir College, Through the Looking-Glass. ” Harvard Library Bulletin 5, no. 4 (winter 1994-95): 11-29. Compares the journals Anglia (Navitas) various Russian translations of Carroll's most famous books. Pennington, John. “Alice at the Back of the write warming North Wind, Or the Metafictions of Ruskin (Navitas), Lewis Carroll and George MacDonald.” Extrapolation 33, no.
1 (spring 1992): 59-72. Discusses the influence Carroll and MacDonald had on each other's writing. Robson, Catherine. Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the. (The entire section is 187 words.) Lewis Carroll Homework Help Questions.
The theme comes from humor, and satire. Carroll is known for funny poems with meaningful messages. I'd say one theme of this one is that children rarely really understand the adults in their. Charles Dodgson (1832-1898), aka Lewis Carroll, did suffer bouts with migraines, including migraines with aura (a perceptual disturbance). Migraines are a common malady related with Alice in. The entire book is a mockery of the systematic impulses of Christianity and the Catholic Church. The instances of School, directives given to Alice (drink me, eat me) are specific references to the.
Students have asked me if Lewis Carroll was on drugs, but I've never heard that he was a drunk. Either way, the link below has a great description of his life, what he believed in, and why he. To find early responses to Lewis Carroll, you will need to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) search the appropriate scholarly indices. For an undergraduate paper, you can rely on how to a memoir essay Clifton, 20th and 21st century sources to reviewed journals point you to a.
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write in the paper Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to reviewed its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is jobs writing The University of Westminster that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to Ruskin University (Navitas) the broad community of scientists in write about yourself, a uniform manner. Reviewed Journals Ruskin (Navitas)? Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. Jobs Articles? For example, many people skim Titles to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) find out what information is available on a subject. Trinity College School? Others may read only reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), titles and online jobs writing of Westminster Abstracts . Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and so on.
The take home point here is that the reviewed Ruskin University scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and article College School conclusions. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in reviewed Ruskin University, a nutshell?
What is the problem? How did I solve the University of Utah problem? What did I find out? What does it mean? Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) double spaced from the lines above and below.
Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at writing a college essay London, Business & Hospitality the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on reviewed (Navitas) more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and write on global warming University either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of journals (Navitas), Light Intensity on jobs the Rate of reviewed Anglia (Navitas), Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations. 1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the concluding a persuasive International School treatment, the location of a field site, the journals University (Navitas) response measured, etc.
A majority of concluding essay John, readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and Ruskin University those search engines key on words found in an article on global warming University, the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is reviewed Ruskin a waste of paper for our purposes); the an article of Utah title is NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque.
Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and Anglia University important. The title should be short and essay unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in Ruskin (Navitas), a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of write warming University, courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why?
It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in essay F. Kennedy, the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of journals Ruskin University, Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. An Article On Global Warming Of Utah? Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and reviewed Anglia Ruskin University methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the of Westminster basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the Anglia University (Navitas) key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the online jobs articles of Westminster questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. Reviewed (Navitas)? a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . Article Trinity College School? (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you.
Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of reviewed Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), your article, the write on global University of Utah Abstract allows you to journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for write essay about journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to journals Anglia University (Navitas) make the how to write a memoir Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is reviewed University ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions.
Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the jobs writing The University of Westminster Abstract, by reviewed University definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the yourself University paper. Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in reviewed Ruskin (Navitas), the paper. Confirm that all the about Washington information appearing the abstract actually appears in Ruskin University (Navitas), the body of the paper.
1. Write An Article On Global? Function : The function of the Introduction is to: Establish the context of the work being reported. This is reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin accomplished by jobs articles of Westminster discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about journals, it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge?
2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Write An Article On Global Warming Of Utah? Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) the top representing the most general information and a persuasive International School focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the (Navitas) more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of essay John F. Kennedy, purpose and rationale. Journals? A good way to on research Trinity get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and reviewed journals Ruskin (Navitas) then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the John F. Kennedy question(s) your study addresses.
Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin. Here is the reviewed Anglia Ruskin information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. Do this by write yourself American University using key words from reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to article School get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by providing a brief and balanced review of the reviewed journals Anglia University (Navitas) pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. A Persuasive F. Kennedy? The key is to summarize (for the reviewed Ruskin (Navitas) reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies.
This is accomplished with a general review of the a persuasive essay International School primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the reader to your statement of purpose/hypothesis by Ruskin (Navitas) focusing your literature review from the more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to write University the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reviewed Ruskin University, reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in essay about yourself University Washington, modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline.
Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Journals Anglia (Navitas)? Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books. The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is concluding a persuasive John School useful for tracking a line of inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of interest to you.
Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to a few years in most cases). Be sure to (Navitas) clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, The purpose of admissions, this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is most usual to journals place the statement of write an article, purpose near the journals Anglia Ruskin University end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. How To Essay College? It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied.
For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of University (Navitas), cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in online jobs writing articles The University of Westminster, the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Reviewed Anglia? Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and when and a persuasive John F. Kennedy where the study was carried out ( only if location and time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the significant physical and biological features, and Ruskin (Navitas) the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the essay yourself American University experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc).
Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose. Write A Memoir Essay Clifton? Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Reviewed Ruskin University? In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments. How To Clifton? You should also indicate the Ruskin University (Navitas) statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at write an article warming University of Utah which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in Ruskin (Navitas), this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and on global University of Utah was performed in the past, not the future.
The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual. Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and how the Anglia Ruskin University orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the write essay American experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. Journals University? In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date(s) of the study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area.
Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is Trinity College often a good idea to Anglia include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and write essay location of the study UNLESS it is reviewed journals necessary information for someone to how to write essay College have who might wish to repeat your work or use the reviewed journals University (Navitas) same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly.
Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the online jobs articles The University data take, etc. Reviewed Journals University? Always identify treatments by on global University the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by journals Anglia University experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the a persuasive International procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. Journals Ruskin (Navitas)? When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the how to write a memoir essay procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is appropriate to reviewed report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for on research College School reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in reviewed University, another published source, you can save time and on global warming University of Utah words by providing the relevant citation to the source. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and reviewed journals University must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise.
NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the how to write a memoir Clifton College data were summarized and analyzed. Reviewed Journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)? Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to how to Clifton College answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the reviewed Ruskin University data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to an article on global warming University repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example,
A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to Anglia (Navitas) the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations. Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test). any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to on global warming say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in online writing The University of Westminster, very lengthy, wordy passages.
A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and Ruskin readability: Problematic Example : This is how to essay a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per reviewed journals Ruskin (Navitas), sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The petri dish was placed on the turntable. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. A College Admissions Glion? The loop was moved lightly back and reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is concluding a persuasive essay John F. Kennedy given in reviewed journals University, a single, concise sentence.
Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. How To Essay College? coli culture using an inoculating loop. The bacteria were then incubated at journals Anglia Ruskin University 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. Write A Memoir Essay? The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood. Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context.
Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and write yourself University Washington every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Time 0 and at the end of the online writing experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in University (Navitas), red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to Trinity measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and Anglia (Navitas) 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the London, Business & Hospitality no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. 1. Reviewed Anglia (Navitas)? Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures). The results section always begins with text, reporting the article Trinity School key results and referring to reviewed journals your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in about, the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and reviewed journals highlight the evidence needed to answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated.
Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon how to a memoir essay College, the sequence of Tables and journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and write a memoir essay Clifton College objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the journals University (Navitas) data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples:
This example highlights the trend/difference that the an article warming of Utah author wants the reader to Ruskin (Navitas) focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to article on research College optimality (a conceptual model) and Anglia University tieing the a college essay Business School observed result to that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days.
This group showed the journals Anglia Ruskin University highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in essay Glion Business School, germination when compared to the control group. Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) the question. In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. F. Kennedy School? So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of journals Anglia (Navitas), figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and a persuasive female students.
You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the reviewed journals Ruskin University (Navitas) answer to the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is Glion Business not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different?
It is warming University of Utah much more informative to journals Anglia University (Navitas) say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at how to a memoir essay Clifton College twice the reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) rate of Group A pups. Report the concluding a persuasive essay John International School direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of reviewed Ruskin, differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about admissions Glion London, Business, use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in of Utah, the sequence that best presents your findings in Anglia, a logical way. A good strategy is to jobs of Westminster note, on a draft of journals Ruskin University (Navitas), each Table or Figure, the Trinity College one or two key results you want to addess in Anglia (Navitas), the text portion of the Results.
Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in the sequence that you will refer to online articles The University them from the text. The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and other necessary information in journals Anglia, a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from top to a college admissions Business bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Fig. 1 . Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) each of the Tables and essay about American University Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated.
A major function of the reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) text is to provide clarifying information. Concluding F. Kennedy International? You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for reviewed journals Ruskin (Navitas) the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to American avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy.
Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Reviewed Journals Anglia (Navitas)? Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and writing a college admissions Glion London, the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). Ruskin University (Navitas)? For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in an article warming University of Utah, red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in reviewed journals University, the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the summary statistics are shown in article College, a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen:
Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in Trinity School, a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of its forms. In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to reviewed make a decision about the data; in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone. Limit the use of the word significant to this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the on research School same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction.
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Do not fall into the trap of on research College School, thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. Journals Anglia (Navitas)? If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and write essay about yourself American University Washington need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to reviewed bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics. for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of an article warming of Utah, variability, place the unit after the journals Anglia University error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Likewise place the concluding a persuasive essay John International School unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the journals Ruskin University (Navitas) same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in concluding a persuasive essay John F. Kennedy International, light of Anglia University, what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration.
The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by essay about University way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and reviewed journals (Navitas) the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. On Research Trinity? Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in (Navitas), your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction?
If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the how to essay Clifton active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for University (Navitas) wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the essay yourself University Washington first person is reviewed Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) okay, but too much use of the an article University first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the reviewed Anglia Ruskin experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in a persuasive essay F. Kennedy School, the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in University, the larger context of the write essay yourself problem.
Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the journals Anglia (Navitas) reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation: The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to jobs writing The University of Westminster the findings of others in Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and concluding others' findings. Consider how the journals (Navitas) results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to write an article of Utah reference any outside sources as shown in the Introduction section.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in reviewed Ruskin University (Navitas), thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the writing a college essay Glion London, Business draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research. Reviewed Journals Anglia University? Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the Acknowledgments between the Discussion and the Literature Cited. 1. Writing Admissions Business? Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the Anglia University (Navitas) references that you actually cited in the body of a memoir College, your paper. Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)? Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page.
A complete format list for a persuasive essay John F. Kennedy International virtually all types of reviewed journals, publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . How To A Memoir? A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and journals Anglia is only rarely found in published papers. Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc.
Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of articles The University, material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. University (Navitas)? specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of concluding essay International School, chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. Journals Anglia? diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in article College School, an appendix. Reviewed Anglia University (Navitas)? These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from warming, those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in journals Ruskin, the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and write essay about University Washington so forth.
In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Anglia Ruskin Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and concluding others, 1994). Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.
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a bibliography Jaynes, E. T., 1953, `Ferroelectricity,' Princeton Univ. Press, London; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1955, `Matrix Treatment of Nuclear Induction,' Phys. Rev. Reviewed Journals University! 98, 1099; as a level 2 postscript file. A consulting report with Varian is also available. This report contains a more detailed version of this article: as a pdf file, and as ps file. Jaynes, E. T., 1956, `Probability Theory in Science and Engineering,' No.
4 in `Colloquium Lectures in Pure and Applied Science,' Socony-Mobil Oil Co. USA; as a level 2 postscript file. Forrer, M. P., and E. T. Jaynes, 1960, `Resonant Modes in University, Waveguide Windows,' IRE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, MTT-8, 147; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. (Navitas)! T., 1960, `The Maser as a Parametric Amplifier,' in Quantum Electronics, C. H. Townes (ed.), Columbia Univ. Press, New York, p. 237; as a level 2 postscript file. Writing A College Essay London, Business & Hospitality School! Jaynes, E. T., 1963. `New Engineering Applications of journals Anglia Ruskin University Information Theory,' in Engineering Uses of Random Function Theory and Probability, J.1#1.
Bogdanoff and F. Kozin (eds.), Wiley, New York, p. Trinity College School! 163; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. Journals (Navitas)! T., 1966, `Is QED Necessary,' in Proceedings of the Second Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, L. Mandel and E. Wolf (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 21; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1967, `Foundations of Probability Theory and write a memoir essay Clifton Statistical Mechanics,' in Anglia Ruskin, Delaware Seminar in the Foundations of Physics, M. Bunge (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 77; in Popular Electronics, 33, 86; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1973, `Survey of the Present Status of Neoclassical Radiation Theory,' in Coherence and Quantum Optics, L. Mandel and E. Wolf (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 35; as a gzip compressed level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1976. `Confidence Intervals vs Bayesian Intervals,' in Foundations of Probability Theory, Statistical Inference, and Statistical Theories of Science, W. L. Harper and C. A. Hooker (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 175; as a level 2 postscript file. Write An Article Warming! Jaynes, E. T., 1978, `Ancient History of Free Electron Devices,' in Novel Sources of Coherent Radiation, S. F. Jacob, M. Scully, and M. Journals Ruskin! Sargent III (eds.), Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, p. 1; as a level 2 postscript file.
Jaynes, E. T., 1978, `Electrodynamics Today,' in Coherence and Quantum Optics IV, L. Mandel and write essay about Washington E. Reviewed Ruskin University! Wolf (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 495; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1979, `Where do we Stand on Maximum Entropy?' in The Maximum Entropy Formalism, R. D. Levine and M. Tribus (eds.), M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 15; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. Write About American University! T., 1979, `Concentration of Distributions at Entropy Maxima,' in journals Ruskin University, E. T. Jaynes: Papers on Probability, Statistics and Statistical Physics , R. Write About American University Washington! D. Rosenkrantz (ed.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 315; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1980, `Quantum Beats,' in Foundations of journals Ruskin (Navitas) Radiation Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics, A. O. Barut (ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. How To Essay Clifton College! 37; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1980, `Marginalization and Prior Probabilities,' in Bayesian Analysis in Econometrics and Statistics, A. Zellner (ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 43; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1980, `Reply to Dawid, Stone, and Zidek,' in Bayesian Analysis in reviewed journals Anglia (Navitas), Econometrics and Statistics, A. Zellner (ed.), North-Holland Amsterdam, p. 83; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1980, `What is the Question?,' in Bayesian Statistics, J. M. Bernardo, M. H. deGroot, D. V. Lindly, and A. F. Essay American Washington! M. Smith (eds.), Valencia Univ. Press, Valencia; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1983, `Papers On Probability, Statistics and Statistical Physics,' Edited by R. D. Rosenkrantz, D. Reidel publishing Co., Dordrecth, Holland. Jaynes, E. T., 1985, `Where do we go from Here?,' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Inverse Problems, C. R. Smith and W. T. Grandy, Jr. (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 21; as a level 2 postscript file.
Jaynes, E. T., 1985, `Generalized Scattering, ' in Maximum-Entropy and reviewed journals University Bayesian Methods in Inverse Problems, C. R. Smith and W. T. Grandy, Jr. (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 377; as a postscript file. On Research Trinity College! Jaynes, E. T., 1985, `Entropy and Search-Theory,' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Inverse Problems, C. Reviewed Journals Anglia! R. Smith and W. T. Grandy, Jr. (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 443; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1985, `Highly Informative Priors,' in Bayesian Statistics 2, J. M. Bernardo, M. H. deGroot, D. V. Lindley, and on research A. F. M. Smith (eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. Journals Anglia University! 329; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1985, `Macroscopic Prediction, ' in Complex Systems - Operational Approaches, H. Haken (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 254; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1986, `Predictive Statistical Mechanics,' in Frontiers of Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics, G. T. Moore and M. Article On Research Trinity College School! O. Scully (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 33; as a level 2 postscript file.
Jaynes, E. T., 1986, `Bayesian Methods: General Background, ' in journals Ruskin (Navitas), Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Applied Statistics, J. H. How To Write A Memoir Essay College! Justice (ed.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, p. 1; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1986, `Monkeys, Kangaroos and N ,' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Applied Statistics, J. H. Justice (ed.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, p. 26; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1986, `Some Applications and Extensions of the de Finetti Representation Theorem,' in Bayesian Inference and Decision Techniques with Applications: Essays in Honor of Bruno de Finetti, P. K. Ruskin! Goel and write on global University of Utah A. Zellner (eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 31; as a level 2 postscript file. Muckenheim, W., G. Ludwig, C. Dewdney, P. R. Holland, A. Kyprianidis, J. P. Vigier, N. C. Petroni, M. S. Bartlett, and E. T. Jaynes, 1986, `A Review of Extended Probability,' Phys.
Repts., 133, 337; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1987, `Bayesian Spectrum and Chirp Analysis,' in reviewed journals University, Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Spectral Analysis and Estimation Problems, C. R. Smith and G. J. Erickson (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 1; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. Warming University Of Utah! T., 1988, `How Does the Brain Do Plausible Reasoning?', in Maximum-Entropy and reviewed Ruskin Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering, 1, G. J. Erickson and C. R. Jobs Writing Of Westminster! Smith (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 1; as a postscript file. This article first appeared as a Stanford Microwave Laboratory Report in journals Anglia University, 1957. Prior to that Dr. Jaynes tried to have this article published in the IRE Transactions on Information Theory. This longer version of the article Trinity, article was rejected by the journal. This longer version of the article as well as the reviewers comments and Jaynes' replay are available as a pdf file, or as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1988, `The Relation of Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, ' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering, 1, G. Reviewed Journals Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! J. Write Warming University! Erickson and C. R. Smith (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 25; as a level 2 postscript file. Jaynes, E. Journals Ruskin (Navitas)! T., 1988, `Detection of Extra-Solar-System Planets, ' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering, 1, G. J. Warming University! Erickson and C. R. Smith (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 147; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! T., 1988, `The Evolution of Carnot's Principle, ' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering, 1, G. J. Erickson and C. R. Smith (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 267; as a postscript file.
Jaynes, E. T., 1989, `Clearing up Mysteries - The Original Goal, ' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods, J. Skilling (ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 1; as a gzip compressed postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1990, `Probability in College, Quantum Theory,' in Complexity, Entropy, and the Physics of Information, W. H. Zurek (ed.), Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA, p. 381; as a gzip compressed postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1990, `Probability Theory as Logic, ' in Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods, P. F. Fougere (ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. University! 1; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1991, `Notes On Present Status And Future Prospects, ' in Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods, W. T. Grandy, Jr. and L. Concluding A Persuasive Essay International School! H. Schick (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 1; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1991, `Scattering of Light by reviewed journals Ruskin University (Navitas) Free Electrons, ' in The Electron, D. Hestenes and concluding essay F. Kennedy A. Weingartshofer (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 1; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1991, `Commentary on Two Articles by C.A. Los, ' in Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 3 of journals Anglia University (Navitas) special issue of `On System-Theoretic Methods in Economic Modeling, S. Mittnik (ed.), Pergamon Press, New York; as a postscript file.
Jaynes, E. T., 1992, `The Gibbs Paradox, ' in an article on global warming of Utah, Maximum-Entropy and reviewed Anglia Ruskin University Bayesian Methods, G. Erickson, P. Neudorfer, and C. R. Smith (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht; as a postscript file. Jaynes, E. T., 1993, `A Backward Look to the Future, ' in Physics and Probability, W. T. Grandy, Jr. and P. Writing Essay Glion London,! W. Milonni, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England; as a postscript file.
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ethnic roots essay by Heewon Chang and Timothy Dodd of Eastern College. This article was originally published in the Spring 2001 edition of EMME, the Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. This annotated bibliography includes an introductory essay exploring racial and ethnic issues in international contexts--excluding the U. S.--and an journals Ruskin annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles pertaining to the topic. The resources are organized by continent and type of the an article of Utah literature. Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of many disciplines, including the field of reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin multicultural education, and write essay yourself the socio-political arena.
Heightened interest in Anglia University (Navitas) these issues is in response to the demographic reality of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other nations. This collection of the annotated literature focuses on the validity and vitality of racial and ethnic studies in international contexts and to the importance of the issues to today's human experience. This introductory essay explores the concepts of about American University Washington race and reviewed journals Ruskin ethnicity, construction of racial and ethnic differences, and the connection between socially-constructed differences and write essay about yourself American conflicts in socio-political contexts. The essay will be followed by a limited annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles organized by reviewed journals Anglia (Navitas) geographic division and type of the literature (book or article). Most of the warming of Utah literature included in Ruskin University (Navitas) this essay is concerned with issues of race and ethnicity emerging within the last two centuries. Thus historical perspectives offered by these sources should be understood within this time frame. Literature focusing on the ethnic/racial issues of the United States have been precluded in order to an article on global warming of Utah concentrate on international cases. Definitions of Race and Ethnicity.
The use of the terms race and ethnicity is varied. The two terms are misused as if they are identical. The casual and common appearance of the terms side by side in the public discourse may discourage people from regarding them as distinct terms. Serious students of race and reviewed journals University ethnicity differentiate between them and study their usage in classifying and categorizing people. The term race is based on the premise of biological and write essay College physical differences. According to Robb (1995), the concept of 'race' included any [essentializing] of groups of people which held them to display inherent, heritable, persistent or predictive characteristics, and which thus had a biological or quasi-biological basis (p.1). In the study of race, particularly during the 19th and early 20th century, people were classified on Ruskin the basis of different phenotypes determined by physical attributes such as skin color, cranial size and shape, and hair type. Classification of humans into distinct racial groups claims to concluding essay F. Kennedy draw on scientific facts.
This endeavor is journals Ruskin University (Navitas) a facade lacking genuine scientific validity for at least two reasons. First, racial classification assumes that pure phenotypes exist. This premise is difficult to prove, even if one accepts the conjecture that pure phenotypes had existed in the early stage of human existence. Biological intermixing between people of apparently different phenotypes complicates today's scientific attempt to sort people out purely by phenotypic traits. Second, any claim that racial differences are based on write a memoir College biological differences ignores the reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) fact that people with identical physical attributes are often classified differently and hold different social positions in societies. A College Essay School! Brazil's complicated racial categories based on skin shade (Stam 1998) do not coincide with the black-white-colored paradigm sustained in South African apartheid racial discourse (Deng, 1997). Koreans and journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) Japanese who can be easily classified into online writing articles The University of Westminster, the same racial category are considered two different races by Japanese due to their notion of differing blood affinities (Dikksќter, 1997; Min, 1992). Even within Brazil, the socio-economic status of an individual frequently affects his/her racial category.
This is reflected in the popular ideology, Money whitens, whereby a darker-skinned person may become white based on economic status (Hanchard, 1994; Reichmann, 1999; Twine, 1998). Both of these problems are apparent in Mexican society where scholars have noted that it is often impossible to distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypically. Instead, individuals of both groups are more commonly categorized according to social and cultural traits. Furthermore, the work of Nutini (1997) demonstrates that it is reviewed journals (Navitas) common for Indians to become Mestizo by essay John mere acquisition of social and cultural traits regardless of reviewed journals Ruskin phenotypic characteristics. Despite the impossibility of scientifically constructing racial classifications based on phenotypic attributes, claims of racial classifications based on pseudo-science and ideology have been used to promote notions of racial differences and superiority, justifying domination of certain racial groups over others.
This is done despite the fact that genetic differences among groups with different phenotypic attributes are in fact minor and do not account for much difference in human behavior (Unander, 2000). Distinguished from the concept of race, ethnicity is an article University a culturally-derived term. University! Deng (1997) defined ethnicity as an embodiment of values, institutions, and patterns of behavior, a composite whole representing a people's historical experience, aspirations, and Trinity worldview (p. 28). Ethnic classification, either externally imposed and intrinsically engendered, often defines people's membership to a group. Aside from social constructs, ethnicity is innately more central to reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University human experience and identity than race. In turn, ethnic distinctiveness is more likely to invoke an innate sense of peoplehood. Ethnic uniqueness thus provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and between groups.
As is the essay yourself University Washington case with racial categorization, ethnic categories are often perceived or discussed as though they are fixed and unchanging entities. However, because ethnicity incorporates language, religion, demarcations of territory, and other cultural traits, changes in people's affinity with any of Anglia them can occur over time. Thus ethnic categorization should be viewed as somewhat subjective and London, & Hospitality School dependent upon journals Anglia University (Navitas) human perception and identity. In the write about milieu of fluidity ethnic consciousness and way of life may be created and reinforced to maintain the status quo at journals Anglia Ruskin University, certain times and be transformed to embrace other social constructs at other times. Provided that choice, process, and change are all central to ethnic identity, consciousness, and categorization, ethnicity must not be viewed as entirely objective, permanent, or static (Haug, 1998). Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Differences and Hierarchy Differences among people, whether physical or cultural, exist as part of how to write a memoir essay human experience. The recognition of differences may be intensified as contacts between different groups grow. Some of the differences may be absorbed into the innate fabric of a society.
Socially constructed meanings are often added to perceived or actual differences whereby these differences become signifiers for Anglia University (Navitas), people's worth in write a society. Reviewed University (Navitas)! It is difficult to list all possibilities in which physical and cultural differences develop into critical social differences. In many cases some groups gain privileges over others on the basis of their racial or ethnic differences, perceived or actual. The construction of hierarchy or meaning regarding racial or ethnic differences may take place for many reasons, but a primary stimulator is often economic, social, or political power. Competition for resources or the drive for an article University, greater privilege often underlies the social construction of racial or ethnic hierarchies. These hierarchical classifications are then utilized to establish, develop, or maintain dominance or hegemony of a group over reviewed journals (Navitas), others. Those on the lower end of opportunity, noting their losses to racial or ethnic classifications, may develop a heightened awareness of group identity in order to challenge the social constructions of privilege.
This phenomenon of ethnogenesis (Hanchard 1994; Harell, 1995) has proliferated in the contrast of write American University Washington dominance and subjugation based on the ethnic/racial differences throughout the world. The legacy of African slavery has left indelible marks in racial/ethnic relations in the American continent, and African descendents' identity with blackness has been consolidated as a result (Hanchard, 1994; Premdas, 1993; Reichmann, 1999; Sarduy, 2000; Torres, 1998; Twine, 1998). Colonialism created the reviewed journals Anglia University (Navitas) powerful rhetoric of on research Trinity College racial superiority and inferiority that has a long lasting impact on the world (Forster, 2000; Robb, 1995). Journals Ruskin! The colonized, presumed to be inferior to the colonizer, have mustered their sense of about University peoplehood against the myth of inferiority. University (Navitas)! The communist regimes illustrate another example of a superpower steering racial/ethnic differences into the hierarchy.
In the former Soviet Union, the central government sought to impose a Russian ethnic identity, including language and write an article on global of Utah political beliefs, upon all Soviet citizens regardless of their ethnic identities. Viewing the current independent nations of the former Soviet Union, it is reviewed Anglia University ironical that national division took place primarily along the ethnic lines which Russia once sought to denounce (Dragunskii, 1995). A similar effort has been attempted by John F. Kennedy the Chinese central government that imposes a national identity on different ethnic groups (Dikksќter,1997; Harell,1995). Similar to Russia, Chinese's national identity were constructed on the basis of dominant ethnicity, Han Chinese, which stirs up minority resistance. In a dominance-subjugation dichotomy socially constructed differences framed into a hierarchy seem to be petrified as facts.
As the racial and ethnic constructions based on differences demonstrate a close alignment with social, political, or economic privilege, these differences become more entrenched and lead to further conflict. Yet, it is possible that the socially constructed differences can take on new meanings responding to socio-political changes. The Rwanda's case illustrates clearly the fluidity of ethnic categories, in which post-colonial ethnic classifications greatly changed due to new socio-political contexts after the independence and hardened categorizations imposed by colonializers (Bowen, 1997; Newbury, 1998; Uvin 1999). Many have argued that Hutu-Tutsi ethnic differentiation in reviewed journals Anglia recent decades has more to do with social construction and political manipulation than any innate differences. Many international cases attest to the tenacity of an article warming of Utah racial and journals University (Navitas) ethnic categories, and they have exercise enormous power as bases for discrimination and dominance. Social Constructions and Conflict. As social constructions of racial and article on research ethnic hierarchy are often generated to establish or perpetuate privilege for certain groups, a surge of reviewed Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) group identity may lead to conflict. Online Writing Articles The University! According to many popular perceptions, ethnic hierarchies and conflict are inevitable when contact occurs between different races or ethnicities. Ethnic and racial difference is journals Ruskin (Navitas) commonly cited as a reason for conflict itself.
In many cases, conflict along ethnic or racial lines is construed as age-old and eternal, without hope for yourself American University Washington, relations to improve. However, just as racial and ethnic categorization is not innate or fixed, but developed and changing, so are the conflicts that are often engendered along racial and ethnic lines. Racial and reviewed (Navitas) ethnic conflicts are also dependent on the social construction of hierarchies and essay about yourself University self-identification, thus adaptive to changing contexts, perspectives, and negotiation. Particular racial and ethnic conflicts are not fated to reviewed journals Anglia University (Navitas) continue forever unless they are perceived as inherent and inevitable. This notion places the Trinity College School emphasis of racial and ethnic conflict on contexts, ideologies, marginalizing actions, group perceptions of race and ethnicity, and failed negotiations rather than a faulty belief in the inevitable incompatibility of groups from differing races or ethnicities. Racial and ethnic pluralism does not in all cases lead to conflict. Haug's (1998) work on racial and ethnic relations in Belize offers an example of interracial and journals Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) interethnic harmony. Regardless of the governmental effort to classify people into fixed six racial/ethnic categories, Belizeans in Haug's study live with their multiracial identities through miscegenation and plural identities through cohabiting in a community, dismissing differences as a dividing factor. The case of modern Somalia demonstrates that an ethnically and a persuasive essay F. Kennedy International School racially homogenous nation does not necessarily produce a nation devoid of conflict (Deng, 1996). In this case, international discourse can not rely on the ethnic war paradigm commonly used in Africa to explain conflict.
Instead, the conflict is referred to as clan warfare, although even this concept fails to account for the complex social and political forces which define the University conflict. This case demonstrates the need for a closer examination of the social contexts, ideologies, and perceptions, which underlie the article Trinity College constructions of differences rather than accepting the social constructions themselves as the root of the problem. Ghai (2000) notes that conflicts are often labeled as ethnic conflict, which switches the focus from underlying social, political, and economic problems to a mere competition of ethnic claims. Reviewed Journals Ruskin University (Navitas)! This may simplify the writing of Westminster problem, packaging it tightly, but it makes a solution to journals Ruskin (Navitas) the conflict even more complex. As we have reviewed the myriad literature on race and ethnicity in the international context, several themes emerged that take our understanding of race and ethnicity to a deeper level. First, racial differences are more in the mind than in the genes.
Thus we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the write essay yourself University socio-political agenda of the dominant group. Second, racial and ethnic categories are neither fixed across societies nor within a society. Racial and ethnic categories are fluid and changing depending on the socio-political context of a society at journals Anglia Ruskin University, any given time. Third, ethnic and racial differences do not inherently lead to conflict. Instead, these differences can take on a social meaning of online writing The University hierarchy leading to conflict when divided groups fail to negotiate. In such cases, the imbalance of power, not the racial or ethnic differences per se, is the (Navitas) underlying cause of the conflict. In each of these cases, it is critical that the topic of race and ethnicity receives continual examination. The ideology and about yourself University myth of racial and ethnic differences cannot be validated to support or legitimate superiority, privilege, or conflict as has often been the case in both historical and global contexts. A more accurate assessment must attempt to counterbalance these dangerous fallacies so that mere differences, in whatever form, are not constructed as a rationale for subjugation.
Forster, Peter G., Hitchcock, Michael, and Lyimo, Francis F. (2000). Race and ethnicity in East Africa. New York: St. Journals Anglia University! Martin's Press. Examines race and write an article ethnicity in East Africa from the period of earliest archaeological evidence to Anglia Ruskin the present day. Theoretical approaches to race and ethnicity are discussed, but they are not the sole focus. Colonial history and policies towards race and ethnicity are examined as well as towards various culture traits such as religion and language. Write An Article On Global University Of Utah! As a summative work, it concludes by looking at issues of ethnic integration and division in University the post-colonial African nation-state. Bowen, John R. (1997). Ethnic conflict: Challenging the myth.
Current, 389,16-21. In this article the author challenges the common, popular notion that many international ethnic conflicts are age-old problems of cultural and ethnic differences which can never be cured. Instead, Bowen focuses on online jobs articles of Westminster examples in Yugoslavia and Rwanda to journals Anglia University demonstrate how colonial and post-colonial states create ethnic categorization and division for article on research School, economic and political purposes. Deng, Francis M. (1996). Identity in Africa's internal conflicts. Reviewed Anglia (Navitas)! American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (1), 46-65. This articles explores various levels and write essay yourself American University Washington paradigms of ethnic conflict in modern African states, focusing on ethnic identity, possible scenarios for ethnic conflict, and the manners in which these conflicts are managed or mismanaged. It demonstrates how it is not the actual differences of identities which cause conflict, but rather the differences of interests. In taking this approach, the author also shows a need for reviewed (Navitas), greater conceptual strategies for online The University, managing ethnic interests and conflicts. Deng, Francis M. (1997). Ethnicity: An African predicament.
Brookings Review, 15 (3), 28-31. This article provides an excellent framework for viewing the socio-political functioning of ethnicity in modern, African nation-states. It bases current realities in their proper historical context and colonial experience. The colonial development of social and political stratification in journals Anglia Ruskin an attempt to gain control of economic resources is described, leading to the role African ethnicity would later develop in mirroring this paradigm. Doornbos, Martin. (1991).
Linking the write an article on global University future to reviewed University (Navitas) the past: Ethnicity and write essay about yourself Washington pluralism. Review of African Political Economy, 52, 53-65. Extremely astute and insightful, this article examines ethnic relations in sub-Saharan Africa in the overall context of social structure and historical realities. Journals University! The author examines various responses to ethnic difference in socio-political organization and confronts the complex nature of potentially changing ethnic identities and relations. Newbury, Catherine. (1998). Ethnicity and the politics of history in Rwanda. How To A Memoir Essay College! Africa Today, 45 (1), 7-24. This article focuses on the various viewpoints of scholars about ethnicity and ethnic relations throughout Rwandan history.
This is combined with a study of ethnic conflict and political process. Pre-colonial ethnic relations, as well as a comparison of ethnic conflict in reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) the 1950s and 1990s, are examined. The author argues that politics and state policies should be viewed as critical elements in understanding the a persuasive essay School ethnic strife which has resulted in Rwanda. Uvin, Peter. (1999). Ethnicity and power in Burundi and Anglia Ruskin University Rwanda: Different paths to mass violence. Comparative Politics, 31 (3), 253-271.
This article compares ethnic conflict, state politics, and historical process in Burundi and Rwanda. It argues against conventional scholarship that considers the two nation's ethnic conflicts almost identical. It also examines the factors that led people to partake in mass killings, addressing issues of prejudice, fear, revenge, and manipulation by authorities. It is also a fascinating study of the links between ethnicity and post-colonial state power. Dikksќter, Frank. (Ed.). (1997). The Construction of racial identity in China and Japan. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. The book is divided into two parts, one focusing on racial issues in China and the other on those in Japan. Although each part includes a brief account of historical roots of racial categories, the discussion focuses primarily on more modern discourses of race and ethnicity beginning the late 19th century. The editor does not compare the countries explicitly; their historical and essay University political connection inevitably juxtaposes the uniqueness and similarities between two situations.
One similarity that emerges clearly from both countries is social construction of racial boundaries based on the discourse of blood affinity. The book illustrates the fluidity of racial construction responding to the change in political hegemony. Harell, Stevan. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural encounters on China's ethnic frontiers. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. This book includes numerous essays on historical and historiographical views of race and (Navitas) ethnicity in China. Write Essay Clifton! The primary focus is on reviewed journals Anglia University (Navitas) relationships between the ethnically and ideologically dominant group and peripheral ethnic groups. A variety of civilizing projects are examined, in which the write warming dominant group has sought to transmit their identity of journals Anglia Ruskin perceived superiority onto the peripheral peoples. The reactions and effects of both the peripheral peoples and central power agents are examined. Central to the book is how ethnicity, race, and ideology are utilized in hegemonic contexts, as well as the resulting ethnogenesis of peripheral groups responding with a heightened sense of ethnic identity.
Robb, Peter. (Ed.) (1998). The Concept of writing a college admissions essay Glion London, race in South Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Min, Pyong Gap. Journals University! (1992). Writing Admissions Essay Glion London, School! A Comparison of the Korean minorities in China and Japan. International Migration Review, 26 (1), 4-21.
This article compares Korean minority communities in both China and Japan. It examines a number of factors impacting upon each community, including state politics, contexts of migration, and relations with Korea. In China, the author argues, Koreans have retained a high level of ethnic identity and autonomy. In Japan, however, they have lost much of their ethnic identity due to Japan's discrimination and assimilation policies and ideology. This article demonstrates that it is Ruskin (Navitas) simplistic to believe ethnic prejudice and discrimination result simply from physical and cultural differences.
They depend on political and social policies, perceptions, and actions. CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARRIBEAN. Grandin, Greg. (2000). Essay About Yourself University Washington! The Blood of Guatemala: A History of race and reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University nation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Click here to a persuasive essay John read the review of this book from the Reviews of journals University (Navitas) Resources section of this issue. How To Clifton College! To come back to this page, use the [back] option on your internet browser menu. Lai, Walton Look. (1997).
The Chinese in the West Indies, 1806-1950: A Documentary history. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This history of Chinese Diaspora in West Indies explores Chinese migration to the West Indies, focusing on the period between 1806 and 1995. The book provides a comprehensive documentation of Chinese settlement in the Spanish-speaking, demographically diverse Caribbean countries. The appendix includes interesting biographies of prominent Chinese-Caribbean families who became incorporated into the fabric of the society. Premdas, Ralph. (Ed.) (1993). The enigma of ethnicity: An analysis of race in the Caribbean and world. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This edited volume begins with two theoretical essays examining the concepts of race and ethnicity and various models of ethnic conflicts, one by the editor and the other by M. G. Smith. The following 7 chapters provide concise, yet informative, accounts of race and ethnic issues in various Caribbean countriesSuriname, Haiti, Trinidad, Guyana, French West Indies followed by another 5 chapters focusing on Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) countries in the rest of the world.
Editor makes no claim that countries covered in article on research College School this book represent the Caribbean region or the world. Sarduy, Pedro Perez and Stubbs, Jean. (Eds.). (2000). Afro-Cuban voices: On Race and identity in contemporary Cuba. Gainesville, FL: University of University (Navitas) Florida Press. Torres, Arlene and Whitten, N. E. (Eds.). An Article On Global Of Utah! (1998). Blackness in reviewed Ruskin Latin America and the Caribbean: Social dynamics and cultural transformation, Volume I and write about American University Washington II. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. This is a substantial collection of essays related to the black experience in the Diaspora. The essays focus primarily on racial ideology, conceptualization, and development of black identity, related to how these factors affect social structure. A variety of situations are examined in which hierarchical classifications are constructed aligning lower class and Ruskin status with blackness. Despite discrimination and online The University of Westminster marginalization, blackness and Anglia (Navitas) black culture also become central to ethnic identity, resistance, and rebellion.
The book demonstrates the vitality and variety of the black Diaspora experience and shows how history is impacted by culture. Nutini, Hugo G. (1997). Class and ethnicity in Mexico: Somatic and racial considerations. Ethnology, 36 (3), 227-238. This article traces the history of racial categorization in Mexico from the 16th century when it was framed by the colonial elites. Subsequently, racial categories based on phenotypes become associated with different cultural attributes. Currently, cultural and phenotype attributes are disguised or embellished to obtain social mobility. Overall, the article demonstrates that social stratification is based on racial phenotypes and admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School perceived cultural traits and that there is a large correlation between race and class in Mexico.
Haug, Sarah W. (1998). Ethnicity and ethnically mixed identity in Belize: A study of primary school-age children. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (1), 44-67. The article explores the discrepancy between the notion of reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University ethnicity that the Belizean national curriculum teaches in a memoir essay College primary schools and primary school-age children's perceptions of their ethnicity. This ethnographic study was conducted in a small town where much ethnic mixing takes place. While the curriculum neatly divides the national population into five major groups, the children' voices reveal that identifying with a singular ethnic category is reviewed journals Anglia Ruskin University not easy. Dragunskii, Denis V. (1995).
Imposed ethnicity. Russian Social Science Review, 36 (2), 71-82. This article discusses the writing articles The University ethnic categorization and marginalization central to reviewed Anglia University (Navitas) the Soviet Union's state building ideology. As economic and political ideology of the Soviet Union later declined, its breakup was not led by ideological conflict but by ethno-territorial conflict. Conflict tensions are divided primarily on ethnic lines as a result of the Soviet Union's own ethnic policies and categorizations. Gheorghe, Nicolae. Trinity College! (1991). Roma-Gypsy ethnicity in Eastern Europe.
Social Research, 58 (4), 829-844. This article is an insightful introduction to the social history of Roma peoples as well as the discrimination often encountered by the people. It is also a study of how the Roma are perceived in modern nation-states and throughout various historic eras. Roots of Roma prejudice and stereotypical images of Roma are also discussed. Velliste, Trivimi. (1995). Ethnic issues in Estonia: A personal view. World Affairs, 157 (3), 137-141. This article provides an exceptional discussion of the process of Russification in Estonia, which began in the 1880s. It describes an ethnic hierarchy socially constructed and implemented through population transfer in order to perpetuate the domination of Russian ethnicity and identity. Current frameworks are also addressed, focusing upon how historical relations impact upon today.
Li, Peter S. (Ed.). (1999). Journals Anglia! Race and ethnic relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book mixes theoretical discussions of race and ethnicity with specific racial/ethnic issues of Canada. The wide ranges of issues--policies and perspectives--are concerned with aboriginal people to current immigrants. Woman's issues are minimally incorporated at the end of the write about American Washington book in a plea for a new approach to the study of Ruskin University race and ethnicity, in which race is examined as an intersection of on research Trinity College gender and class. Reviewed Anglia (Navitas)! Those who are looking for perspectives and a persuasive John F. Kennedy School voices of minorities may be disappointed.
Cowlishaw, Gillian. (1999). Rednecks, eggheads, and blackfellas: A Study of racial power and intimacy in Australia. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Spoonley, Paul. (1993). Racism and ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The author explores the issues of racism and ethnicity in contemporary New Zealand, focusing on, but not limited to, Maori and Pakeha.
Maori is a broad category of aborigines and Pakeha refers to New Zealand-born Europeans whose experiences have been formed as a result of the dominant group of the reviewed Anglia (Navitas) country but who do not have a strong affiliation with a homeland elsewhere. He included Jews in his account of ethnicity in New Zealand although the ethnicity of other new immigrants is obviously absent in his discussion. The author treats the minorities not as passive victims of essay John F. Kennedy School racism but as active agents of their affairs although they are very much dependent upon the the politics of the mainstream society. The chapter on journals policy and practice offers insight on how the shift of the state policy toward decentralization affects ethnic equity in the country. De la Candena, Marisol. (2000). Essay Clifton College! Indigenous mestizos: The Politics of reviewed journals Ruskin University race and culture in Cusco, Peru, 1919-1991. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Using Cusco, Peru as example, the author examines how racial discourse is used in the development of University a national ideology. She argues that the central discourse defining social hierarchy and marginalization focuses on cultural difference rather than racial difference. The author traces the history of this development through the 20th century in Cusco, focusing on a process of de-Indianization whereby even indigenous people who gain Westernized education and jobs consider themselves mestizo despite their racial realities. Hanchard, Michael G. (1994).
Orpheus and power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo, Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. This book examines the depth of racial politics in Brazil and documents Afro-Brazilian activitists' struggles to bring about social justice for black Brazilians, focusing on the time period between 1945 and reviewed Anglia Ruskin 1988. The social myth of racial democracy--a belief that there is no injustice imposed upon people on the basis of racial differences--created an obstacle for the activists to raise social consciousness of racial inequality despite the article School fact that the social reality reveals apparent gaps among different racial groups. Reichmann, Rebecca (Ed.). (1999). Race in contemporary Brazil: From indifference to inequality. State College, PA: Penn State University Press. This edited volume disputes the myth of racial democracy in Brazil by providing various forms of explicit and implicit inequality permeating the socio-economic structure of the Anglia University (Navitas) society. The first two introductory essays provide an excellent overview of social construction of racial categories in Brazil. It is also notable that the majority of the essays are written by native Brazilian scholars.
Essays included in this book address inequality between white Brazilians and International School Afro-Brazilians (pretos) in educational opportunity, income level, labor market, and criminal justice. Inequality also intensifies when the gender factor is added. Several essays cover gender issues in conjunction with race and class. Stam, Robert (1997). Tropical multiculturalism: A comparative history of race in Brazilian cinema and culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. This informative and engaging book exemplifies a new approach to the study of race and ethnicity. Reviewed Anglia! Offering films as the window to the ethno-racial reality of Brazil, the author examines the evolution of the reality depicted in the Brazilian cinema of different eras. The portrayals and roles of Afro-Brazilians and Indians reflect the change in the socio-political view of the minorities. The author also embraced the write essay Clifton College gender factor in his discussion. A helpful comparison between the reviewed Anglia (Navitas) U. Write Essay About Yourself American University Washington! S. and Brazilian history juxtaposes similarities and journals University differences in the racial policies and the legacy of slavery.
Twine, France W. (1998). Racism in a racial democracy: The maintenance of white supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Wade, Peter. Essay London, Business School! (1995). Anglia Ruskin! Blackness and race mixture: The Dynamics of a college essay Glion Business & Hospitality School racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Focusing on Anglia Ruskin University black experience in write Washington Colombia, particularly the Choco region, this book reveals the rift between the nation's official policy of pluralism and the actual experience and realities for Afro-Colombians. The nation's racial hierarchy, links between race and class, and racial identity are examined in light of the Choco's development as a primarily black region. Arocha, Jaime. (1998). Inclusion of Afro-Colombians: Unreachable national goal? Latin American Perspectives, 25 (3), 70-89. The author explains the origin of recent ethnic struggles between the black and Indian people as Columbia undergoes transformation from monoethnicity to multiethnicity.
This transformation is not a result of demographic change but of the legislative change. The new constitution of journals Anglia Ruskin 1991 allowed Colombians to exercise their citizenship by displaying cultural diversity rather than by concealing it as required by online writing The University the previous political charter (p.70). The legal recognition of multiethnicity also allows minority groups to claim their ancestral land. This legal change, complicated by the governments economic development in Ruskin University (Navitas) the region concentrated by Afro-Colombians and Indians, aggravates ethnic asymmetries that, in turn, erode nonviolent coexistence among these people according to the author. This article provides especially helpful information on the history of write a memoir slave trading of Africans and their resistance to the enslaved situation. Ghai, Yesh. (Ed.) (2000).
Autonomy and ethnicity: Negotiating competing claims in multi-ethnic states. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Unander, D. (2000). Shattering the myth of race: Genetic realities and biblical truth. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.