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Our Bodies, Our Souls: Naomi Wolf evaluates Pro-Choice strategy. October 16, 1995. The New Republic. NAOMI WOLF is the essay about teachers University author of Fire with Fire: The New, Female Power and How It Will Change the 21st Century (Ballantine). I had an medical, abortion when I was a single mother and my daughter was 2 years old.
I would do it again. But you know the Greek myths when you kill a relative you are pursued by furies? For months, it was as if baby furies were pursuing me. These are not the words of a benighted, superstition-ridden teenager lost in America's cultural backwaters. They are the teachers Irvine words of a Cornell-educated, urban-dwelling Democratic-voting 40-year-old cardiologist. I'll call her Clare.
Clare is exactly the kind of person for whom being pro-choice is an unshakeable conviction. Write And Exams. If there were a core constituent of the movement to secure abortion rights, Clare would be it. And yet: her words are exactly the words to which the essay about University of California, Irvine pro-choice movement is writing International School Eerde not listening. At its best, feminism defends its moral high ground by being simply faithful to the truth: to women's real-life experiences. But, to its own ethical and political detriment, the about teachers of California, (UCI) pro-choice movement has relinquished the moral frame around the issue of teaching essay abortion. It has ceded the language of right and wrong to about Irvine abortion foes. The movement's abandonment of what Americans have always, and rightly demanded of Academy their movements -- an essay teachers University of California, Irvine, ethical core -- and its reliance instead on a political rhetoric in which the fetus means nothing are proving fatal.
The effects of write an essay College School this abandonment can be measured in essay teachers Irvine two ways. First of all, such a position causes us to lose political ground. By refusing to look at abortion within a moral framework, we lose the millions of Eerde Americans who want to support abortion as a legal right but still need to condemn it as a moral iniquity. Their ethical allegiances are then addressed by the pro-life movement, which is willing to speak about good and evil. But we are also in danger of losing something more important than votes; we stand in jeopardy of losing what can only be called our souls.
Clinging to a rhetoric about abortion in which there is no life and no death, we entangle our beliefs in a series of self-delusions, fibs and evasions. And we risk becoming precisely what our critics charge us with being: callous, selfish and casually destructive men and about, women who share a cheapened view of School Eerde human life. In the following pages, I will argue for a radical shift in essay teachers the pro-choice movement's rhetoric and consciousness about abortion: I still maintain that we need to contextualize the fight to defend abortion rights within a moral framework that admits that the death of a fetus is a real death; that there are degrees of culpability, judgement and responsibility involved in the decision to abort a pregnancy; that the best understanding of feminism involves holding women as well as men to the responsibilities that are inseparable from their rights and that we need to be strong enough to acknowledge that this country's high rate of abortion -- which ends more than a quarter of all pregnancies -- can only be rightly understood as what Dr. Henry Foster was brave enough to call it: a failure. Any doubt that our current pro-choice rhetoric leads to disaster should be dispelled by the famous recent defection of the woman who had been Jane Roe. What happened to Norma McCorvey? To judge by her characterization in the elite media and by some prominent pro-choice feminists, nothing very important. Her change of heart about abortion was relentlessly explained away as having everything to do with the girlish motivations of insecurity, fickleness and the need for attention, and little to do with any actual moral agency. This dismissive (and, not incidentally, sexist and classist) interpretation was so highly colored by subjective impressions offered up by the very institutions that define objectivity that it bore all the hallmarks of an exculpatory cultural myth: poor Norma -- she just needed stroking. She was never very stable. The old dear -- first she was a chesspiece for the pro-choice movement (just, some anonymous person who suddenly emerges, in the words of one NOW member) and learn School, then a codependent of the Bible-thumpers.
Low self-esteem, a history of substance abuse, ignorance--these and about teachers of California, (UCI), other personal weaknesses explained her turnaround. To me, the first commandment of real feminism is: when in doubt, listen to women. What if we were to truly respectfully listen to this woman who began her political life as, in her words, just some little old Texas girl who got in trouble. We would have to learn to write ACS Cobham International School hear this: perhaps Norma McCorvey actually had a revelation that she could no longer live as the symbol of a belief system she increasingly repudiated. Norma McCorvey should be seen as an object lesson for about University Irvine, the pro-choice movement -- a call to teaching International Eerde us to search our souls and take another, humbler look at how we go about what we are doing. For McCorvey is in fact an American Everywoman: she is the lost middle of the abortion debate, the essay teachers University Irvine woman whose allegiance we forfeit by medical review articles School our refusal to use a darker and sterner and more honest moral rhetoric.
McCorvey is more astute than her critics; she seems to understand better than the pro-choice activists she worked with just what the essay of California, (UCI) woman-in-the-middle believes: I believe in the woman's right to choose. I'm like a lot of people. I'm in the mushy middle, she said. McCorvey still supports abortion rights through the first trimester -- but is horrified by the brutality of abortion as it manifests more obviously further into a pregnancy. She does not respect the black and white ideology on either side and insists on and Monson, referring instead, as I understand her explanation, to her conscience. What McCorvey and other Americans want and deserve is an abortion-rights movement willing publicly to mourn the evil -- necessary evil though it may be -- that is abortion.
We must have a movement that acts with moral accountability and about University of California, Irvine, without euphemism. With the pro-choice rhetoric we use now, we incur three destructive consequences -- two ethical, one strategic: hardness of heart, lying and another word for critical School, political failure. Because of the implications of a Constitution that defines rights according to the legal idea of a person, the abortion debate has tended to essay focus on the question of personhood of the to write ACS Cobham fetus. Many pro-choice advocates developed a language to assert that the fetus isn't a person, and this, over the years has developed into a lexicon of essay teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) dehumanization. Laura Kaplan's The Story of Jane , an important forthcoming account of a pre-Roe underground abortion service, inadvertently sheds light on the origins of some of this rhetoric: service staffers referred to the fetus --well into learn to write ACS Cobham International the fourth month -- as material (as in the amount of material that had to be removed. ). The activists felt exhilaration at learning to perform abortions themselves instead of essay about teachers University (UCI) relying on Kingswood, male doctors: When [a staffer] removed the speculum and teachers University, said, 'There, all done,' the room exploded in excitement. In an era when women were dying of illegal abortions, this was the understandable exhilaration of an underground resistance movement. Unfortunately, though, this cool and congratulatory rhetoric lingers into how to Ridley College a very different present. In one woman's account of her chemical abortion, in essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) the January/February 1994 issue of Mother Jones , for example, the doctor says, By Sunday you won't see on the monitor what we call the heartbeat (my italics). The author of the article, D. Abstract Critique. Redman, explains that one of the drugs the doctor administered would end the growth of the fetal tissue. And we all remember Dr. Joycelyn Elders's remark, hailed by some as refreshingly frank and pro-woman but which I found remarkably brutal: that We really need to get over this love affair with the fetus.
How did we arrive at this point? In the early 1970s, Second Wave feminism adopted this rhetoric in response to about University of California, the reigning ideology in to write which motherhood was invoked as an excuse to deny women legal and essay about teachers University, social equality. In a climate in write Ridley which women risked being defined as mere vessels while their fetuses were given personhood at their expense, it made sense that women's advocates would fight back by University of California, Irvine depersonalizing the fetus. The feminist complaint about the pro-life movement's dehumanization of the pregnant woman in relation to the humanized fetus is word for critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel familiar and often quite valid: pro-choice commentators note that the pro-life film The Silent Scream portrayed the woman as a vessel: Ellen Frankfort's Vaginal Politics , the influential feminist text, complained that the fetus is treated like an astronaut in a spaceship. But, say what you will, pregnancy confounds Western philosophy's idea of the essay autonomous self: the pregnant woman is in fact both a person in her body and a vessel. Rather than seeing both beings as alive and interdependent -- seeing life within life -- and acknowledging that sometimes, nonetheless, the woman must choose her life over the fetus's, Second Wave feminists reacted to the dehumanization on of women by dehumanizing the creatures within them. In the death-struggle to essay writing School Eerde wrest what Simone de Beauvoir called transcendence out of biological immanence, some feminists developed a rhetoric that defined the teachers University of California, unwanted fetus as at best valueless: at worst an adversary, a mass of dependent protoplasm. Yet that has left us with a bitter legacy. For when we defend abortion rights by medical Kingswood emptying the act of moral gravity, we find ourselves cultivating a hardness of heart. Having become pregnant through her partner's and her own failure to about Irvine (UCI) use a condom, Redman remarks that her friend Judith, who has been trying to find a child to adopt, begs her to carry the pregnancy to term.
Judith offers Redman almost every condition a birth-mother could want: 'Let me have the baby,' she quotes her friend pleading. 'You could visit her anytime, and if you ever wanted her back, I promise I would let her go.' Redman does not mention considering this possibility. Thinking, rather, about the difficulty of keeping the child -- My time consumed by the tedious, daily activities that I've always done my best to to write ACS Cobham avoid. Three meals a day. Unwashed laundry. she schedules her chemical abortion. The procedure is experimental, and about of California, Irvine, the author feels almost heroic, thinking of how she is medical articles School blazing a trail for University of California, Irvine (UCI), other women. After the abortion process is underway the another word International School Management story reaches its perverse epiphany: Redman is on a Women's Day march when the blood from the abortion first appears. She exults at this: 'Our bodies. Our lives our right to essay about Irvine decide.' . My life feels luxuriant with possibility For one precious moment, I believe that we have the law essays Ridley College power to dismantle this system. I finish the march, borne along by the women.
As for of California,, the pleading Judith, with everything she was ready to offer a child, and the phantom baby? They are both off-stage, silent in this chilling drama of Feminist triumphalism. And why should we expect otherwise? In this essay, the fetus (as the essay writing School Eerde author writes, the now-inert material from my womb) is little more than a form of speech: a vehicle to assert the essay teachers University (UCI) author's identity and autonomy. The pro-life warning about the how to an essay abstract College potential of widespread abortion to degrade reverence for life does have a nugget of truth: a free-market rhetoric about abortion can, indeed, contribute to of California, the eerie situation we are now facing, wherein the culture seems increasingly to see babies not as creatures to how to write law essays whom parents devote their lives but as accoutrements to essay enhance parental quality of life. Day by day, babies seem to have less value in themselves, in a matrix of the sacred, than they do as products with a value dictated by teaching writing International School a market economy. Stories surface regularly about worthless babies left naked on essay about, gratings or casually dropped out of windows, while valuable, genetically correct babies are created at vast expense and with intricate medical assistance for infertile couples. If we fail to treat abortion with grief and reverence, we risk forgetting that, when it comes to writing School the children we choose to bear, we are here to serve them -- whomever they are; they are not here to serve us. Too often our rhetoric leads us to tell untruths.
What Norma McCorvey wants, it seems, is for abortion-rights advocates to essay teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) face, really face, what we are doing: Have you ever seen a second-trimester abortion? she asks. And Monson. It's a baby. It's got a face and University of California, Irvine (UCI), a body, and they put him in a freezer and a little container. Well, so it does: and so they do. The pro-choice movement often treats with contempt the pro-lifers' practice of holding up to our faces their disturbing graphics. We revile their placards showing an enlarged scene of the aftermath of a D C abortion: we are disgusted by their lapel pins with the little feet, crafted in gold, of a 10-week-old fetus; we mock the write law essays College sensationalism of The Silent Scream . We look with pity and about teachers University of California, Irvine, horror at learn to write articles someone who would brandish a fetus in formaldehyde -- and we are quick to say that they are lying: Those are stillbirths, anyway we tell ourselves. To many pro-choice advocates, the imagery is revolting propaganda. There is a sense among us, let us be frank, that the gruesomeness of the imagery belongs to of California, (UCI) the pro-lifers: that it emerges from the dark, frightening minds of fanatics: that it represents the violence of imaginations that would, given half a chance, turn our world into a scary, repressive place. 'People like us' see such material as the pornography of the pro-life movement. But feminism at its best is medical review articles based on what is simply true. While pro-lifers have not been beyond dishonesty, distortion and the doctoring of images (preferring, for example, to highlight the results of very late, very rare abortions), many of those photographs are in about University of California, (UCI) fact photographs of actual D Cs; those footprints are in how to an essay abstract Bishop’s fact the essay University Irvine (UCI) footprints of a 10-week-old fetus, the pro-life slogan, Abortion stops a beating heart, is incontrovertibly true. While images of to write ACS Cobham International School violent fetal death work magnificently for pro-lifers as political polemic, the pictures are not polemical in themselves: they are biological facts.
We know this. Since abortion became legal nearly a quarter-century ago, the fields of University of California, embryology and perinatology have been revolutionized -- but the pro-choice view of the another word of Hotel Management contested fetus has remained static. This has led to a bizarre bifurcation in the way we who are pro-choice tend to think about teachers Irvine, wanted as opposed to unwanted fetuses: the unwanted ones are still seen in schematic black-and-white drawings while the wanted ones have metamorphosed into vivid and moving color. Even while Elders spoke of our need to get over our love affair with the unwelcome fetus, an entire growth industry -- Mozart for your belly; framed sonogram photos; home fetal-heartbeat stethoscopes -- is devoted to sparking fetal love affairs in other circumstances, and aimed especially at essay International Eerde the hearts of essay of California, Irvine over-scheduled yuppies. If we avidly cultivate love for the ones we bring to term, and get over our love for another for critical Les Roches International of Hotel, the ones we don't, do we not risk developing a hydroponic view of babies -- and about Irvine (UCI), turn them into learn ACS Cobham School a product we can cull for about (UCI), our convenience? Any happy couple with a wanted pregnancy and a copy of What to Expect When You're Expecting can see the cute, detailed drawings of the writing International School Eerde fetus whom the book's owner presumably is not going to abort, and can read the excited descriptions of essay about teachers University (UCI) what that fetus can do and feel, month by month.
Anyone who has had a sonogram during pregnancy knows perfectly well that the 4-month-old fetus responds to how to write law essays and exams outside stimulus--Let's get him to look this way, the technician will say, poking gently at the belly of a delighted mother-to-be. Essay Teachers University. The Well Baby Book, the kind of whole-grain holistic guide to pregnancy and childbirth that would find its audience among the very demographic that is most solidly pro-choice reminds us that: Increasing knowledge is increasing the awe and respect we have for the unborn baby and is causing us to regard the unborn baby as a real person long before birth. So, what will it be: Wanted fetuses are charming, complex REM-dreaming little beings whose profile on the sonogram looks just like Daddy, but unwanted ones are mere uterine material? How can we charge that it is vile and repulsive for pro-lifers to brandish vile and repulsive images if the critique Wilbraham images are real? To insist that the truth is in poor taste is the very height of about teachers (UCI) hypocrisy. Besides, if these images are often the facts of the law essays and exams Ridley College matter, and if we then claim that it is offensive for pro-choice women to be confronted by them, then we are making the judgment that women are too inherently weak to face a truth about which they have to make a grave decision. This view of women is unworthy of about University of California, (UCI) feminism.
Free women must be strong women, too: and strong women, presumably do not seek to cloak their most important decisions in euphemism. Other lies are not lies to teaching essay writing International School Eerde others, but to ourselves. An abortion-clinic doctor. Elizabeth Karlin, who wrote a recent Hers column in The New York Times , declared that There is essay University (UCI) only one reason I've ever heard for having an abortion: the desire to be a good mother. While that may well be true for many poor and working-class women -- and indeed research shows that poor women are three times more likely to have abortions than are better-off women -- the elite, who are the most vociferous in their morally unambiguous pro-choice language, should know perfectly well how untrue that statement often is in their own lives. All abortions occupy a spectrum, from full lack of alternatives to full moral accountability.
Karlin and word for critical thinking Les Roches of Hotel Management, many other pro-choice activists try to situate all women equally at the extreme endpoint of that spectrum, and it just isn't so. Many women, including middle-class women, do have abortions because, as one such woman put it, They have a notion of what a good mother is and don't feel they can be that kind of mother at this phase of their lives. In many cases, that is about teachers still a morally defensible place on the spectrum; but it is not the place of absolute absolution that Dr. Karlin claims it to for critical Les Roches International School be. It is, rather, a place of about of California, moral struggle, of self-interest mixed with selflessness, of wished-for good intermingled with necessary evil. Other abortions occupy places on the spectrum that are far more culpable. Of the abortions I know of, these were some of the reasons: to find out if the woman could get pregnant; to force a boy or man to take a relationship more seriously; and, again and again, to enact a rite of passage for affluent teenage girls.
In my high school, the abortion drama was used to test a boyfriend's character. Seeing if he would accompany the girl to the operation or, better yet, come up with the word Les Roches International money for the abortion could almost have been the about teachers University Irvine (UCI) 1970s Bay Area equivalent of the another word for critical thinking Les Roches Management '50s fraternity pin. The affluent teenage couples who conceive because they can and then erase the consequences -- and the affluent men and women who choose abortion because they were careless or in a hurry or didn't like the feel of latex -- are not the moral equivalent of the impoverished mother who responsibly, even selflessly, acknowledge she already has too many mouths to feed. Feminist rights include feminist responsibilities: the essay about teachers Irvine right to obtain an abortion brings with it the responsibility to contracept. Fifty-seven percent of unintended pregnancies come about because the parents used no contraception at all. Those millions certainly include women and men too poor to buy contraception, girls and boys too young and ill-informed to know where to write an essay School get it, and countless instances of marital rape, coerced sex, incest and couplings in which the man refused to let the woman use protection. But they also include millions of college students, professional men and women, and middle- and essay about teachers University of California, (UCI), uppermiddle- class people (11 percent of abortions are obtained by people in households with incomes of higher than $50,000) -- who have no excuse whatsoever for their carelessness. There is only one reason I've ever heard for critique and Monson, having an abortion: the desire to be a good mother -- this is a falsehood that condescends to women struggling to be true agents of their own souls, even as it dishonors through hypocrisy the terminations that are the writer's subject. Not to judge other men and women without judging myself, I know this assertion to be false from my own experience.
Once, I made the choice to take a morning after pill. The heavily pregnant doctor looked at about teachers of California, (UCI) me, as she dispensed it, as if I were the scum of the another for critical thinking of Hotel earth. If what was going on teachers, in my mind had been mostly about the another word thinking Les Roches School well-being of the essay University of California, Irvine possible baby, that pill would never have been swallowed. Abstract School. For that potential baby, brought to term, would have had two sets of loving middle-income grandparents, an adult mother with an teachers of California, Irvine, education and even, as I discovered later, the how to write an essay beginning of diaper money for its first two years of life (the graduate fellowship I was on forbade marriage but, frozen in time before women were its beneficiaries, said nothing about unwed motherhood). Because of the baby's skin color, even if I chose not to rear the child, a roster of eager adoptive parents awaited him or her. If I had been thinking only or even primarily about the baby's life, I would have had to decide to bring the pregnancy, had there been one, to term. No: there were two columns in University of California, my mind -- Me and how to abstract Bishop’s College, Baby -- and the first won out. And what was in it looked something like this: unwelcome intensity in the relationship with the father; desire to continue to develop as a person before real parenthood; wish to encounter my eventual life partner without the about University off-putting encumbrance of a child; resistance to another word for critical Les Roches International curtailing the nature of the essay about University of California, (UCI) time remaining to me in Europe. Essentially, this column came down to: I am not done being responsive only to School myself yet. At even the possibility that the cosmos was calling my name, I cowered and stepped aside. I was not so unlike those young louts who father children and run from the specter of responsibility.
Except that my refusal to be involved with this potential creature was as definitive as a refusal can be. Stepping aside in this way is analogous to draft evasion: there are good and altruistic reasons to evade the draft, and then there are self-preserving reasons. In that moment, feminism came to teachers of California, Irvine one of its logical if less-than-inspiring moments of writing International Eerde fruition: I chose to University sidestep biology: I acted -- and was free to act -- as if I were in control of my destiny, the way men more often than women have let themselves act. I chose myself on write law essays and exams College, my own terms over a possible someone else, for essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), self-absorbed reasons. But to be a better mother; Dulce et decorum est. ? Nonsense. Now, freedom means that women must be free to review articles Kingswood choose self or to choose selfishly. Essay About Teachers Irvine. Certainly for a woman with fewer economic and social choices than I had -- for instance, a woman struggling to finish her higher education, without which she would have little hope of write an essay abstract Bishop’s School a life worthy of her talents -- there can indeed be an obligation to essay University (UCI) choose self. International Eerde. And the defense of some level of abortion rights as fundamental to women's integrity and equality has been made fully by others, including, quite effectively Ruth Bader Ginsberg.
There is no easy way to deny the powerful argument that a woman's equality in about University of California, Irvine society must give her some irreducible rights unique to her biology including the right to take the critique Wilbraham and Monson life within her life. But we don't have to lie to ourselves about essay about teachers, what we are doing at such a moment. Let us at least look with clarity at what that means and learn International, not whitewash self-interest with the language of University (UCI) self-sacrifice. Teaching Essay Writing International School Eerde. The landscape of many such decisions looks more like Marin County than Verdun. Let us certainly not be fools enough to present such spiritually limited moments to about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) the world with a flourish of pride, pretending that we are somehow pioneers and heroines and even martyrs to have snatched the self, with its aims and pleasures, from the pressure of biology. That decision was not my finest moment.
The least I can do, in word thinking International of Hotel honor of the being that might have been, is about of California, Irvine (UCI) simply to know that. Using amoral rhetoric, we weaken ourselves politically because we lose the center. To draw an inexact parallel, many people support the choice to limit the word School medical prolongation of life. But, if a movement arose that spoke of our getting over our love affair with the essay (UCI) terminally ill, those same people would recoil into a vociferous interventionist position as a way to assert their moral values. School. We would be impoverished by a rhetoric about the end of life that speaks of the ill and the dying as if they were meaningless and of doing away with them as if it were a bracing demonstration of our personal independence. Similarly, many people support necessary acts of warfare (Catholics for a Free Choice makes the about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) analogy between abortion rights and review articles Kingswood School, such warfare). There are legal mechanisms that allow us to bring into the world the evil of essay teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) war.
But imagine how quickly public opinion would turn against a president who waged war while asserting that our sons and daughters were nothing but cannon fodder. Grief and respect are the proper tones for all discussions about choosing to endanger or destroy a manifestation of life. War is legal: it is sometimes even necessary. Letting the dying die in peace is often legal and abstract and Monson, sometimes even necessary. Abortion should be legal; it is sometimes even necessary. Sometimes the mother must be able to decide that the fetus, in its full humanity, must die. Essay Teachers. But it is never right or necessary to how to law essays and exams minimize the value of the lives involved or the sacrifice incurred in letting them go. Essay About Of California, Irvine (UCI). Only if we uphold abortion rights within a matrix of individual conscience, atonement and responsibility can we both correct the logical and ethical absurdity in our position and consolidate the how to write abstract Bishop’s support of the center. Many others, of course, have wrestled with this issue: Camille Paglia, who has criticized the convoluted casuistry of some pro-choice language; Roger Rosenblatt, who has urged us to permit but discourage abortion; Laurence Tribe, who has noted that we place the fetus in shadow in essay teachers University (UCI) order to advance the pro-choice argument. Essay International School Eerde. But we have yet to make room for this conversation at the table of mainstream feminism.
And we can't wait much longer. Historical changes from the imminent availability of cheap chemical abortifacients to the ascendancy of the religious right to Norma McCorvey's defection -- make the need for a new abortion-rights language all the more pressing. In a time of retrenchment, how can I be so sure that a more honest and moral rhetoric about essay about teachers University of California,, abortion will consolidate rather than scuttle abortion rights? Look at what Americans themselves say. When a recent Newsweek poll asked about support for abortion using the review articles School rare phrasing, It's a matter between a woman, her doctor, her family, her conscience and her God, a remarkable 72 percent of the respondents called that formulation about about teachers of California,, right. Review Kingswood School. This represents a gain of thirty points over the abortion rights support registered in about University Irvine the latest Gallup poll, which asked about abortion without using the teaching International words God or conscience. When participants in the Gallup poll were asked if they supported abortion under any circumstances only 32 percent agreed; only 9 percent more supported it under most circumstances.
Clearly, abortion rights are safest when we are willing to submit them to about teachers University of California, a morality beyond just our bodies and articles ACS Cobham School, our selves. But how, one might ask, can I square a recognition of the humanity of the fetus, and the moral gravity of destroying it, with a pro-choice position? The answer can only be found in the context of a paradigm abandoned by the left and misused by the right: the paradigm of sin and essay teachers Irvine, redemption. It was when I was four months pregnant, sick as a dog, and in teaching International School the middle of an argument, that I realized I could no longer tolerate the fetus-is-nothing paradigm of the essay teachers of California, (UCI) pro-choice movement. Medical Review School. I was being interrogated by a conservative, and essay about (UCI), the subject of abortion rights came up.
You're four months pregnant, he said. Are you going to tell me that's not a baby you're carrying? The accepted pro-choice response at such a moment in the conversation is to evade: to move as swiftly as possible to a discussion of privacy and difficult personal decisions and choice. Had I not been so nauseated and so cranky and so weighed down with the physical gravity of what was going on write and exams Ridley, inside me, I might not have told what is the truth for me. Of course it's a baby, I snapped. Essay Teachers (UCI). And went rashly on: And if I found myself in circumstances in which I had to make the terrible decision to end this life, then that would be between myself and critique Wilbraham, God. Startlingly to me, two things happened: the conservative was quiet, I had said something that actually made sense to him. And I felt the great relief that is the grace of about teachers Irvine (UCI) long-delayed honesty. Now, the G-word is certainly a problematic element to introduce into the debate. And yet God' or soul--or, if you are secular and prefer it, conscience -- is precisely what is another word for critical Les Roches of Hotel Management missing from pro-choice discourse. There is a crucial difference between myself and my God or my conscience -- terms that imply moral accountability -- and myself and my doctor, the phrasing that Justice Harry Blackmun's wording in Roe (inherently, and primarily, a medical decision) has tended to promote in essay about teachers (UCI) the pro-choice movement.
And that's not ever, to mention between myself and myself (Elders: It's not anybody's business if I went for Ridley College, an abortion), which implies just the relativistic relationship to abortion that our critics accuse us of sustaining. The language we use to make our case limits the way we let ourselves think about abortion. About Of California,. As a result of the how to abstract Bishop’s precedents in essay about of California, Roe (including Griswold v. Write Law Essays And Exams. Connecticut and teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), Eisenstadt v. Baird ), which based a woman's right to an abortion on the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments' implied right to personal privacy, other unhelpful terms are also current in our discourse. Pro-choice advocates tend to cast an abortion as an intensely personal decision. To which we can say, No: one's choice of abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy carpeting is an intensely personal decision. One's struggles with a life-and-death issue must be understood as a matter of essay teachers (UCI) personal conscience.
There is a world of difference between the two, and it's the difference a moral frame makes. Stephen L. Carter has pointed out that spiritual discussion has been robbed of a place in American public life. As a consequence we tend -- often disastrously -- to use legislation to work out right and wrong. That puts many in the position of having to write and exams advocate against abortion rights in essay about teachers of California, (UCI) order to proclaim their conviction that our high rate of avoidable abortion (one of the highest in developed countries, five times that of the how to an essay Netherlands, for essay University of California, Irvine (UCI), example) is a social evil: and, conversely, many must pretend that abortion is Les Roches School of Hotel not a transgression of any kind if we wish to champion abortion rights. We have no ground on which to say that abortion is a necessary evil that should be faced and opposed in essay about of California, Irvine (UCI) the realm of conscience and action and even soul; yet remain legal. But American society is struggling to find its way forward to a discourse of right and wrong that binds together a common ethic for the secular and the religious. When we do that, we create a moral discourse that can exist in its own right independent of legislation, and learn School, we can find ground to stand upon. Norma McCorvey explained what happened to her in terms of good and evil: she woke in essay the middle of the night and felt a presence pushing violently down on her. An Essay College. I denounce you, Satan, she announced.
This way of essay about teachers (UCI) talking about evil is one of the chief class-divisions in America: working-class people talk about Satan, and those whom Paul Fussell calls the X group -- those who run the how to write College country -- talk instead about neurotic guilt. While the elite scoff at research that shows that most Americans maintain a belief in the embodiment of evil -- the devil -- they miss something profound about the human need to make moral order out of chaos. After all, the only difference between the experience described by Clare the Cornell-educated pro-choicer, and McCorvey, the uneducated ex-alcoholic, is a classical allusion. There is teachers University Irvine (UCI) a hunger for a moral framework that we pro-choicers must reckon with. In the Karlin Hers column, the author announced proudly that pregnant women are asked by the counselor in the office, So, how long, have you been prochoice?
Dr. Karlin writes that Laughter and the answer, 'About ten minutes,' is the healthiest response. 'I still don't believe in abortion,' some women say, unaware that refusal to write abstract Bishop’s take responsibility for essay teachers University of California, (UCI), the decision means that I won't do the critique and Monson procedure. How is this feminist ideological coercion any different from the about University Irvine (UCI) worst of teaching writing School pro-life shaming and coercion? The women who come to a clinic that is truly feminist -- that respects women -- are entitled not only to their abortions but also to their sense of sin. To use the term sin in this context does not necessarily mean, as Dr. Karlin believes, that a woman thinks she must go to teachers Irvine hell because she is having an abortion.
It may mean that she thinks she must face the medical review articles School realization that she has fallen short of who she should be; and that she needs to essay about teachers University ask forgiveness for that, and atone for it. As I understand such a woman's response, she is trying to take responsibility for essay International School Eerde, the decision. We on the left tend to twitch with discomfort at that word sin. Too often we have become religiously illiterate, and about University of California, Irvine (UCI), so we deeply misunderstand the word. But in all of the great religious traditions, our recognition of sin, and then our atonement for it, brings on God's compassion and how to law essays and exams College, our redemption. In many faiths, justice is linked, as it is in medieval Judaism and in Buddhism, to compassion.
From Yom Kippur and the Ash Wednesday-to-Easter cycle to the Hindu idea of karma, the individual's confrontation with her or his own culpability is the first step toward ways to create and receive more light. How could one live with a conscious view that abortion is an evil and still be pro-choice? Through acts of redemption, or what the Jewish mystical tradition calls tikkun or mending. Laurence Tribe, in Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes , notes that Memorial services for the souls of aborted fetuses are fairly common in contemporary Japan where abortions are both legal and readily available. Shinto doctrine holds that women should make offerings to the fetus to help it rest in peace; Buddhists once erected statues of the spirit guardian of children to honor aborted fetuses (called water children or unseeing children). Essay Teachers Of California, Irvine (UCI). If one believes that abortion is articles killing and University of California, (UCI), yet is still pro-choice, one could try to use contraception for every single sex act; if one had to undergo an abortion, one could then work to articles Kingswood School provide contraception, or jobs, or other choices to young girls; one could give money to programs that provide prenatal care to poor women, if one is a mother or father, one can remember the aborted child every time one is tempted to be less than loving -- and give renewed love to the living child.
And so on: tikkun . But when you insist, as the Hers column writer did, on stripping people of their sense of sin, they react with a wholesale backing-away into a rigid morality that reimposes order: hence, the ascendancy of the religious right. Just look at about University Irvine the ill-fated nomination of abstract Wilbraham Dr. Henry Foster for Surgeon General. University Of California, Irvine. The Republicans said abortion, and write an essay School, the discussion was over. The Democrats, had they worked out a moral framework for progressivism, could have responded: Yes, our abortion rate is a terrible social evil. Here is (UCI) a man who can help put a moral framework around the chaos of a million and a half abortions a year. Word For Critical Thinking International Management. He can bring that rate of evil down.
And whichever senator among you has ever prevented an unplanned pregnancy -- and teachers University of California, Irvine, Dr. To Write School. Foster has -- let him ask the first question. Who gets blamed for our abortion rate? The ancient Hebrews had a ritual of sending a scapegoat into the desert with the teachers University Irvine community sins projected upon ACS Cobham School it. Abortion doctors are our contemporary scapegoats. The pro-lifers obviously scapegoat them in one way: if pro-lifers did to women what they do to abortion doctors -- harassed and essay about University Irvine, targeted them in their homes and workplaces -- public opinion would rapidly turn against them: for how to and exams Ridley College, the movement would soon find itself harassing the teachers and waitresses, housewives and younger sisters of their own communities. Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI). The pro-life movement would have to address the often all-too-pressing good reasons that lead good people to abort. That would be intolerable, a tactical defeat for the pro-life movement, and as sure to teaching essay writing Eerde lose it the mushy middle as the pro-choice movement's tendency toward rhetorical coldness loses it the about of California, (UCI) same constituency. But pro-choicers, too, scapegoat the doctors and clinic workers. By resisting a moral framework in to write articles ACS Cobham which to view abortion we who are pro-abortion-rights leave the essay about teachers University Irvine doctors in essay writing International Eerde the front lines, with blood on essay about University of California, (UCI), their hands: the blood of the another word thinking School of Hotel Management repeat abortions -- at least 43 percent of the total; the suburban summer country-club rite-of-passage abortions; the I don't know what came over me, It was such good Chardonnay abortions; as well as the blood of the desperate and essay about teachers of California, Irvine, the unpreventable and accidental and the medically necessary and the violently.
conceived abortions. To Write Articles International. This is blood that the doctors and clinic workers often see clearly, and that they heroically rinse and cause to flow and University of California, Irvine (UCI), rinse again And they rake all our sins, the pro-choice as well as the pro-life among us upon themselves. And we who are pro-choice compound their isolation by declaring that that blood is not there. As the world changes and women, however incrementally, become more free and more powerful, the language in another word thinking International School which we phrase the goals of feminism must change as well. Essay About University Of California, Irvine. As a result of the bad old days before the Second Wave of feminism, we tend to understand abortion as a desperately needed exit from how to and exams Ridley near-total male control of our reproductive lives. This scenario posits an about University Irvine, unambiguous chain of power and powerlessness in which men control women and women, in order to survive, must have unquestioned control over fetuses. It is this worldview, all too real in its initial conceptualization, that has led to the dread among many pro-choice women of departing from a model of law essays and exams Ridley College woman-equals-human-life, fetus-equals-not-much. This model of reality may have been necessary in an unrelenting patriarchy. But today, in what should be, as women continue to consolidate political power, a patriarchy crumbling in spite of itself, it can become obsolete. Now: try to imagine real gender equality. Actually try to imagine an Irvine, America that is female-dominated.
Since a true working democracy in this country would reflect our 54-46 voting advantage. Now imagine such a democracy, in which women would be valued so very highly as a world that is accepting and responsible about human sexuality; in which there is no coerced sex without serious jailtime: in which there are affordable, safe contraceptives available for the taking in every public health building; in which there is word for critical thinking Les Roches International Management economic parity for women -- and basic economic subsistence for every baby born; and in which every young American woman knows about and understands her natural desire as a treasure to cherish, and responsibly, when the time is right, on her own terms, to share. In such a world, in teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) which the idea of gender as a barrier has become a dusty artifact, we would probably use a very different language about what would be -- then -- the rare and doubtless traumatic event of abstract critique abortion. That language would probably call upon respect and essay about Irvine, responsibility, grief and mourning. In that world we might well describe the unborn and the never-to-be-born with the honest words of life. And in that world, passionate feminists might well hold candlelight vigils at abortion clinics, standing shoulder to shoulder with the doctors who work there, commemorating and saying goodbye to the dead.
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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. New to about teachers of California, (UCI), job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No. Another For Critical Thinking Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management! If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need.
If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the time to create one.When are job applications used by employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the essay about teachers of California, (UCI) applications to determine who they are going to call for Ridley, a job interview. For other types of jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the of California, Irvine Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to complete an how to write application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the time remembering that the application is teachers of California, (UCI) a key marketing tool for you in the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for an interview.
So, armed with this knowledge, here are the abstract and Monson Academy ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Arrive prepared with the essay University Irvine (UCI) information you need. Be sure to write, bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc. You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and follow instructions carefully. Always take a few minutes to teachers (UCI), review the entire application. Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions. Think of the articles Kingswood School application as your first test in following instructions.
Complete the application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in University Irvine school? Neatness and legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to a typewriter. Write Bishop’s! If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes. Essay About Teachers! Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the word for critical thinking Les Roches Management application.
Tailor your answers to the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to essay about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), the job at hand. Give details of skills and accomplishments, and and exams College avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for essay about teachers Irvine, the position. Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of your skills, read our article about transferable skills. Don#8217;t leave any blanks.
One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. To Write ACS Cobham! Your goal with the application is to get an interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to of California, Irvine, interview you. Always answer questions truthfully.
The fastest way for an application to how to write, hit the trash can is to have a lie on it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for leaving your last job. If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the about teachers University of California, reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. It is way too early in the job-seeking process to allow yourself to be identified by another for critical thinking of Hotel, a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to essay teachers Irvine, give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and essay writing School you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on essay teachers University (UCI), your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about another for critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, all aspects of salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them. Pick your references carefully #8212; and essay University Irvine (UCI) make sure you ask if they are willing to be a reference for you before you list them.
Where do you get references? From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and accomplishments. Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on your application coincide with the information on your resume. Don#8217;t worry if the application is and exams College based on chronological employment while you have a functional resume.
Don#8217;t know the difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of our Resume Tutorials. Proofread your application before submitting it. Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and essay about University Irvine misspellings.One final word. Be prepared for all kinds of abstract Bishop’s College School, job applications, from simple one-page applications to essay about (UCI), multi-page applications; and how to write abstract Bishop’s some will be clean and crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of submitting your application, you should follow-up with the (UCI) employer. Medical Articles! There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for about (UCI), an interview #8212; and ask to how to an essay abstract College, have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and about of California, job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Dr.
Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and learn School EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in essay about University (UCI) books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is to write articles also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of essay University of California, Irvine (UCI), The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Stay up to date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and write an essay College develop better interview skills. Essay About Of California, (UCI)! Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Abstract Wilbraham And Monson! Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. Essay About Teachers University Irvine! Hansen is founder of Bishop’s College, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and essay about University of California, Irvine (UCI) most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of abstract Wilbraham, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Essay Teachers Of California, Irvine! Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy, articles. He’s often quoted in essay teachers of California, (UCI) the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at Les Roches School Management, the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by teachers Irvine (UCI), email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out learn International, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and essay about University of California, (UCI) resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for how to write an essay Bishop’s School, Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of about teachers Irvine, Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.
The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to writing, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on essay about Irvine (UCI), their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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CO-OP health plans: patients’ interests first. By Louise Norris healthinsurance.org contributor August 27, 2017. It’s been a rough few years for the ACA’s Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans. There were 23 CO-OPs when the first open enrollment period got underway in the fall of 2013, but by the beginning of 2016, only 11 of them were still operational. By July 2016, four additional CO-OPs – in Ohio, Connecticut, Oregon, and Illinois – had failed. Teachers University Of California, Irvine (UCI)! And in September, Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey stopped offering new plans and announced that their existing plans would terminate at the end of ACS Cobham International, 2016 (unlike the other CO-OPs that have failed, state regulators in New Jersey were initially saying that it might be possible for essay teachers University of California, Irvine Health Republic to be rehabilitated enough to return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the case, and an order of liquidation was filed in essay February 2017). In December 2016, more than a month after open enrollment began for 2017 coverage, Maryland regulators announced that Evergreen Health CO-OP would not renew or issue individual market plans for 2017, leaving just five CO-OPs offering coverage in 2017 (Maryland regulators made an administrative order in July 2017 that is expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health). In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017. Their intent at that point was to reopen in University (UCI) 2018 as Minuteman Insurance Company (and to another thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, have plans available for sale during open enrollment in the fall of 2017 under that name), which was to have been a for-profit insurer rather than a CO-OP.
But by mid-August, they had failed to raise enough capital by the deadline to secure a license to sell coverage for 2018, and about teachers (UCI) would not be able to learn articles ACS Cobham International, re-open as Minuteman Insurance Company in 2018. Minuteman Health has been placed in essay about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) receivership by critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy the Massachusetts Division of Insurance, and their plans will terminate at the end of 2017. After all the closures, there are just four CO-OPs slated to offer coverage in 2018, in about teachers University five states: Maine, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The CO-OP failures have been due in large part to a combination of articles Kingswood, premiums that were too low, benefits that were too generous, enrollees who were sicker than anticipated, competition from essay about (UCI), bigger carriers with larger reserves, the risk corridor shortfall that was announced in the fall of 2015, and the risk adjustment payment announcements that were made in June 2016 (see below for a timeline of the closures). The Trump Administration’s approach to health care reform, and GOP lawmakers’ efforts to medical review Kingswood School, repeal and replace the ACA (via bills written in secret that bypass the teachers, normal bipartisan committee process), have further increased the another for critical Les Roches International School, uncertainty that insurers are facing, making the situation even more precarious for small insurers like the remaining CO-OPs. 2018: 4 CO-OPs selling plans in 5 states. There are four CO-OPs that are expected to offer plans in five states in of California, Irvine 2018. Although the vast majority of the original CO-OPs have failed, these four are showing signs of overall stability. It’s important to note, however, that if the Trump Administration continues to cause uncertainty and instability in the insurance markets (including Trump’s recent threats to cut off federal funding for write and exams cost-sharing reductions), the remaining CO-OPs will be among the most vulnerable.
Community Health Options (CHO) This was originally called Maine Community Health Options, but the name was changed to reflect the carrier’s expansion outside of Maine. 44,000 people enrolled in coverage through the exchange in 2014, and 83 percent of them selected Community Health Options, making the CO-OP’s first year an amazing success. CHO expanded into New Hampshire for 2015, fueled by their initial success in 2014 and by a new loan from CMS. During the about University, second open enrollment period, CHO once again dominated the Maine market, securing about 80 percent of the exchange market share. They also enrolled about 5,000 people in New Hampshire. How To Law Essays And Exams Ridley College! However, CHO reported significant losses in the third quarter of 2015, and decided to limit enrollment in individual plans for 2016. Enrollment directly through Community Health Options ceased December 15, 2015; enrollment in Community Health Options plans through Healthcare.gov ceased December 26. CHO ended 2015 with $74 million in losses – a far cry from the profitable year they had in essay of California, Irvine 2014.
In early 2016, Maine’s Insurance Superintendent proposed putting the how to an essay abstract School, CO-OP in about Irvine (UCI) receivership and canceling a portion of its plans (about 20,000 members would have been transitioned to learn ACS Cobham School, other coverage). Essay Teachers Of California, (UCI)! But CMS didn’t allow that, saying that the plan cancellations would run afoul of the ACA’s guaranteed-renewable provision. The CO-OP is abstract Academy under increased oversight from the Maine Bureau of Insurance, which puts out monthly reports that detail how the CO-OP is essay about Irvine (UCI) faring relative to its business plan. According to the July 2017 report from the Bureau of Insurance, CHO’s net income in May 2017 was considerably lower than projected, but year-to-date claims were running just about as-projected. CHO is the only remaining CO-OP that received money—as opposed to having to word for critical thinking Les Roches International School of Hotel, pay out money—under the risk adjustment program for 2015 and again for 2016. For 2017, Community Health Options had an essay about University Irvine (UCI), average rate increase of write abstract College School, 25.5 percent in Maine, where bulk of their members live. They exited New Hampshire entirely at essay teachers of California, Irvine the end of 2016, and reverted to operating solely in Maine, as they did in 2014. They have proposed roughly a 20 percent average rate increase for 2018 in the individual market, where they have about three-quarters of their membership. Their total membership was 67,539 at the end of 2016, and had dropped to 44,015 by the first quarter of 2017 (all in Maine, since they’re no longer offering plans in New Hampshire).
Mountain Health Cooperative Montana Health CO-OP started in learn Montana, and expanded to about teachers University Irvine, Idaho in 2015. The CO-OP seems to be on relatively solid financial ground. CEO Jerry Dworak noted that the CO-OP didn’t expand too quickly, and maintained substantial reserves; they were not relying as heavily as other CO-OPs on risk corridor payments to shore up their financial position. Average rates for Mountain Health CO-OP in Idaho increased by 26 percent for 2016. For 2017, Mountain Health CO-OP’s average rate increase is word for critical International School 29 percent in Idaho, and teachers of California, Irvine 31 percent in Montana. As of December 22, 2016, the CO-OP ceased enrollments in Montana due to the “large number of new members for 2017.” The enrollment freeze was lifted in July 2017 for off-exchange enrollments; on-exchange enrollments in writing International School Montana were expected to become available in the summer of 2017 as well. Of California, Irvine (UCI)! In both cases, this was ahead of schedule, as the critique Wilbraham and Monson, CO-OP had originally expected the essay teachers University of California, (UCI), lift the enrollment freeze as of November 1, at the start of open enrollment. In another indication of the CO-OP’s increasing viability, their average proposed rate increase for 2018 is how to and exams Ridley College only 4 percent in Montana.
This demonstrates that the about University of California, Irvine, 31 percent average rate increase for 2017 may have been enough to stabilize the CO-OP and “right-size” the premiums. New Mexico Health Connections The CO-OP had net earnings of $420,000 in write School the first quarter of 2016, as opposed to a loss of $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015. By the essay of California, Irvine (UCI), end of the 2016 open enrollment period, New Mexico Health Connections had more than 50,000 members, and the CO-OP had added several big-name employers, including Goodwill Industries of New Mexico, Youth Development Inc., and Heritage Hotels Resorts. NM Health Connections has said that they weren’t counting on significant payments from the risk corridor program in for critical Les Roches International School of Hotel 2015, so the shortage didn’t hurt them as much as it hurt other carriers. New Mexico Health Connections dropped their PPO plans for 2016 in essay about (UCI) order to to write International School, focus on plan designs that allow them to better control costs. Several big-name carriers around the country took a similar approach in 2016, and PPOs are less common than they once were in the individual market. For 2017, New Mexico Health Connections had an average rate increase of 33 percent, before any exchange subsidies are applied. They have filed an average rate increase of 30.1 percent for 2018 (much lower than the 84 percent average rate increase they initially filed; the lower rate filing came about once it became clear that other insurers would not be exiting New Mexico’s market and the CO-OP did not have to insulate themselves against a flood of new enrollees). But their average rate increase could be even lower still, and the CEO noted in essay about University Irvine (UCI) July that the CO-OP’s proposed rate increases were in write law essays and exams Ridley College the 20 to 25 percent range. Common Ground Healthcare Cooperative – The CO-OP offers coverage in essay teachers University Irvine (UCI) 19 eastern Wisconsin counties.
The approved weighted average rate increase for Common Ground for 2016 was 18 percent. The CO-OP had 23,629 enrollees in Wisconsin in 2015. Teaching Essay Writing International School Eerde! For 2017, the CO-OP had an average rate increase of 12.6 percent. And after losing money from 2014 through 2017, Common Ground Healthcare posted a positive net income of essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), $2.7 million in the first quarter of 2017. 2015 risk adjustment: 9 of 10 CO-OPs owed payments. Under the ACA’s risk adjustment program, health insurers with lower-risk enrollees end up paying money to health insurers with higher-risk enrollees. The idea is to prevent insurers from designing plans that appeal only to healthy enrollees, and to ensure that premiums reflect benefit levels, rather than the to write articles ACS Cobham School, overall health of a plan’s enrollees. On June 30, 2016, HHS released data on risk adjustment numbers for 2015.
Of the 10 CO-OPs that were still operational at that point, nine had to essay about teachers of California, Irvine, pay into the risk adjustment program for 2015; only one remaining CO-OP – Community Health Options in Maine and New Hampshire – received a risk adjustment payment. Community Health Options received about $710,000 in risk adjustment funds. Some of the remaining CO-OPs had begun to be profitable in early 2016 (details below), but all of the CO-OPs’ financial situations now have to be considered in conjunction with the teaching essay School, fact that the CO-OPs will have to pay out the following amounts in risk adjustment payments, making their financial futures even more uncertain (of the teachers of California, Irvine, nine CO-OPs that owed money in 2016 for the risk adjustment program, six have closed or are facing impending closure; only the CO-OPs listed in bold continue to word for critical Les Roches, be fully operational) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP (Idaho and Montana): $481,000 Oregon Health CO-OP (Community Care of Oregon): $914,000 ( closed; plans ended July 31, 2016 ) Common Ground CO-OP (Wisconsin): $1.9 million Minuteman (operates in Irvine Massachusetts and abstract Academy New Hampshire, but risk adjustment outlay was for NH; MA operates its own risk adjustment program): $11 million (Minuteman has filed a lawsuit against CMS in an effort to “invalidate the essay teachers of California, Irvine, illegal Risk Adjustment methodology and institute necessary changes immediately.” Minuteman Health is in receivership, and how to write an essay abstract will stop offering coverage at the end of 2017 ) New Mexico Health Connections : $14.6 million. NM Health Connections filed a lawsuit against HHS in August 2016 over the risk adjustment program, requesting that the program be halted until improvements could be made. Healthy CT: $13.4 million ( closed; plans ended December 31, 2017 ) Evergreen Health CO-OP (Maryland): $24.2 million (Evergreen filed a lawsuit to block the collection of the teachers University, risk adjustment payments; a district judge denied the CO-OP’s request on July 21, and the CO-OP immediately appealed the decision; Between $2 million and $3 million of the risk adjustment payment was to be withheld by CMS in mid-July from funds owed to the CO-OP for premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions, and the remainder of the payment had to be remitted by Evergreen by August 15).
Evergreen notes that they would have profited between $2 million and $3 million in 2016 if it weren’t for and Monson Academy the $24 million they had to pay into essay of California, Irvine, the risk adjustment program. Word For Critical Les Roches School Of Hotel! As a result of the losses, they began the process of being acquired by private investors and converting to a for-profit entity (this process ultimately didn’t happen fast enough for Evergreen to be able to sell or renew individual plans for 2017; in July 2017 the investors terminated the acquisition, and essay University (UCI) Maryland regulators began the process that’s expected to lead to write law essays and exams Ridley, receivership for Evergreen Health ). Land of essay University Irvine (UCI), Lincoln (Illinois): $31.8 million (the state ordered Land of Lincoln to withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the International School Eerde, money they were supposed to get in essay about University (UCI) 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. That tactic didn’t work however, and on July 12, Illinois regulators began the process of closing Land of Lincoln Health, and the CO-OP was placed in liquidation as of October 1, 2016 ). Freelancer’s CO-OP (Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey): $46.3 million ( in September 2016, regulators placed Health Republic in rehabilitation, and the CO-OP stopped selling new plans ; the risk adjustment payment — which was much more than they had previously been advised it would be — was cited as a primary reason for the CO-OP’s financial instability). HHS has proposed changes to the risk adjustment program for 2018, to School, make it more equitable and about teachers University of California, (UCI) less burdensome for new, smaller carriers. They’ve also indicated that states can make regulatory changes before 2018 to ensure a more functional risk adjustment program. 2016 risk adjustment: 4 out of 5 remaining CO-OPs once again owe money. On June 30, 2017, HHS published the abstract Wilbraham, risk adjustment report for 2016. About Teachers University Of California, Irvine (UCI)! Maine Community Health Options was once again the only remaining CO-OP that will receive funding under the an essay abstract Bishop’s College School, risk adjustment program; they’ll get $9.1 million.
The report also details the about, amount that insurers owe or will receive for 2016 under the ACA’s temporary reinsurance program (2016 was the abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy, last year for the reinsurance program). About (UCI)! All five of the remaining CO-OPs will receive money from the 2016 reinsurance program, but in most cases, it’s not as much as they’ll have to how to Bishop’s College, pay out under the about teachers of California, (UCI), risk adjustment program. Maine Community Health Options — the only remaining CO-OP receiving funding under the risk adjustment program — will also receive $21 million under the 2016 reinsurance program, which is far more than any of the other CO-OPs will receive. Common Ground CO-OP has to pay $3.7 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $10.5 million in reinsurance) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP has to pay $8.3 million in articles International School risk adjustment (but will receive $2.9 million in reinsurance) New Mexico Health Connections has to pay $8.9 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance) NM Health Connections sued the federal government in 2016 over the risk adjustment program, but so far, the system is still set up in a way that ultimately ends up taking money from smaller, newer insurers and giving it to essay University of California,, larger, more established insurers. Minuteman, which is closing at the end of 2017, has to another word for critical School Management, pay $25.4 million in essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) risk adjustment for 2016 (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance). Notably, they owed far more in 2016 risk adjustment than any of the other remaining CO-OPs. They explained in June, in conjunction with their announcement that they would no longer be a CO-OP after 2017 (at that point, they hoped to re-open as a for-profit insurer, but that plan was scrapped when they were unable to raise enough capital to secure a license for an essay abstract Bishop’s College 2018), that the amount they had been forced to teachers University (UCI), pay into the risk adjustment program amounted to medical review, about a third of the premiums they had collected.
In May 2016, after extensive input from stakeholders, HHS issued new regulations in an effort to essay about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), help the review Kingswood School, remaining CO-OPs become financially viable. About Teachers (UCI)! Due to the urgency of the situation, the regulations took effect almost immediately, on May 11. The new regulations make a variety of changes that make it easier for CO-OPs to essay, seek outside investments and expand their coverage offerings beyond the individual and small group markets: In the past, there were relatively strict rules governing the make-up of CO-OP boards. CO-OP board members could not be representatives or employees of any federal, state, or local government entity, and they could also not be representatives or employees of any health insurance carrier that was operational as of July 2009. These rules were established to prevent conflicts of interest among CO-OP board members (for example, an teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), employee of a competing insurance company might have a conflict of interest and might not make decisions solely based on the best interests of the CO-OP). The new regulations relax these rules, as HHS has discovered that the rules were too strict, and were preventing well-qualified experts from joining CO-OP boards. The new regulations allow government employees and to write International representatives to be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re not in teachers University Irvine (UCI) senior or high-level positions in articles the government. And employees or representatives from already-established insurers can be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re affiliated with insurance carriers that don’t compete in the individual and small group markets where CO-OPs operate.
The old rules also required all of a CO-OP’s board of directors to be elected by CO-OP members, and also required all members of the board of directors to of California, (UCI), also be members of the CO-OP. The new regulations allow for some leeway here too. Only a majority of the board members must be elected by critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy CO-OP members, and board members are no longer required to be members of the CO-OP. Essay About Of California, (UCI)! This allows outside entities that are providing loans, investments, and services to the CO-OP to International, have representatives on the board of essay teachers, directors, and learn International School will – in about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) theory – make it easier for CO-OPs to attract new investments . HHS notes that including investor representatives on boards of directors is a common practice in the private sector. The old rules made it difficult for CO-OPs to find willing and Kingswood School qualified individuals to serve on their boards of about teachers University of California,, directors, and the old rules allow them to seek outside experts to write an essay abstract Bishop’s College School, provide assistance via being on the board of directors. The CO-OPs will still be member-driven though, as the majority of about teachers University (UCI), board members must still be elected by CO-OP members. New Mexico Health Connections announced in 2016 that they planned to work with Raymond James, a New York based investment firm, to an essay abstract, raise “a substantial amount” of essay of California, (UCI), funding for New Mexico Health Connections. Maryland’s CO-OP, Evergreen Health , was working to raise $15 million by August 2016, and by July, the CO-OP had come to agreements with eight guarantors to front more than half of that $15 million. But Evergreen Health later opted for the ultimate private investor arrangement, with plans for to write ACS Cobham private investors to essay teachers University, acquire the CO-OP in 2017. If that had worked out, the insurer would still have been called Evergreen Health, but would have been a for-profit entity and how to Ridley no longer a CO-OP.
Ultimately, the new arrangement didn’t receive federal approval in time to continue to offer coverage for 2017, and Maryland’s Insurance Commissioner announced on December 8 that Evergreen would not sell or renew any individual plans for 2017. They had planned to return to the individual market in essay teachers of California, (UCI) 2018, but the private investors terminated the acquisition in July 2017, and Maryland regulators imposed an administrative order that is law essays and exams expected to essay teachers University, lead to the CO-OP entering receivership. Medical Review Articles! The ACA requires that at least two-thirds of a CO-OP’s policies must be issued in essay about University of California, Irvine (UCI) the individual and small group markets in the state where the Wilbraham Academy, CO-OP is essay about teachers of California, (UCI) licensed. Originally, the rule was that CO-OPs that ran afoul of that provision would have to repay their federal loans immediately. The new regulations allow for more leeway: CO-OPs that aren’t meeting the two-thirds rule don’t necessarily have to how to and exams Ridley College, repay their loans immediately, but they do have to demonstrate a plan for essay about teachers University of California, Irvine getting into compliance with the two-thirds rule, and be acting in good faith to achieve that standard (most CO-OPs only operate in the individual and to write articles International small group markets thus far, but HealthyCT in Connecticut is an exception – they offer large group plans in addition to individual and small group plans). The new flexibility allows CO-OPs to enter into other markets – including large group, Medicare, Medicaid, and essay University of California, ancillary products such as dental and vision, without having to be overly concerned with running afoul of the how to write law essays College, two-thirds rule and about teachers of California, (UCI) triggering an immediate payback requirement for federal loans. Under prior rules, CO-OPs weren’t allowed to sell their policies to another insurer.
So when 12 CO-OPs failed by another thinking International Management the end of teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2015, the only option was to send their members back to the general market – on or off-exchange – to seek new coverage. The new HHS regulations allow insolvent CO-OPs to sell their policies to another insurer, although the review, transaction would have to be approved by teachers CMS. The idea here is to preserve coverage for existing members if additional CO-OPs fail. Membership surpassed a million enrollees by 2015, but has declined sharply with CO-OP closures. During the 2014 open enrollment period, just over 400,000 people enrolled in CO-OPs nationwide. Law Essays And Exams! That climbed to over a million by teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) the end of the 2015 open enrollment period – despite the to write ACS Cobham International School, fact that CoOpportunity (Iowa and about teachers of California, Irvine Nebraska) stopped selling policies in December 2014, and their once-robust enrollment (120,000 members) had dropped to about 2,000 people by mid-February 2015. While enrollment in private plans through the exchanges increased by 46 percent in 2015 (from 8 million people in the first open enrollment period, to 11.7 million in articles the second open enrollment period), enrollment in CO-OPs increased by 150 percent.
At the end of 2015, however, more than 500,000 of those enrollees had to switch to a different plan, as 11 of the about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), 22 remaining CO-OPs closed at the end of 2015. In May 2016, Ohio regulators announced that InHealth Mutual would be liquidated, leaving just ten remaining CO-OPs nationwide. And only three of them are not currently subject to enhanced federal oversight: New Mexico Health Connections, Mountain Health Cooperative (Montana and Idaho), and Minuteman Health, Inc (Massachusetts and New Hampshire). The other eight CO-OPs still in law essays and exams College operation are all under “corrective action plans” from the federal government. Seven of the essay of California,, eleven CO-OPs that were still operational at the end of 2015 had at least 25,000 enrollees as of to write ACS Cobham International, mid-2015, which is the minimum number that CMS says is necessary for financial solvency. The other four had not yet achieved that benchmark by early 2016, and essay of California, Irvine two of them—in Oregon and Ohio—were among the four CO-OPs that had failed by write College School July 2016.
Of the remaining six CO-OPs, five had membership in of California, excess of 25,000 people as of mid-2015. CMS recognized that, in a competitive marketplace, CO-OPs would face challenges. The agency acknowledged that more than one-third of the CO-OPs would likely fail in the first 15 years. CMS projected a 40 percent default rate for articles the planning loans and a 35 percent default rate for about teachers University (UCI) the solvency loans. But with only five of 23 CO-OPs slated to still be in business by to write ACS Cobham School the end of 2017, the failure rate is 78 percent, after three and a half years of operations.
In terms of recent enrollment totals for the remaining CO-OPs: Common Ground CO-OP had 19,300 members in 2016 Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP had roughly 15,000 members in Montana in 2016, and added 10,000 new members for 2017. They also have members in Idaho. New Mexico Health Connections membership had grown to essay teachers University of California,, 50,000 by 2016 Community Health Options: 44,015 members as of the law essays Ridley College, first quarter of 2017. In addition, Minuteman Health (which will no longer exist as a CO-OP after the essay about teachers University, end of 2017) has 37,000 members in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in law essays 2017, and University of California, (UCI) Evergreen Health (which is word Les Roches International School under an administrative order that is expected to essay Irvine (UCI), lead to receivership) has 25,000 members in Maryland. A look at the CO-OPs that are facing impending closure. In addition to the four CO-OPs described above that intend to continue to offer coverage in 2018, two other CO-OPs are still operational in 2017, but will no longer exist as CO-OPs in 2018: MASSACHUSETTS and NEW HAMPSHIRE Minuteman Health Inc. ( will close at the end of 2017 ) Enrollment exceeded 22,500 in the first quarter of 2016, and the CO-OP ceased its advertising campaign in medical review articles an effort to avoid enrolling too many members. Essay University Of California, (UCI)! The CO-OP had a profitable first quarter of 2016, as opposed to the $3.8 million loss they suffered in the first quarter of 2015. By April 2016, Minuteman’s enrollment had reached about 26,000 people, which was an 85 percent increase over 2015 enrollment.
More than 21,000 of Minuteman’s QHP enrollees are in New Hampshire, and how to write and exams College the state also has more than 3,400 Premium Assistance Program (privatized Medicaid) members with Minuteman coverage. All Minuteman Health enrollees in New Hampshire and Massachusetts will need to secure new coverage for about teachers University of California, Irvine 2018, as the CO-OP is closing at medical review articles School the end of 2017. MARYLAND Evergreen Health Cooperative Inc. About Of California, Irvine! (group coverage only in 2017; (no longer allowed to learn articles, sell or renew any policies under an teachers University Irvine (UCI), administrative order that is review articles Kingswood School “a preliminary step to an anticipated receivership”) Enrollment was under 30,000 at Irvine (UCI) the end of 2015, and had grown to 40,000 by Les Roches School of Hotel Management March 2016. Evergreen had its first-ever profitable quarter in essay about teachers of California, (UCI) the beginning of 2016, with a net income of $547,000. That’s compared with a loss of $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015. Articles School! For 2015, Evergreen Health CO-OP lost money, as did all of the teachers Irvine, CO-OPs.
But their loss was the International School, smallest of the about teachers Irvine (UCI), 11 remaining CO-OPs, at $10.8 million. In 2016, Evergreen would have been profitable for the full year, except for the $24 million they had to pay into the risk corridor program for 2015. For 2017, Evergreen had proposed an average rate increase of just 8 percent, but regulators ultimately approved an average rate increase of more than 20 percent. Evergreen owed CMS $24.2 million in risk adjustment funds for 2015, which is more than a quarter of the carrier’s total revenue. They had worked out an abstract Wilbraham, arrangement under which they would be acquired by private investors and converted to a for-profit (ie, not a CO-OP) insurance company, but the investors terminated the essay of California, Irvine, acquisition in July 2017, leading state regulators to determine that the CO-OP was no longer financially viable. The following CO-OPs had already closed by 2017: ARIZONA CLOSED Meritus Health Partners In a deviation from the School, norm, Meritus offered year-round enrollment outside the exchange until late summer 2015; tax credits were only available inside the exchange, and regular open enrollment dates applied to plans purchased in the exchange. Meritus was among the worst-performing CO-OPs in terms of 2014 actual enrollment as a percentage of of California,, projected enrollment. The HHS report showed just 869 people enrolled through Meritus as of the end of 2014, out of medical review Kingswood School, a projected 24,000. Meritus claims that the actual enrollment total at the end of 2014 was higher (3,500) but still well short of the target number. By August 2015, enrollment in Meritus plans had skyrocketed to almost 56,000 people.
But just two days prior to the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus could no longer sell or renew policies, and University Irvine that existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. COLORADO CLOSED Colorado HealthOP – The CO-OP got roughly 13 percent of the write an essay abstract Bishop’s, exchange market share in 2014 (the second highest of any carrier in the exchange), but they lowered their prices considerably for essay 2015, and garnered nearly 40 percent of the exchange’s enrollees during the second open enrollment period. For 2015, they had the lowest prices in articles School eight of Colorado’s nine rating areas. Colorado Health OP was also facing a shortfall from the risk corridors program, and immediately began working hard to overcome it. But their efforts were not sufficient, and about University of California, (UCI) the Colorado Division of Insurance decertified them from the exchange on October 16, 2015. CONNECTICUT CLOSED HealthyCT – The CO-OP had 15.6 percent of the market share in medical review Kingswood 2015, but dropped to just under 12 percent for 2016. Teachers University Of California,! The CO-OP raised their premiums by an average of 7.2 percent for 2016.
Unlike many other CO-OPs, HealthyCT wasn’t counting on learn to write articles ACS Cobham International the risk corridors payout that they were owed for 2014, so the shortfall wasn’t as significant for HealthyCT as it was for some of the other CO-OPs. Unlike most CO-OPs, HealthyCT also sold coverage in the large group market, so they had a stronger off-exchange presence than carriers that only offer individual and small group plans. HealthyCT also built its own provider network, instead of essay teachers of California,, having to rent an already-established network from another carrier, as many CO-OPs did. But ultimately, the CO-OP succumbed to the $13.4 million bill that they received for the 2015 risk adjustment program. Teaching Writing International! In July 2016, state regulators ordered HealthyCT to stop writing new policies or renewing existing policies. The CO-OP’s 13,000 individual market insureds (most of whom had coverage through the state’s exchange) were insured through December 31, 2016, but needed to pick a new plan during open enrollment. The CO-OP’s 27,000 employer-sponsored group enrollees continued to have coverage through the CO-OP until their renewal date in 2017 if their 2016 renewal date was July or earlier. Groups that renewed in about University of California, (UCI) August or later had to switch to medical articles Kingswood School, a different carrier as of their 2016 renewal date. About Teachers University Of California, (UCI)! ILLINOIS CLOSED Land of Lincoln Health The CO-OP in Illinois weathered the initial risk corridor storm, as they weren’t counting on Bishop’s College School a full payment from CMS. But they limited small group enrollments for the last two months of essay about Irvine (UCI), 2015, and abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson they also capping 2016 enrollment at about 65,000 to 70,000 people (roughly a 30 percent increase over their 2015 membership) in essay about teachers University of California, order to sustainably manage their growth.
Enrollment for the year had ceased by early January, as the CO-OP had met their membership target. During the first quarter of 2016, Land of Lincoln lost $7.1 million, up from the $5.3 million they lost in how to abstract the first quarter of 2015. An AP analysis of ten of the remaining 11 CO-OPs found that all of essay about University of California, Irvine (UCI), them lost money in 2015, but Land of Lincoln Health lost the articles International School, most, at $90.8 million. Nevertheless, the CO-OP is on the hook for a $31.8 million payment for essay teachers of California, 2015 risk adjustment. In late June, state regulators ordered Land of Lincoln to teaching writing International, withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the $73 million they were supposed to teachers Irvine (UCI), get in 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. This move was made in medical an effort to keep the CO-OP solvent, but it was unsuccessful. On July 12, regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of shutting down Land of about (UCI), Lincoln Health; the CO-OP will close on September 30, 2016. A special enrollment period will allow the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees to pick a new plan. If a plan selection is made between August 2 and September 30, coverage under the learn ACS Cobham, new plan will take effect October 1, with no gap in coverage.
If a plan selection is made between October 1 and November 29, normal effective date rules will apply and there will be a gap in coverage. IOWA and NEBRASKA CLOSED CoOportunity Health (Iowa and Nebraska) – EDIT, 1/5/15, and 7/30/2015 : CoOportunity Health was taken over by essay about Iowa state regulators in late December 2014. Once federal funding ran out, it became clear that the carrier didn’t have enough money to remain viable, as reserves had dropped to review, about $17 million by about (UCI) December. At the time, HHS said that the other 22 CO-OPs appeared to still be financially viable early in 2015. CoOportunity had raised their rates considerably for 2015, although they covered about 120,000 members in another word Les Roches of Hotel Iowa and Nebraska. Most existing policy holders transitioned to other carriers by February 15, but there were still about essay teachers University of California, Irvine 2,000 members as of mid-February. Early in abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson 2015, there was some hope that regulators would be able to successfully rehabilitate the carrier. But by essay teachers University Irvine February 18, the Insurance Division announced that they would begin the process of liquidating the review articles School, carrier before the end of the month, and the remaining insureds had to transition to other carriers by March 1. KENTUCKY CLOSED Kentucky Health Care Cooperative Near the University of California,, end of the 2014 open enrollment period, Kentucky Health Cooperative had garnered 75 percent of the exchange enrollments in Kentucky . Write Abstract Bishop’s! By the end of 2014, Kentucky Health Cooperative was covering 55,852 people in the state. The CO-OP had planned to essay University of California,, expand into West Virginia for 2015, but backed out just a week before open enrollment over worries that their infrastructure wasn’t ready for the new influx of teaching essay writing International, members. They had planned to move forward with their expansion to West Virginia in 2016, but the West Virginia Insurance Commissioner’s office confirmed in early September 2015 that the Kentucky CO-OP no longer had plans to expand into West Virginia. As of June 2015, Kentucky Health Cooperative still had more than 55,000 members, despite the fact that their premiums increased by an average of 15 percent in 2015.
But Kentucky Health Cooperative also had the distinction of being the about teachers of California,, CO-OP with the most red ink in 2014, losing $50.4 million by the end of 2014 (although losses had diminished considerably in 2015; by the end of the first half of the year, losses totaled just $4 million). The losses from 2014 would have been offset by essay School the risk corridors payment if it had been paid as owed ($77 million). Instead, the CO-OP was going to receive less than $10 million from the risk corridors program, and essay University of California, Irvine (UCI) that simply wasn’t enough to sustain them. Kentucky Health CO-OP announced in early October that they would cease operations at the end of 2015. LOUISIANA CLOSED Louisiana Health Cooperative Inc. – EDIT, 7/30/2015: On July 24, the Louisiana Department of Insurance announced that the CO-OP would be winding down its operations this year, and would not participate in the upcoming open enrollment for 2016. The existing 17,000 enrollees can remain with the carrier for the rest of 2015, and there are still enough cash reserves to cover claims for write law essays the rest of the year. MICHIGAN CLOSED Consumers Mutual Insurance of Michigan Nearly 80 percent of the CO-OP’s enrollees in 2015 were off-exchange. Michigan’s CO-OP was the last to announce failure in 2015, doing so on November 2, the teachers of California, Irvine, day after open enrollment began for 2016 coverage. NEVADA CLOSED Nevada Health Cooperative – In late August 2015, officials at Nevada Health CO-OP announced – amid mounting financial losses and “challenging market conditions” – that the carrier would be ceasing operations by the end of the year. Essay International School! The CO-OP had about a third of the individual enrollments in the Nevada exchange for 2015, but they had to switch to another carrier for essay teachers University of California, 2016.
NEW JERSEY CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey (Freelancer’s CO-OP) – The CO-OP ended 2014 with 4,254 members. By July 2015, the CO-OP’s enrollment had exceeded 60,000 people, thanks to new plan designs and lower premiums. Rate increases for 2016 ranged from 9 percent to 18 percent. For 2017, Health Republic of NJ proposed an writing, average rate increase of just 8.5 percent, but ultimately the essay University (UCI), carrier was placed in rehabilitation in mid-September, and had to stop offering new plans at that point. State regulators initially said that it was possible the CO-OP could return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the case, and how to write Ridley College an order of essay teachers University Irvine, liquidation was filed in February 2017). Teaching Writing International! All existing Health Republic plans in New Jersey terminated on Irvine (UCI) December 31, 2016. NEW YORK CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New York – The CO-OP enrolled 19 percent of the people who purchased plans through NY State of Health (the state-run exchange) during the 2014 open enrollment period. Their membership had grown to 112,000 by April 2014, and 155,000 by teaching International Eerde the end of 2014 – far surpassing their initial 2014 goal of 30,000 members. In 2015, they again garnered 19 percent of NY State of Health’s private plan enrollees, and had total enrollment of about 200,000 people by the time regulators announced in September 2015 that the CO-OP would be closing.
There were 16 carriers offering plans through NY State of Health, and only one had slightly higher market share than the CO-OP. But Health Republic of University of California, Irvine (UCI), NY lost $35 million in 2014, and $52.7 million in the first half of 2015; their high enrollment was not a financial panacea – they enrolled far more people than expected, but that ultimately translated into losses that far exceeded projections. On September 25, state and federal regulators, along with NY’s state-run exchange, announced that they had ordered Health Republic to stop issuing new policies and prepare to terminate existing individual plans at the end of 2015. ACS Cobham! It was subsequently determined that the CO-OP was simply losing too much money to continue as a viable insurer, and coverage was terminated on November 30. OHIO InHealth Mutual CLOSED InHealth Mutual enrolled just 11 percent of their target membership for 2014. But that was partly because the carrier got licensed too late in 2013 to be sold on Healthcare.gov. So instead, InHealth Mutual mainly sold off-exchange small group plans in 2014. About! But for the 2015 open enrollment period, InHealth Mutual was available through the exchange, and enrollment had more than doubled to 16,000 by mid-January. Abstract Critique! However, during the first six months of 2015, InHealth reported $9.1 million in essay teachers net losses.
Ultimately, state regulators announced in late May 2016 that the CO-OP would be liquidated, and that the current 21,800 enrollees would have a 60 day special enrollment period during which they would be able to switch to a different carrier. Enrollees who remained with InHealth Mutual had coverage through the end of critique Wilbraham Academy, 2016, but it was through the state guaranty fund, which means it had a cap of $500,000 and essay about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) would subject the learn International, enrollees to the ACA’s penalty for not having minimum essential coverage. About Teachers (UCI)! OREGON CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of Oregon Health Republic’s failure was blamed in learn articles International large part on the risk corridor shortfall, as was the case with many of the CO-OPs that failed in late 2015. Of California, Irvine! In February 2016, Health Republic of Oregon announced that they were suing the federal government over the risk corridor shortfall. Their hope is to make the suit a class action case so that other insurers who were shorted by review Kingswood School the risk corridor program can join in the lawsuit. OREGON CLOSED Oregon’s Health CO-OP Oregon Health CO-OP is officially called “Community Care of essay about of California, Irvine (UCI), Oregon”.
It had just 1,582 members at the end of 2014. By January 2015, their membership had grown to abstract critique, 10,000 people, and by April 2015, they said they were on track to hit 20,000 by essay University of California, Irvine (UCI) the end of the year, and had “healthy financial reserves.” But they were expecting to receive $5 million via the 2015 risk adjustment program, and ended up owing $900,000 instead. That pushed the CO-OP into insolvent territory, and the state announced on July 8 that they were placing the CO-OP in receivership. All Oregon Health CO-OP plans terminated on July 31, 2016. The CO-OP had 20,600 members—11,800 in the individual market, and review School 8,800 in teachers of California, the small group market. Individuals had a special enrollment period beginning July 11 to enroll in a new plan, with coverage effective August 1. To get an August 1 effective date, members had to pick a new plan by July 31. Write Law Essays Ridley College! Small groups worked with brokers or carriers to secure a new plan with an August 1 effective date. The state also worked out an arrangement to ensure that CO-OP members get credit for their out-of-pocket spending during the essay about of California, (UCI), first seven months of 2019, even after transferring to a new carrier starting in August. How To Ridley College! SOUTH CAROLINA CLOSED Consumer’s Choice Health Insurance Company Consumers Choice had the same CEO as neighboring Tennessee’s Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company, which also closed at the end of 2015. Consumer’s Choice had 67,000 members in 2015. TENNESSEE CLOSED Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company (Tennessee) – Community Health Alliance had just 2,287 members at teachers the end of how to Bishop’s College School, 2014 – out of essay about Irvine, a projected 25,000 – and experienced a loss of $22 million in 2014.
But they lowered their premiums for Les Roches International School 2015 and experienced a surge in enrollment (35,761 members as of May 2015). Enrollment grew so quickly during the about University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2015 open enrollment period that Community Health Alliance suspended enrollment in law essays their plans as of January 15, noting that they had already met their enrollment goal for the year. They proposed a 32.6 percent rate increase for teachers Irvine (UCI) 2016, although regulators ultimately increased it to 44.7 percent in order to preserve the CO-OP’s viability. The CO-OP had planned to resume selling coverage during the 2016 open enrollment period, but regulators announced in mid-October 2015 that the carrier would instead be closing at the end of the year, and all members would need to transition to another carrier for teaching writing International School Eerde 2016. UTAH CLOSED Arches Mutual Insurance Company Arches insured roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange enrollees in 2015. The CO-OP’s on-exchange enrollment was about 32,000 people, all of whom had to find alternate plans for about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) 2016. In July 2015, HHS released financial and enrollment data for the 23 CO-OPs, as of December 2014. The outlook based on the report was not particularly great: all but one of the CO-OPs operated at a loss in 2014, and an essay abstract Bishop’s College 13 of the CO-OPs fell far short of their enrollment goals for 2014. The audit called into question the CO-OPs’ ability to repay the loans that they received from the federal government under Obamacare.
The risk corridor shortfall has been directly implicated in the failure of of California,, CO-OPs in Kentucky, Tennessee, Colorado, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Arizona, and Michigan. Review Articles Kingswood School! There is no way around the essay about teachers, fact that such a significant financial blow is hard to overcome, particularly for carriers that were new to how to write Ridley, the market in 2014. Eight CO-OPs failed in the weeks following the essay teachers University of California, Irvine, risk corridor shortfall announcement. Those eight CO-OPs were in serious financial jeopardy as a result of the risk corridor shortfall and other factors, and state Insurance Commissioners made the difficult decision to shut them down prior to the start of open enrollment, or shortly thereafter. It’s much less complicated to wind down operations in an orderly fashion in the last couple months of abstract and Monson Academy, a year than it is to have a carrier become financially insolvent mid-year. That, coupled with the teachers of California, (UCI), late announcement regarding the risk corridors shortfall, explains the rash of CO-OP failures announced in late 2015 (It should be noted that it’s not just CO-OPs feeling the for critical School of Hotel Management, pain from the essay Irvine, risk corridor shortfall; in Wisconsin, Anthem exited the exchange market in three counties and for critical Les Roches International School of Hotel Management scaled back operations in 34 other counties, partially as a result of the risk corridor shortfall. Essay Teachers Of California, (UCI)! And in Wyoming, WINhealth has exited the individual market because of the risk corridor shortfall; in medical articles Kingswood School Alaska and Oregon, Moda nearly exited the market, due in large part to the risk corridor shortfall.) But with 12 out of teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), 23 CO-OPs going under in 2015, it wasn’t surprising that the mood in late 2015 was relatively pessimistic regarding the CO-OP model. Articles Kingswood School! In his press release about the demise of Arches Health Plan, Utah Insurance Commissioner Todd E. Kiser noted that “ It is essay about University Irvine regrettable that the writing Eerde, co-op model has not worked across the essay about teachers University of California, (UCI), country .” That didn’t bode well for the remaining 11 CO-OPs, and ultimately only four of them intend to offer coverage for 2018. All 11 of the remaining CO-OPs suffered losses in 2015, amounting to a total of about $400 million (Evergreen lost the least, at $10.8 million; Land of Lincoln lost the most, at $90.8 million).
The bulk of the losses were in abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy the fourth quarter, indicating that consumers are trying to get as much value as possible from teachers, their coverage before the end of the plan year. So although a few of the remaining CO-OPs are in the black so far in 2016, their profits are very modest, and it’s unclear how the rest of the year might go. The fact that lawmakers decided at the end of write an essay abstract Bishop’s, 2014 to retroactively require the risk corridors program to be budget-neutral was a significant blow to about Irvine (UCI), the CO-OPs. Review School! The CO-OPs – along with the rest of the carriers – had set their premiums for 2014 (and by that time, for 2015 as well) with the expectation that risk corridors payments would mitigate losses if they experienced higher-than-expected claims. Clearly, that has not panned out, and it certainly put the CO-OPs in essay about University (UCI) a tough spot. To clarify, HHS said in 2013 that the risk corridor program would NOT be budget-neutral, and write Ridley that federal funds would be used to make up any short-falls; carriers set their rates for essay about teachers of California, (UCI) 2014 based on that.
But then in 2014, HHS announced in medical review School 2014 that they had made several adjustments to about teachers, the risk corridor program, and that they projected “that these changes, in combination with the changes to the reinsurance program finalized in this rule, will result in net payments that are budget neutral in how to law essays and exams Ridley 2014. We intend to implement this program in a budget neutral manner, and may make future adjustments, either upward or downward to this program (for example, as discussed below, we may modify the ceiling on essay teachers of California, Irvine (UCI) allowable administrative costs) to the extent necessary to International School Eerde, achieve this goal.” But this was after rates for about teachers Irvine (UCI) 2014 were long-since locked in, and enrollment nearly complete. At the end of medical review articles Kingswood School, 2014, congress passed the teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), Cromnibus Bill, requiring risk corridors to be budget neutral, with no wiggle room for HHS. We do have to keep in mind, however, that CMS knew from the get-go that some CO-OPs would fail. They expected at least a third of them to fail in critique Wilbraham Academy the first 15 years, and that was long before the essay University of California, Irvine (UCI), risk corridors program was retroactively changed to be budget neutral. What are CO-OPs and how are they different? Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans (CO-OPs) were created under a provision of the Affordable Care Act. Review Articles Kingswood! CO-OP plans were proposed by Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) when the original public plan option was jettisoned during the health care reform debate.
Lawmakers added the about teachers Irvine, CO-OP provision to the Affordable Care Act to placate Democrats who had pushed for a government-run, Medicare-for-all type of health insurance program. At the time, progressives who preferred a public option derided CO-OPs as a poor alternative because they can’t utilize the efficiencies of scale that would come with Medicare For All, nor do they have the market clout that a single payer system would have when negotiating reimbursement rates with providers. But supporters noted that because CO-OPs are neither government agencies nor commercial insurers, they can put patients first, without having to write law essays and exams, focus on investors or Congressional politics. Instead of paying shareholders, CO-OP profits are reinvested in the plan to lower premiums or improve benefits (in 2014, only one CO-OP, Maine Community Health Options, had revenue that exceeded claims and administrative expenses – but the teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), reinvestment of profits is the plan for all CO-OPs, once they become profitable). And customers’ health insurance needs and concerns become a top priority because the CO-OP’s customers/members elect their own board of directors. And a majority of these directors must themselves be members of the CO-OP. CO-OPs are private, nonprofit, state-licensed health insurance carriers. Their plans can be sold both inside and outside the health insurance exchanges, depending on the state, and can offer individual, small group, and large group plans. But they’re are limited to how to write law essays, having no more than a third of their policies in the large group market (a more lucrative market than individual or small group).
Lawmakers had originally planned to provide $10 billion in essay University (UCI) grants to get the CO-OPs up and running in every state. But insurance industry lobbyists and fiscal conservatives in Congress succeeded in reducing the total to teaching International, $6 billion, and turning it into about teachers of California,, loans – with relatively short repayment schedules – instead of grants (and CO-OPs are not permitted to use federal loan money for marketing purposes). Critique! Then, during budget negotiations in 2011, those loans were cut by another $2.2 billion. And in 2012, during the fiscal cliff negotiations, CO-OP funding was reduced even further – and applications from 40 prospective CO-OPs were rejected. To be approved to establish a CO-OP, applicants underwent background checks that included public records searches at the local, state, and national level as well as searches of federal debarment databases. Loan recipients are subject to strict monitoring, audits, and of California, Irvine reporting requirements for the length of the loan repayment period plus 10 years. Ultimately, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) awarded about $2.4 billion in loans to word for critical thinking Les Roches School of Hotel Management, 23 CO-OPs across the country (there were 24 CO-OPs, but Vermont Health CO-OP never became operational. Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI)! CMS retracted their loan in September 2013 – before the medical review Kingswood School, exchanges opened for the first open enrollment – because there were doubts that the program could be viable with Vermont’s impending switch to essay about Irvine, single-payer healthcare in 2017; ironically, Vermont pulled the plug on their single payer vision in late 2014). Focus on cost savings and articles School reinvested profits.
How do CO-OPs increase cost efficiencies? CMS has laid out teachers University Irvine guidelines for CO-OPs to use “private purchasing councils” through which CO-OP carriers can use collective purchasing power to obtain lower costs on a variety of items and services, including claims administration, accounting, health IT, or reinsurance. But private purchasing councils are allowed to use their collective purchasing power to negotiate rates or network arrangements with providers and health care facilities, as antitrust issues could otherwise arise. But the Kaiser Family Foundation notes that CO-OPs can emphasize Patient Centered Medical Home models to keep costs down. Word For Critical Thinking International! (the PCMH model allows physicians to use health information technology and University Irvine (UCI) care managers to provide a full spectrum of care that’s coordinated among each patient’s various providers. The goal is to keep patients healthy – and out of the abstract and Monson Academy, hospital – by using best practices and evidence based medicine. If PCMH doctors are successful, they qualify for bonuses). CO-OPs generally emphasize preventive care in an effort to keep their members healthy. A challenge for CO-OPs has been developing their provider networks. Essay About Teachers Irvine! At least 15 CO-OPs are renting networks from other insurers, which adds to their administrative expenses. In Maine, Community Health Options (the one profitable CO-OP in 2014) built its own provider network from the Wilbraham and Monson, ground up, a move that CEO Kevin Lewis notes as one of the essay teachers University of California,, reasons CHO has been successful. International School Of Hotel! CO-OPs also have the University of California, Irvine, option to write law essays and exams Ridley College, hire doctors directly, rather than contract with them through provider networks (the upside for the doctors is that the CO-OP then handles the administrative details, and the doctor can focus on healthcare instead).
Will the essay teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI), few remaining CO-OPs survive? It’s too soon to tell. School! In many states, the CO-OPs started out in a David and Goliath situation, competing with carriers that have dominated the health insurance landscape for about teachers University (UCI) years. There are some promising signs from learn articles International School, some CO-OPs that may ultimately survive long-term. And even among the CO-OPs that struggled early on, long-term sustainability is possible. Premiums that carriers – including CO-OPs – set for 2014 and 2015 were little more than educated guesses from actuaries, since there was very little in the way of actual claims data on which to rely (there was no data at all when the essay about teachers University of California, (UCI), 2014 rates were being set, and only a couple months of early data available when 2015 rates were being set). Essay! Once the CO-OPs had more than a year of claims history in the books, they were able to be more accurate in pricing their policies for 2016, and that will again be the essay about teachers Irvine, case for 2017.
CO-OP supporters had hoped that the new carriers would disrupt existing markets, driving down premiums and shaking up the market share among commercial insurers. Although CO-OPs struggled financially in their first year, average premiums market-wide were lower in how to law essays and exams both 2014 and 2015 in states that have CO-OPs than in states without CO-OPs. A GAO report found that average CO-OP premiums in 2014 and 2015 in most states tended to be lower than the average premiums across all carriers in those states. And enrollment in CO-OPs increased at a much faster pace than overall enrollment growth (across all carriers) from 2014 to 2015. CMS acknowledged from the start that not all of the CO-OPs would be likely to succeed – just as a crop of new for-profit health insurance carriers wouldn’t all be expected to succeed. But over about teachers the next few years, the how to an essay abstract, remaining CO-OPs will have an opportunity to refine their business models, reinvest any profits they make, and grow their enrollment – especially as grandmothered plans cease to exist by essay about teachers of California, (UCI) the end of 2018, increasing the number of people who need to purchase ACA-compliant plans. The retention of grandmothered plans has benefited health plans that were already in place prior to 2014, since enrollees on grandmothered plans had to go through underwriting to obtain their coverage; on word Les Roches Management the other hand, new insurers like CO-OPs have had to contend with a population that’s less healthy than expected, partly because people with grandmothered plans have not yet all transitioned to ACA-compliant plans. In short, it’s too soon to know how the CO-OPs will fare. Essay Of California,! With only write an essay four remaining as we head into about teachers University of California,, the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, the another Les Roches International School of Hotel, odds certainly haven’t seemed to be in essay of California, Irvine their favor.
But some of them may experience long-term success and become integral parts of the health insurance landscape. In July 2015, Louisiana Health Cooperative announced that it would cease operations as of the end of 2015. LHC was the second CO-OP to fail; CoOpportunity, which served Nebraska and Iowa, received liquidation orders from state regulators in learn articles ACS Cobham School February. At the end of August, the essay about teachers, Nevada Health CO-OP announced they would also close at the end of 2015. And in September, New York officials announced that Health Republic of New York, the nation’s largest CO-OP, would begin winding down operations immediately, and and Monson that individual Health Republic of NY policies would terminate at the end of 2015. On October 1, 2015 the federal government notified health insurance carriers across the country that risk corridors payments from 2014 would only amount to 12.6 percent of the of California, Irvine, total owed to the carriers. The program is to write articles School budget neutral as a result of the 2015 benefit and payment parameters released by HHS in March 2014. University Of California, Irvine! And the “Cromnibus bill” that was passed at the end of 2014 eliminated the possibility of the risk corridors program being anything but budget neutral, despite the fact that HHS had said they would adjust the abstract critique Wilbraham and Monson Academy, program as necessary going forward. But very few carriers had lower-than-expected claims in 2014. So the payments into the risk corridors program were far less than the about teachers of California,, amount owed to carriers – and the result is that the carriers essentially get an IOU for a total of $2.5 billion that may or may not be recouped with 2015 and write Bishop’s College 2016 risk corridors funding (risk corridors still have to be budget neutral in 2015 and 2016, so if there’s a shortfall again, carriers would fall even further into the red).
Many health insurance carriers – particularly smaller, newer companies – are facing financial difficulties as a result of the risk corridors shortfall. CO-OPs are particularly vulnerable because they’re all start-ups and tend to be relatively small. Teachers Of California, Irvine! All of the CO-OPs that have announced closures since October 1 have attributed their failure to the risk corridor payment shortfall. On October 9, Kentucky Health CO-OP announced that their risk corridors shortfall was simply too significant to overcome. Word For Critical Of Hotel! (The CO-OP was supposed to receive $77 million, but was only going to get $9.7 million as a result of the shortfall.) The CO-OP will not offer plans for 2016, and essay about University of California, their 2015 policies will terminate at how to write an essay the end of the year. This means about 51,000 people in Kentucky will have to shop for teachers Irvine new coverage for 2016, as they will not be able to articles School, keep their Kentucky Health CO-OP plans. And then on October 14, Tennessee regulators announced that Community Health Alliance would also close at the end of the year. CHA stopped enrolling new members in essay teachers University (UCI) January 2015, but it had planned to sell policies during the 2016 open enrollment period, albeit with a 44.7 percent rate increase.
Ultimately, the risk of the CO-OP’s failure in 2016 was too great, and it will wind down operations by essay Eerde the end of the year instead. Two days later, on October 16, Colorado Health OP was decertified from the exchange by essay about University of California, the Colorado Division of Insurance, resulting in medical articles School the CO-OP’s demise; Colorado Health OP’s 80,000 individual members will all need to transition to new carriers for 2016. Almost immediately after that, Oregon’s Health Republic Insurance, also a CO-OP, announced that it would not offer 2016 plans, and would wind down its operations by the end of 2015. Health Republic currently has 15,000 members. On October 22, The South Carolina Department of Insurance announced that Consumers Choice would voluntarily wind down its operations by year-end, and would not sell plans for 2016. Consumers Choice was run by the same CEO – Jerry Burgess – as Community Health Alliance in Tennessee. 67,000 Consumers Choice members will need to switch to essay teachers of California, Irvine, a new carrier for 2016.
The South Carolina Department of Insurance has put together a series of FAQs for impacted plan members. On October 27, the Utah Insurance Department announced that they are placing Arches Health Plan in teaching essay receivership, and the carrier will wind down operations by the end of the year. Arches Health Plan garnered roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange market share in 2015, but those enrollees will need to switch to a new carrier for 2016. On October 30, just two days before the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus would cease selling and renewing coverage, and existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. Healthcare.gov removed Meritus plans from the exchange website, and current enrollees – who comprise roughly a third of the about University (UCI), private plan enrollees in the Arizona exchange – will need to Academy, obtain new coverage for 2016. Essay University (UCI)! Meritus was unique in that they allowed people to enroll off exchange year-round up until late-summer 2015. They were also among very few CO-OPs that had requested a rate increase of less than ten percent for 2016. Open enrollment began on abstract and Monson November 1, and coverage was still available at that point from the remaining 12 CO-OPs.
But on teachers Irvine November 2, it became clear that Consumers Mutual of how to write law essays and exams Ridley, Michigan was in financial trouble. The carrier announced that they would not offer plans in the exchange in 2016, although at that point, there was still a possibility that they would continue to offer plans outside the exchange. But on teachers University of California, November 4, they announced that they would wind down their operations by the end of the year, and all 28,000 members would need to critique, find new coverage for 2016. In May 2016, state regulators in University Ohio announced that InHealth Mutual would shut down and that members would have a 60 day special enrollment period to select a new plan. In July 2016, state regulators in Connecticut announced that HealthyCT would shut down at the end of 2016 (employer groups were able to keep their coverage through the renewal date in 2017, as long as the plan’s renewal date in 2016 was July or earlier). In July 2016, state regulators in Oregon announced that Oregon Health CO-OP would shut down at Kingswood the end of July 2016. In July 2016, state regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of taking over Land of Lincoln Health and about teachers Irvine (UCI) winding down the CO-OP’s operations. A special enrollment period was created for the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees. In September 2016, state regulators in New Jersey placed Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey into rehabilitation, and the CO-OP ceased selling new plans. Health Republic’s existing plans terminated at the end of 2016.
In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017. At that point, they intended to transition to a for-profit insurance company (Minuteman Insurance Company). However, they were unable to raise enough capital by the August 2017 deadline for securing a license for Wilbraham and Monson Academy 2018, and will thus not re-open as a for-profit insurer. Minuteman Health is in receivership, and essay about teachers University Irvine enrollees will need to obtain new coverage during open enrollment in the fall of writing School Eerde, 2017. In July 2017, Maryland regulators issued an administrative order blocking Evergreen Health from selling or renewing any plans (they only had group plans in force at that point, having terminated individual market plans at the end of about University Irvine, 2016). The order notes that it’s expected that the process will culminate in receivership. Louise Norris has been writing about how to write an essay health insurance and essay about teachers of California, Irvine healthcare reform Read more. RT @LouiseNorris: 1. Kingswood School! Avg rate increase in Nevada 31.6%, but for the only returning carrier in teachers the exchange, it's 36.8% https://t.co/AYXmXMK…
After subsidy, Minnesota health exchange insurance rates largely stable or dropping for 2018 | from @kpottermn… https://t.co/DabHX4CtIk. RT @LouiseNorris: If initiative is approved, they have until April to get enough signatures to law essays and exams College, get it on the ballot. Spread the word! https… Copyright ©1994-2017, healthinsurance.org llc, 5353 Wayzata Boulevard, Suite 300, St. Louis Park, MN 55416. For quote requests or help in purchasing insurance, call toll-free 1-855-367-0132. or use our quote form.
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Expository Essays/Crimes of the essay teachers University (UCI) Heart by write Bishop’s Beth Henley term paper 4459. The play, Crimes of the Heart,? written by Beth Henley, is. brilliantly charming, and Henley is completely deserving of her. Pulitzer-Prize for this piece. My mother suggested I read this play. because she says that I am very much like one of the teachers University (UCI) main characters. Lenny Magrath, and she said that I would be able to relate to many parts.
of the story. I found that the beginning of the play was somewhat slow. and not very uplifting, but as the play progressed, I found it to be. heart-warming, intriguing, and critique overall very entertaining. Henley, being from the South herself, wrote many of essay teachers of California, (UCI), her plays in a. small southern town setting. The intended meaning of this play is one.
that can be interpreted in many ways, depending on the reader, but what. I believe to be the meaning, that the author was trying to send across, was to simply share the articles story of three sisters, who no matter how far. misunderstandings, quarrels, or rages stretch the essay about University (UCI) bonds between them, the sisters always bounce back to the core of their family which is. love. Though they go through many hardships, including sibling. conflicts, personal problems and the inevitable death of their. grandfather, through everything, family proves to be a very important.
key factor in their difficult lives. The bonds formed between the. members of your own family is one of the most solid? things in life, and in turn should always be something you can count on. The plays' title Crimes of the learn to write ACS Cobham International School Heart,? relates directly to the. play in many key ways that Henley makes evident as the play progresses. The three sisters, all lead very separate lives and teachers University of California, are very individual. in their characters and personalities but all, in one way or another, commit crimes of the heart.? But I believe that the title is derived.
directly from Babe's situation. Learn To Write Articles International? She has the about University (UCI) most problems, from an. abusive husband, to trying to find love in a secret relationship with a. 15 year old black boy named Willie Jay. When her husband, Zachary. Botrelle, discovers this relationship, Babe attempts to kill him and is. placed on trial for this attempted homicide. Wilbraham Academy? The title is thus derived.
However, it is also, I believe, a crime not to about of California, (UCI), follow your heart's. desires. The play had allot of to write articles International, meaning, to me in particular, because. I in a way, am like Lenny, the essay of California, Irvine (UCI) eldest sister. I am, as she is, the glue.
in the family. I am the abstract College School one who helps and about teachers University of California, Irvine (UCI) puts forth much effort to. keep the family bonds strong. My brother is going through a difficult. battle with a brain tumor, and through these unimaginable and. unexplainably hard times that my family is articles School experiencing, I have had to. be the essay about teachers University of California, (UCI) emotionally strong one, pulling my parents together for medical Kingswood, my little. brothers' sake.
Having to watch my parents come apart and lose it in. front of me, the essay about of California, two people who are ?supposed' to keep us, the children, from falling apart, and be strong for us, has been a an another word for critical Management, experience which. has tested my emotional and physical limits. Essay Teachers University Irvine (UCI)? I am not bitter towards. them in any way, but it has been a burden that I, at 19 years old, and. being a college student, was not ready to write Bishop’s, take on, and it has been a. test of my overall strength.
But I am grateful to have had my other. brother there to help ease the pain for my family when I cannot be with. them. Lenny, in the play, is the one of the three sisters, who. willingly took on teachers University (UCI) the responsibility of caring for their dying. grandfather. She is also the one who has kept the medical articles three sisters. together.
Her character is essay about University of California, Irvine one that I admire for many reasons. There. is one major difference between the two of us, which is that I am not an. overall unhappy person. She made her misery her life, when it should. have just been issues that she had to articles School, deal with and essay University (UCI) move on form like. most people do. Articles International School? I believe that the University of California, audience can relate to review School, many parts of. the play in one way or another. Whether it is having dealt with death. of a close family member, or a relative that shares some of the.
qualities of the three sisters. Beth Henley, was a southern woman, growing up in a small. Mississippi town. She is acknowledged as a scholar, and University of California, Irvine (UCI) best known for. writing plays combining comedy and write an essay School suffering, and capture the essence of. ?southern living,' in essay teachers University (UCI), settings of learn ACS Cobham School, small towns in the South. She is also. recognized as an author that uses women as the main characters. They. are usually very misfortunate, and act in ways that are a reaction to.
the role that men have had men in their lives. In this play, all these. defining qualities are shown. About Of California,? One of the women is repressed, one. irrepressible, and one is suffering mentally due to being the middle. child and they all are scarred by the abandonment of their father and. how it affected their mother. Crimes of the Heart,? was first performed by the Actors Theater. on February 18, 1979. Many things were happening at that time.
One. event, though not in any way a major one, was the birth of myself. Crimes of the Heart,? is a play of fierce, yet tactful. complexity and articles School its humor is somewhat unorthodox. The basic story of. this play is essay Irvine (UCI) of three eccentric sisters who are brought back together, when one of the sisters, Babe, shot her husband in the stomach and was.
arrested. This occurs simultaneously with the last few days of life for. their grandfather. Each character has some major conflicts, all are. direct or indirect results of their father abandoning them and their. mother. Lenny, was the teaching writing eldest of the three sisters, and coped with. being the eldest and the only sensible one of the three, and the only.
one who deeply sacrificed for the other members of her immediate and. extended family. Lenny, overall, was very unhappy with her life. To. add to her already sad life, within the first few pages of the play, Lenny celebrated her birthday alone, put candles on cookies, and sang to. herself. She had no boyfriend, and the only essay about Irvine (UCI), one she ever had, that she. cared deeply about, she ended the essay International School Eerde relationship with. She learned that. she had a weak ovary while in essay of California,, the relationship, in how to abstract, fear of being hurt.
and abandoned by him, after he found out that she could not have. children, she left him before he could leave her. Lenny realized that. she was most likely going to grow old alone, and never get married, and. it became a major internal conflict for essay about of California, Irvine, her. Another conflict, that is. later revealed to be major, is Lenny's jealousy of Meg, the younger. sister, and how to write the favoritism that was shown towards her as they were all. growing up. Meg, twenty-seven years of age, dealt with being the middle.
child and Irvine suffers obvious mental problems, an obsession with death, from. being the sister to find their dead mother and cat hanged in the cellar, a suicide not a homicide. She was also dealing with her failed o. attempt at a successful career as a singer and actress in to write ACS Cobham School, Hollywood. Finally there was Babe, twenty-four years of age and the youngest. University Irvine? She. was the most inexperienced and least intelligent of the three, and.
extremely naive, which gave her a somewhat ?ditsy' quality. With all. these mental pitfalls, though, Babe managed to do the. unthinkable. murder. Bishop’s College? Babe shot her husband simply because, as she just. blatantly states in the beginning of the play, she did not like the way. he looked But as the play developed, she revealed that she shot him. because he caught her with her lover, a fifteen year old black boy, and. being that this story takes place in the South, this was something that. was not ?accepted' in society. This was also hard on essay about teachers of California, Irvine Babe because she.
loved this boy, although in the beginning, when this was being developed. by Babe explaining to her sister Meg what had happened, I did not get. the impression that she was in love with him, but in the end, it was. The conflicts of and Monson Academy, each of these women were not all resolved by the. end of the essay about teachers Irvine (UCI) play. Some were still there or just somewhat lessened.
Lenny began the resolution to her biggest problem or conflict, by. calling the man with whom she had ended the relationship with. She. explained to him that the reason she told him that they could not see. eachother anymore, was because she had a weak ovary and articles International she could not.
have children, and essay teachers not because of an essay abstract College, something he had done. It turned out. that he did not like children anyway, and essay about of California, (UCI) so her major conflict was. resolved. Abstract And Monson Academy? The conflict with her jealousy towards Meg, was not to say. resolved, but it was not something that was consuming her in the end. She had so many things going on in her life at one time that it was easy. to let her feelings out in teachers of California, (UCI), jealousy against her sister. Even her. birthday, which she spent alone, was amended.
Her sisters bought her a. birthday cake and let her make a real wish, because as Babe said, wishes. only come true if they are made on a cake. How To Write College? Babe's conflicts were hardly. resolved. The black boy was sent away as part of a plea bargain and. towards the end Zachary, her husband, goes back on his word and tells.
her that he is University Irvine (UCI) going to how to write law essays Ridley, have her declared insane and put away in a. mental institution. Essay About Teachers Of California,? Her mental state is, I believe, quite. questionable. She has an affair with a 15 year old boy, then tries to.
kill her husband. Next, came her actions following the to write articles ACS Cobham phone call from. Zachary. She decided that the solution was to end her life. First, she. tried to essay about Irvine (UCI), hang herself on the chandelier, but it ripped out articles Kingswood School of the wall, making her first attempt unsuccessful. Next, Babe put her head in the.
oven and turned on the gas. It was not working fast enough so she. grabbed a match and was going to cause an explosion which inturn would. kill her, but right before she lit the match, she had a revelation. She realized that her mother hung herself with her cat, because she did. not want to die alone, and Babe realized that she too did not want to. die alone. Meg was still an unsuccessful singer, but she now realized. that she had her sisters, and their love, which were more important than. Crimes of the essay Irvine (UCI) Heart,? takes place in word thinking International School Management, the late 70's in essay about University of California, (UCI), the hot. summer months..
The economic conditions were what are typically. generalized about the south. Most people did not have an extreme amount. of money, but everyone seemed satisfied. Writing Eerde? Morally, I think that people.
were bitter and into everyone else's business. Social standing in the. community, and reputations were of highest importance to essay teachers University of California, (UCI), the people, especially the women. A kitchen, in a little southern town called. Hazlehurst, in Mississippi, was where this entire play took place. The. kitchen was designed after Beth Henley's grandmother's kitchen. Although there is no extravagance in the set, the characters and story. are enough to have you completely satisfied.
Being that Henley is. Southern, she writes her plays to depict and capture the essence of the. South, and teaching essay writing International Eerde she could not have picked a better time period to do this. It was the about teachers time of racial prejudice, and simple southern ways, which she. liked to learn articles ACS Cobham International, display vividly in essay about University of California, (UCI), her writings.
If I were to put on a production of to write articles School, Crimes of the essay about University (UCI) Heart,? I would. choose to do it at the Maroney Theater. It is simple, which is perfect. for the simple kitchen setting I would use for this play. It has a big. stage that can be seen clearly at every angle of the audience, so it. would be ideal.
For music I would select a few classical pieces. appropriate for review articles Kingswood, times of sadness and joy. About Teachers Of California, Irvine (UCI)? I would for sure play one. song in particular. The song Happy Birthday? at the beginning of the. play when Lenny is Eerde singing to about, herself on her birthday. Some sound. effects that I might use would be: the sound of Doc's car coming up the. driveway, the sound of Babe slicing the lemons with a big knife, the. sound of the chandelier crashing to the ground after Babe tries to hang. herself, and maybe a gun shot sound when Babe is telling Meg about the.
There were may roles in how to write Bishop’s College, Crimes of the Heart.? The three Magrath. sisters: Lenny, Meg and Babe were the essay about teachers University Irvine obvious prime characters in the. play. Then there was the nosy, bad-mouthing cousin that lived next door. Chick Boyle, The Doc, who was the man that Meg left behind to review Kingswood, go to. Hollywood, Zachary Butrelle, Babe's abusive husband, and Willie Jay,
Babe's fifteen year old lover. Lenny Magrath was a character that I found to be most interesting. I imagine her, form the descriptions and about teachers University Irvine (UCI) from her character throughout. the play to be a mildly attractive woman. She is in her thirties but I. imagine her to look a little bit older. She is how to Bishop’s College School not dressed very well.
She dresses very conservative, and in very boring earthy toned clothes. Lenny is very uptight kind of essay about teachers of California, Irvine, person, keeping everything neat, getting. annoyed when things are a mess, because it makes her life seem chaotic. and she likes to be in control of another for critical Les Roches International, everything. She gets upset easily. making it seem like all her real emotions are bottled up inside, and. only come out in lashes.
Her life is not very exciting nor is it a. joyful one. Lenny does not want to grow old and be alone like her. mother felt. She ends up rekindling the relationship with the man, and. her attitude changes right away. She was acting carefree and was acting. in an almost childish manner, yelling and hopping around the kitchen. She was not going to be alone anymore, and that made everything all. right.
Calling him in the first step was a huge step for Lenny, being as. soft-spoken as she is. The costumes I imagine are pre-eighties-looking. Not stylish in. any way at all. Very basic costumes, like sun dresses that women in the. South are thought to have worn. No bright colors mainly earth tones. were the primary colors, and the materials and patterns looked cheap.
If I were to present this play I believe I would want to keep the same. motif. The entire time I read the play, the costumes were just as I. have described and I believe it helps to get the idea and story of the. play across successfully. The story itself is quite complex and. interesting in itself, so costumes should be simple in about teachers of California, Irvine (UCI), order to keep the. audience interested. There is no need for loud, busy costumes. They. would only negatively affect the overall production of this wonderfully.
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