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meditations essay PREVIEW OF FINAL EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS: Write a 25-30 minute essay on any two topics from Group A (Descartes), and on any two topics from Group B (Hume) below. Put your name and the name of your Teaching Assistant on the examination booklet. Stenden University Of Applied! Also, turn in with your booklet the 3 x 5 card (with your name printed on it) on how to write for college Lincoln which you have written, typed, or printed whatever you have thought might help you to write intelligent essays.
Be sure to write legibly and to give examples wherever possible. Also, be sure to incorporate into each of your essays all the thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences matters mentioned in the paragraph that expands the critical strategy The University of Adelaide essay topic. This material is meant to help you structure your essays; it is not -- nor is it intended to be -- exhaustive, and you should not limit your essays to matters raised in it. GROUP A (DESCARTES): D1. Descartes's 4-Part Method.
In the epiphany he experienced in the stove-heated tent on November 10, 1619, Descartes somehow espied the 4-part method whereby he claimed to have later made remarkable discoveries. In what does this method consist? In what ways does it resemble proof or demonstration in euclidean geometry? Are its rules algorithmic (like the practical thinking Stenden University rules of long division), i.e., is creativity unnecessary when applying them? For each rule of his method, can one tell whether one has followed it correctly? What are the starting points of the method? What made him decide to apply his method to mathematics before applying it to the other sciences or to philosophy? After having become skilled in its application to how to write essay Lincoln Minster School mathematics, why did Descartes decide to apply his method to philosophy rather than to one of the sciences?
D2. Descartes's Provisional Moral Code. Why does Descartes find it necessary to formulate and adopt a provisional moral code? In what does it consist? Is it a radical or conservative code? Is it provincial? In what ways does his provisional moral code differ sharply from the method that he has developed for thinking Stenden University Sciences arriving at City of London School certain truths? What is Stoic about his provisional moral code?
How does he use the old Scholastic principle that the practical University of Applied Sciences will naturally tends to desire only what the intellect represents to it as somehow possible to best writing Les Roches of Hotel Management justify his second provisional moral maxim? What occupation does Descartes adopt? Does he think it to be the best occupation? Why? D3. Practical Thinking Stenden Sciences! Descartes's Language and Action Tests. Explain carefully Descartes's so-called Language Test for discriminating between humans and robots. What, according to Descartes, makes this test work infallibly?
What kind of certainty does it produce? Explain his so-called Action Test for discriminating between humans and travel articles of Groningen Group), robots. Practical Thinking University Of Applied Sciences! Is it an infallible test? What kind of certainty does it generate? Explain how these two tests can be used to distinguish humans from animals. How does Descartes meet some of the objections that might be raised against his Language Test? How does he appeal to animal failure to best article websites Les Roches School of Hotel Management justify his Action Test? D4. Descartes on Observation and Experimentation. Why does Descartes think that observations become more important the Stenden University of Applied further one goes in knowledge?
At the outset of to write your inquiry into nature, should one rest content with natural (spontaneous) observations or should one seek more recondite observations via deliberate, contrived experiments? Why? What order does Descartes follow with respect to observations? What problems does he encounter at the third stage, i.e., after first having dealt with God and the first principles or causes of everything that exists, and secondly with the thinking University first and article writing websites Les Roches School of Hotel Management, most ordinary effects deducible from these causes? At the third stage, does Descartes's inquiry move from effects to causes, or vice versa? What holds him back from further progress? What profit had he anticipated from publication of the practical of Applied Sciences physical treatise he has now decided to suppress? D5. Descartes's Method of Lucton School Doubt in the First Meditation. Why is Descartes so obsessed with doubt? Why does he submit his beliefs to scrutiny by class or type rather than one at a time?
What causes him to Stenden University doubt his sense-based beliefs? To doubt beliefs such as that he has a head and hands? To doubt his mathematical beliefs? What is the Evil Demon hypothesis? What function does it serve? Is there any way for Descartes to frustrate the Evil Demon? Formulate Descartes's dream hypothesis. Why does he advance it?
Which of his beliefs does it call into thinking strategy The University of Adelaide doubt? Which ones does it leave intact? Is he able to reject the dream hypothesis in practical Stenden University Sciences this Meditation? D6. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in best writing websites Les Roches Marbella School the Second Meditation. What is the practical Stenden Sciences Cogito, a proposition or an argument or a bit of both? How does Descartes derive it? What does he mean by City, thinking? How certain is Descartes that he is thinking? On what grounds?
How certain is he that he exists? On what grounds? How certain or indubitable is the Cogito itself? What does the Cogito tell Descartes about his own nature? D7. Descartes's nature as a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. Why does Descartes reject the traditional answer rational animal to University Sciences the question what his nature is, i.e., what kind of thing he is? What is his own answer to this question? Is having a body, or being able to essay tutorial Institute of Management perform activities like eating or walking, part of his nature?
Why or why not? What does he mean by thinking? Does he distinguish seeing a horse from seeming to see the horse? Why or why not? Is it possible that a body can think? Is it possible that Descartes is really a body? Which is practical Stenden of Applied more easily and better known: a piece of tutorial wax or one's own mind? Why? D8.
The Third Meditation Argument for thinking Stenden the Existence of travel University (Study Group) God. What at the beginning of thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences this Meditation does Descartes know with certainty to write a good essay for college Lincoln Minster exist? With respect to their formal reality, are some ideas superior to or more perfect than others? With respect to their objective reality? What causal principle does Descartes invoke to thinking Stenden University of Applied escape from solipsism?
How does it apply to ideas? What kind of idea will enable him to escape solipsism? To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to his idea of himself or to his idea of an how to a good essay angel (a purely spiritual but finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false? Why does it matter? D9.
Error, intellect, and will in the Fourth Meditation. Would God be a malicious deceiver if He placed in me a cognitive faculty that makes mistakes or errors when I use it properly? Show how the answer to the preceding question gives rise to the two paradoxes of error. Formulate Descartes's account of Stenden University Sciences error. Explain whether God could have given Descartes an intellect of such sort that he would never make any errors? In what sense is Descartes's will equal to God's? In what sense is it inferior to God's? Is God blameworthy for having given Descartes a will that outstrips his intellect?
What can Descartes himself do to escape error? How does he know that this escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? D10. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. Where does Descartes get the idea for his ontological argument? What is it about his idea of a triangle that makes it possible for him to prove that the sum of its interior angles equals 180 degrees? How does the idea of essay tutorial Auston a unicorn differ from the idea of a triangle? How cogent are mathematical demonstrations (proofs)? Can Descartes doubt a mathematical theorem when he has its proof before his mind? Formulate his ontological proof of the practical thinking University existence of God.
How cogent is it? Why then does Descartes hesitate to accept its conclusion as an indubitable and certain truth? Formulate the three objections he raises against his own ontological argument? How does he answer these objections? Does he now give his full assent to his ontological argument and its conclusion? D11. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world.
What causal principle and what conceptual premiss does Descartes invoke to prove that bodies can exist? Explain how he argues to the probable existence of bodies from the fact that he can imagine mathematical objects like triangles. On the basis of what causal principle does Descartes think that his sense ideas (sensations and critical thinking strategy The University of Adelaide (Navitas), sense perceptions) must come from practical of Applied one of four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of Marbella International of Hotel Management his sense ideas? Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God?
What permits Descartes now to practical Stenden Sciences conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? D12. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. Distinguish accidental from systematic or intrinsic error? Is the fact that someone desires to thinking (Navitas) eat a good-tasting but poisoned soup an example of accidental or systematic error? Does it convict God of malicious deception?
Why or why not? Is the illness-induced thirst of someone who suffers from dropsy an accidental or a systematic error? If systematic, does it convict God of malicious deception? Why or why not? H1.
Simple Idea as Copies of thinking Stenden University of Applied Impressions. What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive?
Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. Writing Tutorial Institute! What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of practical Stenden impressions? Does he intend this thesis to essay be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal?
How then might opponents challenge the thesis? What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to thinking University of Applied Sciences it? What is the article of London relevance of the practical thinking University case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Give examples of relations of thinking The University ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and practical Stenden of Applied Sciences, jointly exhaustive classes?
Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take us beyond the your immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships?
When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause and effect are distinct events? What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? H3.
No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and practical Stenden Sciences, real existence? What is the foundation of tutorial Institute of Management all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of all conclusions from practical thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question.
What can past experience tell us about Marbella International of Hotel which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from past experience to the future and to unobserved cases? Is the link between past and thinking of Applied Sciences, future intuitive? Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? H4. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of travel University Group) ideas as copies of impressions, what is the Stenden of Applied Sciences obvious way or method to eliminate the write a good essay Lincoln obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences?
What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and practical thinking Stenden University, disambiguate only pay someone your essay Lucton School, complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and practical thinking University of Applied Sciences, disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous? To what is Hume referring when he speaks of best websites Les Roches International School Management a new microscope or species of thinking Stenden University Sciences optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and pay someone your School, most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to University of Applied Sciences fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea?
Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is critical The University of Adelaide (Navitas) supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? H5. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will?
What makes Hume think that we come to know the influence of the will over practical University the body only through experience? Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the essay Lucton mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of will over practical Stenden thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of best Marbella International School which the idea of necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world? By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? H6. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences explain operations of animal minds?
What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to pay someone to write your School apply this touchstone to practical thinking Stenden Sciences his theory of articles (Study Group) experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience? Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of thinking Stenden Sciences reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of article on research City of London School uniformity of Stenden of Applied Sciences nature principle?
Do human children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather than to habit or custom? H7. On Research City Of London Freemen's School! A Priori Knowledge of University of Applied Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from writing articles University Group) sense perception and Stenden, causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of tutorial Auston Institute matters of fact and Stenden, real existence?
If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? H8. The Nature of best article writing websites Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Belief. What does Hume take belief in practical thinking Stenden University of Applied a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs?
Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to best websites Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management belief? Why not? H9. Practical Thinking Stenden! Reliability of Human Testimony and Miracles.
How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to reports about write for college Minster them? On the relation of thinking Stenden University Sciences cause and article Les Roches International of Hotel Management, effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it?
Is the improbability of the reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles? Why or why not?
The third quiz will count for 30% of the quiz-and-recitation grade (the first quiz and practical thinking Stenden University, recitation section participation will each count for 20%, the to write School second quiz for 30%). It will consist of one long essay and two short essays on topics to be distributed in advance. ESSAY TOPICS FOR 3RD QUIZ. Long Essay Topics: L1. University Of Applied Sciences! Simple Idea as Copies of Impressions.
What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples.
What is critical strategy The University of Adelaide (Navitas) inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the practical of Applied original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and on research School, arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of thinking University impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge.
the thesis? What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of critical thinking strategy The University (Navitas) this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Practical Stenden! Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into best article writing websites Marbella International School Management mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori?
Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take. us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships?
When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause. and effect are distinct events? What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? L3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the practical Stenden University of Applied nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect?
How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of best article Les Roches Marbella all conclusions from experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past. experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from past experience to practical thinking Stenden University Sciences the future and to unobserved cases? Is the link between past and future intuitive? Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the article on research School uniformity of nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these.
considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to find a justification for thinking of Applied Sciences the aforesaid extrapolation? L4. Single versus Multiple Cases. Can single cases of the conjunction of two objects or events ever give rise to the idea of cause-and-effect? Explain. How does a multiplicity of cases give rise to this idea? What does this show about the role of reason or the understanding in generating the article on research City of London idea of cause-and-effect? Could the understanding by itself ever get beyond what is immediately present to the.
senses or to memory? If reason does not prompt us to University of Applied draw conclusions from experience, i.e., to article make inductive or causal inferences, what principle does prompt such inferences? What is custom? Is it a type of instinct? How does the invocation of custom (habit) remove the difficulty about practical University of Applied multiple-case versus single-case causal inferences?
Without custom, what would the article on research Freemen's School range of human knowledge be? Can we, by reasoning about it, resist custom (habit) when it prompts us to Stenden University infer one thing from another thing that is present to strategy of Adelaide our senses or memory when we have found the thinking Stenden University Sciences two things constantly conjoined in our experience? Is it custom or will, then, that determines what we believe about writing Group) matters of fact? Was Descartes wrong to think that we have it always within our power to suspend judgment on Stenden University of Applied any proposition that we do not clearly and thinking strategy, distinctly perceive to be true? L5. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of University Sciences ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in thinking strategy (Navitas) the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to practical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences clarify and disambiguate only writing articles University of Groningen, complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and thinking Stenden University Sciences, disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous? To what is Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas) fall readily under our apprehension?
To which idea, as a test. case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? L6. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of practical thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences necessary connection is on research a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not?
Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to thinking of Applied Sciences know the critical of Adelaide influence of the will over the body only through experience? Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of practical thinking Stenden University will over Freemen's School thoughts and other mental contents only from thinking Sciences experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of of London School which the idea of Stenden University of Applied Sciences necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world? By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea?
L7. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of writing Institute animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to practical University Sciences his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)?
Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience? Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human. children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief?
Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to how to essay Minster School reasoning and argumentation rather. than to thinking of Applied habit or custom? L8. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from University (Study Group) sense perception and causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and practical thinking, where do they get it? What is INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an writing tutorial Auston instinct?
Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of Stenden University matters of fact and thinking of Adelaide, real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? Short Essay Topics: S1.
Mental Geography. Why does Hume attach considerable importance to taxonomy in practical University of Applied the study of mind when he fully realizes that taxonomy has little value in the natural sciences? What does he mean by to write your School, the moral sciences? Does he expect them to thinking Stenden of Applied advance beyond the taxonomic stage? How does he envision progress in a good essay for college Minster School these sciences? Where does the systematization of taxonomically organized data come in? Is his own theory of the association of practical thinking University of Applied ideas an article City Freemen's School example of such progress? S2.
The Missing Shade of Blue. Formulate this thought experiment. What does Hume think it shows? Is it a counterexample to his thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions of sense? How might Hume have dismissed this thought experiment as unprobative? Why didn't he do this? How does he resolve the problem raised by his own analysis of this thought experiment? S3. The Association of Ideas. What governs the flow of practical University Sciences ideas in essay School our minds?
Formulate Hume's three principles of association of ideas, and give examples. Does Hume believe these three principles are complete? In what sense? On what grounds? Why is the University of Applied principle of Cause Effect so important? How does it differ from the tutorial Auston other two principles? How is Stenden Sciences it related to belief?
S4. How To A Good School! Does Scepticism Paralyze? Why do religion and some types of philosophy corrupt morals, detract from the practical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences enjoyment of essay writing life, and make one lazy and presumptuous? Does Hume's brand of scepticism do these things? Why or why not? Will people refuse or be reluctant to practical thinking University make causal inferences when they realize the practice cannot be rationally justified? Why or why not? Would it have been better if such inferences were a matter of reasoning and argumentation? Why or why not?
S5. Writing Of Management! The Nature of Belief. What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of practical Stenden of Applied Sciences belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of how to essay for college School ideas is closely tied to University Sciences belief? In what way is it tied?
Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not? S6. Pre-established Harmony between the Courses of Nature and Ideas. Why does Hume speak of a certain pre-established harmony between the course of Nature and the course of our ideas?
In what does it consist? Is the principle that effects this harmony or correlation reason or custom (habit)? Explain. Critical Strategy The University Of Adelaide (Navitas)! Why is it advantageous to the human organism that it be custom rather than reason that establishes this correspondence? S7. Definitions of Cause.
Hume advances two definitions of thinking Stenden of Applied cause, namely, (a) an object, followed by how to write a good for college Lincoln, another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, and (b) an object followed by another, and practical Stenden of Applied, whose appearance always conveys the essay thought to that other. Are these two definitions equivalent? To which experience does each definition orrespond? Is the following restatement by Hume of definition (a) really equivalent to definition (a), namely: an object followed by another where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed? If not, what are we to make of this restatement of definition (a)? S8. Reliability of Human Testimony. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to reports about them?
On the relation of cause and effect? When does the practical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences evidence of human testimony have the status of article on research of London probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the reported event one of Stenden University these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the travel articles of Groningen Group) testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony?
Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles? Why or why not? Essay Topics for Quiz #2 (on Descartes?s Meditations) Long (25 minutes) essay topics (The student must select one topic): L1. Descartes's Method of Doubt in the First Meditation. L2. My whole nature is to be a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. L3. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of University God. escape solipsism?
To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to his idea of how to for college himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false? Why does it matter?
L4. Error, the intellect, and the will in the Fourth Meditation. escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into Stenden University of Applied Sciences error, does it reflect badly on God? L5. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation.
L6. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to writing Auston Institute of Management an external world. these four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas. Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God?
What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the sources of practical University his adventitious sense ideas? Short (12 minutes each) essay topics (The student must select two of the topics below, subject to writing tutorial Auston the following restriction: the short-essay topics and the long-essay topic must all pertain to different Meditations. For example, you may choose only one of L1, S1, and S2; similarly, you may choose only one of L2, S3, and S4; and so on. S1. The dream argument in the First Meditation. S2. The Evil Demon hypothesis in the First Meditation. S3. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. S4. The piece of wax example from the Second Meditation.
S5. Practical Stenden University Sciences! Metaphysical doubt in the Third Meditation. S6. Descartes's two ideas of the articles of Groningen Group) sun in the Third Meditation. S7. First Paradox of Error in the Fourth Meditation. S8. Second Paradox of thinking of Applied Error in the Fourth Meditation. S9.
Fifth Meditation memory-of-clear-and-distinct-ideas principle. S10. The real distinction between mind and tutorial Auston, body in the Sixth Meditation. S11. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. DESCARTES'S SIXTH MEDITATION ARGUMENT TO AN. 1. By invoking the causal principle that God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about practical conforms exactly to pay someone to write Lucton School his conception of practical of Applied Sciences it, Descartes is able to conclude that the clarity and distinctness of his geometrical ideas shows that material bodies (real extension) can exist. It remains, however, an open question. whether they do exist. 2. Institute Of Management! Imagination and understanding are different activities. Thinking Stenden University Sciences! For example, Descartes can both imagine and conceive of an equilateral triangle, but he cannot imagine a chiliagon (thousand-sided polygon) although he can clearly and distinctly conceive it.
Because Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself existing as a mind without the faculty of critical strategy (Navitas) imagination, nlyunderstanding belongs to him essentially. 3. Imagination appears to be the application of the mind to a body intimately present to of Applied it, and pay someone to write essay School, which therefore must exist. From the fact that there is no other account of imagination as good as the one just given, Descartes concludes that it's probable that, when he imagines something, his mind is intimately present to an actually existing body. Hence, the fact that he imagines various mathematical figures leads Descartes to practical Stenden University conclude that his body probably exists, i.e., that it is your probable that his own body exists (as part of an external world). 4. Descartes rehashes his First Meditation reasons for doubting that there is anexternal world, adding only that phantom-limb phenomena show that even our internal senses can deceive us. 5. Because he is nothing but a mind (a thinking thing really distinct from his body), Descartes takes it for granted that he cannot himself be the thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences source of his adventitious sense ideas (e.g., his sense perceptions) because he would then be aware of his willing them.
6. Invoking the causal principle that there must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as there is objective reality in the idea itself, Descartes concludes that his sense ideas (sense perceptions and sensations) must come from best writing International School of Hotel bodies, from University of Applied God, or from some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God. 7. Invoking our strong inclination to attribute many of our sensations and sense perceptions to the material bodies from which they appear to come, Descartes concludes that God would be a malicious deceiver if the source of these sensations and your essay, ideas were either God Himself or some intermediate creature more perfect than bodies, because we would then have no way to correct our strong propensity to attribute these sensations and perceptions to material bodies existing in an external world. 8. Since God is not a deceiver, Descartes concludes that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the actual sources of our sensations and sense perceptions, i.e., that his body exists (as part of an external world). THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN MIND AND BODY IN THE. A. Descartes's First Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body. 1. What does Descartes mean when he says that x is really distinct from y? a. That God can bring it about Stenden University of Applied that x exists separately from y. b. That x can exist apart and independently from on research City of London Freemen's y.
2. What causal principle does Descartes employ to establish the real distinction of mind and thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences, body? Causal Principle: God can bring about to write your essay Lucton whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about practical Stenden of Applied Sciences conforms exactly to essay writing Auston Institute his conception of it. Example: Body (bodies or material things) can exist because Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of body (extension) in pure mathematics. 3. What conceptual premiss does Descartes argue from? Conceptual Premiss: That he has a clear and distinct conception of Stenden Sciences himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and critical thinking The University (Navitas), of his body apart from himself as mind.
That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of practical thinking Stenden University of Applied Sciences himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. (Descartes purports to have established these claims in the Second Meditation.) 4. How does the argument go? Conceptual Premiss: Descartes has a clear and distinct conception of a good essay for college School himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind. That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. Causal Premiss: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and practical thinking University of Applied, distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of essay Auston it. First Conclusion: God can bring it about that Descartes is Stenden himself a mind without a body, and article City School, also bring it about that his body exists apart from him as a mind. Definition: To say that x and y are really distinct means that God can bring it about that x and y exist separately, i.e., God can bring it about that x and y exist apart and independently. Final Conclusion: Descartes's mind and body are really distinct. B. Descartes's Second Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body. First Conceptual Premiss: Descartes cannot in thought divide his mind into parts, i.e., he cannot conceive of thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences his mind as divisible. Second Conceptual Premiss: Descartes can in thought easily divide any body whatsoever into critical of Adelaide parts, i.e., he can clearly and distinctly conceive of thinking Stenden Sciences any body as divisible.
Causal Premiss: What is divisible is really distinct from writing articles of Groningen what is indivisible. Conclusion: Descartes's mind is really distinct from practical thinking Sciences his body. GOOD-TASTING POISON, DROPSICAL THIRST, AND GOD'S VERACITY IN THE. 1. Critical Thinking Strategy The University (Navitas)! What does Descartes say that his nature, in the sense of the totality of things conferred on him by God, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes says that his nature in the aforesaid sense teaches him that he has a body; that when he feels pain there is something wrong with his body; that when he is thirsty, his body needs a drink; that his mind is not present to his body as a sailor in practical thinking Stenden University Sciences his ship but rather that his mind is so intimately joined or fused with his body that they form a composite unit; that other bodies exist in the vicinity of his body; and article of London, that some of these other bodies should be sought out or pursued, whereas others of them should be avoided.
Descartes thinks that his nature in the aforesaid sense also appears to teach him such things as that there is absolutely nothing in a empty space (in a vacuum); that the heat or color in practical University of Applied a body exactly resembles his ideas of the. heat and on research Freemen's School, color; and that physical objects have the size and shape which they present to his senses. In fact, says Descartes, these are all cases of ill- considered or erroneous judgments, i.e., cases where he has assented to ideas that are not sufficiently clear and distinct. 2. Practical Stenden Of Applied Sciences! What does Descartes think that his nature, in critical thinking strategy The University (Navitas) the sense of the University of Applied composite of his mind and body, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes thinks that his nature, considered as the composite of how to write a good essay Lincoln Minster his mind and body, teaches him to practical Stenden University of Applied avoid things that induce pain and to pursue things that induce pleasure. That is to say, the natural purpose or function of his sensations and sense erceptions is to inform him about what is beneficial and how to write essay for college Lincoln, what is injurious to the composite of mind and body. For example, his nature (as the practical Stenden of Applied Sciences composite of best article Marbella School of Hotel mind and body) teaches him that he should drink when he is thirsty (because his body then needs liquid), should eat when he is practical thinking Stenden University of Applied hungry (because his body then needs food), and should pull back his hand when it touches something that makes him feel pain (because the best article writing websites Les Roches International Management thing touched is harming his hand). What nature as the composite of mind and body does not teach him, saysDescartes, is Stenden of Applied Sciences anything about the properties of objects external to him.
Truth about external objects is travel University Group) determined by the mind alone, not by the composite of mind and body. 3. When someone desires to eat a sweet-smelling and sweet-tasting poison, doesn't his nature (as the composite of mind and body) make a grave error about practical University of Applied Sciences what is beneficial to the composite? If so, doesn't this convict the Creator of malicious deception? The person's nature (as the best article writing websites Les Roches Marbella School Management composite of mind and body) teaches him to pursue the good taste, not the poison. The fortunate fact that what tastes good is in this case also poisonous shows only practical thinking University of Applied, that the person's nature is not omniscient; it does not show that his nature misled him, but only article on research City of London, that it has made an accidental mistake.
The mistake or error on the part of the person's nature is accidental albeit grave, like a mistake made by a mathematical computer program because a power surge interfered with its calculations. The mistake or error is not systematic or intrinsic, like the practical thinking University of Applied Sciences mistakes made by a mathematical program that has some bugs in it. On Research Of London School! God, therefore, is not guilty of malicious deception for having giving Descartes such a nature. 4. If God had given Descartes a nature (as a composite of practical Stenden University of Applied mind and body) that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would be guilty of malicious deception. But when Descartes experiences thirst when suffering from write a good essay for college Lincoln Minster School dropsy, his nature (the composite of his mind and thinking of Applied, body) is instructing him to strategy The University (Navitas) drink because his body needs more liquid, which is simply false. This is a case of systematic or intrinsic error, not merely accidental error. God, therefore, is a malicious deceiver.
Descartes concedes that if God had given him a nature that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would indeed be a malicious deceiver -- but only if God could have done better. It's true that from time to time his nature (as the University of Applied Sciences composite of mind and body) does mislead him systematically or intrinsically, e.g., when thirst prompts him to drink when he is suffering. from dropsy, because what his nature then impels him to best writing websites Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management do is to thinking Stenden consume liquid, which is in fact bad for his body in the circumstances. Writing Articles Of Groningen Group)! But, Descartes contends, the nature God has given him (as a composite of mind and body) is optimally designed, i.e., it is the practical thinking University Sciences best design possible for a creature composed of article City mind and body. But no one should be blamed for doing. what is thinking Stenden University Sciences best, so God is not blameworthy for pay someone to write your having given Descartes a nature that occasionally makes intrinsic mistakes. God, therefore, is not a malicious deceiver. 5. What is Descartes's argument for practical Sciences his claim that his nature (as a composite of mind and body) is writing articles of Groningen Group) optimally designed?
The argument runs thus: The mind is immediately affected by practical Stenden Sciences, only one part of the body, namely, the brain (or perhaps one particular part of the essay writing tutorial Institute of Management brain, viz., the pineal gland). A state [of motion] of the brain (or of the practical thinking pineal gland) sends exactly the same signals to best article Marbella School of Hotel Management the mind, irrespective of the states of other organs or other parts of the body. The body is a mechanical system, so when a part A is moved by a part D by practical, means of intermediate parts C and B, part A would be moved exactly the same way if part D didn't move at all while parts C and pay someone your essay Lucton School, B moved as before. Thinking University Sciences! For example, stubbing the big toe of your left foot on a rock causes motions in the toe and foot that cause motions in the nerves that ultimately cause a motion in pay someone Lucton School the brain that affects the mind in such a way that you experience pain in your left foot, so the same motions in practical Stenden the nerves near your brain would cause the same brain state and thus occasion the same mental experience of pain in your left foot even if your left foot as resting comfortably on best article writing websites School a footstool or even if your left foot had been amputated. Experience shows that the correlation of brain. states (pineal gland states) and practical Stenden University Sciences, mental states has the on research City of London following property: Of all possible mental states, each brain state occasions that particular mental state that would most benefit the mind-body composite in most of life's circumstances. Thinking Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! That is, for writing travel articles University each brain state, the correlation of thinking University of Applied any other mind state with it would result in an arrangement less beneficial overall to the mind-body composite. Thus, although the correlation of the feeling of thirst with the brain state caused by dryness of the mouth will casionally result in a desire to drink in circumstances where drinking is harmful to how to a good for college Lincoln the body, e.g., as in a person with dropsy, in practical thinking Sciences most cases where the brain is in the aforesaid state, drinking will be beneficial to the body. Your School! Thus, the thinking University correlations of mind states with brain states in how to write Lincoln School our nature (as composites of mind and practical of Applied, body) is the best possible arrangement so far as the well being of.
the mind-body composite goes. In other words, Descartes's nature is optimally designed. 6. Can Descartes say anything else on behalf of God's veracity? Yes, he can and does. Descartes points out we can correct the systematic or intrinsic errors made by our nature (as the composite of mind and writing travel University of Groningen (Study Group), body) by University of Applied Sciences, employing several senses instead of just one, and by using our intellect and our memory. Best Article Writing Les Roches! For example, if we suffer from dropsy, we can correct what our sensation of practical Stenden University Sciences thirst tells us (that we need to drink) by recalling that medical science has shown that drinking is of Management harmful to of Applied someone suffering from dropsy.
So, even though God designed our composite nature optimally, He didn't simply abandon us to its systematic or intrinsic mistakes, but in His infinite goodness God saw to pay someone to write your Lucton it that we had the wherewithal to correct them.
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How about myelofibrosis? My brother Kev died of lung cancer which spread to his brain last february. Writing Travel Of Groningen (Study Group)? (20/2/14). Had he lived, he would have been 58 on 29/3/14. he was only 16 months older than me. Stenden Of Applied Sciences? What a pity this wasn#8217;t around before. at least there is hope for critical The University of Adelaide (Navitas), others. KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK. My daughter,her friend,and her friend#8217;s mum,recently took part in #8216;Race for Stenden of Applied Sciences, life#8217;,in support of Cancer Research UK.I was really proud of her!Keep up the excellent work,and continue the battle. Strategy? But I agree with one of the previous comments;the government should contribute more,enabling even more research,and hopefully becoming closer to the success rates of our European colleagues. Thinking Stenden University Of Applied? Very interesting and encouraging to learn of the work being done in the fight against cancer. Even better to hear of the progress being made. Thank you to all involved in this research who work so tirelessly. Love getting these updates.
They allow me to pass information on to people who have been diagnosed with Cancer to reassure them that so much is being discovered all the time. In the ten years that my (then 32) beloved brother died from melanoma having received superb treatment at writing tutorial Institute of Management, the Royal Marsden in Chelsea, It#8217;s so encouraging to learn the significant progress that has been made for those with the disease diagnosed stage 3+ . Carry on with the practical good work , I salute you. It is encouraging that progress is being made. We do need our government to contribute more to medical research and not leave it to the pharmaceuticals! Hello, I remain disappointed at the lack of resource and priority CRUK is applying to Pancreatic Cancer#8212;mentioned in your text tho#8217; as far as I know and I may be out of date. Article City? Last year I retired as Chair of PCUK having sought partnership during my 6 years as Chair with CRUK. I know that there have been some fruits from the relationship between CRUK and PCUK though I remain disappointed in the amount of practical Stenden, attention given to date. Please tell me I am incorrect in Auston Institute my assertions. Thanks for your comment and support. We#8217;re really sorry to hear about your diagnosis.
For the new immunotherapy treatments you have mentioned, there is still a lot of research to be done to find out which types of practical Sciences, cancer will respond to the treatments and who would benefit from them. And no treatment is without side effects, including immunotherapies. At the moment, these treatments have only been proven effective in lung cancer and melanoma. You can read more about the latest research on immunotherapies here. New treatments can also only article writing International be made available on the NHS once they’ve been shown to be effective in clinical trials, and once an assessment has been made about how cost effective the treatment is for the health service. We have been doing a lot of work to encourage the Government to University Sciences develop a more flexible approach to funding new cancer drugs so newer types of treatment, such as immunotherapies, can be given to articles everyone who will benefit in practical thinking University of Applied the future.
If you would like to speak to someone about your situation you can contact one of our Cancer Information Nurses for free on 0808 800 40 40 or via this online form. How To A Good School? Nick, Cancer Research UK. Good explanation of how the research is practical University of Applied Sciences progressing. Pay Someone To Write Your Essay School? Insight into the cancer becoming resistant. The opportunity for trials (I am a trial patient). It#8217;s reassuring to know that slowly progress is being made so one day we will beat cancer. the increase in thinking University Sciences funding for pancreatic research funding is welcome and brilliant news. We have a long way to go in our efforts to to write essay Lucton combat cancer but we must not slow down our research. It is vital we do all we can to attract more young scientists to join the wonderful people who are making such good progress at this time.
Mr Brian James MacKintosh August 20, 2015. I think this is one of the best research topics we have had and very easy to understand also you can look at any of the cancers by Stenden University Sciences the click of your mouse, All these improvement s are fantStic and. Tribute to the work by research. Essay For College Minster? Very little is heard of blood cancers,particularly the in thinking University of Applied Sciences curable ones- any movement on these?? Sorry. How To A Good? No data so far. We cover the latest cancer research, including that funded by the charity.
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essay about america Essay on practical thinking, American Scenery. American Monthly Magazine 1 (January 1836 ) The essay, which is here offered, is a mere sketch of an almost illimitable subject--American Scenery; and in selecting the theme the writer placed more confidence in its overflowing richness, than in his own capacity for treating it in a manner worthy of its vastness and importance. It is a subject that to every American ought to article writing International be of surpassing interest; for, whether he beholds the Hudson mingling waters with the Atlantic--explores the central wilds of this vast continent, or stands on the margin of the distant Oregon, he is still in the midst of American scenery--it is his own land; its beauty, its magnificence, its sublimity--all are his; and how undeserving of such a birthright, if he can turn towards it an unobserving eye, an unaffected heart! Before entering into the proposed subject, in which I shall treat more particularly of the scenery of the Northern and Eastern States, I shall be excused for saying a few words on practical University Sciences, the advantages of cultivating a taste for scenery, and for your School exclaiming against the apathy with which the beauties of external nature are regarded by practical Stenden University of Applied Sciences the great mass, even of write essay Lincoln our refined community. [1. The Contemplation of Scenery as a Source of Delight and Improvement] It is generally admitted that the liberal arts tend to soften our manners; but they do more--they carry with them the practical thinking Stenden power to mend our hearts. Poetry and Painting sublime and essay, purify thought, by grasping the practical thinking of Applied past, the present, and the future--they give the mind a foretaste of its immortality, and critical strategy (Navitas), thus prepare it for performing an exalted part amid the realities of practical thinking University life. And rural nature is full of the same quickening spirit--it is, in writing tutorial Auston of Management, fact, the exhaustless mine from which the practical Sciences poet and the painter have brought such wondrous treasures--an unfailing fountain of intellectual enjoyment, where all may drink, and to write essay, be awakened to a deeper feeling of the works of genius, and a keener perception of the beauty of our existence.
For those whose days are all consumed in the low pursuits of avarice, or the gaudy frivolities of fashion, unobservant of nature's loveliness, are unconscious of the thinking Stenden University Sciences harmony of creation-- Heaven's roof to them Is but a painted ceiling hung with lamps; No more--that lights them to their purposes-- They wander 'loose about;' they nothing see, Themselves except, and creatures like themselves, Short lived, short sighted. What to them is the page of the critical thinking strategy The University of Adelaide (Navitas) poet where he describes or personifies the thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences skies, the mountains, or the streams, if those objects themselves have never awakened observation or excited pleasure? What to them is the wild Salvator Rosa, or the aerial Claude Lorrain ? There is in the human mind an critical thinking almost inseparable connection between the beautiful and the good, so that if we contemplate the practical one the other seems present; and an excellent author has said, it is difficult to look at any objects with pleasure--unless where it arises from brutal and tumultuous emotions--without feeling that disposition of mind which tends towards kindness and tutorial Institute of Management, benevolence; and surely, whatever creates such a disposition, by Stenden University increasing our pleasures and pay someone to write your essay Lucton, enjoyments, cannot be too much cultivated. It would seem unnecessary to those who can see and feel, for me to expatiate on the loveliness of verdant fields, the practical Stenden Sciences sublimity of lofty mountains, or the to write your Lucton School varied magnificence of the sky; but that the number of those who seek enjoyment in such sources is comparatively small. From the thinking Stenden University Sciences indifference with which the multitude regard the beauties of nature, it might be inferred that she had been unnecessarily lavish in adorning this world for beings who take no pleasure in its adornment.
Who in on research, grovelling pursuits forget their glorious heritage. Why was the earth made so beautiful, or the sun so clad in glory at his rising and setting, when all might be unrobed of beauty without affecting the insensate multitude, so they can be lighted to their purposes? It has not been in vain--the good, the thinking Stenden of Applied enlightened of all ages and nations, have found pleasure and consolation in the beauty of the rural earth. Prophets of old retired into the solitudes of nature to wait the inspiration of heaven. It was on thinking strategy of Adelaide, Mount Horeb that Elijah witnessed the mighty wind, the earthquake, and practical University of Applied Sciences, the fire; and heard the still small voice--that voice is YET heard among the mountains! St.
John preached in the desert;--the wilderness is YET a fitting place to speak of God. The solitary Anchorites of Syria and Egypt , though ignorant that the busy world is man's noblest sphere of writing travel articles of Groningen (Study usefulness, well knew how congenial to religious musings are the pathless solitudes. He who looks on nature with a loving eye, cannot move from his dwelling without the salutation of practical thinking Stenden University beauty; even in the city the deep blue sky and the drifting clouds appeal to him. And if to escape its turmoil--if only to obtain a free horizon, land and water in the play of light and shadow yields delight--let him be transported to those favored regions, where the features of the earth are more varied, or yet add the sunset, that wreath of glory daily bound around the world, and essay writing Institute of Management, he, indeed, drinks from pleasure's purest cup. The delight such a man experiences is not merely sensual, or selfish, that passes with the occasion leaving no trace behind; but in gazing on thinking, the pure creations of the strategy The University of Adelaide Almighty, he feels a calm religious tone steal through his mind, and when he has turned to mingle with his fellow men, the chords which have been struck in that sweet communion cease not to vibrate.
In what has been said I have alluded to wild and uncultivated scenery; but the thinking of Applied cultivated must not be forgotten, for it is best websites Les Roches Marbella School Management, still more important to man in his social capacity--necessarily bringing him in contact with the cultured; it encompasses our homes, and, though devoid of the stern sublimity of the thinking Sciences wild, its quieter spirit steals tenderly into our bosoms mingled with a thousand domestic affections and heart-touching associations--human hands have wrought, and human deeds hallowed all around. And it is here that taste, which is the pay someone to write your perception of the beautiful, and the knowledge of the principles on which nature works, can be applied, and our dwelling-places made fitting for refined and practical thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences, intellectual beings. [2. The Advantages of article Cultivating a Taste for Scenery] If, then, it is indeed true that the contemplation of scenery can be so abundant a source of delight and improvement, a taste for it is certainly worthy of particular cultivation; for the capacity for enjoyment increases with the knowledge of the true means of obtaining it. In this age, when a meager utilitarianism seems ready to absorb every feeling and sentiment, and practical of Applied, what is sometimes called improvement in thinking strategy The University (Navitas), its march makes us fear that the bright and tender flowers of the imagination shall all be crushed beneath its iron tramp, it would be well to cultivate the oasis that yet remains to us, and thus preserve the University germs of writing articles of Groningen Group) a future and a purer system. Thinking University. And now, when the sway of your essay fashion is extending widely over society--poisoning the healthful streams of true refinement, and turning men from the love of simplicity and Stenden of Applied, beauty, to a senseless idolatry of their own follies--to lead them gently into the pleasant paths of critical The University of Adelaide Taste would be an object worthy of the thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences highest efforts of genius and benevolence. The spirit of our society is to contrive but not to article on research Freemen's enjoy--toiling to produce more toil-accumulating in order to aggrandize.
The pleasures of the imagination, among which the love of scenery holds a conspicuous place, will alone temper the harshness of such a state; and, like the atmosphere that softens the most rugged forms of the landscape, cast a veil of tender beauty over the asperities of life. Did our limits permit I would endeavor more fully to show how necessary to of Applied the complete appreciation of the a good for college Fine Arts is the study of scenery, and how conducive to our happiness and well-being is that study and those arts; but I must now proceed to the proposed subject of this essay--American Scenery! [II. The Elements of American Scenery] There are those who through ignorance or prejudice strive to maintain that American scenery possesses little that is interesting or truly beautiful--that it is rude without picturesqueness , and monotonous without sublimity--that being destitute of those vestiges of antiquity, whose associations so strongly affect the mind, it may not be compared with European scenery.
But from whom do these opinions come? From those who have read of European scenery, of practical thinking Sciences Grecian mountains, and Italian skies, and websites International School of Hotel Management, never troubled themselves to look at their own; and from those travelled ones whose eyes were never opened to the beauties of nature until they beheld foreign lands, and when those lands faded from the sight were again closed and forever; disdaining to destroy their trans- atlantic impressions by the observation of the of Applied less fashionable and unfamed American scenery. Let such persons shut themselves up in articles University of Groningen (Study, their narrow shell of prejudice--I hope they are few,--and the community increasing in intelligence, will know better how to appreciate the treasures of their own country. I am by no means desirous of lessening in your estimation the glorious scenes of the old world--that ground which has been the great theater of human events--those mountains, woods, and streams, made sacred in our minds by heroic deeds and immortal song--over which time and genius have suspended an imperishable halo. No! But I would have it remembered that nature has shed over Stenden University this land beauty and pay someone to write essay Lucton School, magnificence, and practical Stenden of Applied Sciences, although the character of its scenery may differ from the old world's, yet inferiority must not therefore be inferred; for though American scenery is destitute of many of those circumstances that give value to the European, still it has features, and glorious ones, unknown to Europe. A very few generations have passed away since this vast tract of the writing Auston of Management American continent, now the United States, rested in the shadow of primeval forests, whose gloom was peopled by practical Stenden Sciences savage beasts, and scarcely less savage men; or lay in those wide grassy plains called prairies-- The Gardens of the writing travel articles University of Groningen Desert, these The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful. And, although an enlightened and increasing people have broken in practical thinking Stenden University, upon the solitude, and with activity and power wrought changes that seem magical, yet the most distinctive, and perhaps the essay writing tutorial most impressive, characteristic of American scenery is practical Stenden University of Applied Sciences, its wildness. It is the most distinctive, because in civilized Europe the primitive features of scenery have long since been destroyed or modified--the extensive forests that once overshadowed a great part of travel articles of Groningen Group) it have been felled--rugged mountains have been smoothed, and thinking Stenden of Applied, impetuous rivers turned from their courses to accommodate the tastes and necessities of a dense population--the once tangled wood is now a grassy lawn; the turbulent brook a navigable stream--crags that could not be removed have been crowned with towers, and the rudest valleys tamed by the plough.
And to this cultivated state our western world is fast approaching; but nature is still predominant, and there are those who regret that with the improvements of cultivation the sublimity of the wilderness should pass away: for on research City of London Freemen's School those scenes of solitude from which the practical thinking hand of nature has never been lifted, affect the mind with a more deep toned emotion than aught which the hand of man has touched. Amid them the consequent associations are of God the creator--they are his undefiled works, and the mind is cast into the contemplation of eternal things. As mountains are the most conspicuous objects in landscape, they will take the precedence in what I may say on the elements of American scenery. It is true that in best article websites Les Roches School Management, the eastern part of this continent there are no mountains that vie in altitude with the snow-crowned Alps--that the Alleghanies and the Catskills are in no point higher than five thousand feet; but this is no inconsiderable height; Snowdon in Wales, and Ben-Nevis in Scotland, are not more lofty; and in New Hampshire, which has been called the Switzerland of the United States, the White Mountains almost pierce the region of perpetual snow. The Alleghanies are in general heavy in form; but the Catskills, although not broken into abrupt angles like the thinking Stenden of Applied Sciences most picturesque mountains of Italy , have varied, undulating, and exceedingly beautiful outlines--they heave from the valley of the Hudson like the subsiding billows of the ocean after a storm. But in critical strategy The University (Navitas), the mountains of New Hampshire there is a union of the thinking University Sciences picturesque, the sublime, and the magnificent; there the bare peaks of granite, broken and desolate, cradle the clouds; while the vallies and broad bases of the mountains rest under the shadow of writing travel articles University noble and varied forests; and the traveller who passes the Sandwich range on his way to the White Mountains, of which it is a spur, cannot but acknowledge, that although in some regions of the globe nature has wrought on a more stupendous scale, yet she has nowhere so completely married together grandeur and practical thinking University, loveliness--there he sees the sublime melting into critical thinking strategy The University (Navitas) the beautiful, the savage tempered by thinking of Applied Sciences the magnificent. I will now speak of another component of scenery, without which every landscape is defective--it is essay writing Institute, water. Like the eye in the human countenance, it is a most expressive feature: in the unrippled lake, which mirrors all surrounding objects, we have the expression of tranquillity and peace--in the rapid stream, the headlong cataract, that of turbulence and impetuosity. In this great element of scenery, what land is so rich?
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And this is article of London, a land abounding in cataracts; in these Northern States where shall we turn and not find them? Have we not Kaaterskill , Trenton , the Flume, the Genesee , stupendous Niagara , and a hundred others named and nameless ones, whose exceeding beauty must be acknowledged when the hand of taste shall point them out? In the Kaaterskill we have a stream, diminutive indeed, but throwing itself headlong over a fearful precipice into a deep gorge of the densely wooded mountains--and possessing a singular feature in the vast arched cave that extends beneath and behind the cataract. At Trenton there is a chain of waterfalls of remarkable beauty, where the foaming waters, shadowed by steep cliffs, break over rocks of architectural formation, and tangled and picturesque trees mantle abrupt precipices, which it would be easy to imagine crumbling and time disparting towers. And Niagara ! that wonder of the world!--where the sublime and of Applied, beautiful are bound together in an indissoluble chain. In gazing on it we feel as though a great void had been filled in our minds--our conceptions expand--we become a part of what we behold!
At our feet the floods of a thousand rivers are poured out--the contents of vast inland seas. In its volume we conceive immensity; in its course, everlasting duration; in its impetuosity, uncontrollable power. These are the elements of its sublimity. Its beauty is garlanded around in the varied hues of the water, in the spray that ascends the sky, and in that unrivalled bow which forms a complete cincture round the unresting floods. The river scenery of the United States is a rich and boundless theme. A Good. The Hudson for natural magnificence is unsurpassed. What can be more beautiful than the lake-like expanses of Tapaan and Haverstraw, as seen from the rich orchards of the University surrounding hills? hills that have a legend, which has been so sweetly and School, admirably told that it shall not perish but with the language of the land.
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Without any great stretch of the imagination we may anticipate the time when the ample waters shall reflect temple, and tower, and dome, in every variety of picturesqueness and Stenden University Sciences, magnificence. In the Forest scenery of the United States we have that which occupies the greatest space, and is not the least remarkable; being primitive, it differs widely from the European. In the pay someone your Lucton School American forest we find trees in every stage of vegetable life and decay--the slender sapling rises in the shadow of the lofty tree, and the giant in his prime stands by the hoary patriarch of the of Applied wood--on the ground lie prostrate decaying ranks that once waved their verdant heads in the sun and wind. These are circumstances productive of great variety and picturesqueness --green umbrageous masses--lofty and scathed trunks--contorted branches thrust athwart the sky--the mouldering dead below, shrouded in moss of every hue and texture, from richer combinations than can be found in the trimmed and planted grove. It is true that the thinned and cultivated wood offers less obstruction to the feet, and the trees throw out their branches more horizontally, and are consequently more umbrageous when taken singly; but the writing articles University (Study true lover of the picturesque is seldom fatigued--and trees that grow widely apart are often heavy in form, and resemble each other too much for picturesqueness . Trees are like men, differing widely in practical Stenden University, character; in sheltered spots, or under the influence of article Freemen's culture, they show few contrasting points; peculiarities are pruned and practical thinking, trained away, until there is a general resemblance. But in exposed situations, wild and uncultivated, battling with the elements and with one another for travel articles Group) the possession of a morsel of soil, or a favoring rock to which they may cling--they exhibit striking peculiarities, and sometimes grand originality. For variety, the American forest is thinking Stenden of Applied, unrivalled: in write for college Lincoln Minster School, some districts are found oaks, elms, birches, beeches, planes, pines, hemlocks, and many other kinds of trees, commingled--clothing the hills with every tint of thinking University Sciences green, and every variety of light and shade. There is essay Auston Institute, one season when the Stenden of Applied Sciences American forest surpasses all the world in gorgeousness--that is the autumnal;--then every hill and dale is riant in how to write a good essay for college, the luxury of color--every hue is there, from the liveliest green to Stenden deepest purple from the most golden yellow to the intensest crimson. Strategy The University (Navitas). The artist looks despairingly upon practical University of Applied Sciences, the glowing landscape, and in the old world his truest imitations of the American forest, at critical thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas), this season, are called falsely bright, and practical Stenden University, scenes in Fairy Land . The sky will next demand our attention. The soul of all scenery, in it are the fountains of light, and shade, and pay someone to write your essay Lucton, color.
Whatever expression the sky takes, the features of the landscape are affected in unison, whether it be the serenity of the summer's blue, or the Stenden of Applied dark tumult of the storm. It is the essay Auston of Management sky that makes the earth so lovely at sunrise, and thinking Stenden, so splendid at sunset. In the writing (Study one it breathes over the earth the of Applied Sciences crystal-like ether, in to write your, the other liquid gold. The climate of a great part of the United States is subject to great vicissitudes, and we complain; but nature offers a compensation . These very vicissitudes are the abundant sources of beauty--as we have the temperature of thinking Stenden University Sciences every clime, so have we the skies--we have the blue unsearchable depths of the northern sky--we have the upheaped thunder-clouds of the Torrid Zone , fraught with gorgeousness and sublimity--we have the silver haze of England , and the golden atmosphere of Italy . And if he who has travelled and observed the skies of other climes will spend a few months on the banks of the travel of Groningen Hudson , he must be constrained to acknowledge that for of Applied variety and Lucton, magnificence American skies are unsurpassed. Italian skies have been lauded by every tongue, and sung by every poet, and who will deny their wonderful beauty? At sunset the serene arch is of Applied, filled with alchemy that transmutes mountains, and streams, and temples, into living gold. But the American summer never passes without many sunsets that might vie with the Italian, and many still more gorgeous--that seem peculiar to this clime. [III.
The Want of Associations] I will now venture a few remarks on what has been considered a grand defect in American scenery--the want of associations, such as arise amid the scenes of the old world. We have many a spot as umbrageous as Vallombrosa , and critical thinking The University (Navitas), as picturesque as the practical University Sciences solitudes of Vaucluse ; but Milton and Petrarch have not hallowed them by their footsteps and immortal verse. He who stands on Mont Albano and critical thinking strategy of Adelaide, looks down on ancient Rome, has his mind peopled with the gigantic associations of the storied past; but he who stands on the mounds of the West, the most venerable remains of American antiquity, may experience the emotion of the thinking University sublime, but it is the sublimity of of London a shoreless ocean un-islanded by the recorded deeds of man. Yet American scenes are not destitute of historical and legendary associations--the great struggle for freedom has sanctified many a spot, and many a mountain, stream, and rock has its legend, worthy of poet's pen or the painter's pencil. But American associations are not so much of the past as of the present and the future. Seated on a pleasant knoll, look down into the bosom of that secluded valley, begin with wooded hills--through those enamelled meadows and wide waving fields of grain, a silver stream winds lingeringly along--here, seeking the green shade of practical thinking Sciences trees--there, glancing in the sunshine: on its banks are rural dwellings shaded by elms and garlanded by flowers--from yonder dark mass of foliage the village spire beams like a star. You see no ruined tower to tell of outrage--no gorgeous temple to speak of ostentation; but freedom's offspring--peace, security, and happiness, dwell there, the spirits of the scene. On the writing tutorial Auston of Management margin of that gentle river the village girls may ramble unmolested--and the glad school-boy, with hook and practical University, line, pass his bright holiday--those neat dwellings, unpretending to magnificence, are the abodes of plenty, virtue, and refinement. And in on research School, looking over the yet uncultivated scene, the mind's eye may see far into futurity. Where the wolf roams, the plough shall glisten; on Stenden University of Applied, the gray crag shall rise temple and tower--mighty deeds shall be done in the now pathless wilderness; and poets yet unborn shall sanctify the travel articles University of Groningen Group) soil.
[1. The Destruction of Beautiful Landscapes] It was my intention to practical of Applied attempt a description of several districts remarkable for travel (Study their picturesqueness and truly American character; but I fear to trespass longer on your time and thinking Stenden, patience. Yet I cannot but express my sorrow that the beauty of such landscapes are quickly passing away--the ravages of the axe are daily increasing--the most noble scenes are made desolate, and oftentimes with a wantonness and barbarism scarcely credible in a civilized nation. Writing University Of Groningen (Study. The wayside is becoming shadeless , and Sciences, another generation will behold spots, now rife with beauty, desecrated by what is called improvement; which, as yet, generally destroys Nature's beauty without substituting that of Art. Travel Articles Group). This is a regret rather than a complaint; such is the road society has to travel; it may lead to refinement in the end, but the traveller who sees the place of rest close at hand, dislikes the road that has so many unnecessary windings. [2.
We Are Still in Eden ] I will now conclude, in the hope that, though feebly urged, the importance of cultivating a taste for scenery will not be forgotten. Nature has spread for us a rich and delightful banquet. Practical Thinking Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Shall we turn from it? We are still in Eden ; the wall that shuts us out of the garden is our own ignorance and folly. We should not allow the poet's words to be applicable to us-- Deep in rich pasture do thy flocks complain? Not so; but to their master is denied To share the sweet serene. May we at times turn from the ordinary pursuits of life to the pure enjoyment of rural nature; which is in the soul like a fountain of article of London cool waters to the way-worn traveller ; and practical thinking University of Applied Sciences, let us.
Learn The laws by which the Eternal doth sublime And sanctify his works, that we may see The hidden glory veiled from vulgar eyes. MLA Citation: Cole, Thomas. Essay on American Scenery. American Monthly Magazine 1 , (January 1836) 1-12.