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Sample Expository Essays - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. To view this presentation, you'll need to enable Flash. PPT Sample Expository Essays PowerPoint presentation | free to a good Sidcot School, view - id: 19eac-NzJjN. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. . College. been given the opportunity to design a brand new television show for children. How To Write A Good Essay Plan School. . Instead of couresworks Cardiff Sixth Form College, describing what the write a good essay Sidcot, TV show will be like, this writer presents a . PowerPoint PPT presentation.
Title: Sample Expository Essays. Sample Expository Essays On the following slides you will find 10. expository essays followed by the scoring. Expository Writing Topic Writing Situation Your class has been given the opportunity to. design a brand new television show for children. It could be a news show, a talk show, a game.
show, a cartoon, or any kind of i have to write an essay Preparatory School, show you want for. children. Directions for Writing Write a report to be read to your class in which. you explain your idea for the new childrens. television show. Be sure to include specific. details so that your classmates will understand. what the new show will be like. The sample papers in this section were written.
in response to the expository writing topic. Student names have been removed for purposes of. Expository Paper 1. Annotations for write a good essay plan School, Expository Paper 1 Ideas 1 A controlling idea is not established. I Have An Essay Due Tomorrow School. Although. it is clear that the writer is how to write a good plan Sidcot School attempting to. explain a design for texas critical thinking High School, a sports show, development. is lacking due to the brevity of the how to a good essay plan School, response. After listing the six sports that will be. included in the show, the writer lists three very.
general types of content (the best in the world, what they do to pass the couresworks Cardiff, time, what they do for a. living) and the paper closes. Organization 1 Although there is an opening sentence, closing. sentence, and a two sentence body, there is. insufficient writing to grant competence in. Organization. Style 1 There is insufficient student writing to. determine competence in Style. Conventions 1 There is insufficient student writing to. determine competence in Conventions. Expository Paper 2. Expository Paper 2 (page two)
Annotations for Expository Paper 2 Ideas 2 Instead of describing what the TV show will be. like, this writer presents a series of reasons. for why a news show is important. A Good Essay Sidcot. The supporting. ideas (news can save your life, news lets you. know whats happening in the world, news is a. good reason to buy a TV) would be appropriate for. a persuasive essay, but they seem to prevent the. writer from fully explaining the nature of couresworks Form College, the.
news show for children. Overall, the supporting. ideas are vague and repetitive. A Good. The paper lacks. sufficient information about the show to provide. a sense of completeness and Besant School, address reader. concerns. In the conclusion, the a good School, writer again. demonstrates a lack of genre awareness (thats. why I design a news show). Organization 2 The overall organizational plan is formulaic and.
not appropriate to expository writing. The writer. repeats phrases from the introduction to start. each body paragraph. Related ideas are grouped. together in paragraphs, but transitions are. limited. The conclusion restates information from. the introduction and the body paragraphs.
Style 2 The word choice in this paper is generally simple. and repetitive (News show is good thing, that. is why I said news can safe your life). There is. minimal sentence variety. Write Ardingly College. The writer demonstrates. some audience awareness (You have to how to write a good plan Sidcot, know what. is happening in this entar world), but the.
overall tone is flat. Conventions 1 The paper contains severe and frequent usage. errors (Why I have design a news show, News. can safe someone life, I have family and write, friend. in maney part of the how to write plan, world, how there doing, news show is good thing). There are also. frequent misspellings (reson, hurican, tander, stom, waching, strages, maney, exmple, entar, wach, sameting). Writing St Leonards School. Although. there are some correctly formed sentences, there.
are also many fragments and run-ons. How To Write A Good Essay. Overall, the. writer lacks control of the components of. Expository Paper 3. Annotations for Expository Paper 3 Ideas 2 The controlling idea (How I would design a. television show about teaching high John, reaching out to people) is. clear, but only write a good Sidcot School, minimally developed. Supporting. ideas (target audience, topics, siblings) are. listed but not developed with specific details. Although the writer maintains focus on the.
assigned expository topic, there is how to Besant Hill School not enough. information to provide a sense of how to write Sidcot, completeness or. to address reader concerns. (For example, one. reader concern might be wanting to Cardiff Form College, know more. about how controversial topics would be handled. appropriately for younger viewers.) Organization 2 The organizational plan is generally appropriate. to the expository purpose, but there is only.
minimal evidence of sequencing. A Good Essay Sidcot School. The two body. paragraphs could be rearranged without affecting. the meaning of the piece. Ideas in the first. paragraph are arranged in a meaningful order, but. ideas in the remaining paragraphs are not.
The. introduction is effective, but the conclusion is. not (this is to write an essay Windermere Preparatory all I have to write about plan School, so I. guess these is high school Saint John The Baptist High it.). Transitions are repeated. (It would, This would.).
Style 2 The tone of the paper is flat throughout most of. the response, although the write essay plan Sidcot School, writers critical. attitude toward brothers and perfect writing St Leonards School, sisters is clear. Word choice and sentence structure are. repetitive nearly every sentence begins with It.
would. There is write a good plan little sense of the how to conclusion School, writers. voice outside of the paragraph on brothers and. sisters. The writer demonstrates only limited. awareness of audience. A Good Plan Sidcot. Conventions 2 The writer demonstrates minimal control in.
sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. Although there are only two sentence errors (a. fragment and a run-on), there are only eight. sentences in critical Catholic High, the entire paper. Usage is correct. but very repetitive as the writer uses the same. simple subject and write School, verb forms. The writer.
demonstrates minimal control of capitalization, spelling, and formatting (mechanics). Demonstration of competence is how to write a essay limited by the. Expository Paper 4. Expository Paper 4 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 4 Ideas Score 2 The controlling idea (How I would design a game. show) is essay plan Sidcot clear and addresses the expository. purpose. Essay Writing John The Baptist High. Supporting ideas (children will have. their own show, children could win stuff, children will be judged on funniness) are.
relevant, but are only minimally developed. Although the writer lists some examples about age. limits, money, prizes, and judging, there is not. enough information to provide a sense of. completeness. Another weakness is the repetition. of ideas from introduction to the topic sentences. in each body paragraph to the conclusion. Some.
ideas are repeated three times. How To Write Sidcot School. Organization 2 The organizational plan is how to write a essay conclusion Besant School formulaic. The writer. announces his main points in the first paragraph, begins each body paragraph with a restatement of. one main point, and repeats all the a good, main points. again in the conclusion. This is not an Sixth College, effective. form of introduction or conclusion. Related.
supporting ideas are grouped within paragraphs, however, there is how to write essay Sidcot School only minimal sequencing within. paragraphs. Style 2 The tone of the paper is uneven as the writers. enthusiasm for the television show only comes. through occasionally (So if your not very funny.
dont come because your not going to win.). Most. word choice is simple and writing St Leonards School, ordinary (You have. read why I picked a game show to be a childrens. show.). The writer demonstrates only limited. awareness of audience. Some of the writers. comments to the audience are appropriate (If you. make the whole audience laugh your for how to write a good plan School, sure going.
to win.),, but others are not appropriate to the. expository purpose (This concludes my essay on. why a game show should be the next childrens. show.). There is only a minimal sense of i have an essay due tomorrow School, the.
writers voice. Conventions 4 The writer demonstrates consistent control of the. components of Conventions. Sentences are clear, correct, and complex. Usage is correct with the. exception of the wrong form of youre and a good essay plan, The. three reasons why I picked it is. Most of the. four elements of mechanics are demonstrated. correctly, but commas are often missing after. introductory clauses.
Lack of variety in all. elements keeps this paper in a essay conclusion Hill School, the 4 range. Expository Paper 5. Expository Paper 5 (page two) Annotations for how to a good essay, Expository Paper 5 Ideas 3 The controlling idea (How I would design a show. to teach Spanish) is clear and texas Marian Catholic, focused on write a good plan School the. assigned task and expository purpose. Supporting. ideas (bilingual characters, making learning fun, villain/prankster character, including cartoons) are relevant and developed with some examples and. details.
The paragraph about the texas republican critical thinking Marian Catholic High, villain is more. fully developed than the other main points. All. the information included is relevant, and reader. concerns are addressed by explaining that the. villain will not be unsuitable for children to. watch. Organization 3 The organizational plan is generally appropriate. to the expository purpose. There is a generally.
clear sequence of ideas. The introduction and. conclusion are appropriate. Related ideas are not. always grouped together. The writer jumps from. discussing characters to write a good plan Sidcot, the benefits of learning. Spanish and back again during the how to write College, paper. A more.
effective grouping would have placed all the. benefits of learning together and all the. examples about characters on how to write a good plan the show together. There are transitions within paragraphs and. linking parts of the paper. Overall, the writer. demonstrates sufficient control. Style 3 The thoughtful tone of the paper is consistent as.
the writer demonstrates concern for making the. show both interesting and Ardingly College, educational for. children. Word choice is generally engaging. (character, absorbant, mischevious, suitable). Awareness of write a good plan, audience is.
demonstrated by the writers use of the inclusive. we (If we do, some parents may think that the. show is not suitible for their children to. watch.). The writers voice is clear (I was out. of luck, I didnt learn another language.). Sentences are varied in length and structure. Cardiff. Conventions 3 The writer demonstrates sufficient control of all. three elements of Conventions.
The majority of. the sentences are clear and a good essay plan Sidcot, correct (except. Scince they didnt teach any language. and. By making a show that is helping young. children..). In usage, subjects and verbs agree.
and most word forms are correct (except the essay writing Saint Diocesan, wrong. form of how to Sidcot School, their). There are frequent but minor. errors in all the elements of mechanics. Expository Paper 6. Annotations for Expository Paper 6 Ideas 3 Instead of describing one TV show, this writer. designs three types of TV shows. This is an.
acceptable response to the assigned task. The. supporting ideas (Comedy show, game show, sports. show) are developed with some details and. examples (there will be no profanity, no one will. get hurt, who will appear on the comedy show, the. show will have kids telling jokes too). The.
conclusion gives additional information about school Saint High School, how. long the shows will be, what channel they will be. on, and when they will be played. There is. sufficient information to address the topic and. some reader concerns. Organization 3 The opening paragraph introduces the three types. of shows, then the body paragraphs describe how. the writer would design each type of show. The.
conclusion gives additional information about the. shows and provides closure. This organizational. plan is how to write essay Sidcot School appropriate to the writers topic and. expository purpose. Although the essay School, writer starts. with an easy type of show to design, then. describes the hardest one, and then the how to write essay, easiest, there is a generally clear sequence of essay writing John The Baptist High, ideas.
Related ideas are grouped in paragraphs, and. transitions link parts of the how to write a good essay plan Sidcot, paper. (afterwards, in conclusion). Style 3 Word choice is generally engaging (obsticle. course, one gang of superstars playing against. other superstars, professional game, perfect.
game show, special guests) with some lapses. into ordinary language (television shows can be. hard, kids going against their parents). There. is some variation in a essay Besant, sentence length and. structure. The informative tone is consistent.
with the writers topic and the expository genre. Conventions 4 The paper demonstrates consistent control of the. components of how to write a good essay School, Conventions. There is one spelling. error (obsticle). Sentence formation and. mechanics are not demonstrated in a wide variety. of contexts, but they are consistently correct. There are minor errors in verb tense (If I made. a comedy show, it will never have) and essay high Saint The Baptist Diocesan High School, word. forms (most easiest), but overall the paper.
demonstrates consistent control. Expository Paper 7. Expository Paper 7 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 7 Ideas 4 The writers controlling idea (describing what. should be included in a great show about how to School, friends. and problems) is clear and developed with.
relevant supporting ideas. The writer describes. several features that the article, show should include. (fun parts, easy for children to understand, realistic, dancing and singing, two topics in. each episode, characters the children like) and. develops these supporting ideas with specific. examples and details. The writer also includes.
personal experiences with television shows to. develop this expository topic. All of the. writers ideas are focused on what it takes to. make the show interesting to children and are. appropriate to how to essay School, the expository genre. Organization 3 The introduction sets the stage for the.
description of the writers show, and the body. paragraphs describe exactly what should or should. not be included in the show. How To Write A Essay Conclusion Besant School. The conclusion. provides closure (making a drama is hard). Related ideas are not always grouped together. within paragraphs.
Transitions link parts of the. paper (To make a great show, First of all, Once). The overall organizational structure is. appropriate to expository writing. Style 3 The writer maintains a consistent authoritative. voice (To make a great show, we have to do a lot. of work) that addresses the audience and is. appropriate to the expository genre. How To Write. There is. some variation in sentence length and high The Baptist Diocesan, structure.
Word choice is generally engaging, but some words. are imprecise and how to write essay Sidcot School, inaccurate (especially. prepositions). Despite some awkward phrases, the. strong, consistent tone keeps this paper in i have an essay due tomorrow School, the 3. range.
Conventions 2 The paper demonstrates minimal control of the. components of Conventions. There are frequent. usage errors (It always give me, the show need. to be, do with as they watch, make the show.
as easy as children can understand). There are. some run-ons, and essay School, numerous sentences begin with. But, so, and Besant Hill School, or. Spelling is generally. correct, but there are a few errors (lier, chaper). There are also incorrect prepositions. (a lot of common, fun parts that they can. Expository Paper 8. Expository Paper 8 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 8 Ideas 4 The writers controlling idea (What the.
Learnosors will be like) is well developed with. relevant supporting ideas (the characters, what. the show will teach, when it will come on) that. are appropriate to expository writing. The. supporting ideas are developed with specific. details and examples (the types of dinosaurs, schedule), but some are more developed than. others. The response contains information that. addresses reader concerns.
Organization 5 The writer establishes the need for an. educational show in the introduction and sets the. stage for the description of The Learnosors. In. the body paragraphs, the how to plan Sidcot School, writer first introduces. the characters, then the content of the show, and.
then when the show will be on TV. Ideas are. arranged in a logical order within paragraphs and. across parts of the texas critical thinking Marian School, paper. Rather than repeating. information or simply summarizing the paper, the. conclusion explains the purpose of the show and. what the writer hopes the show will accomplish.
The writer uses a variety of plan Sidcot School, transitional. elements to texas republican School, link parts of the paper and ideas. within paragraphs (Hopefully the children will. be fascinated by the first cartoon and continue. watching. The children will then begin to. learn.) Style 4 Word choice is consistently precise and engaging. (charming personalities and constructive. behaviors, delightful people, extremely. important, ethnic and how to write essay plan Sidcot School, racial groups, everyday. problems, thirty minute sessions).
The. writers concern for thinking Marian High, the learning of children is. appropriate to how to write a good essay plan School, the topic and sustained throughout. the paper. Sentences are effectively varied by. length and structure. There is evidence of. audience awareness throughout the paper.
Conventions 4 The writer demonstrates consistent control of the. components of Conventions. There are a few errors. in each component (two spelling errors. develope, dinosors two sentences that begin. with coordinating conjunctions a few missing. commas and teaching essay writing school Saint The Baptist School, an incorrect word form therere), but these errors are minor and write a good, do not interfere. Expository Paper 9. Expository Paper 9 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 9 Ideas 5 The writer maintains a consistent focus on the.
expository topic and purpose. The controlling. idea (How I would design a reality show for. children) is fully developed and addresses all. aspects of the assigned task. Supporting ideas. (participants, target audience, stunts and.
challenges, selecting the winners) are relevant. and fully developed with specific examples and. details. The writer addresses reader concerns by. providing many details, covering each aspect of. the television show in depth, and how to write College, comparing parts.
of the new show to shows that are probably well. known to the reader (Jeopardy). Organization 5 The writer demonstrates a full command of the. components of Organization. The overall plan is. appropriate to the expository purpose (report). Ideas are logically sequenced across parts of the. paper as the writer moves from discussing who the.
contestants and the targeted audience would be to. the physical and mental challenges faced by the. contestants during each show. Within each. paragraph, related supporting ideas and detailed. examples are logically grouped.
Transitions are. varied and effective (People on a good essay Sidcot the show, At. the end of the show). Style 5 Word choice is consistently precise throughout. the paper (Children would be required to. participate in challenges to win prizes and. rewards. This age is a time when you would have. sufficient skills, knowledge and experience to. complete the challenges.). The authoritative.
voice is sustained throughout the paper. Sentences are extensively varied. The writer. demonstrates awareness of audience in the. introduction, body, and conclusion by helping the.
reader picture the events that will occur during. the television show. Conventions 5 This extensive paper demonstrates a full command. of sentence formation, usage, and essay writing St Leonards, mechanics. Errors are minor two sentence fragments, one. misspelled word, a few unnecessary commas. Sentences are clear, complex, compound, and. correctly punctuated. How To Write A Good Plan School. Usage and mechanics are. correct in article how to write, a variety of contexts. Expository Paper 10.
Expository Paper 10 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 10 Ideas Score 5 The controlling idea (How I would design a quiz. show for write a good essay, kids) is fully developed with supporting. ideas that are relevant to republican critical Catholic School, the writers topic and. the expository purpose. Supporting ideas (the. contestants, the content of the questions, the.
bonus round) are fully elaborated with logical. examples and details (the types of how to write a good plan Sidcot, questions, how. to earn points, the texas republican critical Marian Catholic School, enclosed area in which prize. strips are blown by a fan). How To Write A Good Essay. The response fully. addresses reader concerns by helping the couresworks, reader.
understand exactly how an how to write a good essay plan, episode of the quiz. show would proceed. Organization 5 The overall organizational plan is appropriate to. the writers topic and how to write conclusion Besant Hill, the expository purpose. The writer sets the stage by explaining the.
necessity of making learning fun. Each body. paragraph explains both what will occur and why. it will be entertaining and educational. The. conclusion reiterates that this game show. provides an easier, more motivating way to learn. Ideas are sequenced logically across the paper as. the writer takes the reader from what the game. looks like to the content of the game to the.
creative way of determining prizes for the. contestants. Related supporting ideas are grouped. together within paragraphs. Each of the writers. ideas is how to essay plan linked to an idea that precedes it.
Style 5 Word choice is consistently precise and varied. throughout the texas critical Catholic High, paper (fundamental game, participate, beneficial, comprehension skills, opportunities, symbolizes, continuous book. word). The technical language is appropriate to. expository writing and the writers topic of an. educational game.
The writers authoritative tone. is sustained throughout the paper and how to a good plan Sidcot School, indicates. an understanding of genre. The writer uses a. variety of sentence beginnings, structures, and. lengths. Awareness of audience is also sustained. (Since most kids do not enjoy going to teaching high Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, school. because of all the studying they must do and the. continuous book work, I have developed an easier. way to help them learn.).
Overall, the writers. full command of the components of Style is. demonstrated throughout the paper. Conventions 5 The writer demonstrates a full command of all. three elements of Conventions. All sentences are.
clear and correct. Usage is correct and plan Sidcot School, varied. with the exception of one unclear pronoun. referent (on which they landed.). Mechanics is. correct and varied with particular strength. demonstrated in article, internal punctuation. 5 essays in 17 days.
- Persuasive Writing Unit. 5 essays in 17 days. Common Core Standards 2013 Edition CCSS 2013 edition * | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view.
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an essay on a good drama For many decades, drama has been in our world. It gives us feelings, emotions, morality and sometimes quotes. What is drama exactly? Is it a play? An action? Or just an entertainment? It quite hard to define what is it exactly, but if we look closely, we could see that drama is everything. Hill? Drama is both play and action, and still an entertainment. It may come in many forms like as we say “Devil comes in many forms”. How To A Good Sidcot? Drama does not have a specific place, time or order, it could be anywhere even in a school or in a hospital.
Nowadays, teachers and professors are teaching drama in schools and universities because it helps the student to speak fluently, build up self-confidence, learn how to express feelings in different ways and gain experience in life. It’s quite important to learn drama in our school because it builds up our self-confidence, in which we need it when we work, interview for jobs and how to write conclusion Besant School, when we are presenting our work. If we are learning drama when we are young, we could have a lot of practice in public speaking and fluency. In every drama, there’s always a thing called elements of drama. The elements of drama is like an plan School analysis of it, it tells us how the play goes on and how it will end. The elements of drama consist of republican Marian Catholic, 4 main parts and they are Plot, Character, Setting and write a good essay, Theme. In this paragraph, I’m going to analyze a play called “My reality”. Perfect St Leonards? The plot of the story is write essay plan Sidcot School about a man named Sam Blench who has a twin and i have Preparatory, a wife name Amanda. One day, Sam came back to his house after his trip to Mexico, everything seems normal but as the play goes on, Amanda begins to have some weird actions and emotions towards her kids and Sam himself. Some crazy things start to occur, like his kid’s friends got scared when he was talking about his kids and his neighbor were starting to how to get curious about article what’s going on write a good Sidcot with him.
His neighbor, Josh went to see a detective to ask him to check on essay St Leonards School Sam because he’s getting worried about Sam. The police went on and investigate on one person name, Ms. Vivian, who was in a hospital. The police asked showed and plan, asked about Sam’s wife and to write due tomorrow, it turns out that Ms. Vivian screamed and was terrified. Ms. Vivian told what she knows about Sam’s wife and by write those information, the case were even more complicated and strange. The One fine night, Sam was having his dinner but it’s strange because dinner was only served to him and only him not the twins. Sam asked his maid why didn’t she served dinner to to write an essay due tomorrow Windermere Preparatory School the twins, the maid was shocked and told Sam that she could no longer stay there. Suddenly one of his conscious came in and talk to write plan Sidcot him, trying to perfect essay remind Sam about what he had done but it turns out write a good plan that Sam can’t remember. Writing Saint Diocesan? The conversation went on for a while, another conscious came in and talk about forgiveness, happiness and peace.
Both conscious has different aspect, the first conscious was trying to convince him to kill himself and how to write essay Sidcot School, end this but another conscious was a good one, he tried to convince Sam to forgive himself and move on in his life. In the end, Sam followed the dark conscious because he thought that it would be the best way to end this. The police went to Form College Sam’s house and found out that Sam was lying down dead, and so the police locked up the house and make that house a scene of homicide. Later on, Josh broke into the house, sitting down on one of Sam’s chair, being miserable about his lost. Suddenly, Sam’s spirit came in and told everything that he killed Amanda because she killed his child. Even though Sam told everything, no one knows because he was dead and of course, his neighbor, Josh, could not hear dead people talking.
Josh went back to write essay School his house, leaving nothing but fine words about him. After Josh had left, Amanda came in to the scene, shouting and crying for Sam but then the twins came in and terrified her. In the end, Amanda screamed and the curtain was closed. The second element of drama is Character. Cardiff Form? In this story, the characters were Sam Blench, Amanda, the two twins, the Maid, Josh, The teenagers who tried to how to a good essay plan Sidcot School sneaked in to the house, Ms. Vivian, Ms. Essay St Leonards School? Parry, the twin’s friends, the police men, good conscious and bad conscious. Write A Good Essay Sidcot? The third element of drama Setting. The setting of the story is very simple, it takes place in a house, a police station and a hospital. The last is teaching writing high school Saint John The Baptist Diocesan School theme, the theme of how to a good Sidcot, this story is mostly gothic because it brings the audience’s emotions into how to Besant School the play in which the emotions are mostly fear and terror. There are some other themes like mystery because there are some investigation and mystery which should be revealed.
Revenge is also there because Sam killed his wife because she killed his kids. There’s also a part of drama because when his twins were gone he cried, when the twins wasn’t served with dinner, he was worried about a good essay plan Sidcot them getting hungry. From my experiences, I had done lot dramas but this one, it was different. It took all of my emotions into the character and into the play and I believe that it wasn’t only me who felt like that. I felt that this learning experience is a very huge step because it takes us from doing a play which is very immature in to article Ardingly College something that is big and has maturity in it. It helps me to practice in fluency, public speaking and mostly self-confidence. In the play I developed my ways of acting and how to write a good essay plan Sidcot School put emotions in to the character, in which those emotions were not really me.
I think that I had tried my best but not yet my best effort because there was little of time and there a lot of how to a essay conclusion Besant School, pressure while practicing and performing. I really appreciate on what our teacher, Mr. Julien did for me. He advice every single thing and I tried my hardest but maybe not hard enough to be that character all the way. I did some practice at home and in write Sidcot other classes to find a connection between me and the character.
I think that if I had some more time, I would be able to be that character all the time throughout the play, but it’s just that maybe I didn’t try hard enough to earn that in a short time. If I had one more chance, I would try to do better. Drama could be anywhere, it could be in republican critical thinking Marian High School school, hospital or maybe in plan Sidcot School an auditorium. If there was a drama project, I would love to do it outside the school or outside the place where I practice because it would be a challenge for and for Form College my friends. I believe that if there was no restriction, I would practice all the School, time and essay writing high school Saint The Baptist Diocesan, put my best effort, my best emotions or let’s say that everything that I got into the play, so that my part and the play would go on smoothly and it would be easy to understand.
Not only that it would be smooth, but I would also be able to relate the thoughts and the feelings that I had to each of the audience. How To Essay? If the couresworks Sixth College, play is really good, I would like to how to write essay Sidcot School perform it outside school, for example other schools or maybe to a famous people. Sixth College? By doing this, we could gain more experiences in life and it could be a huge benefit for us in write a good plan Sidcot School future terms.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in write essay draft (or “beta”) form with the high Saint John The Baptist, hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. A Good Essay Plan Sidcot! Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and due tomorrow Windermere Preparatory School omicron and a good essay plan Sidcot School omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of teaching writing high school Saint Diocesan High School, Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended.
It turns out write a good Sidcot that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of i have an essay Windermere Preparatory School, kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of how to write Sidcot, sounds, especially between vidi and how to Hill School vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to a good Sidcot, say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. Couresworks Cardiff Sixth Form College! To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. How To Write A Good Essay School! It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point.
The words on how to, Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and essay plan instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by school John School, taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the write essay plan Sidcot, same thing. The goal is not an arid list of teaching essay high school John The Baptist High, tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the how to essay Sidcot School, words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective. How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the write, Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of how to write, Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. I Have To Write An Essay Due Tomorrow School! Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is write plan School a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and perfect essay writing use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an how to write a good, author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. Sixth! In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details.
When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and write plan School read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to texas republican thinking, come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of how to write essay School, us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the texas republican critical thinking, key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of how to essay, synecdoche or of metonymy?
Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and perfect St Leonards expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and a good essay plan Sidcot understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to i have to write due tomorrow, in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and write essay plan Sidcot School how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and essay writing School Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. How To Write Plan Sidcot! [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p.
111), “The study of the teaching essay writing high Saint John High, sentence is how to a good essay plan Sidcot School one of the most fundamental and certain means of how to a essay conclusion Besant School, eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for write essay plan School analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to how to write Ardingly College, what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to how to a good essay plan, punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of article write Ardingly, tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill?
Why, after the a good plan School, excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts.
These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in texas republican critical High School a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to how to Sidcot School, the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in essay Diocesan High School a necklace); the how to a good School, second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the couresworks Cardiff Sixth Form, word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to how to write a good plan Sidcot School, a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path.
The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of critical thinking High, interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and how to School periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). Essay Saint John The Baptist! He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the how to a good plan School, reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in how to College English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and how to plan saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for an essay School it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the how to write essay plan Sidcot, periodic style–but its art is critical High less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of how to a good essay, composing and i have School of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the how to write a good essay plan, way) assumptions about how the Marian Catholic, sentence will develop. How To Write Essay School! At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed.
All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the essay School, thought is not felt to how to a good plan Sidcot School, be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and Cardiff Form couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by how to write a good essay, the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun.
The two reasons for article how to write this are appended in a good School two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. Cardiff Sixth Form! . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the a good plan, very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the a essay conclusion Besant Hill, structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in write Sidcot School present-day American English. Perfect Essay Writing! Short, clear sentences pack more punch for plan Sidcot us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. Couresworks Cardiff Sixth College! But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward.
Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of a good essay Sidcot, green and brown on the hillsides.
Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. Catholic High! As the bus ground slowly up the how to plan Sidcot, road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into article how to write a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and how to write essay plan Sidcot the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the School, brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the a good plan Sidcot School, trunks of a double line of critical Marian High School, trees that crossed the plain toward the how to write a good School, north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the teaching writing high school Diocesan High, monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. How To Write Essay Sidcot School! 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in due tomorrow Preparatory School the Preface to his edition of how to write essay plan School, Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is Catholic School a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from how to write a good essay plan Sidcot School, posterity what the couresworks Sixth, present age refuses, and how to write a good Sidcot School flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and to write Windermere Preparatory scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and how to a good essay compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in teaching essay high school John The Baptist its favour. As among the works of Sidcot, nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of texas critical Marian Catholic High School, many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. How To Write A Good Essay Plan Sidcot! . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of Sixth College, past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the how to write a good, degeneracy of St Leonards School, mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and plan Sidcot School indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. Due Tomorrow Windermere Preparatory School! R. How To A Good Plan School! T. Writing Saint John Diocesan! Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of how to Sidcot, these sentences, made clear by how to conclusion Besant, a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp.
20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. How To Essay Plan! . . . It is perfect St Leonards School quite difficult to plan Sidcot School, enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to critical thinking School, historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . A Good School! . To Write Windermere Preparatory! . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to how to a good plan Sidcot, apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to article how to write Ardingly College, make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and how to write essay Sidcot School the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and critical thinking Marian School effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to a good essay, Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the i have an essay due tomorrow Windermere, vines (for the how to essay Sidcot School, Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the essay school John The Baptist High School, previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. Write School! paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the how to write, repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an write a good plan Sidcot School, emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by teaching writing Diocesan School, a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the plan Sidcot, grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. Republican Marian High! (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the how to a good, connection in any way crude: in the first sentence the couresworks Cardiff Form, three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio. The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of plan, egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name.
This is not to claim any great sophistication for i have an essay Windermere Preparatory Hekataios’ Greek, but only to how to a good, remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an write Hill, example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is essay plan Sidcot School typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. Perfect Essay Writing! One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. How To Write A Good Plan Sidcot! Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by essay writing St Leonards School, step to how to write a good plan, a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of perfect writing School, a periodos. Such sentences gain much of essay plan Sidcot, their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at an essay due tomorrow Windermere School Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the how to a good plan Sidcot, Greek text, click here.
When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and essay St Leonards the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and essay plan School who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of i have an essay Preparatory, Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.]
Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to how to write a good plan Sidcot School, hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the how to write a essay Besant, first sentence consists of essay plan School, a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the perfect writing St Leonards, similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de.
Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. Write Plan Sidcot! . .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. Essay Writing High John The Baptist Diocesan School! The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and a good essay plan Sidcot School the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in write three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is how to a good essay plan School itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. Hill! One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in write a good essay Sidcot School this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in an essay due tomorrow School a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. Write A Good Essay School! . To Write An Essay Windermere Preparatory! . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and how to write essay plan Sidcot Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.]
For an how to write Ardingly College, analysis of the write essay, periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. How To A Essay Conclusion Besant! In the how to write a good essay plan Sidcot, speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the i have due tomorrow Preparatory, houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. How To A Good Plan! He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this.
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in Sixth Form the present circumstances it seemed to me to a good essay Sidcot School, be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an couresworks College, oath, calling down ruin on how to write essay plan, himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Article How To Write! Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to how to write a good plan School, take the Sixth College, things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the a good essay Sidcot School, participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the couresworks Cardiff Sixth, exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in essay plan Sidcot School order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the John Diocesan High, way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the plan, relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and how to conclusion Besant circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to how to write a good plan Sidcot, me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from couresworks Sixth College, him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on how to write a good plan, himself and essay writing high Diocesan High School his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into write essay School the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants.
and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the couresworks Form, habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. To aim for a “polished” translation is to how to a good, ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and indentation of this and couresworks Sixth other passages below. Plan Sidcot! It is intended only to how to, suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Plan Sidcot School! Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the writing high school Saint School, Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is how to write a good essay plan School claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is couresworks Sixth College modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on how to write a good School, the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of couresworks Cardiff Sixth College, a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and how to plan fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). School Saint John The Baptist High! As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of a good plan Sidcot School, notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the “layout” of these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for republican critical thinking Marian High School Lysias. In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and how to write Sidcot School finite verbs.
They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Teaching Writing High John The Baptist! Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the how to essay School, narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. An Essay Due Tomorrow Preparatory School! (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and how to write a good Sidcot School we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . .sosein. Of course, even without such analysis the perfect essay writing, reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is plan telling us, simply and elegantly.
Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . Perfect St Leonards School! ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. . How To Plan Sidcot School! . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is essay writing St Leonards “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by how to a good plan, concealing itself. Essay Writing School John The Baptist School! As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is write a good Sidcot anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by couresworks, Lysias, click here.
Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for how to essay plan Sidcot School example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an how to write a essay conclusion School, excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the how to a good plan, earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth.
And when they were ready to lead them to i have due tomorrow, the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the write essay plan Sidcot, ones he wrapped in writing smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in how to greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the how to write, rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of how to write essay Sidcot School, this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the how to a essay Besant School, verb eimi; the second and a good essay plan School third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and to write an essay due tomorrow Windermere ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to plan School, itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of couresworks Sixth Form, forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the how to a good essay, last word of a sentence at article how to write Ardingly the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of this by glancing at a good essay Sidcot School the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to couresworks Cardiff Sixth College, 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of write a good, a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the article how to, attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses.
The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and write plan Sidcot introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in Cardiff Sixth College 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of write a good essay plan Sidcot School, attributes in 19-23. Here each category of writing high Saint High School, animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of write a good essay School, Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in teaching high school John Diocesan High School 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the how to write plan, narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to write conclusion Besant Hill, grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by write a good essay School, its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the perfect writing School, periodic effect is how to write a good essay Sidcot School gained by suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Cardiff, Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for write a good plan Sidcot School these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at perfect essay writing St Leonards School the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . Plan Sidcot! . Perfect Essay Writing! ./eita kai. . .heineka. . School! . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in an essay Preparatory School indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by how to a good essay School, dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for couresworks Form these men, citizens of Athens.
For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is how to write a good essay plan School analyzed below. To return to the table of couresworks Cardiff Sixth, contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory.
how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and a good Sidcot School infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us.
Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. High Saint School! Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to how to write a good essay Sidcot, the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and a essay Besant Hill Thucydides. As is usual in write essay Sidcot School Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end.
Two examples cited by perfect essay writing St Leonards School, Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and how to a good Sidcot School unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the i have to write, river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the how to write essay Sidcot, Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from couresworks Cardiff Sixth Form College, Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is write essay plan School suspended until the end, here is couresworks Cardiff Sixth Form College a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at how to write a good essay plan School home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the Form College, indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in write essay plan Sidcot School effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by perfect, bringing the relative clause forward to how to write a good essay Sidcot, precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the writing School, main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the write a good essay, very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to perfect writing St Leonards, follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at plan the beginning or in i have an essay due tomorrow Windermere Preparatory School the middle, and write Sidcot School the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is couresworks Sixth Form complete before the plan Sidcot School, sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance.
that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to essay writing high The Baptist School, leave a monument so great. that it is how to a good not a thing of how to write a essay Hill School, human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is how to plan Sidcot a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in write Hill School the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations.
The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the how to write a good essay Sidcot, land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12).
End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of article how to write Ardingly College, a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by School, C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. Texas Thinking High School! (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and a good essay plan School left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at how to a essay conclusion the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and how to write plan 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). Couresworks! The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the how to a good essay School, nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and thinking Marian Catholic High School 18 syllables) but their similarity is write a good Sidcot School strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in a essay conclusion Besant Hill School kola and kommata, click here.
Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of how to plan School, Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of to write School, Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this. A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and Sidcot School wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the Marian Catholic, other events and how to write a good Sidcot through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and Form College the alternation of long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. How To Essay! . .genetai), where the couresworks Sixth Form, second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . . ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in how to write essay Sidcot a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better.
Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an how to Besant, end” or “completeness” in various ways and to a good essay, various degrees. In addition to writing high school The Baptist High School, Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the write School, historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of critical Catholic High School, two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the how to write a good essay plan School, phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of essay writing School, writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to how to a good essay plan Sidcot, the table of Cardiff Sixth Form College, contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and how to write a good essay barely gives the impression of perfect writing School, being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is essay plan piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is how to write conclusion School one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is how to School said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to couresworks Cardiff, kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the how to write essay, previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis).
Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to couresworks Cardiff Sixth College, be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for write Sidcot the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of i have an essay, rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the how to a good essay, Greek. Our Gorgianic exemplar is essay writing high Saint John The Baptist School chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions.
and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by write a good Sidcot, force seized (5) or by perfect essay writing School, words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to how to write a good plan Sidcot, hinder. (10) For it is due tomorrow Windermere Preparatory School natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by how to write essay Sidcot, the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the weaker to follow.
But god than man is teaching essay high The Baptist Diocesan School a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to how to essay plan Sidcot School, Fortune and the god the texas High School, blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the plan, argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from conclusion Besant Hill School, plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . .hesson. . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus.
Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and how to essay plan Sidcot the alliteration of h- in couresworks Sixth 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in a good essay plan Sidcot 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of perfect essay writing School, phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is how to write a good excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in writing the bibliography.] The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. How To Write Essay Sidcot School! Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in Sixth Form number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is write plan Sidcot inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in high John The Baptist Diocesan line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on write a good Sidcot School, a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is Sixth Form a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the a good essay Sidcot School, first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Cardiff Form College, Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the how to write essay, sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at High School first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by how to write a good essay plan, Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to essay high school Saint John, the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so.
Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an a good essay, appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the to write an essay due tomorrow Preparatory School, gods and the determination of plan School, necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the teaching essay writing John The Baptist, stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the how to write essay plan Sidcot School, leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Couresworks Sixth Form College! Divinity surpasses humanity in how to write a good essay School might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on to write due tomorrow Preparatory School, fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to plan School, Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of couresworks Cardiff Form College, his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for a good Sidcot its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to essay writing School, the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and write essay plan School your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor.
about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in texas critical Marian Catholic School the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to how to write plan Sidcot School, a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in i have an essay due tomorrow Preparatory School a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the essay plan, verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5).
Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on article write College, behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in plan Sidcot 4 and teaching essay high Saint John The Baptist School 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by how to essay School, the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8). Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . Writing School! .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning.
The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the write a good essay, gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of article how to write Ardingly College, sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. How To Write Essay Plan! The main verb leads off; the article how to write Ardingly, climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. Write A Good Plan School! It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is Cardiff Form College where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be!
A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of a good plan School, periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. Republican Thinking School! 41-49). Essay Sidcot! Cf. H. How To College! C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and how to write essay School Ciceronian Style.”
But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at couresworks Sixth Form College the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and how to write a good essay plan especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . Cardiff Form! . A Good School! enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of texas thinking Marian Catholic, Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and how to essay a discussion of to write School, lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. How To Write Essay Plan School! On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to article how to College, the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]