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50 Controversial Persuasive Speech Topics. Controversy attracts people like ants to honey. Whether it’s something that happens in the neighborhood or in the political arena, it evokes discussions that last months or years. A controversial persuasive speech involves picking up a topic that is controversial in nature and submission Hurtwood House, it has to be one that either stands the test of time or belongs to the current world we live in. Here are some creative controversial persuasive speech topics that are sure to attract your audience and IMG Academy, elicit an emotional response, which is what persuasion is meant to do. You can create a speech around a topic based on your stand. A List Of 50 Controversial Persuasive Speech Topics: “Pride House for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) athletes. Islamic economics and capitalism. Which is better?

A non-college education for higher income possibilities. (A PhD Biologist earns less than a highly skilled aircraft engine mechanic.) Bailing out of banks and financial institutions by the government. UK is a surveillance society based on the level of regulation and submission Hurtwood House, surveillance. Hall. Polygamy should be legalized. The negative impact of a lesbian mother on House, her daughter. The requirement of Moreton School a warrant for article Hurtwood House search and seizures should be dropped. Abolishment of the jury, giving sole power of decision to a judge or to writing essays, a panel of judges. The use of biological weapons that strike a specific race and leave most others unharmed. Jama Submission. Torture as a useful interrogation tool for particularly heinous crimes like rape, child molestation, murders etc.

Mandatory implants of contraception against pregnancy for all (both sexes) close to the average onset of puberty until people obtain a license to have children. To conceive, both parents must be certified. The merits of genetically modified organisms, specifically transgenic crops. The world would be better off without organized religion. Why we should not buy music released under RIAA labels.

Harvesting sperm from dead male relatives/spouses for someone else to have their own children. The use of stem cells from aborted babies to cure diseases. Legalization of assisted suicide for people suffering from terminal illnesses. Hunting is good as it brings in Ely, money for the state and local businesses. Article Submission Hurtwood House. Religion can help with the spiritual growth in a society where people are nothing more than shelled husks without souls, where only money and superficial beauty matter.

Why self help books cannot help and are cheap and short-term fixes, rather than a long-term solution. Nature versus nurture. Going green is not legit and isn’t working. The ethics of (INTO) combining human and animal DNA in order to jama article, research stem cells. Essay Idea College. Chip implants in jama article House, pets for identification. Anarchism is thinking requires School better than all forms of government due to its definitions and applications. Racial profiling should be done. Say no to adult content in cartoons and other programs watched by article submission Hurtwood House, children. Single parents should not be allowed to adopt. Mba Essay Services Hudson College. The use of health insurance companies, of the medical history and genetic information of their clients. Gender choice during child adoption.

Availability of HIV drug kits in article, drug stores. Implanted GPS systems threaten privacy. Why using ‘Yank’ ‘N****r’ ‘Abo’ ‘Asian’ ‘Kiwi etc. is not offensive. Journalism is the art of intellectual prostitution. Say no to mba essay writing services Hudson, palm oil and other products made with palm oil and save the orangutans. Climate change is more political than scientific. Jama Submission. Allowing drugs in essay idea, some sports competitions will allow us to keep others clean. Why the jama submission Hurtwood, decision to disarm Americans may lead America to thinking Hall School, Civil war? Why the all-male court culture doesn’t work. Submission Hurtwood House. Why mass school shootings should not get media attention.

Should prayers be imposed in schools? Why? Zodiac signs changed with the introduction of the 13 th . Fast food chains should face regulations as a result of the nation’s obesity problem. It should be legally made mandatory for research adoptive parents to allow biological parents access to the children they gave birth to. Terminally ill patients should be allowed to House, use h****n.

The ethics of Drone warfare. Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? Why America should stop behaving like the World’s police force. New York City soft drink size limit should be implemented. Ban all foods containing “beef, in writing business, view of the huge 2013 meat adulteration scandal. You must understand that controversy doesn’t mean a personal insult. It just means convincing people to accept your side of the submission, story. Go ahead and get your ideas across to the audience with any one of the hot controversial topics listed above. Essay Sheridan. 20 Responses to “50 Controversial Persuasive Speech Topics” WARNING: Number 17 is NOT a thing! After watching three stem cell documentaries and doing a week of research on House, stem cells for an extensive research paper/ debate speech topic I discover that it is NOT possible to recover embryonic stem cells from aborted fetuses, as you can only recover them from critical requires Hall School, a seven day old blastocyst at the OLDEST. I guess it is my fault for not looking into the possibility part of jama submission Hurtwood House it before the writing essays, ethics and science part of it.

DO NOT MAKE MY MISTAKE. House. I came to this site to find an interesting topic to speak on writing Hudson College, in my upcoming speech, unfortunately I did not realize that I was going to come across so much racism in submission Hurtwood House, the topics listed. Whoever made this site is obviously extremely racist and should strongly consider removing some of those topics. Have you consider the idea that the person who made this list was just trying to thinking requires Moreton Hall School, give out statements/topics that are extremely controversial? Maybe the Hurtwood, person was attempting to list great topics/statements that you may want to argue against. The site is not necessarily racist for posting the list.

Grow a pair please. None of these were racist, but rather commented on the racist tendencies of many people in the world. If you cannot handle that people are not nice, get off the internet before your feefees get hurt again. I mean you did click on mba essay services Hudson College, a post that was called 50 CONTROVERSIAL persuasive speech topics, so if you choose to be offended so be it. theyre titled controversial for a reason yknow… Hence why it is article submission Hurtwood House CONTROVERSIAL. You can support or attack any of these said topics, the author is not making claims, but merely providing a list of business topics to write about. being racist is part of the whole “controversial” thing. I mean racism does create controversy. maybe you should write a paper about how the world is now filled with a bunch of sensitive cry babies. The person who wrote these isn’t racist. these are actually huge topics in today’s. Jama Article Submission Hurtwood. world. Get over it. You’re racist for thinking this is racist.

I like some of these but, some of these are repulsive and shitty. In defense of the idea Sheridan College, author of this list, the submission Hurtwood, point is that these topics are controversial. The author should not be accused of racism simply because he/she published a list of intentionally hot topics. Let’s thank the author for the topic ideas and critical School, understand the intent of the article. I’m on my high school debate team and I use these topics all the time. Most people on the team think I’m a terrible person. In regards to 33. The words Nigga and Kiwi are worlds apart and should not be banded into one group! As a Kiwi this term represents national identity and pride. The N word is jama article Hurtwood House a term steeped in research paper, years of racism, slavery and inhumanity. WTF is this. Jama Hurtwood. people should stop being so butt-hurt about everything.

These are all good ideas to persuade. Writing King’s Ely. They dont necessarily mean they’re true, but they represent an individuals views. We all have the right to believe what we want and to profess that belief. Just like calling somebody a homophobe for not agreeing with homosexuality. Disagreement does not mean hate, nor phobia. There is a reason they are called “Controversial.” The author of the article did not state his/her opinion on any of the House, matters that were listed. He/She simply listed them as topics that people are fighting over. Of course racism is going to be a big part of controversial issues. Not only that, but just because a topic hurts someone’s feelings –which, by the way, is kind of a big part of why something is labeled controversial to being with– doesn’t mean it should be taken down. In fact, I would argue that it should be left up so that it can be discussed and essay Sheridan College, hopefully resolved.

You guys went on to an article titled “50 ***controversial*** persuasive speech topics.” Why on Earth are you complaining that the topics listed are controversial?! I guarantee it was a white person that came up with # 33. It’s always interesting to see Caucasians try to be the moral Policemen of the world and try to tell other races how we should think, see, and feel. Hurtwood. All racial slurs are offensive! I could not understand 34.how journalism is the art of prostitution.

It says 50 controversial persuasive topics in research submission, the title….Did you really expect to article House, agree with all of them? Don’t read it if you aren’t mature enough to handle a controversial and possibly uncomfortable topic. lmfao, I find it funny how people find these topics offensive. I bet they’re ignorant of what’s really going on requires Hall School, in the world.

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How Do I Hate NPR? Let Me Count the Ways. Every few years I make an anthropological visit to my sister's home out west. My sister—her name is withheld to protect the guilty—is a lifelong bureaucrat who's never worked for submission House anyone who had to show a profit, and critical she is jama article House deeply suspicious of the whole concept. She'll drive miles across the city to poke through the out-of-copyright videotapes at the public library rather than spend two bucks to idea rent one at the Blockbuster down the street. She regards any financial transaction between two parties not employed by the government as vaguely shady, if not downright illicit. Needless to say, she listens to National Public Radio. Every morning that I stay at her house, I'm awakened at 6 AM by jama article submission the droning baritone of narrative essays College, Bob Edwards, the anchor of Morning Edition . The program stays on until 8:30, when my sister dashes to her car and switches it on submission House there to listen to the final half hour on her way to work.

And in the afternoon I usually have to leave the house to avoid being driven to homicide by the discordant tinkling of the All Things Considered theme, which echoes from her radio from 5 PM to 6:30. Of course, lots of people have favorite news programs. I don't think my father missed more than half-a-dozen telecasts of The Huntley-Brinkley Report in his entire life. But what moves my sister's obsession with NPR from the mildly eccentric to the downright bizarre is that it's her sole source of thinking medicine, news. She never watches network television news, and she'll tune in a local program only when she knows it's running a story about one of her bureaucratic projects. She subscribes to a local paper, but only for the arts listings. This has led to some grave disappointments in my sister's life. Jama Submission? She is still perplexed that the critical Hall, ERA didn't make it into the Constitution, since, she told me, NPR reported that the election of Jimmy Carter made it a sure thing.

And she was dumbfounded when the Christic Institute's lawsuit, which alleged that the article Hurtwood, entire national security apparatus of the U.S. government was nothing more than a drug ring, was dismissed by critical thinking of Exeter a federal judge before coming to trial. NPR, she said, had made it all sound so reasonable. Article Submission Hurtwood? (The fact that the suit was filed by thinking medicine of Exeter an NPR stringer, to my sister's way of thinking, only confirmed its validity.) Once in a while, I gently hint to my sister that her worldview might be slightly better rounded if she would acknowledge that perhaps Linda Wertheimer is jama article submission not the final authority on everything under the sun. My suggestions are always met with scorn. You can get your news from giant corporations if you want to, she snaps. I'd rather get mine from people who aren't motivated by profit. I'd rather get my news from people who think like me. For a long time I considered my sister a harmless aberration—an upscale version of the guys you occasionally read about requires Moreton Hall School who think they get secret messages from Elvis through their fillings. But as the years have passed, I've met more and more people who share her fetish for NPR.

In fact, NPR itself likes to brag about the Hurtwood House, cultish devotion of its listeners. The network's 1991 annual report includes letters from a number of hopelessly fixated groupies who regard NPR roughly the mba essay services College, same way John Hinckley regarded Jodie Foster. One listener boasts that he and his wife recently drove from Buckhannon, West Virginia, to Portland, Oregon, and back, listening to NPR every foot of the 6,500 miles. Another, from Randolph, Massachusetts, flatly declares: If I am informed at all about jama submission anything current, it is because I listen to Sheridan College NPR. With my sister, these listeners share the peculiar belief that they're better informed because they obtain all their information from a single source—that exposing themselves to an alternative would not only not add to their knowledge, but would actually subtract from it. Most NPR listeners, I'm sure, wouldn't trust an economist who bragged that he accepted only the scholarship of Milton Friedman, or a politician who read only the jama article, works of writing College, Lenin. But somehow they think their own understanding of the world is enhanced by basing it exclusively on a news organization that labors in an antiquated, one-dimensional medium and whose entire staff wouldn't fill the city room at House, the New York Times . This is something of a mystery—that highly educated, well-to-do people (for that is what NPR's listeners are, mostly) would adopt the kind of intellectual isolationism that we would ordinarily associate with survivalist cults holed up in the Ozarks. Like survivalists, NPR listeners are not exactly numerous—There are more people falling off the face of the earth than there are listening to NPR, observes Bill McCleneghan, ABC Radio's vice president for research—but, like survivalists, their very existence is a troubling enigma. You always have to wonder: Do they know something the persuasive Sheridan College, rest of us don't? Recently I decided to get to the bottom of this. I became an undercover NPR listener.

To my family and Hurtwood House friends, I kept up a facade of normality, reading my regular newspapers and watching television news. Thinking Medicine Of Exeter? But, in the privacy of my bedroom, away from the jama Hurtwood, world's prying eyes, I got up every morning at 6 and listened to all three hours of writing services Hudson College, Morning Edition (the length of the program varies from jama Hurtwood House, market to market). And every afternoon at Lancing, 5 I mixed a stiff drink and settled in for 90 minutes of article, All Things Considered . My conclusion: I'd rather be a survivalist. YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE TED KENNEDY TO LISTEN TO NPR, BUT IT HELPS. The charge that NPR's newscasts have a leftward spin goes clear back to the network's origin in persuasive essay idea College, 1970. Just two years later, Richard Nixon, angered by what he perceived as programming bias at NPR and its television cousins at the Public Broadcasting Service, vetoed their appropriations.

He later reversed his decision, to the eternal dismay of jama submission House, conservatives, who've been braying about NPR ever since. Every time I turn on NPR, I think I'm listening to the Democratic National Committee, Bob Dole complained last year. Nixon and Dole, of course, are hardly arbiters of political neutrality. But the truth is that you don't have to be a graduate of the Spiro Agnew School of essay idea Sheridan College, Korrect Journalism to recognize a persistent liberal bias in NPR newscasts. The evidence is all over the place, and it doesn't take a microscope to Hurtwood House find it. Take, for example, NPR's coverage of the battle over Bill Clinton's $16 billion economic stimulus package. During the week I listened (April 12 to 16), this was a hot topic. Readers of the New York Times , the Washington Post , and research IMG Academy just about House every other newspaper in America knew that Senate Republicans had—against all expectations—stuck together in maintaining a filibuster against paper submission the bill, and that it was in serious trouble. But I'll bet my sister and her friends had no idea. All week, NPR portrayed an indomitable Bill Clinton riding a tidal wave of public support against a faceless and—more importantly, in the context of radio—voiceless Republican rabble.

During the first three days of the week, NPR ran 11 stories on Clinton's campaign for the package, all of them centered around speeches by the president or Al Gore. For three full days their voices echoed over the NPR airwaves, accusing Republicans of fighting to withhold immunizations from poor children and of being antiprogress. Often their sound bites were followed by jama submission Hurtwood House the comments of NPR reporters, adding that audiences were enthusiastic or the president's message struck a nerve. For good measure, there was an interview with Cokie Roberts, noted NPR expert on you-name-it, in which she allowed as how there's more than a little racism in anyone who opposes aid to cities. Essay College? And senior news analyst Daniel Schorr urged Clinton to stand up in the name of principle and tell those dirty partisan Republicans: No more Mr. Nice Guy. This is jama article Hurtwood your president speaking.

And where was the Republican rebuttal to all this? Well, it wasn't to writing narrative College be found on submission Hurtwood NPR. It wasn't until the writing business articles, afternoon of April 15, the fourth day that I listened to the network, that I heard a Republican voice on the subject of the filibuster. And even then, it was a Republican analyst apparently conceding that the filibuster would probably collapse, but insisting it was a moral victory nonetheless. The theme of reporter Elizabeth Arnold's story was that Republicans had taken advantage of the fact that Clinton had been briefly distracted by the death of his father-in-law. (Those bounders!) But the candidate whose discipline seldom faltered during a tumultuous election year is article House back on solid footing, Arnold reassured her listeners. The next morning she offered more comfort: President Clinton may have stumbled a bit . . . but he's not ready to take a legislative fall. Critical Medicine Of Exeter? Actually, he was; the White House was already offering desperate compromises to moderate Republicans in hopes of salvaging some of the House, stimulus package, and in less than a week it would be stone-cold dead. NPR took a similarly partisan course in coverage of another of the week's big stories, the discovery of a document in Soviet archives stating that the North Vietnamese held back several hundred American POWs when the two countries signed a peace treaty in 1973.

All week, NPR stories quoted anonymous congressional staffers expressing doubts about the authenticity of the critical thinking requires School, document. Fair enough; there are a lot of troublesome questions about its origin and contents. On the other hand, there are also highly qualified people who argue that the document is submission Hurtwood genuine, including Zbigniew Brzezinski. And the Harvard researcher who found it, Stephen Morris, was in New York, where the New York Times , the Washington Times , and ABC's Nightline all managed to find him. But NPR either couldn't find him or couldn't be bothered to confront him. Paper Submission IMG Academy? Instead they ran sound bites of Morris and Republican senator Robert Smith that had been taped off a Nightline broadcast two nights earlier. Theirs were the only voices that appeared on the radio all week in support of the document's authenticity. Although NPR couldn't track down any sources of jama article Hurtwood, their own to back up Morris, reporter John Greenberg did manage to find someone to paper IMG Academy impugn him.

Greenberg interviewed John McAuliff of the U.S.-Indochina Reconciliation Project, who dismissed the document as a fake because Morris has been involved in an active polemic against people who favor normalization of jama, relations [between Vietnam and the U.S.]. . . . He has a viewpoint. Now, if Greenberg had called some conservative think tank or political organization, he might have gotten an additional comment that sounded something like this: John McAuliff has been involved in licking the boots of Vietnamese communists for more than two decades, first as a prominent antiwar activist and now as a professional apologist, and of course he can't accept the document because it would prove that, for all these years, he's either been hopelessly stupid or willfully deceptive in his depiction of the Hanoi government. Submission? He has a viewpoint. Do you think Greenberg made that phone call? Do you think pigs have wings?

In the NPR dialectic, only anticommunists are suspected of partiality. So the broadcast made no mention at all of McAuliff's background. Similarly, when Robert Siegel interviewed Eugene Terre Blanche, the head of jama submission Hurtwood House, South Africa's Afrikaner Resistance Movement, he introduced him as a right-wing extremist. (Accurate, even mild.) But during the thinking medicine (INTO), interview, Siegel referred to Chris Hani, the article House, recently murdered head of the paper, South African Communist Party, only as a popular black public figure. (Especially misleading because it appears Hani was killed less because of his race than because of his party affiliation.) You might think that after two decades of threats from Republicans to article Hurtwood House lay waste to idea College NPR, its reporters (or their editors, if such exist, which I doubt from the windiness of jama submission, some of the pieces) would at least make an critical thinking medicine (INTO) effort to be more circumspect about coloring their stories. Article House? But it doesn't seem to work that way. Research Paper? Several times I heard them tripped up by their own reporting. For instance, one morning reporter Kathy Lohr filed a story about the Operation Rescue training camp in Florida, where antiabortion protesters learn the article Hurtwood House, tricks of their trade. Lohr solemnly informed her listeners that the camp's executive director teaches antiabortion troops not to use their own name when gathering information about doctors who work in idea, abortion clinics.

But the jama article Hurtwood, sound bite from the executive director himself didn't quite square with her interpretation: It's just better if they don't know who's asking for the information. We can surprise them with information a lot better that way, and business articles King’s they can't go back and try to cover their trail. So that's important. Use other people that aren't as well-known as you may be. (Emphasis added.) Assigning lesser-known members of the group to gather information is a far cry from doing it under a false name.

Ethically speaking, it doesn't even strike me as a close call. And I'll bet that if Lohr were reporting on how prochoice people sometimes infiltrate antiabortion groups to gather information for lawsuits, she wouldn't have condemned the practice. Sometimes NPR reporters were so thoroughly contradicted by article submission Hurtwood their own stories that it was downright funny. My favorite was a story about Clinton and the news media by College Andy Bowers. The thesis of the piece was that the first few months of the Clinton administration seem to have strained the bond between the people and the press because reporters have been so rough on Clinton. To prove it, Bowers interviewed some residents of Jefferson City, Missouri. Said the first one: Media is doing their typical bashing the guy in charge, like always. Jama Submission? It's nice to see them do it to Moreton Hall School a Democrat. Chimed in another: They baby him.

They follow him around, they really don't challenge him. Added a third: I don't believe George Bush in his first 100 days made near as many people mad as Bill Clinton. Yup, it sounds like the citizens of submission House, Jefferson City are just about ready to storm the offices of the TV networks with torches and pitchforks, demanding fair play for Clinton. Lest there be any confusion, Bowers interviewed University of Missouri journalism professor George Kennedy. Sheridan College? He explained just what those untutored Jefferson City louts, with their poor command of jama article Hurtwood, English, were really trying to say: There's a fairly widely held sense in the public that there really ought to be a kind of honeymoon, that simple fairness dictates that the new president ought to have a chance to research IMG Academy get his program up and running before we start picking it apart. (I wonder if Kennedy thinks the public was well served when the news media let the Vietnam war get up and running before asking any tough questions.) By the end of his report, even Bowers seemed hopelessly confused by what he was trying to article submission Hurtwood say. He quoted a Los Angeles Times poll showing that two-thirds of those responding think the press is too chummy with the paper IMG Academy, government. Article Submission Hurtwood? And there were more quotes from Jefferson City. Thinking Medicine University Of Exeter? There's so much we don't know that goes on over there [in Washington], said one.

The only way a reporter is gonna get on the inside is by playing the game, declared another. It sounds to me like what Jefferson City wants is not a honeymoon but a divorce. Laurence Jarvik, a conservative critic of public broadcasting, once asked plaintively: Why is it that there's room at NPR for article House a practicing witch, but not a practicing conservative? (By the way, this was not—as the uncharitable might have suspected—a reference to Nina Totenberg, but to reporter Margot Adler, who actually casts spells and critical thinking requires stuff like that.) This, I suspect, has a good deal to do with the ideological drift of NPR's news. It's not that the network's editorial brain trust meets each morning to plot the day's campaign to rid America of Republican taint. It's that the newsroom is composed almost entirely of like-minded people who share one another's major philosophical precepts. Jama? When my sister says that she wants to hear news from people who think like me, she's put her finger on the problem. Their thinking is apparent in both what they report and their approach to it. They believe that government is the fundamental agent of change, that government can and should solve most problems. They believe most of those solutions involve spending large sums of money.

They believe that taxes are not only an appropriate way of raising money, but an important social responsibility. Essays Lancing College? They believe that, although individuals cannot always be trusted to make correct choices, bureaucrats usually can. In short, NPR reporters are the kinds of people who voted for jama article Michael Dukakis and Bill Clinton, not as the lesser evils but enthusiastically, in the firm belief that what the world needs is better social engineering. Their umbilical attachment to the state is most clearly visible when it comes to stories concerning taxation. NPR reporters will have their eyes put out with red-hot pokers before they'll question the sanctity of a tax—any tax. Consider a story filed by Daniel Zwerdling, NPR's correspondent in Nairobi. Kenya's government is close to going bankrupt, Zwerdling said by way of introduction.

Hospitals can't afford to buy medicines. The national telephone system is breaking down. Schools can't afford to buy benches, so children sit on mba essay Hudson College the floor. Jama Article Hurtwood? And when you call the police to tell them thieves are breaking into your house, the police say they can't help you unless you give them a ride because they don't have cars. And why is writing Hudson College Kenya broke? One root of the problem is that most of the people who are supposed to article submission House pay taxes never do, Zwerdling explained. And it must be the most important root, in his eyes, because he never identified another. The rest of the idea, story was about a new tax-collection system that has been blocked by Kenyan president Daniel arap Moi. In point of article Hurtwood, actual fact, Kenya ought to be able to make its government work without collecting a shilling in taxes. Until recently the country was getting a staggering $1 billion a year in Western aid, which ought to have covered the narrative essays Lancing College, entire Kenyan budget with money left over for doughnuts all around.

But in 1991 the donor nations began cutting back because of the breathtaking waste and theft that go on in Kenya's 300 or so state-owned industries. (One particularly nimble Kenyan kleptocrat, former energy minister Nicholas Biwott, is estimated by the British government to have made off with hundreds of jama article submission, millions of dollars all by writing Ely himself.) Ask any foreign diplomat or independent economist in Nairobi for Hurtwood the top five reasons the Kenyan economy is crumbling, and tax collection will be at IMG Academy, the bottom of the jama article submission Hurtwood House, list—if it's mentioned at all. But at thinking Hall, NPR it leads the hit parade. If NPR reporters were scandalized by jama submission House the reluctance of persuasive essay, Kenyan cattle herders to keep funding London penthouses for submission Hurtwood that nation's thieving rulers, then imagine how they feel about comparatively affluent Americans who try to essays beat the tax system. As April 15 approached, NPR correspondents foamed at the mouth about the dire consequences of jama Hurtwood, tax evasion. In North Carolina, NPR reported, the research paper submission IMG Academy, government will put your name in the paper.

In Virginia they'll put it on television. And stiffing Uncle Sam (who, coincidentally, funds NPR's sugar daddies at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting)—well, don't even think about it. If you plan to miss the deadline or try to jama submission House do some fancy paper shuffling on deductions, warned All Things Considered host Linda Wertheimer in her sternest voice, you may want to think again. Her warning was somewhat undercut by research submission the interview that followed, in which a Forbes editor said the IRS only audits 1 percent of all tax returns. But Wertheimer did perk up considerably when the editor agreed that if they [the IRS] catch you, they can kill you. What do you mean? inquired Wertheimer excitedly. Her enthusiasm dampened only slightly upon jama article submission learning that the word kill had been used metaphorically.

To their credit, NPR reporters do seem to have a vague notion that some Americans don't share their zeal for taxes. So when the White House floated a trial balloon suggesting that Clinton is considering a value-added tax (VAT), they tried to critical requires Hall School soften the blow. Bob Edwards interviewed NPR reporter Patricia Neighmond about how the VAT works. After she explained that it entails taxing each and House every step of a product's manufacture, Edwards observed that as the taxes mounted, there would be an increasingly higher price on the product. Well, it would seem so, Neighmond replied, apparently holding out thinking some hope that friendly emissaries from the planet Zork would swoop down and pay the taxes, sparing earthlings the pain. Later that day, on All Things Considered , Daniel Schorr carefully instructed his listeners that they shouldn't blame Clinton for the VAT.

The fact is submission Hurtwood that, having in persuasive College, February rejected the idea of a VAT tax, Mr. Clinton is being forced to consider it again, Schorr affirmed. Jama Hurtwood House? Alas, this raised more questions than it answered. Who, exactly, was forcing the president? Did Hillary have her cattle prod out again? Was Janet Reno threatening to send FBI agents over to the White House to practice Texas fire drills? Schorr, obviously constrained by national security concerns, wouldn't say. But, he consoled, the VAT has its charms. What makes it attractive, he noted, is what has made it attractive to business articles King’s European countries and Canada. Here the veteran reporter was clearly the victim of a technical glitch. Article Submission Hurtwood? What he was trying to say was, what has made it attractive to European countries and Canada, compared to being sodomized by a herd of rabid camels.

As the business articles King’s, next morning's Post reported, It would be hard to find a person, institution or program in Canada that is jama submission Hurtwood hated more [than the VAT]. Undaunted, Schorr continued: On the plus side, a value-added tax could raise so much money that it might be possible to offer cuts in submission IMG Academy, other taxes. As he spoke, I could almost hear a sigh of relief echoing from Takoma Park and the rest of the NPR ghettos around Washington. Jama Article House? Schorr had saved the critical requires Moreton Hall, day. Most estimates have put the maximum potential revenue from the article submission, VAT at around $68 billion. Meanwhile, estimates of the cost of Hillary's new health program (which is what the VAT is supposed to fund) range anywhere from $100 billion to critical thinking medicine $150 billion.

Only a steel-trap mind like Schorr's could have performed the article submission Hurtwood, complex mathematical functions necessary to turn a $30 billion shortfall into writing articles a tax-cutting surplus. Literally no subject is submission Hurtwood safe from NPR's love affair with taxes. Even a piece on how name-brand products are losing market share to generics ended with a wild (and, of course, unanswered) tirade by an antismoking Nazi demanding a 40-cents-a-pack tax on cigarettes. The flip side of taxation is submission subsidy, and submission Hurtwood House NPR reporters never question the need for that, either. I listened in amazement to a story by Dan Charles on thinking School a new half-billion-dollar handout to military contractors to convert them into civilian industries. Jama Submission House? It sounded like a piece on critical requires Hall School some kind of arts-and-crafts program for House retarded kids, with arms merchants bubbling on about how they were learning to make golf clubs instead of missile launchers. Not once did it occur to Charles to ask a simple question: If it's in the economic interest of these companies to convert anyway, then why should the government pay them to do it?

The reason he didn't ask, I'm sure, is that he shares the thinking Moreton Hall School, belief of technocrats that economies and societies, deprived of submission Hurtwood House, adult supervision, will quickly devolve into chaos and bedlam. Social engineers view the world as a huge Skinner box through which they must guide us pigeons with little rewards and medicine University of Exeter penalties. It's a vision enthusiastically shared by NPR reporters, who react with ill-concealed horror at any suggestion that the jama article submission Hurtwood House, pigeons might seize control of the laboratory. One of the paper, most telling moments of my ordeal-by-NPR came while Linda Wertheimer was interviewing a computer developer on jama submission House what will happen when computers are linked into televisions—the so-called intelligent TV. He predicted the development of literally hundreds of new interactive television networks and services that would give the individual TV viewer an narrative Lancing incredible amount of jama article Hurtwood House, power to program for essays Lancing their own tastes rather than have to rely on House these programming guys. Replied a perturbed Wertheimer: Is there any way we can dodge this bullet? The idea that the government might impede rather than advance societal development is utterly alien to research paper NPR. One morning I listened as John McChesney reported the announcement that the giant cable company TCI would spend $2 billion to build a broad-band fiber-optic communications network—the data superhighway that will permit the development of the jama Hurtwood House, intelligent TV. Critical Thinking Of Exeter? McChesney made the astonishing assertion that TCI was undertaking the project not because of the incalculable billions of dollars in Hurtwood, profits it may generate, but because of Bill Clinton's aggressive promotion of an information infrastructure. In fact, the private sector has been trying for some time to get the IMG Academy, federal government to permit the creation of a data superhighway. MCI, ATT, and jama submission Hurtwood House Sprint already have the fiber-optic networks in place.

But federal rules and regulations have prevented them from being hooked up to individual homes. McChesney is certainly aware of this—he even touched on critical thinking requires Moreton Hall the point later in his report—but that didn't stop him from article submission House, declaring that the private sector was acting only because the submission, government told it to. YOU WANT AN ALTERNATIVE, LOOK IN THE THESAURUS. NPR's founders thought they were creating government-funded underground radio. Article Hurtwood? Their original statement of purpose called for programming that would promote personal growth rather than corporate gain, and not only call attention to medicine of Exeter (INTO) a problem, but be an active agent in submission Hurtwood, seeking solutions. If it had worked out that way, NPR news might be a lot more interesting. But it didn't. NPR is mba essay writing College not a national version of, say, a Pacifica station, where an announcer might analyze the virtues of different brands of LSD or urge people to House go naked on Election Day.

Instead, it's a house organ of respectable inside-the-Beltway liberalism—news written by and for thinking Hall aging yuppies whose idea of adventuresome politics is submission Hurtwood telling Dan Quayle jokes. In fact, NPR's toughest critics these days come from the left, and they hammer away at writing Lancing, this very point. Quoting Democrats instead of Republicans, the critics argue, offers an alternative in roughly the same way that Cheez Whiz is an alternative to article submission Velveeta. One of the most savage recent critiques of NPR news came from Charlotte Ryan, a professor of sociology at critical thinking medicine (INTO), Simmons College and codirector of Boston College's Media Research and Action Project. She studied every weekday broadcast of Morning Edition and submission House All Things Considered from September through December 1991, reading the transcripts of 2,296 stories. (Her ennui threshold is obviously a good deal higher than mine.) NPR's regular coverage mirrored that of critical thinking, commercial news programming, Ryan concluded. NPR stories focus on the same Washington-centered events and jama article submission House public figures as the commercial news, with the White House and Congress setting much of the narrative Lancing, political agenda. NPR's sources often paralleled those of Nightline and other network public affairs shows, with a similar tilt toward government sources and politically centrist or conservative think tanks and publications. Ryan found that more than three-fifths of NPR's domestic stories were reported from Washington, and jama Hurtwood only 10 percent from the writing College, midwest.

The sources most commonly quoted were government officials. And, if you're one of those people who like their news drawn from and delivered by article submission Hurtwood House a politically correct mixture of research IMG Academy, races and sexes, then NPR definitely is not for you; you may be surprised to learn that Ryan found that most of the network's sources and jama article submission Hurtwood commentators were the dreaded Pale Penis People. Portions of her study must be taken with a grain of salt—Ryan is surely the paper, only person in America who believes that Nina Totenberg's coverage of the fall 1991 Supreme Court nomination was biased in jama submission Hurtwood House, favor of Clarence Thomas—but the week I listened to NPR, it sounded pretty much the paper, way she described it. The vast majority of stories reported on Morning Edition and jama submission House All Things Considered come off the Associated Press wire or are rewritten from the Washington Post , the New York Times , and the Wall Street Journal . Most of writing narrative, them are event driven: Clinton makes a speech, the Labor Department issues economic statistics, the U.N. issues a new warning about Bosnia, Janet Reno does a photo op. Anybody listening to jama submission Hurtwood House ABC or CBS radio news would hear nearly all of this, and without the numbing repetition. (One day I listened to Morning Edition report nine different times that the jury in the Rodney King trial was still out, with no new developments.) Only once during the week I listened to IMG Academy NPR did I hear a story of any significance that didn't appear in jama, all the other major news media.

On April 15, John Nielsen reported, several days ahead of the pack, that the Clinton administration would sign the Rio de Janeiro biodiversity treaty that had been deep-sixed by George Bush. Good job. But mostly what the scoop illustrates is the precarious niche that NPR has carved for itself: It shuns the alternative label, but it doesn't have the resources or the talent to thinking medicine University of Exeter (INTO) successfully compete with the mainstream media. Breaking a single story in a week is hardly going to put the fear of God in jama submission House, Peter Jennings or Max Frankel. Not even the most delirious NPR staffer would make that claim, of course. Research Submission IMG Academy? The standard—and cleverly hedged—boast of NPR people is the one NPR reporter Alex Chadwick made at article submission, a recent public-radio fund-raiser in Hartford: We've evolved past being an alternative medium to being, I think, the submission IMG Academy, dominant radio news organization in jama article submission, the country.

To which the only sensible reply is: So what? Being the dominant radio news organization might have meant something in the days when Ed Murrow was broadcasting live accounts of Nazi air raids from London. But for King’s the past 30 years, radio news has been on the scrap heap. A poll released earlier this year by the National Association of Broadcasters showed that only 16 percent of Americans consider radio an important source of news, compared with 69 percent for television and 43 percent for newspapers. And just 7 percent picked radio as the jama House, most credible news medium. (By the research submission, way, Chadwick is most assuredly not talking about numbers of listeners when he uses the word dominant. Morning Edition and All Things Considered have less than 3 percent of the article submission Hurtwood House, radio audience at any given moment.)

Newspapers offer their readers depth and eclecticism. Television offers its viewers drama. Radio offers its listeners—well, not much. Writing Narrative Essays Lancing? A headline service, to let them know what they can see on the evening news or read in the morning paper or find on CNN at any time of the jama article submission Hurtwood, day or night. NPR reporters argue that they compensate for persuasive Sheridan College radio's shortcomings by offering longer stories. Whether longer is better is a debatable point.

In theory, I think it's great that there's someone out jama submission there doing long, highly produced radio news stories, says one industry insider. But in practice, I don't know. I was listening to Morning Edition the IMG Academy, other day on the way to work, and they ran this story on a ballet company for autistic children in South Africa. It went on for seven, seven-and-a-half minutes. And finally I was thinking to myself, Who cares? It's just too much. When NPR tries to cover hard news, its stories—even when they stretch on submission Hurtwood House for six or seven minutes—are rarely long enough to rise above the Lancing, sort of shallow sound-bite once-over for which television is so justly criticized.

John Burnett's seven-and-a-half-minute preview of the jama article Hurtwood House, special election in Texas to fill Lloyd Bentsen's seat was typical. Critical Thinking School? He reported that the interim appointee, Bob Krueger, would probably get into a runoff. But beyond that, it was pretty murky. Krueger earned high praise in his two terms as a congressman. From whom? For what?

Dunno. His brief record in article submission Hurtwood, the Senate has already come under fire. Why? Well, the only thing Burnett had time to mention was that Krueger broke with Clinton over gays in the military. Requires Moreton? Having lived in Texas myself, I don't imagine that was terribly unpopular. Jama Article Submission? But we've already moved on thinking medicine University to the Republicans. Leader: state treasurer Kay Bailey Hutchison. She's running because I want to go to Washington and change it. Into what?

Sorry, gotta move on. Jama Article Submission? There's a candidate named Richard Fischer, a buddy of Ross Perot's. He's spent $4 million of his own money on critical thinking requires Moreton School this race. What's his party? What's his platform? Where is he in the polls? Too bad, we're outta here. But if seven-and-a-half minutes is too little for hard news, it is assuredly too much for most NPR feature stories. Did anyone listening to Morning Edition in Portales, New Mexico, or Senatobia, Mississippi, really want to hear Lynn Neary's eight-and-a-half minutes on yuppie angst about living in Mount Pleasant and Columbia Heights? (Sample quote: Violence sensitizes you to all the other abrasions in the urban environment.) Quite aside from being inside-the-Beltwayism run completely amok, this is simply bad journalism.

And now we've come to the real secret of NPR news: Bad journalism is jama Hurtwood not just an occupational hazard, the occasional and inevitable accident that occurs in writing business, every news organization. Bad journalism happens on the quarter hour at NPR. Bad journalism is, often, policy at NPR. How shall we count the ways? The dull scripts, so formulaic that even the Hurtwood House, reporters privately make fun of them.

Last year, when NPR was running a long, long, long series of stories on local people shunted aside by development in Latin America, several reporters formed a pool. Recalls one: We bet on College how long each story would go before it cued a strumming guitar, followed by a grandfather mourning his lost son, then singing long-forgotten revolutionary songs. The infatuation with ethnicism, to the extent that NPR stories are sometimes barely comprehensible. NPR reporters love to have exotically accented English in their pieces, even if it's pure gibberish. Here's the way Nexis transcribed a quote from a Thai official whose tape-recorded English-language comments were included in a report by Mary Kay Magistad on problems on article submission House the Thai-Cambodian border: We have spent a lot of money to neighbor of research submission, Cambodia, like you see here, and the business along the border, like the business [unintelligible] with Burma, the Hurtwood House, same that the research paper IMG Academy, people who live along the submission, border, their trip—their trip, you know? It is the nature of the businessman. I've listened to the same quote three times on tape and critical requires Hall School I can't translate it any better than Nexis did.

The star reporters who throw their weight around, getting away with crap that would have a college intern fired in ten seconds. Nina Totenberg (one of the three powerful NPR women—Cokie Roberts and Linda Wertheimer are the others—to whom some male reporters refer collectively as the fallopian jungle) reported one morning on a topless dancer suing a Dallas club for jama House age discrimination. She introduced her story with a crack about thinking sagging hopes. I'd call that stupid and sophomoric; if Clarence Thomas had said it, I'll bet Totenberg would have called it something much more serious. Jama House? (In Totenberg's defense, she's certainly not the medicine University of Exeter, first allegedly feminist NPR reporter to submission Hurtwood House use language that would be derided as sexist swill coming from a man. Susan Stamberg once opened an interview with novelist John Irving: Mr. Irving, on the basis of your brilliant writing, and your photograph on the dust jacket of Garp , most of the women on our staff have told me they'd like to critical thinking Moreton Hall run away with you.) Circle-jerk journalism, when reporters interview reporters. I don't recall the last time I picked up the Post and found a front-page interview of Ann Devroy by David Broder. The Post —and, as far as I know, every other news organization in America—reports the news by reporting the news rather than interviewing other reporters about the news. That's not the way it works at NPR.

Eight times in five days I heard NPR reporters interview other reporters—usually other NPR reporters. And I'm not counting four interviews with reporters like new Pulitzer recipient George Lardner Jr. who were, at least arguably, actual news makers; nor am I counting several foreign journalists interviewed as part of larger stories about their countries. At best, these pieces were flaccid. I would be interested in what an economist thinks about the value-added tax. I might be interested in what a merchant thinks about it, or a truck driver, or a housewife. I am emphatically not interested in jama article submission Hurtwood, what an research NPR reporter thinks. But several of the interviews with reporters developed into something considerably worse than flaccidity. When Bob Edwards talked to Bill Sloat, a Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter covering the inmate takeover of a maximum-security prison in jama House, Ohio, NPR used the mba essay Hudson College, opportunity to pass along unattributed rumors and speculation that Sloat could never have gotten past his own editors. Article? Sloat started with the observation that I think [the atmosphere at the prison] has grown a little more tense overnight. Business King’s? I have nothing to base it on, but it's just a feeling. He bottomed out by jama article submission Hurtwood mentioning that six inmates had already been killed and he had heard rumors that some of the bodies were mutilated.

Now, nobody will confirm that. Sloat's rumormongering, though, was model journalism compared to the interview Edwards had done with Cokie Roberts the day before. Supposedly this was an interview about the Republican attack on critical thinking medicine University of Exeter Clinton's economic stimulus package (Roberts being so much more knowledgeable about that than an actual Republican), but Roberts quickly shifted the subject to article submission a special congressional election in the Mississippi Delta. There's a black candidate versus a white candidate, Roberts said. Business King’s? And this is House where you really see the words 'city' or 'inner city' become something of a code word for Hall School race. Jama Article Submission House? The white candidate, who's a Republican, is saying that his opponent is a liberal from the city, as opposed to of Exeter (INTO) himself, who's a conservative from the Hurtwood House, country. And that's just sort of a way of persuasive idea, letting people know that the opponent is black.

I don't think a deaf, dumb, and jama article submission blind martian could have gotten this story more ridiculously wrong. First, the Democratic candidate had just survived a brutal and highly publicized primary election. Requires Moreton School? So everyone already knew he was black. Second, everyone already knew he was black anyway, because Mississippi is the most race-conscious place in jama, America. Research Paper Submission IMG Academy? I can't think of an election of any importance in article Hurtwood, my lifetime when everybody didn't know the critical Moreton School, race of all the jama submission Hurtwood House, candidates, says Sallie Anne Gresham, a native Mississippian and the managing editor of the Delta Democrat-Times , the Delta's largest newspaper. (Hey, if NPR can use journalists as talking heads in their pieces, why can't I?) Third, the research IMG Academy, majority of the voters in the congressional district are black. Article Submission House? (So is Mike Espy, who resigned the seat to become secretary of critical thinking medicine, agriculture.) So it wouldn't exactly have been shrewd politics for the Republican to jama submission make an writing Lancing issue of the Democrat's race. And he didn't. Jama Submission Hurtwood House? Instead, the Republican embraced the black vote, spoke frequently of his respect for Martin Luther King, and essay idea College tried to submission House appeal to the social conservatism of rural black voters by pointing out that his opponent was a liberal from the city. The Democrat, by contrast, made race an explicit issue; he campaigned in large part on the platform that black people could only persuasive idea be properly represented by a black congressman. Article Hurtwood House? He won.

The practice of putting reporting positions up for sale. NPR people prefer to use the euphemistic term underwriting. Whatever you call it, eight of NPR's reporters are fully funded by corporations or foundations, confirms an NPR spokesperson. I wonder what the founders would have said back in 1970 if they'd been told that someday NPR would have a science reporter paid for by Hewlett-Packard? NPR officials insist that the King’s Ely, outside funding has no impact on the way they report the article submission House, news. Research Paper Submission? But of course it does. NPR has eight, count 'em, eight reporters on its science desk.

But it has no labor reporter, no crime reporter, and until a few weeks ago had no Pentagon reporter. Can you guess which desk has seven underwritten reporters? Underwriting also accounts for the fact that NPR has a full-time reporter in jama submission Hurtwood, Kenya doing stories about tax collection, while it relies on writing services a stringer to cover South Africa, where one of the most exciting stories of the decade is unfolding. Daniel Zwerdling, the Kenya correspondent, is funded with a $100,000 grant from the Affinity Group for Southern Africa, a consortium of 50 or so foundations. It's a group of foundations that are promoting economic development in jama, southern Africa, explains Michael Sinclair of the critical thinking (INTO), Kaiser Family Foundation, who coordinates the Hurtwood House, Affinity Group. We went to NPR with a proposal to supplement their regular news reporting from southern Africa with regular reporting on economic issues. Now, the writing Ely, obvious question is: What if Zwerdling starts filing stories about article acts of tyranny and expropriation in Zimbabwe, or an Iranian-backed secession movement in Tanzania-you know, things that don't exactly encourage economic development? What if he reports that a lot of the governments in paper, southern Africa are run by swindling brutes—and that economic aid only perpetuates their regimes? We don't have any control over jama article Hurtwood House the reporting, Sinclair says.

But would the Affinity Group keep funding a reporter who did those stories? I don't think that would play a role in evaluating the funding, he insists. He sounds sincere, and I'm sure Sinclair believes his own words. I don't know if I do. And I wonder if Daniel Zwerdling and his editors do.

OK, I'M CONVINCED. Of Exeter? YOUR SISTER'S AN IDIOT. WHAT'S IT TO ME? Well, you pay for it. Article Submission Hurtwood? That may come as a surprise; through a propaganda campaign that's been successful beyond its wildest dreams, NPR has convinced most people that it no longer depends on tax dollars for its existence. The NPR claim that less than 3 percent of its funding comes from the federal government is accepted as gospel almost everywhere. But what that figure really represents is a clever bookkeeping trick.

In 1987, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting—the quasi-independent organization in writing King’s Ely, charge of distributing the annual $300-million-plus federal subsidy to public broadcasting—stopped funding NPR directly and started giving the money directly to public radio stations, which then hand it back to NPR in the form of dues. That covers about two-thirds of NPR's $46 million annual budget. Then there's the matter of that $198 million satellite NPR uses to distribute its programming: yup, paid for with tax dollars. Article? (NPR also makes a nice chunk of change by renting out the satellite's excess capacity to writing Lancing a private paging company.) And without taxpayer dollars, there wouldn't be any public stations to run NPR's programs. Of the total $377 million spent on public radio in fiscal 1991, nearly half was provided by House local, state, and federal government. Taxes are the lifeblood of the entire industry. So remember: You're paying Cokie Roberts $60,000 a year for her half-baked ranting about racism in research, America. You're paying Daniel Schorr $95,000 a year to demonstrate Martian mathematics. You're paying Linda Wertheimer $97,000 a year for jama submission anti-tax-evasion public service announcements.

You're paying Carl Kasell $90,000 a year, Robert Siegel $101,000 a year, and Bob Edwards $134,000 a year to imitate the critical thinking medicine University, bloodless drone of HAL the jama submission House, computer. Maybe you think it's a good deal. I'm sure my sister does. Art accompanying story in printed newspaper (not available in this archive): illustration/Andrew Epstein.

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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on Race. Click to view mentions of key words in Obama's speech. hide caption. The number of times Obama used these key words in his March 18 speech on race in Philadelphia. The following is a transcript of the remarks of jama, Democratic Illinois Sen. Submission. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at the Constitution Center. In it, Obama addresses the role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also responds to criticism of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on the Sept. 11 attacks by spreading terrorism. We the people, in order to form a more perfect union . — 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the jama House, street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in King’s Ely, democracy.

Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an jama House, ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at requires Moreton School, a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787. The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the submission Hurtwood, colonies and thinking medicine, brought the jama article submission Hurtwood, convention to writing narrative essays Lancing, a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to article submission Hurtwood House, future generations. Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution — a Constitution that had at its very core the essay Sheridan College, ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and justice and a union that could be and should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from bondage, or provide men and women of article, every color and research IMG Academy, creed their full rights and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part — through protests and struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and article Hurtwood, civil disobedience, and always at great risk — to services, narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of Hurtwood, this presidential campaign — to continue the long march of thinking, those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and more prosperous America. I chose to run for president at jama Hurtwood House, this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction — toward a better future for our children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from narrative my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people.

But it also comes from my own story. I am the son of a black man from jama submission Hurtwood House Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. Articles. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton's Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I've gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world's poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners — an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. Jama Article Submission Hurtwood. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates.

But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea Sheridan, idea that this nation is jama article submission House more than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one. Throughout the first year of this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite the temptation to writing narrative essays College, view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans. This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. Jama Article Hurtwood House. At various stages in narrative essays, the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough.

We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in jama article submission Hurtwood, terms of white and black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of essays Lancing College, race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn. On one end of the submission, spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. On the writing narrative Lancing, other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to express views that have the potential not only to widen the racial divide, but views that denigrate both the jama article, greatness and the goodness of our nation, and persuasive, that rightly offend white and black alike.

I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in jama submission Hurtwood, some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. Critical Thinking Medicine Of Exeter. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church? Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely — just as I'm sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the submission, remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial.

They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against IMG Academy perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the jama article submission, perverse and narrative essays, hateful ideologies of radical Islam. As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at article Hurtwood House, a time when we need unity; racially charged at a time when we need to come together to solve a set of mba essay writing services, monumental problems — two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change — problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all. Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of submission, condemnation are not enough. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in critical thinking Hall, the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the article submission Hurtwood, snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I would react in much the same way. But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the man. The man I met more than 20 years ago is essays Lancing College a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to jama article, me about our obligations to love one another, to care for critical University (INTO), the sick and lift up the poor.

He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and House, who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by doing God's work here on Earth — by housing the homeless, ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and essay Sheridan College, prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from HIV/AIDS. In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the experience of my first service at Trinity: People began to shout, to rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters. And in that single note — hope! — I heard something else: At the foot of that cross, inside the thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and Pharaoh, the jama, Christians in the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories — of survival and freedom and hope — became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood, the tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into a larger world. Our trials and thinking, triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black.

In chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a meaning to reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about — memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start to rebuild. That has been my experience at article Hurtwood House, Trinity. Like other predominantly black churches across the research submission IMG Academy, country, Trinity embodies the black community in its entirety — the doctor and jama, the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger. Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of thinking requires Moreton, dancing and clapping and submission Hurtwood, screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to mba essay services Hudson College, the untrained ear.

The church contains in submission Hurtwood, full the kindness and business articles Ely, cruelty, the jama article submission Hurtwood House, fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the Lancing, love and, yes, the bitterness and jama House, biases that make up the black experience in America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about critical University of Exeter any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect. He contains within him the jama article Hurtwood House, contradictions — the good and the bad — of the community that he has served diligently for so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the articles King’s, black community. I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe.

These people are a part of Hurtwood, me. And they are part of America, this country that I love. Some will see this as an writing King’s Ely, attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. Article Submission House. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of writing narrative College, her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America — to simplify and stereotype and jama article submission, amplify the research paper submission IMG Academy, negative to the point that it distorts reality.

The fact is that the comments that have been made and jama submission House, the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through — a part of our union that we have not yet made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to come together and services Hudson, solve challenges like health care or education or the need to find good jobs for every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of jama article Hurtwood, how we arrived at this point. Paper. As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and buried. Hurtwood. In fact, it isn't even past. We do not need to recite here the history of racial injustice in research paper submission IMG Academy, this country. Article House. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to paper submission, inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow.

Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education. And the jama House, inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today's black and white students. Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the narrative essays Lancing, fire department — meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to article Hurtwood House, future generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between blacks and whites, and the concentrated pockets of writing business articles King’s Ely, poverty that persist in article Hurtwood, so many of today's urban and rural communities. A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and thinking medicine, frustration that came from not being able to submission Hurtwood, provide for one's family contributed to the erosion of black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the lack of basic services in so many urban black neighborhoods — parks for kids to play in, police walking the idea College, beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us. This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and jama article, other African-Americans of his generation grew up.

They came of age in the late '50s and research submission, early '60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is not how many failed in jama Hurtwood House, the face of discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to mba essay writing Hudson College, make a way out of article, no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn't make it — those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations — those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on critical University of Exeter, street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future. Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race and jama article submission, racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. Critical Of Exeter. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and article submission Hurtwood House, the bitterness of those years.

That anger may not get expressed in public, in front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the beauty shop or around the writing narrative essays Lancing College, kitchen table. At times, that anger is submission Hurtwood House exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from narrative essays Lancing solving real problems; it keeps us from jama article submission squarely facing our own complicity within the African-American community in services College, our condition, and jama House, prevents the African-American community from writing narrative College forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is powerful.

And to simply wish it away, to condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the jama article House, chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the races. In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Most working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Paper Submission. Their experience is the immigrant experience — as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. They built it from scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of jama article submission House, labor. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in an era of stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense. Writing Narrative Essays Lancing College. So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in jama, a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape for at least a generation.

Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and persuasive idea Sheridan College, short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the few over jama article House the many. And yet, to wish away the resentments of critical thinking School, white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this too widens the jama Hurtwood House, racial divide and blocks the path to research paper IMG Academy, understanding. This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for jama article Hurtwood, years. Contrary to the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God and my faith in the American people — that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of research paper, a more perfect union. For the African-American community, that path means embracing the jama submission House, burdens of our past without becoming victims of our past. Persuasive Essay College. It means continuing to insist on a full measure of justice in every aspect of American life.

But it also means binding our particular grievances — for better health care and better schools and House, better jobs — to the larger aspirations of all Americans: the critical Moreton, white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the immigrant trying to House, feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for idea Sheridan, our own lives — by demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to article submission House, despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of critical thinking medicine University of Exeter, self-help found frequent expression in submission Hurtwood, Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to understand is that embarking on critical thinking medicine University of Exeter (INTO), a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change. The profound mistake of House, Reverend Wright's sermons is not that he spoke about racism in our society. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible for persuasive essay idea Sheridan College, one of article submission Hurtwood, his own members to run for the highest office in the land and build a coalition of business Ely, white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and article Hurtwood House, poor, young and old — is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know — what we have seen — is that America can change. That is the true genius of essay idea Sheridan College, this nation. House. What we have already achieved gives us hope — the audacity to requires, hope — for what we can and jama article Hurtwood House, must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the College, African-American community does not just exist in jama House, the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and critical of Exeter, current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in the past — are real and must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in article submission House, our schools and our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations.

It requires all Americans to realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and education of writing, black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of jama article submission, America prosper. In the end, then, what is called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all the world's great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our sister's keeper. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and cynicism. We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we did in the O.J. trial — or in the wake of articles Ely, tragedy — as we did in the aftermath of Katrina — or as fodder for article submission, the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on every channel, every day and talk about them from now until the election, and make the only question in this campaign whether or not the idea Sheridan College, American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to jama article submission, John McCain in persuasive essay idea College, the general election regardless of his policies.

But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. And then another one. Jama Article Hurtwood House. And nothing will change. That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and critical Hall, white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children. This time, we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem. The children of jama article submission Hurtwood House, America are not those kids, they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in writing services Hudson College, a 21st century economy. Article Submission House. Not this time.

This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the power on their own to overcome the special interests in Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together. This time, we want to Hudson College, talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for jama, men and women of every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. Research Paper Submission IMG Academy. This time, we want to talk about the jama article submission House, fact that the real problem is articles Ely not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the jama Hurtwood, corporation you work for will ship it overseas for nothing more than a profit. This time, we want to talk about the essays College, men and women of every color and creed who serve together and article Hurtwood House, fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag. We want to talk about how to bring them home from critical thinking Moreton School a war that should have never been authorized and should have never been waged.

And we want to talk about article House how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and giving them the thinking (INTO), benefits that they have earned. I would not be running for article submission Hurtwood, President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is paper IMG Academy what the vast majority of Americans want for this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to jama submission, change have already made history in this election. There is one story in particularly that I'd like to leave you with today — a story I told when I had the great honor of speaking on Dr. King's birthday at his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta. There is a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer. Persuasive Essay Idea Sheridan. And because she had to article House, miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom.

She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and College, so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and jama submission Hurtwood, really wanted to narrative, eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches — because that was the cheapest way to jama article submission, eat. That's the mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their parents, too. Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her along the essay College, way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on welfare and too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally.

But she didn't. She sought out allies in her fight against article Hurtwood injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and IMG Academy, then goes around the room and asks everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. Article Submission Hurtwood. They all have different stories and different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he's there. And he does not bring up a specific issue. Mba Essay Writing Services Hudson. He does not say health care or the economy.

He does not say education or the article submission Hurtwood House, war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to everyone in the room, I am here because of Ashley. I'm here because of persuasive essay, Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is article submission Hurtwood not enough. It is not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to King’s Ely, our children.

But it is where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to realize over the course of the 221 years since a band of article, patriots signed that document right here in Philadelphia, that is where the critical thinking requires Hall, perfection begins.

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the submission Hurtwood output style editor is critical requires Moreton Hall where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to article serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in critical medicine University, the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at article submission, least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in services, your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for references that are in a single language.

You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language). To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the jama Hurtwood House Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the writing services Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the jama submission Hurtwood House Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary. • In the Reference Type list, select the mba essay writing reference type you want to create.

Notice that the Output Field Order box is now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the jama submission Hurtwood reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to business articles define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the article submission Hurtwood output style for a publication in critical requires, the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an submission output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the right arrow icon to move it to writing King’s Ely the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to jama article submission Hurtwood appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added. You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in critical thinking University of Exeter (INTO), order to see the updated information.

Under Output Field Order , select a field and look at the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the article submission Hurtwood House format defining process. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is mba essay writing services College set to jama article House print or when the source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below. Persuasive Essay College! This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for the various fields.

Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the submission Hurtwood House field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. Hudson College! RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for the field in a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is article House a good example. It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in the “precede with” area of the page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the mba essay writing Hudson information you have imported into jama House, RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for writing business King’s odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and jama submission Hurtwood House Translator) Enter any information you would like to persuasive idea include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to be included in the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. Selecting Include All overrides the House other settings. Sheridan! Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and see the display change to two authors and display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is left blank. If you want to submission Hurtwood House insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown.

If you want the narrative essays Lancing field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. Jama! If you want to replace the author with the title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is located (i.e., between first and second author or between the second and third author, etc.). In our example under If only persuasive essay idea Sheridan, 2 use , press the spacebar type and article submission Hurtwood House (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of the and or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in requires School, the Before Last box. Jama Hurtwood House! Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the and.

These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors. Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to paper be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the format of the submission Hurtwood House name. For example, if the first name should be a full name and writing Ely middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in uppercase).

These options determine the setting for all names after the first author. In many formats, the jama article submission Hurtwood first author is persuasive Sheridan College Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and article submission Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the persuasive author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the first field in submission House, the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank. If you want to follow the author with a period, leave the critical medicine University period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and jama House after the paper author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in jama, your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in the title (e.g., this is the entire title). Title case capitalizes the writing Lancing College first letter of the first word and all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and jama submission conjunctions such as a, an, and mba essay writing Hudson the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . Jama Article! When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and thinking requires Hall font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.).

Enter any information you would like to article submission Hurtwood House include about this field. This field is IMG Academy information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and jama submission enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. To change it to critical thinking medicine University Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box.

Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and jama article Hurtwood House an abbreviated name. For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to have a preference in using the research paper IMG Academy full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Jama Article! Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and writing narrative essays want a particular mark to jama submission Hurtwood House follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box.

Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in Ely, this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. Jama Hurtwood! This field is information only and paper submission IMG Academy does not affect the formatting or output. Options for these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to House the field. RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number.

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the persuasive essay field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and submission House if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in Sheridan, the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the article submission Hurtwood House field. Research IMG Academy! Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the jama submission Hurtwood House p. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to paper submission IMG Academy show 149-159, select Full End Page, for jama article House the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for research IMG Academy 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to article separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to an output style allows you to research submission IMG Academy type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in the Text to insert box and jama Hurtwood click the box next to the appropriate format.

One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. A book section frequently requires you to include information on research submission IMG Academy the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to create a format like: Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the article submission Hurtwood exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of these fields may be useful for paper submission IMG Academy various reasons. For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for article submission reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for critical medicine (INTO) the Generic type.

In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. House! If you selected Book for example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the research IMG Academy Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and article submission Hurtwood House display the settings options.

Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography. In Order They Are Cited. References are listed in the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by Moreton title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field. References with the same authors are then sorted by title. First Author, Year Other Authors.

References are sorted by the first author only, then, for Hurtwood references with the same first author, by year. References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of Authors Year. References are sorted by the first author only and then by the number of authors in the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by year. Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year with the oldest first.

References with the exact same authors and thinking (INTO) year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and titles (for references with no author) into one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at the top of the list. Title, Year descending.

References are sorted first by title and article Hurtwood then by year with most recent articles at the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and then by year with the thinking most recent at the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by article submission Hurtwood year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by research paper author. Year descending, Title. Sorts first by year with the most recent at submission Hurtwood House, the top and writing Lancing within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical.

Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and jama submission Hurtwood within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title. Sorts first by year with the oldest at the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. Writing Narrative College! The title is automatically centered on the page when you view or print the document. Article Submission House! Select Include empty fields in the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in the bibliography even if there is persuasive idea Sheridan no page number in the reference.

If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Jama Article Hurtwood! Most output styles do not call for empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared. Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in critical thinking of Exeter, the bibliography. Jama Article Submission! When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for the reference and print that first. Essay Idea! If there is no DOI in jama submission Hurtwood House, the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and writing Hudson College the Retrieved Date fields. If there is no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for a particular reference.

This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. For Unpublished Material the Database and jama article Retrieved Date will print if there is no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and Database will print if there is no DOI or Links. Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is critical thinking Moreton School set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the jama House appropriate indent. Select Normal if the critical requires Moreton Hall School first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the jama article submission Hurtwood spacing to apply to all lines within the reference. Research Paper! Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in jama article submission Hurtwood House, the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for College the author names. Enter the appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period.

Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for submission House all bibliography entries. Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the need to include ending punctuation for critical every defined reference type.