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Writing history essays Princeton Academy

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Employees#039; Motivation at British Telecom. Employee engagement is defined as how an employee thinks about the organization; feels about the organization; and history essays Academy, is proactive in the achievement of organizational goals for philosophy essay St. Michael's School, customers, colleagues and other stakeholders (Cook, 2008). Engagement is the positive attitude of the history Princeton Academy employee towards the organization and its values (Armstrong, 2010). An engaged employee contributes effectively towards the benefit of the organization. There exists a close relationship between employee engagement, employee commitment towards the organization and organizational citizenship. Benefits of how to college application essay School, Employee Engagement. Engaged employees perform better Lower employee turnover ratio Better attendance. BT is one of the essays leading communications services companies of the world that serves the needs of customers in the UK and more than 170 countries of the world (BT, 2014). Various services provided by the company include fixed line, broadband, mobile, TV and IT network services (BT, 2014). 32000 employees each quarter provide feedback on employee engagement. Engagement levels at writing College (UCL) BT have improved from 3.69 in February 2013 to 3.82 in February 2014 on a scale of 5. Aspects of Employee Experience that showed improvement: a) Job Satisfaction: Enriched and history Princeton Academy, challenging job. b) Team Engagement. Write College The Village. c) Manager: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. d) Senior Leaders: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. e) Company Perception: Quality of employee-organization relationship.

Methods of Employee Engagement at BT. Annual Customer Challenge Cup Competition: 783 teams participated in the competition working on projects that improved local processes and customer services. The teams identified ?80m benefit from cost reduction, cost avoidance and revenue generation that also contributes significantly to customer satisfaction. Managerial compensation and writing essays Princeton, benefits are linked to how to write college application The Village business performance and their personal contribution at BT. Incentives for senior leaders are associated with business performance over a time frame.

Internal communication has improved by 22% in history Academy, the last three years. Employees are informed about company decisions, company performance and other issues through digital channels. Leaders connect with their teams through roundtable meetings, town hall debates, site visits, web casts and blogs. Employee input is utilized to transform human resource support methods. The BT Academy helps employees in the development of professional skills related to strategic planning, culture and communication, effective management, performance management and how to write application essay, people development. The academy has trained nearly 5000 employees including leaders from senior management to junior managers for leading, coaching and supporting their teams. History Essays. A global program equips employees with the skills, tools and techniques to serve customers in a better manner.

International volunteering program enables employees to use three working days to how to write college essay support causes they are concerned and passionate about. Princeton Academy. In 2013, 16% of St. Johnsbury, BT employees volunteered over 46000 days of time in supporting over 1300 charities and community groups on a global scale. More than 200 BT Volunteers help made BT Young scientist and Technology Exhibition a success. Seven employee networks at BT include women, ethnic minorities, disability, lesbian gay bisexual and transgender (LGBT), Christian, Muslim and Carers (BTPLC, 2014). People in essays Academy, these networks support each other and collaborate together for an efficient functioning of the company. As many as 6000 BT employees are a part of these networks. The model demonstrates the benefits of taking a strategic and proactive approach to employee wellness and engagement (BITC, 2014).

The model highlights the University (Study need for collaboration and also advocates that employees are responsible for their own wellness and health. Companies that work well have the following characteristics: a) Employees feel trusted that their work is essays Academy, valued and writing to article University College (UCL), makes a difference (BITC, 2014). Writing Academy. b) Employees believe that their views are respected and considered (BITC, 2014). c) Customers and business partners want to vocabulary The University work with the company (BITC, 2014). d) Company and employee goals are aligned with each other (BITC, 2014). Better Physical Psychological Health. The Company leadership bears the responsibility and challenge to engage the history Academy workforce. Philosophy Essay Writing St. Michael's. BT should focus on Academy leadership development initiatives within the company to writing essay papers train managers to be better leaders. Engagement must happen at history essays Princeton all levels in BT. The involvement of writing Glion Institute, employees at all levels shall ensure better employee relationships and commitment towards BT. BT should focus on writing history essays Academy developing its internal communication system.

Employee empowerment initiatives should be encouraged so as to allow employees to take decisions for the company and get involved in vocabulary list writing The University in Chicago, BT operations. Writing. Armstrong, M., 2010. Armstrong#8217;s Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward. 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page Publishers. BITC, 2014.

Better Physical Psychological Health. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Writing Essay Papers Glion Institute Education. Better Relationships. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Writing History Princeton. BITC, 2014. Process. Working Well. Writing. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Workwell Model. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014. About BT Group. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014. Glion Institute Of Higher. BT Group PLC Annual Report and Form 20-F 2014, London: BT Group.

BTPLC, 2014. Engaging our people. Writing Academy. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Cook, S., 2008. The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dulye, L., Quinlan, T., Grossman, D. Vanstone, C., 2007.

Essential techniques for employee engagement, Chicago: Melcrum Publishing. Employees#8217; Motivation at British Telecom. Employee engagement is papers Institute Of Higher Education, defined as how an employee thinks about the organization; feels about the organization; and is proactive in the achievement of organizational goals for customers, colleagues and other stakeholders (Cook, 2008). Engagement is the positive attitude of the employee towards the writing Princeton organization and its values (Armstrong, 2010). An engaged employee contributes effectively towards the application essay The Village School benefit of the organization. There exists a close relationship between employee engagement, employee commitment towards the organization and organizational citizenship.

Hay Group Model of Employee Effectiveness. History Essays Princeton Academy. Engaged employees perform better Lower employee turnover ratio Better attendance. BT is one of the leading communications services companies of the world that serves the needs of write essay The Village, customers in the UK and history Princeton, more than 170 countries of the world (BT, 2014). Various services provided by the company include fixed line, broadband, mobile, TV and IT network services (BT, 2014). 32000 employees each quarter provide feedback on employee engagement. Engagement levels at BT have improved from 3.69 in February 2013 to 3.82 in St. Michael's School, February 2014 on a scale of 5. Aspects of Employee Experience that showed improvement: a) Job Satisfaction: Enriched and challenging job. Writing Princeton Academy. b) Team Engagement. For Essay Writing Of Illinois. c) Manager: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. d) Senior Leaders: Quality of Princeton Academy, employee supervisor relationship. e) Company Perception: Quality of employee-organization relationship. Methods of Employee Engagement at BT. Annual Customer Challenge Cup Competition: 783 teams participated in the competition working on projects that improved local processes and customer services. The teams identified ?80m benefit from cost reduction, cost avoidance and revenue generation that also contributes significantly to customer satisfaction. Managerial compensation and benefits are linked to business performance and their personal contribution at BT. Incentives for senior leaders are associated with business performance over a how to article University (UCL) a time frame.

Internal communication has improved by 22% in the last three years. Employees are informed about company decisions, company performance and other issues through digital channels. Leaders connect with their teams through roundtable meetings, town hall debates, site visits, web casts and blogs. Employee input is writing history essays, utilized to transform human resource support methods. The BT Academy helps employees in the development of professional skills related to strategic planning, culture and communication, effective management, performance management and people development.

The academy has trained nearly 5000 employees including leaders from senior management to junior managers for leading, coaching and supporting their teams. A global program equips employees with the skills, tools and techniques to serve customers in a better manner. International volunteering program enables employees to use three working days to support causes they are concerned and passionate about. In 2013, 16% of BT employees volunteered over 46000 days of time in supporting over 1300 charities and community groups on a global scale. Process Writing. More than 200 BT Volunteers help made BT Young scientist and history essays Academy, Technology Exhibition a success. Essay St. Michael's School. Seven employee networks at BT include women, ethnic minorities, disability, lesbian gay bisexual and transgender (LGBT), Christian, Muslim and Carers (BTPLC, 2014). People in these networks support each other and collaborate together for an efficient functioning of the company.

As many as 6000 BT employees are a part of these networks. The model demonstrates the benefits of taking a strategic and proactive approach to employee wellness and engagement (BITC, 2014). The model highlights the need for writing, collaboration and also advocates that employees are responsible for their own wellness and health. Companies that work well have the following characteristics: a) Employees feel trusted that their work is valued and essay writing School, makes a difference (BITC, 2014). b) Employees believe that their views are respected and considered (BITC, 2014). c) Customers and business partners want to work with the company (BITC, 2014). Writing Academy. d) Company and employee goals are aligned with each other (BITC, 2014). Better Physical Psychological Health. The Company leadership bears the responsibility and challenge to how to write college essay engage the workforce.

BT should focus on leadership development initiatives within the company to train managers to be better leaders. Engagement must happen at all levels in BT. The involvement of employees at all levels shall ensure better employee relationships and commitment towards BT. BT should focus on developing its internal communication system. Employee empowerment initiatives should be encouraged so as to allow employees to take decisions for the company and get involved in BT operations. M. Dulye Co.’s 3S Engagement Model. Figure 10 L.M. Dulye Co.’s 3S Engagement Model (Dulye, et al., 2007) Armstrong, M., 2010. Armstrong#8217;s Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward.

3rd ed. London: Kogan Page Publishers. BITC, 2014. Better Physical Psychological Health. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Better Relationships. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014].

BITC, 2014. Working Well. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Writing Princeton Academy. BITC, 2014. Workwell Model. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014. About BT Group. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014.

BT Group PLC Annual Report and Form 20-F 2014, London: BT Group. A How University London (UCL). BTPLC, 2014. Engaging our people. Academy. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Cook, S., 2008. The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction.

London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dulye, L., Quinlan, T., Grossman, D. Vanstone, C., 2007. Essential techniques for employee engagement, Chicago: Melcrum Publishing. We have 100% correct answers to following questions: 1. Kinkaid Co. is incorporated at the beginning of philosophy essay St. Michael's School, this year and engages in a number of transactions. The following journal entries impacted its stockholders’ equity during its first year of operations. 2. How many shares of common stock are outstanding at essays Princeton year-end? What is the amount of minimum legal capital (based on par value) at year-end? What is the total paid-in capital at year-end?

5. What is the book value per share of the a how University London common stock at year-end if total paid-in capital plus retained earnings equals $787,000? authorized, issued, and Academy, outstanding. What is the process of essay writing St. Johnsbury current market value (price) of this corporation’s common stock? 2. What are the history essays Princeton par values of the corporation#8217;s preferred stock and its common stock? 3. If no dividends are in arrears, what are the book values per share of the preferred stock and how to college application essay The Village School, the common stock? 4. If two years#8217; preferred dividends are in arrears, what are the book values per writing Princeton, share of the preferred stock and the common stock? 5. If two years’ preferred dividends are in arrears and the preferred stock is callable at $90 per papers Glion Institute Education, share, what are the history essays Academy book values per share of the preferred stock and the common stock?

6.1 If two years’ preferred dividends are in the critical thinker University Group), arrears and the board of directors declares cash dividends of writing, $22,800, what total amount will be paid to the preferred and to the common shareholders? 6.2 What is the amount of dividends per share for of Illinois in Chicago, the common stock? (Round your answer to two decimal places.) You can buy 100% correct solution to this test in just $40. Big Data and Hadoop Eco System Sample Essay. We are in the era of data age and there has been a precipitous increase in the size and the scale of writing, web data.

Big data has distinct and complex unstructured formats this include information from social media, websites, email and video presentation. Writing St. Michael's School. Therefore, organizations need technologies to extract valuable intelligence from Big Data (Team YS, 2012). To process large data sets, there is the need of having technologies that can accurately, powerfully analyze the big data formats. Google is one of the history essays companies that process data using its Google File systems and MapReduce frameworks (Team YS, 2012). These scalable frameworks motivated the Hadoop initiative.

The Apache Hadoop allows the distributed processing of big data across many machines. The apache Hadoop consists of 2 subprojects that is the MapReduce and process of essay writing St. Johnsbury Academy, the Hadoop Distributed File system. The Mapreduce is a software framework and a programming model that assists in writing applications that process large amounts of data in parallel on clusters of compute nodes (Team YS, 2012). The Hadoop Distributed File System is the storage systems that Hadoop applications use. The popularity of the Hadoop application has grown significantly since it meets the needs of most organization. The Hadoop framework provides flexible data analysis with an history essays Princeton, unmatched price performance curve.

The feature of flexibility analysis applies to unstructured data; semi structured data and structured data (, 2013). The importance of Hadoop framework has been recognized in places where massive server farms are used to collect data from many sources. This is writing, because it can process parallel questions as large, background jobs on one server farm. The Hadoop ecosystem incorporates some tools to enable it address specific needs. This includes Hive (it is a SQL dialect), Zookeeper (used for federating services), Oozie, Avro, Thrift, and Protobuf are description formats. Hadoop has a bunch of advantages since it can handle data from disparate systems regardless of the data’s native format. Sometimes data is stored in unrelated systems but it is easy to dump it in the Hadoop cluster without the need of applying a schema (, 2013). Hadoop is cost effective as compared to other legacy systems. Having in mind that today there are large data sets, using legacy systems is expensive since they were not engineered to cater for the large data sets. Hadoop is cheap because it relies on redundant data structure. The framework is deployed on industry standard servers while other legacy systems are deployed in expensive specialized data storage systems.

Hadoop framework has proved its efficiency in most organizations but as much as it is fast and cost efficient, legacy systems will be required to compliment the use of Hadoop. The features of Hadoop will make the technology attractive; therefore, it is upon the organizations to take advantage of the framework. With Hadoop, organizations will make important predictions by sorting out and analyzing big data. There is no doubt that Hadoop is the core platform for structuring big data sets. Team YS. (2012) Introduction to Princeton big data Hadoop Ecosystem- Part 1 . Retrieved from On March 3, 2014.

Web. (2013) Hadoop ecosystem. Retrieved from On March 3, 2014. Web. The Critical Thinker (Study Group). HACKING AS A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING WEAKNESSES IN COMPUTER SECURITY. The 21 st century communication has become a big part of our lives. We now depend on these technological devices. A person can intentionally abuse another through the method of #8220;hacking#8221; and Academy, feel no guilt or remorse.

Inversely this hacking could be used to cure and identify occurring hazards, for example ethical hacking procedures in organisations. List Writing Of Illinois In Chicago. This essay focuses on a set of primary issues which indicate sufficient ethical hacking methods as a means of history Princeton, identifying weaknesses in computer security. Furthermore, this essay looks into detail of attackers that are also known as #8216;hackers#8217; who try to access personal, organisational or academic systems to St. Michael's which obtain sensitive information. Writing. This form of activity is process Academy, breaching certain Laws and Acts such as #8220;Unauthorised Access#8221; which is the Computer Misuse Act of United Kingdom 1990 (Legislation 2013). In terms of hacking this method should be acceptable as to ensure vulnerabilities are identified and writing Academy, all systems are secured. For example, ethical hacking is solely done to find system vulnerabilities, to essay writing School find weak areas in system security which can cause loss of vital information. Writing Essays. It is different from peripheral defence and the critical thinker University Group), network defence, which enables system owners to adopt stronger security, measures in a way so that an attacker knows if he is writing history essays Princeton, committing an attack.

Sharing personal details has become a norm in today#8217;s society as people still are not aware of what could happen to their information. Of Higher Education. While such information is stored in writing history essays Princeton Academy, banks, hospitals, schools, businesses, governments like the bank account numbers, date of births and personal address which is process of essay St. Johnsbury, all stored electronically. We already know that how hackers can cause loss to us. In 2003, hacker generated viruses caused 55 Billion dollar loss to organisations all over history essays Princeton Academy the world, which was almost two times as compared to 2002 ( 2004). Ethical hacking can secure and prevent the organisation’s data from such incidents. It is important that we promote ethical hacking in relation to computer security rather than letting black hat hackers to cause financial and social reputation loss of an individual. Organizations and government agencies have to adopt ethical hacking tools to secure important documents and sensitive information (Harold F. Tipton and process writing St. Johnsbury Academy, Micki Krause, 2004). Professional Ethical hackers are hired in order to test the networks effectively. Writing. Ethical hackers perform hacking activity with consent and knowledge of owner of the organisation or data in consideration. Ethical hacking can also be known as penetration testing which can be used for networks, applications and operating systems (Jeff Forristal and Julie Traxler, 2001). There are two types of hackers i.e.

Black hat hackers and White hat hackers. This black-hat hacker analyse computer systems to understand the weaknesses and to of Groningen (Study try to history Princeton Academy crash computer systems, impairing web pages and theft or damage of confidential information which results in disrupting organisations. What the hackers do is that they try to retrieve our sensitive and private information from ourselves. They find the weakest link in the company, they try to find information about the person or company from the internet, colleagues, employees or whatever can be used to access the secret information. When implementing any ethical hacking method such as Penetration testing, it has been seen as a debate in terms the ethical, social and technical issues, and process Academy, this is purely due to the security breach in an organizational system that could possibly lead to tough consequences and affect the organization progress overall. An example is the ethical aspect in organizations that could be seen as the principles and morals in which arises in such an environment. It applies to writing essays Princeton all aspects of the business conduct and list writing The University of Illinois in Chicago, applies to individuals and writing, the entire organization. According to the Ethical theory and business book (Beauchamp Tom, 2007). If ethics are not performed logically then this may breach the Ethical policies of the business and may hinder the network computer systems too. 5. Legal Issues relating to hacking.

In terms of the process used to test systems, the testing is done on live systems and therefore this means dealing with live scenarios and real confidential data, which would arise legal issues. Writing Essay Glion Of Higher. As well as the organizational policies that are put into place, there are also Laws and Acts that ensure that the testing process is writing, handled in an acceptable and trusted manner. However these Laws and Acts could differ depending on the country testing is preceded in. In the United Kingdom, for example, the Laws are as pointed below are highly acknowledged in the process of testing. We need to understand the legal terms involved in ethical hacking. These are: Privacy The Data Protection Act 1998 indicates that data which is held on the computer system such as employees and clients should not be unauthorised accessed. Copyright The Copyright Legislation 1998, as the law prevents anyone to copy information that has been copy written by process the owner and history, therefore such content could not be used without the owners’ content. If this is philosophy essay, done it could be breaching the law. Hacking Hacking is writing Academy, seen under the Computer Misuse Act. Computer hacking is illegal and whoever is found could be facing serious consequences. Ethical hacking is a legal activity and main purpose of this is to provide security to the critical of Groningen Group) computer systems within the history Academy organisations.

Today almost all major companies are allocating separate funds for the e-security to the company’s data. Thinker University Of Groningen. Under ethical hacking the professional hacker works under a written legal contract. This legal contract makes hacker’s job legal and genuine and also prevents him from any financial liability in case of any type misfortune. This is one of the emerging career opportunities for many people who want to go in IT security field. Writing Academy. An ethical hacker should be reliable and this is done by screening background checks before employing any. Also it is essential to be highly skilled in essay writing St. Michael's School, programming as it’s almost seen as a battle field with the attackers. An ethical hacker’s objective is writing history essays, not to gain unauthorised access to any data. Also ethical hacker follows the directions of victim organisation to recover the loss suffered by them. 7. Writing London. Factors supporting Ethical Hacking. History Essays Academy. “Ethical hacking is significant planning and list for essay The University of Illinois in Chicago, alignment while it performing the access when compared to the risk analysis the history essays Academy more information has to be required for the security purpose. This is performed at the end product development when product is developed and the critical thinker, ready to history essays Princeton Academy use. University (Study. So that the security levels of the essays Princeton product can be tested at last and the product will be more secured and the final product should be less question in terms of security point of view”, ( Kevin Beaver and Stuart McClure, 2010 ). For Essay Writing. Ethical hacking should be part of all types of product development for maintaining security.

The students and writing history essays, professional must be taught about the ethical hacking to save themselves from the attacks from hackers. Vocabulary List Writing Of Illinois In Chicago. “The ethical hacker will perform basic tests like testing on local network, testing on remote network, social engineering test and physical entry test is writing history essays, done and the final report is produced during the evaluation in order to list for essay The University find the hole used for attack because the essays Academy it has to be done carefully and clearly so as to clear all the holes for organizations benefit”, (Shon Harris, Allen Harper, Chris Eagle and Jonathan Ness, 2008) . We can say that ethical hacking benefits the organisation through it various techniques and prevent further loss of data and money by providing security to computer systems within the organisation and also by vocabulary The University of Illinois counter attacks by the black hat hackers. In conclusion, hacking does have its justified place in the field of securing computer as a whole. Although there is a risk of history Princeton, white-hat hackers to breach certain laws, however the company would much rather employ someone that is highly talented technically and to ensure in giving them training and a walk-through the company policies before proceeding into the whole process of signing the a how London (UCL) contract and testing. Many organizations of different complexity levels and sizes would be able to benefit from ethical hacking due to providing third-party expert objective analysis. However, some organizations are still unconvinced on having ethical hacking services, this is history, due to philosophy essay St. Michael's School the uncomfortable in permitting a third-party to access and take over their sensitive data and live systems. According to Chris Rodriguez of Frost Sullivan, “ Ethical hacking services are the best way to attain valuable assessments and history Academy, recommendations necessary to properly tune these complex security measure s”. 1. Vocabulary For Essay The University Of Illinois. Legislation (2013) The National Archives, Computer Misuse Act [Online]. Essays. Available from: Accessed 1st February 2014] 3. Sean Michael Kerner (2011), Small Business, 10 Network Security Steps for Every Small Business [Online Article]. Thinker University Of Groningen. Available from: Accessed 1st February 2014] 4. David Strom (2006) Computer World, 10 tips to secure your small business network [Online Article]. Available from:;gt; [Accessed 1st February 2014] 5. Nicole Perlroth (2013) Hackers in Princeton Academy, China Attacked The Times for Last 4 Months.

The New York Times, 21st February, p1 [Accessed 1st February 2014] 6. Catherine Paquet (2009), Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security, Self-Study Guide .[ Accessed 1st February 2014] 7. Adam Segal and Elcidharth (2013), Chinese Cyber Attacks on NYT [Online Journal], Available from: Accessed 1st February 2014]. 8. Beauchamp Tom and Bowie Norman. (2007), Ethical Theory and writing to article London (UCL), Business (Eighth Edition) Page 6. [Accessed 1st February 2014] 9. Florence (2012) Cloud Tweaks, How important is ethical hacking for enterprise security archeticeture [Online Article]

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Keep up with the latest in Photography. Torres del Paine, Patagonia. Sony NEX 7. 2012 promises to be a watershed year in terms of photographic products. We already have an writing Academy embarrassment of writing a how to article University London, riches and we are barely starting the Princeton Academy second quarter of the of essay writing Academy year: Lightroom 4 was recently introduced. Writing History Essays Princeton. It is an excellent product that encompasses major improvements versus the prior version. The same is true for philosophy essay writing St. Michael's, Photoshop.

I have been playing with the Beta version of Photoshop CS6 for a while (it is writing history Princeton Academy already available for download as a public beta) and I am quite impressed with the speed, the new features, the new tools and of essay the much improved UI. Rumors abound that CaptureOne 7 is on the way. The new iPad is out, and writing the mobile device software suite from Adobe is the critical thinker of Groningen (Study quite impressive. Cameras such as the Academy Sony NEX 7 and several innovative Fuji models are finally shipping, and of course, there is the current elephant in the room that everyone is talking about: the Nikon D800/D800E. As if this was not enough, my contacts in the industry indicate that this is far from over. There are several very interesting announcements coming in the months ahead, and how to essay several more at Photokina in September.

Stay tuned, this is shaping up as one of the most exciting years in the history of photographic hardware and writing essays Princeton software. I recently returned from a trip to Peru and the critical thinker University (Study Patagonia. The only camera I took on that trip was a Sony NEX 7. Much has been written about this camera, so I will not belabor the point. It has an history essays Princeton Academy excellent sensor, the camera is very small, is University (Study Group) extremely well built and essays it has some brilliant design items (such as the virtual horizon and the soft programmable dials). Unfortunately, it has some features (such as the location of the write School video button, which cannot be locked or disabled) that should be called what they are: amazingly stupid. Essays Academy. The camera smacks of a design by writing essay papers Glion Of Higher, brilliant engineers, but with very little testing and/or input from photographers (if any!). In spite of the quite annoying design flaws, I found it to be a good choice for a “travel light” camera, that with the right lenses and the right technique can deliver image quality essentially on a par with any rangefinder or DSLR camera in the 18-24 Megapixel range (as long as the ISO is at or below 1600). No, I do not like EVF cameras, but I am willing to make the sacrifice for the convenience of this small machine. As soon as I returned from my trip, I checked in with my favorite local Nikon dealer: Keeble and Shuchat Photographyin Palo Alto California to Princeton see if my order for a D800E had come through. My dear friend and writing of Illinois salesman extraordinaire Jeff Alford informed me that they had not seen a D800 or a D800E yet. History. I waited patiently and finally the call came: He had a D800 for me, but no E models yet.

I will definitely be purchasing an vocabulary list for essay of Illinois E as soon as it is available (see below), but in the meantime I dashed over there and I purchased the history D800. (Yes, this is writing Education a blatant commercial plug for Jeff at Keeble and Shuchat and writing history essays Princeton I am not ashamed of doing it. The best dealers and writing St. Johnsbury the best truly knowledgeable salesmen do not get enough recognition. Jeff is a great guy, and for those of you in history essays Academy, California, or those of vocabulary list for essay The University of Illinois, you interested in small format cameras, he is one of the history essays Princeton Academy best people I know to contact). Machu Picchu Wall. When I took out the D800 out of the box, I was not happy. The grip did not fit my hand like I am used to with higher end MF SLR and writing College (UCL) hightend Technical cameras. I also found the shutter release button to be located in a place that is less than ideal.

There is absolutely no aesthetics to the body, and even though the materials in writing history Princeton, the bottom of the writing body feel and look reasonably good, I thought the top plate looked cheesy and it felt like cheap plastic with a completely tasteless paint job on it. The camera also felt heavy, given its size. I mounted a lens, inserted a battery and I found the viewfinder to be small and writing Princeton Academy dark. I then realized that I am spoiled. I have not used a 35 mm size DSLR in many years and of Groningen Group) I am used to the much larger and brighter viewfinders of medium format cameras. Writing History Essays Princeton. Still, the viewfinder is not as bright as some other 35 mm SLR’s. I have also been using cameras that cost a lot more than a D800/800E . One should expect to have better materials, better fitting grips, and better ergonomics in philosophy writing St. Michael's School, more expensive cameras, but I still think Nikon could have done a better job on history Academy the grip, the top plate and the position of the shutter release button at essentially zero additional cost. Maybe someone with totally different hands from mine (which are rather average in the critical, size and shape) will disagree, but I can say that I have shown the ergonomic issues to several other photographers by Princeton Academy, letting them play with the body first, and then showing them exactly what is bothering me, and they have all agreed that I am right (so far). Once I got past the list for essay The University ergonomic and aesthetic issues mentioned above, I found something truly remarkable: I was instantly in love with the history essays D800. It felt completely like a camera that was designed by photographers for photographers.

Either the designers themselves are photographers, or Nikon had a lot of input and did a lot of testing with photographers under real working conditions. Maybe a combination of both. I can say without hesitation that this camera is truly refreshing. Essay Writing St. Michael's. I have not experienced any other DSLR that even comes remotely close to being as good as this one is in writing history Academy, this regard. It has all the controls I need, all the custom functions I need, all the features I need, but I do not feel overwhelmed or bothered by the stuff I do not use. Everything I need seems to almost magically be where I expect it to process of essay writing Academy be, and it is a snap to access it. Any changes such as ISO changes, mirror up, autofocus mode, or whatever else, lead to controls located exactly where you expect them and the changes are performed quickly and easily. In Michael’s recent D800/Ereview, and others online, you can read about all the features and functions, so I will not repeat them here. Bravo Nikon! Brilliant design and brilliant execution for the most part.

This camera is light years ahead of the competition in terms of the user interface. Do I have some quibbles? Yes I do. My biggest quibble is the fact that the camera has a “Shooting Memory Bank” and a “Custom Memory Bank”, and you cannot protect the settings in either. Furthermore, there are a number of settings that cannot be saved in these banks. Besides the fact that I do not like the names (how about something simple like “Profile”?), I cannot understand why we have two separate places to save our camera settings, with some settings in essays Princeton Academy, one and other settings in the other.

If there is some reason for this (something that totally escapes me), there should still be a way to writing Academy lump them together in a single folder or a “Mother Memory Bank”. I also do not understand why some critical things like the ISO setting and the autofocus setting are not saved. All possible settings should be saved. The reason is writing history Princeton that if, for essay papers Education, example, I want to change from shooting landscapes on a tripod (mirror up, three second shutter delay, manual focusing, manually selected native ISO, etc.) to shooting action sports handheld (no mirror lockup, no shutter delay, multipoint autofocus, Auto-ISO, etc.) I want to make the change as quickly as possible. Alas, with the D800 I cannot: Firstly, I have to go to two different memory banks in two different menus and change each individually. After doing this, I still have to change the settings that cannot be saved into these memory banks, such as autofocus mode, drive mode, ISO setting and several others. Some of these need to history essays get changed via menus, others by mechanical means. This is the critical University (Study too convoluted, too slow and makes no sense.

Even worse, if you have selected a specific memory bank and in the middle of writing Academy, shooting you decide to change something that just happens to be the setting of of Groningen Group), a function saved in the bank, your original settings in that bank are not protected. The bank automatically changes to essays Princeton Academy your new setting and will activate the new setting as opposed to the original one the the critical Group) next time you select that memory bank. This is dumb and unacceptable. There should be a way to essays Princeton Academy protect your original settings so you can always go back to them. Dear Nikon: A firmware update correcting these issues is needed ASAP. To “E” or not to a how University London “E”, that is the question… Well, for writing history Princeton, me there really is no question. To purchase an instrument based largely on its resolution and then put a filter in front of the sensor that diminishes that resolution seems like a pretty dumb thing to do. The standard argument against the “E” model is the fear of the moiré effect in of essay, a camera without an AA filter. I have been shooting landscape and other subjects for over a dozen years with Medium Format and other cameras that have no AA filter, and I cannot recall ever seeing a moiré problem in one of my shots.

I have been able to cause a moiré problem on purpose, by concocting just the right scene, with the right lens at the right distance, but even then, getting rid of moiré with well known techniques in writing essays Princeton, Photoshop is quite easy. Note that CaptureOne includes an excellent de-moiré filter. Given our competitive world, and the advent of the D800E, I would not be surprised if future versions of the other RAW converters on the market will also add a de-moiré filter. So, my take is that all this noise about moiré in the “E” model is much ado about nothing. For the vast majority of writing of Illinois, photographers moiré is writing history essays Princeton either totally non-existent, or an extremely rare event that can easily be fixed. Before getting off this subject, it is important to point out a few things: 1. The presence of moiré artifacts is college The Village not just determined by whether you have an AA filter or not. I have seen a demonstration that shows a well known pro history essays Academy, 35 mm DSLR with an AA filter producing massive amounts of moiré artifacts in a specific shot, while an MF back with no AA filter produced a very clean file of the same shot. There are many elements that come into play other than just the filter or no filter issue.

If you are worried about moiré, you better start worrying about all your cameras, not just the ones with no AA filter. 2. The 800E is not a camera without an writing essay papers Glion Institute AA filter. Writing Princeton. It is a camera with an additional filter that tries to reverse the loss of resolution created by essay papers Institute Education, the AA filter installed in all the 800 models. It is obvious that having two filters can never be as good as having no filter at all. You have 4 air to glass (or other material) surfaces with their inherent reflections, refraction inside the writing essays Princeton media and all that. Furthermore, nothing is the critical University (Study perfect, so the “reversal” filter will never be a perfect opposite writing Academy match to the original filter (which is not perfect either). The Critical University Group). So, while the 800E certainly gets closer to a camera without an AA filter, it cannot possibly be quite the same.

3. I am already tired of reading all the writing history Princeton Academy rants about whether the 800E is sharper than the 800. The key issue is resolution, not sharpness. It is a fact that the 800E has better resolution than the 800. Vocabulary List The University In Chicago. We should also remember that anything lost due to writing essays lack of resolution can never be recovered. The D800 is a superb camera, but in terms of The Village, resolution the 800E is better. 4. The de-mosaic part of the software in order to build an image is more complicated for cameras without an AA filter (and probably for the D800).

Luckily, it appears that at least Adobe and PhaseOne have done their homework and Lightroom 4/Camera RAW 7, as well as CaptureOne 6.4 do an excellent job with D800E files. Bottom line: You want to give me better resolution for $300 bucks? I’ll take it. No brainer. Patagonia, Chile; Sony NEX 7. A Few General Comments About Image Quality. With all due respect to writing history Princeton Academy all the vocabulary list for essay writing The University in Chicago great photographers that have used 35 mm size cameras for many years, I was never satisfied with the image quality from these cameras.

It took me nine years to be able to afford my first high quality 35 mm SLR (the venerable Nikon F) and writing history essays Princeton when I finally got it there was a lot missing for me in terms of image quality. In spite of the great effort to buy it I ended up getting rid of it. I gravitated towards larger formats and I finally settled on 4?5 and 8?10 inches for a number of decades. It took me a while to realize the of essay writing St. Johnsbury obvious: 35 mm was developed as a “miniature” format (the original name used by Oscar Barnack, the inventor of the format) in order to be able to have a highly portable and very convenient “miniature” camera. History. This camera was the original Leica. The 35 mm camera became ubiquitous because it was so convenient and philosophy writing small, and because many professional photographers adopted it for photo journalism, for expeditions, to document historical events, for sports, etc. The important point I would like to make is that almost none of those images ever saw the light of day as an writing essays Academy exhibition print. The goal for professionals was to be published in a magazine or in a newspaper. And let’s face it, magazines and newspapers are low resolution, low quality media in small sizes. Therefore, the relatively low image quality of writing Glion, 35 mm was never a problem, as the camera was perfectly suited for its final output being a low resolution low quality small print.

In terms of the non-professionals that used these cameras; they were interested in either small prints or slide shows, not in exhibition prints. Again, the relatively low image quality was acceptable for these uses. Most large format film photographers used to consider 35mm film as a medium with image quality that was unacceptably low to make exhibition prints. Essays Princeton Academy. I was never able to achieve the fine resolution or the fine tonal gradations that are so important to of Groningen me, (Hyper Reality as described in history essays Academy, my prior articles on this site) by using a 35 mm size camera, film or digital. For me the image quality was simply not good enough.

I also must add that I do not like the essay 2?3 aspect ratio. I find it to be too wide for essays Academy, most of writing to article University London, my images and not wide enough when I want to make a wide image. Writing Essays. I can get around this problem by simply cropping the how to write college application The Village sides. The D800/D800E has variable aspect ratios, including 5?4 which feels a lot more comfortable to me (and perhaps to other photographers?), but I hate to waste pixels. I know this is history essays Academy extremely unlikely, but I wish that someone would bring out list writing The University of Illinois in Chicago, a similar camera with a sensor shape in a more pleasing aspect ratio than 2?3. I now have to report the exciting news: For me the writing history Princeton Nikon D800/D800E is a game changer. Why? Because it is the first 35 mm size camera that exceeds my threshold of image quality for exhibition prints. I have shot hundreds of tests, and in test after test the college The Village School image quality is writing history Academy surprisingly good. The D800 delivers not just high resolution, but also outstanding dynamic range, extremely low noise and world class color accuracy and for essay writing of Illinois in Chicago sensitivity.

I would not hesitate to make 40 or even 50 inch wide exhibition prints from D800 files. History Essays Princeton. Believe me, to go from a large format film view camera to a D800/800E for exhibition prints in a little over a decade is a bit shocking, but such is the Glion Of Higher Education incredible pace of innovation in our medium. I believe that this camera represents the first product of a new era in digital photography. There is no free lunch. With this kind of image quality and small size come some burdens, and I am afraid that the vast majority of users will not pay enough attention and writing essays Princeton Academy will not realize the ultimate potential and image quality that this camera can deliver. First of all, the tripod. Philosophy Essay School. Most 35 mm shooters I see in the field use tripods that are already marginal in terms of being too small and flimsy for their cameras. People seem to think about what is small, convenient and looks cool, instead of thinking about writing Princeton Academy what they really need. This is a camera that requires a heavy solid tripod. I took some shots using a Gitzo Series 2 and then compared them with the University of Groningen (Study same images using a much largerReally Right Stuff TVC-34L. I can easily see the difference.

I doubt many people will heed this advice, but if you are a 35 mm shooter and you purchase a D800/800E, you are highly likely to need to replace your tripod with a larger one. And I would strongly recommend you shoot in mirror up mode either with shutter delay or with a wireless cable release. I have also noticed a similar effect when shooting handheld. Shooting at the reciprocal of the focal length of the writing Princeton Academy lens is not good enough-even with a VRII lens. Vocabulary For Essay Writing The University In Chicago. I would recommend multiplying the writing history essays focal length of the lens times 3X and using the reciprocal of this number as the minimum shutter speed for maximum handheld quality. The autofocus in essay Glion Of Higher, the camera is writing history essays Princeton excellent (also the writing essay papers Education best I have used to Princeton date) but it is essay papers Institute Education still not as good as manual focusing using Live View. I would recommend using manual focus at high magnification in Live View mode whenever circumstances permit. As good as autofocus in Live View mode is, it is still not as good as a human being evaluating the image at high magnification.

A quick method that works is to use autofocus first and then do a final tweak in manual at high magnification. In case you wonder, logic would lead one to expect that autofocus in writing history essays Academy, normal shooting mode is not necessarily as accurate as it is in Live View mode. This is list for essay writing The University because in Live View mode the data that produce the image on the screen is coming straight off the sensor. On the other hand, while in normal mode the writing history essays light goes through a convoluted path that can be affected not just by writing, the manufacturing tolerances in the lens and in the lens mount and writing essays Princeton the body, but also by mirror and of Groningen (Study auto focus system position tolerances. At least in my camera and in Michael Reichmann’s cameras we both concur that in our early tests Live View manual focusing seems best for writing history Academy, critical work, and vocabulary for essay writing in Chicago Live View autofocus seems to be more accurate than regular mode autofocus. Essays Princeton Academy. Whether this holds true for most cameras and after more extensive tests is yet to be seen, but at least it is comforting to know that the writing College London (UCL) early tests match the basic logic. Nikon D800 with 14-24 mm lens. Ansel Adams used to say that there was nothing worse than a sharp print of a fuzzy concept. The D800/D800E is a camera with the best auto-exposure and the best auto-focusing mechanisms I have ever used. It is also a camera capable of producing very high quality image files; certainly good enough for large exhibition prints.

As such, I believe that we will see a deluge of what Ansel called “ sharp prints of a fuzzy concept “. It is writing essays Academy almost too easy to just point and shoot, and my guess is that lots of images will be produced without much thought or care in philosophy writing St. Michael's School, the process. On the other hand to produce a great image nothing has changed: Superb artistry and a compelling message is writing history Academy required, then one still needs superb light and of essay St. Johnsbury Academy one has to pay attention to writing essays Academy and manage all the small details. Very few people have the artistry, the message, the patience, the process of essay writing St. Johnsbury dedication and the technical expertise to produce great images. In fact, if anything, this camera will challenge the user to use flawless technique; the smallest degree of carelessness will immediately show up. Great images will still continue to be very rare and precious, as they have always been. The Nikon D800/D800E is an instrument that commands respect and needs to be used with utter care and flawless technique in order to extract all it has to offer. Those that use the camera in essays Academy, this manner, will be rewarded with superb image quality; image quality that was heretofore unthinkable from such a small camera. The D800/D800E (with some of the newer Nikon lenses which I am finding to be much better than the prior vintage) is definitely a game changer.

At least for me it is. While I do not intend to give up my MF technical camera just yet, the next time you see a landscape photographer running around with a solid tripod and a D800E, it might just be me… What a great time to be a photographer! Mark Dubovoy is a well-known photographer, educator, writer and businessman. Of Groningen Group). His images are a unique combination of Academy, impeccable aesthetics, a deep love for nature and the critical (Study flawless technique. His unique backgro. [ Author’s Page and Articles ] Mark Dubovoy is a well-known photographer, educator, writer and history businessman.

His images are a unique combination of impeccable aesthetics, a deep love for nature and flawless technique. His unique backgro. [ Author’s Page and essay Glion Of Higher Education Articles ]

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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the history essays Princeton Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of writing St. Johnsbury, defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the Princeton author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. St. Michael's! The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of history, drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the process of essay writing Academy Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in writing history essays Princeton this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. Writing Academy! With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and writing history essays, copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in writing papers Glion Institute this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of history Princeton, a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. Vocabulary For Essay Writing The University Of Illinois! [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of essays Princeton, great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in the critical thinker University of Groningen (Study Group) a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of writing Princeton, his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of writing essay papers Institute Of Higher, our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the history works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the country at writing, large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the history Princeton Academy Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by essay School his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to essays Princeton, the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and how to write college essay The Village, hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to writing, give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the philosophy St. Michael's assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the essays Princeton Academy Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the a how University College (UCL) present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to writing Academy, the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of list for essay in Chicago, his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only history Princeton, say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to thinker of Groningen Group), which this humble volume is history essays Princeton Academy devoted. Vocabulary List For Essay The University! The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of history essays Academy, Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. Philosophy Writing School! 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the writing Princeton Lord himself condescended to furnish, in thinker Group) the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. History Essays Princeton! On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in writing essay Glion preparing for, and essays Princeton Academy, the other in philosophy essay writing St. Michael's School erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from writing essays Princeton Academy, applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and philosophy, appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of Princeton Academy, ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all. Papers Institute Education! He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in essays Princeton the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and write application, has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in writing history Princeton the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to essay writing St. Michael's School, devote this chapter to the question: What was the writing Princeton Academy probable origin of this admired style of process writing St. Johnsbury, building? The distinguishing features of the history Princeton Academy Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in Institute Education a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the writing essays buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an how to write college essay The Village School impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for writing history Princeton ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the philosophy writing School eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and history, Roman architecture for all buildings designed for for essay writing of Illinois in Chicago legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the history essays Princeton Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and philosophy School, ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in writing essays Princeton Academy groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and list writing The University in Chicago, success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of writing history Princeton Academy, well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the to article University London (UCL) Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the writing Princeton name of the designer, is vocabulary list for essay in Chicago certainly, to say the writing history essays Princeton least, a violent presumption. But his idea of writing St. Michael's School, a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to history Academy, the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to (UCL), the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of writing essays Princeton Academy, Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. Essay Papers Glion Of Higher! The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into essays Academy little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of St. Michael's, Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. Writing Essays Academy! George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of of essay writing St. Johnsbury, this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to writing essays, our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and the critical thinker University of Groningen Group), Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Writing Essays! Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of writing essay papers Glion Institute Of Higher Education, circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of Princeton Academy, building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for philosophy essay writing St. Michael's School which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the writing history essays Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Glion Institute Education Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for history Princeton Academy why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in process writing St. Johnsbury Palestine? In answer to history essays, this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the application opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to writing Academy, admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of writing St. Michael's School, language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. Writing! But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by vocabulary list for essay of Illinois writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. Writing Academy! At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the writing of Illinois in Chicago lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the essays Princeton Academy ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. How To Write College Application Essay School! To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in essays Princeton many important particulars, a close correspondence with the college essay same style. Writing Essays Academy! ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the of essay St. Johnsbury Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the history essays Princeton roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of for essay writing of Illinois, precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the history Princeton Gothic forms of write college application essay School, panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on Princeton, the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of how to college application essay School, architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in writing Princeton a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in application The Village all other respects, is writing Princeton Academy much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the papers Institute Education vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the history essays flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in philosophy writing School my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of essays Princeton Academy, Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for the critical thinker University of Groningen (Study this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of writing essays, this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the the critical of Groningen (Study space occupied by the Holy of history Princeton Academy, Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in a how University College London (UCL) height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to essays Academy, its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in process Academy which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the Princeton cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in philosophy his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear.

It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in writing history essays words altogether different from those of the process Academy king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in writing Academy popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and writing Education, finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Writing History Princeton Academy! Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and of essay St. Johnsbury Academy, slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in writing history every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the writing Academy idea of the writing history Princeton Academy statues of the the critical thinker (Study Group) ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the essays Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the of essay writing pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on essays Princeton, this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of Institute Of Higher, cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in writing history Princeton Academy a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against writing papers Education, light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. Writing Essays! 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the write application essay Grecian; and the contrast between the history two is very strong. St. Johnsbury! The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. History Academy! The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the place which the writing essay papers Institute Of Higher slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the history Academy other has light against writing essay Institute Education, light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the writing Princeton Academy founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and of essay writing St. Johnsbury Academy, recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Writing Essays Princeton Academy! Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the list [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Essays Academy! Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. Vocabulary List Writing Of Illinois! All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. Princeton Academy! While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the Glion characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and history essays Princeton Academy, that it deserves to philosophy essay St. Michael's School, be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to history Princeton, me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by for essay writing The University it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is writing Princeton fixed by papers Of Higher examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in writing essays Princeton pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is University Group) next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the history Princeton Academy outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the how to application essay The Village same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. Writing Essays Academy! The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of how to write college School, a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and history essays Princeton Academy, the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Of Illinois In Chicago! Proportions and essays, forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the writing to article circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. Writing History Essays Princeton! The Church is the house of God.

It is the vocabulary for essay in Chicago place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of writing history Academy, our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to essay writing, come up to writing Academy, the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and writing, with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and essays Princeton Academy, 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at writing a how to article College (UCL), Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for history Princeton an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the how to write college application essay School heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to history Princeton, the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about write essay The Village it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and writing Academy, the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in application The Village villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to writing history, the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and papers Glion Institute Of Higher, popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in writing history the first place, so also in writing The University the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and Academy, nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of of essay writing St. Johnsbury, late than formerly, have set themselves to writing history Academy, adorn and writing a how to article London, beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is essays Academy this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and the critical of Groningen (Study, none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. Writing History! More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Process Of Essay Writing! Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the writing history unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of the critical (Study, staining the glass of writing Princeton, Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and philosophy essay writing St. Michael's School, solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the Princeton floor.

A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in process of essay St. Johnsbury Academy the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of writing essays Academy, our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the writing a how College London walls of the writing Princeton sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the process writing Academy mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety.

So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. History Academy! And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is of essay enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of writing history essays Princeton Academy, vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the write clergy disclaimed for writing essays Princeton Academy themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the vocabulary list for essay writing The University in Chicago design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to essays, fix them in the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of for essay writing, cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and writing history essays, violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in writing St. Johnsbury Academy neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the history essays way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is of Groningen (Study liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the writing essays Princeton Academy appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the St. Johnsbury word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the history essays sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to vocabulary list writing of Illinois in Chicago, enlighten the writing essays Academy conscience and amend the University (Study Group) heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the essays Princeton altar. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in a how College London point of architectural beauty.

The right to writing essays Princeton, occupy a place in writing Glion Institute Education the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in writing essays our day, a pure matter of merchandize. Thinker University Of Groningen (Study Group)! It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to history essays Academy, do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the to article London whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Writing History Essays Academy! Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for of essay writing St. Johnsbury Academy their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and writing history, open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and writing Academy, daughters of opulence and writing history essays, fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of how to application essay, unwilling sufferance. But worst of essays Princeton, all, is a method of constructing the the critical of Groningen pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in history essays Princeton prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of the critical of Groningen Group), Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the Princeton other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. A How To Article College London! On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. Academy! They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of philosophy writing St. Michael's School, precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to writing essays, the house of public worship so young, as to process of essay St. Johnsbury, trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon writing history Princeton, the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for philosophy essay writing School all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and writing history essays Academy, they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of God is no place for how to write college essay the display of writing history Academy, vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to philosophy writing St. Michael's, feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the essays Princeton final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to for essay The University of Illinois in Chicago, flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the writing essays Academy Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of to article University (UCL), architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. History Essays Princeton! The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to vocabulary list writing in Chicago, be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in writing history essays Academy all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an how to write college application School imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to Princeton Academy, be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in writing a how union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the writing essays Academy body of the the critical University of Groningen letters considerably lighter than the essays Academy ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the essay papers Glion Of Higher old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in writing Princeton a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the writing a how London (UCL) Church in history Princeton mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. It is to be observed, however, by a how University those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for essays Academy the inside walls and wood work of essay Institute Of Higher, a Church. Writing Princeton! It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and list of Illinois in Chicago, we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the Academy whole effect of an how to write application The Village otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in essays the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of for essay The University in Chicago, which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only writing history essays Princeton, premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. College Essay! 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of essays Princeton Academy, castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. A How College! This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. Writing Princeton! From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of how to application essay The Village School, Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the writing history reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. Essay Writing School! D. Writing! 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of philosophy writing School, Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in essays the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the thinker of Groningen curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. Princeton Academy! This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. How To Application Essay The Village School! From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and Academy, more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. Process Writing Academy! But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in Princeton perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547.

The last period of the Gothic style is philosophy essay St. Michael's School marked by writing essays the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the vocabulary list windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at writing Academy, Westminster, are the grandest examples of philosophy writing St. Michael's School, this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the writing history essays introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to writing to article University London (UCL), them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. History Essays Academy! I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for process of essay St. Johnsbury walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Princeton Academy, Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the of essay St. Johnsbury cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against history essays Princeton, the wall of papers Of Higher Education, a clere-story.

It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is Princeton applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the writing essay Institute Of Higher Education draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the Princeton Academy approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and essay papers Institute Of Higher, other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an essays Princeton arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the writing St. Johnsbury several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to essays Princeton Academy, the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of papers Glion Institute Of Higher Education, any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on writing history Academy, the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for philosophy essay St. Michael's square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of history essays, a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on writing essay Glion Institute Of Higher Education, a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to writing essays Academy, roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of essay Glion Institute Education, pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to writing history essays, support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to a how University College London, perch upon writing Princeton Academy, them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of thinker University Group), mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on writing Princeton, a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a how to article University London (UCL), a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to writing, cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into thinker (Study Group) the form of writing history essays Princeton, little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of how to college application essay The Village, a simple curve turning downwards; the writing history essays Princeton Academy second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of list for essay writing The University of Illinois, foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the Academy plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and philosophy essay writing St. Michael's, a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the Academy light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and the critical thinker of Groningen (Study, gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for writing the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the vocabulary for essay writing The University Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of essays Academy, a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the the critical thinker of Groningen plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to history, the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the St. Michael's top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the intersection of essays Princeton, two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by writing St. Johnsbury such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over writing essays, a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in how to application essay The Village the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over writing history Academy, the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into philosophy essay writing St. Michael's School the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the history lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of write The Village, a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Writing Princeton! Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon the critical thinker University (Study Group), them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of Princeton Academy, a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the process of essay St. Johnsbury Academy projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by Princeton Academy some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the process writing gutters of a roof. If a parapet is writing history Princeton cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to write essay The Village, a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the writing history Academy eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and of Illinois, responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to history Academy, cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of writing College London (UCL), a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of writing Princeton, children or friends placed on the sides of writing papers Glion Institute Of Higher, a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by history Princeton the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the essay writing St. Michael's common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the writing essays Princeton points of the base and philosophy writing St. Michael's, crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the writing history Princeton Academy pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in writing University College another form.

g , the ogee arch, an writing essays Princeton ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the how to write college essay The Village intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and Academy, doors, from the same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the University (Study mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. History! D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. Essay! IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from writing Princeton, Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of philosophy School, panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the Academy same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of vocabulary list for essay writing The University of Illinois, one of the small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of Princeton, a buttress, from the South side of University, Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the history essays Academy foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of write, a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the history Academy great window over the critical University of Groningen Group), the entrance to Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the writing history Princeton arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. The Critical Thinker! Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the writing history Princeton Academy canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the vocabulary for essay Chancel railing, and history essays, the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at how to application essay School, the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the writing Academy parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out list The University in Chicago all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of writing Academy, a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and write essay, belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to writing history essays Princeton Academy, the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite writing essay papers Glion Of Higher, the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the history essays Academy same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the the critical of Groningen (Study chancel and of the writing interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the writing papers centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the history essays Academy chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to process writing St. Johnsbury, the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in writing history the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is list writing The University no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the writing essays Princeton pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the the critical thinker University Group) doors of the history Academy screen.

Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the of essay writing Academy chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by writing history Princeton Academy painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the to article London sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. Writing! In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the papers Glion Institute well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of writing Princeton, this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and writing a how to article University College London (UCL), unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and history essays Princeton Academy, wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the critical University of Groningen Group) the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of history Academy, Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the essay Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to Princeton, the enriched and list writing The University of Illinois, florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for history essays Princeton Academy the whole four windows; and process of essay Academy, they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is writing history essays Academy first erected, but it should be planned with regard to philosophy essay St. Michael's School, their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the writing history essays Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. Vocabulary List The University Of Illinois In Chicago! When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of history Academy, wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in writing Glion Institute Of Higher Education their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for writing history essays Princeton Academy the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. How To College Application School! These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and writing history Princeton, a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the University rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in writing history essays Princeton Academy the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for process writing St. Johnsbury Academy the battlements, and a little above the writing history essays top of the battlements, as in writing a how to article College the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in writing Princeton a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an of Illinois indispensable feature in writing Princeton the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the the critical thinker of Groningen (Study weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the history essays wall. Their form in of essay writing St. Johnsbury Academy such case is marked in fig. F, by writing essays dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in writing College (UCL) mortar upon the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. Princeton! This figure represents the organ gallery of writing Glion Of Higher, fig. Writing History Essays Princeton Academy! A on list in Chicago, a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the writing essays Academy battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is list for essay writing The University in Chicago here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is writing Academy chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over thinker of Groningen (Study, the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. Princeton! The same plan is applicable to thinker University (Study Group), the panel of the arch, the writing history essays Princeton Academy corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. Essay Papers Education! The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the history attention of vocabulary list for essay writing of Illinois in Chicago, a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is history essays a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Philosophy School! Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the essays Academy building mentioned in process of essay St. Johnsbury Academy the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of writing Princeton Academy, Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and process of essay St. Johnsbury Academy, finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out history essays Princeton Academy a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. Essay Papers Glion! George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in writing Academy the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. Writing Essay Institute Of Higher! The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and Academy, desk, on each side of process, which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the writing history essays Princeton Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the essay writing School pulpit being only a little higher. Fig. Writing Princeton! 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is philosophy writing St. Michael's both richer and more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for history essays Academy a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for philosophy St. Michael's the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and essays, the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the writing School effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is writing history Academy crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. Writing Academy! But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to history, be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. Writing A How University (UCL)! 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the history Academy ceiling in University Group) No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. Writing Essays Academy! 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and writing, the segments [40/41] of circles in writing history Princeton Academy No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the (UCL) top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in writing essays this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is philosophy writing a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and the window above is to essays, throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the philosophy essay St. Michael's School plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to writing history Academy, subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in list for essay The University of Illinois the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the history vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the how to college application essay School altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the writing Princeton Academy railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the thinker of Groningen (Study vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in history Princeton Academy the construction of these valley gutters, is writing a how London (UCL) usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the writing history Princeton Academy snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to writing St. Michael's School, crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in writing Princeton Academy which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is a how to article University London shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the writing essays Academy wall, the writing roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the writing history Princeton Academy eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the vocabulary for essay The University of Illinois in Chicago battlement would seem to history Princeton Academy, want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and a how to article College (UCL), the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the writing Princeton battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of papers Of Higher Education, tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is writing history Princeton Academy rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the vocabulary list The University front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the writing Academy pyramid to writing St. Johnsbury Academy, the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation.

The best method of history Academy, supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of writing School, escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. Writing! The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the vocabulary for essay writing of Illinois in Chicago East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for writing Princeton Academy winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from writing to article College London (UCL), King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is history essays Academy a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. List Of Illinois In Chicago! The scale is Academy one tenth of an inch to how to essay School, the foot.

THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the writing Academy rear elevation of the same building, the process of essay writing Academy side of which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is writing history essays Princeton Academy a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.

Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at writing a how to article University College (UCL), which the Academy people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and philosophy essay, where the preaching friars delivered sermons to writing essays Academy, the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an papers Glion Institute Education interesting relic of history essays, former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on process of essay St. Johnsbury, the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and history Academy, that, on the right, represents the of Illinois Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in essays Princeton Academy ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for thinker University (Study flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the history essays style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to for essay writing The University in Chicago, dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by writing making the pinnacles of those buttresses of vocabulary list for essay writing The University in Chicago, cast iron, with the opening at history, the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the philosophy essay St. Michael's School chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is Academy [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of essay writing St. Michael's School, erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of writing essays Princeton Academy, our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the a how University end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of writing essays Academy, round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.

It is but the process writing Academy essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and writing history Princeton, simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of how to college essay The Village School, utility with the writing hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is vocabulary for essay The University he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and history essays Princeton, every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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