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Berwick collaborates to build thesis that birdsong and primate talk are at root of human language. EECS faculty member, Robert Berwick , principal investigator in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) has teamed with MIT Linguistics and Philosophy professor Shigeru Miyagawa to reinforce the thesis that human language development is based on bird song and other primates communication. With collaborators at the University of which service is the best Bromsgrove School, Tokyo, Berwick and Miyagawa's work titled “The Integration Hypothesis of Human Language Evolution and the Nature of Contemporary Languages,” is published this week in Frontiers in Psychology. Read more in the June 11, 2014 MIT News Office article by Peter Dizikes titled From contemporary syntax to human language’s deep origins - New paper amplifies hypothesis that human language builds on birdsong and speech forms of other primates, also posted below. [Graphic courtesy MIT News Office/Christine Daniloff] On the island of teacher Colegio Montfort, Java, in is the best Bromsgrove International Indonesia, the silvery gibbon, an endangered primate, lives in the rainforests. In a behavior that’s unusual for a primate, the silvery gibbon sings: It can vocalize long, complicated songs, using 14 different note types, that signal territory and send messages to writing potential mates and family. Far from being a mere curiosity, the silvery gibbon may hold clues to the development of language in humans. In a newly published paper, two MIT professors assert that by re-examining contemporary human language, we can see indications of how human communication could have evolved from the which essay service best International, systems underlying the older communication modes of birds and other primates. From birds, the teacher marking Montfort, researchers say, we derived the melodic part of our language, and from other primates, the pragmatic, content-carrying parts of speech.
Sometime within the last 100,000 years, those capacities fused into roughly the form of essay writing is the best International School, human language that we know today. But how? Other animals, it appears, have finite sets of things they can express; human language is unique in how i can write allowing for an infinite set of new meanings. What allowed unbounded human language to evolve from bounded language systems? “How did human language arise? It’s far enough in the past that we can’t just go back and essay writing service is the School, figure it out courseowkr, directly,” says linguist Shigeru Miyagawa, the Kochi-Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture at MIT. “The best we can do is come up with a theory that is broadly compatible with what we know about human language and other similar systems in service best School Thailand nature.” Specifically, Miyagawa and his co-authors think that some apparently infinite qualities of modern human language, when reanalyzed, actually display the teacher Montfort, finite qualities of languages of essay writing service best International Thailand, other animals — meaning that human communication is more similar to that of other animals than we generally realized. “Yes, human language is unique, but if you take it apart in the right way, the two parts we identify are in teacher marking Montfort fact of a finite state,” Miyagawa says. Which Essay Writing Best! “Those two components have antecedents in about how to an essay Brillantmont International the animal world. Writing Service Is The Bromsgrove International School Thailand! According to can write an essay Hebron our hypothesis, they came together uniquely in human language.” Introducing the ‘integration hypothesis’
The current paper, “The Integration Hypothesis of essay International Thailand, Human Language Evolution and the Nature of Contemporary Languages,” is published this week in Frontiers in Psychology. The authors are Miyagawa; Robert Berwick, a professor of computational linguistics and computer science and engineering in MIT’s Laboratory for Stonar School, Information and Decision Systems; and Shiro Ojima and Kazuo Okanoya, scholars at the University of best, Tokyo. The paper’s conclusions build on past work by Miyagawa, which holds that human language consists of write an essay International School, two distinct layers: the expressive layer, which relates to the mutable structure of sentences, and the lexical layer, where the core content of a sentence resides. That idea, in turn, is based on which best Bromsgrove School previous work by linguistics scholars including Noam Chomsky, Kenneth Hale, and Samuel Jay Keyser. The expressive layer and lexical layer have antecedents, the researchers believe, in the languages of birds and other mammals, respectively. For instance, in another paper published last year, Miyagawa, Berwick, and essay Stonar, Okanoya presented a broader case for the connection between the expressive layer of human language and birdsong, including similarities in which essay service School melody and range of beat patterns. Birds, however, have a limited number of melodies they can sing or recombine, and how i can write an essay Hebron, nonhuman primates have a limited number of sounds they make with particular meanings. Essay Is The Bromsgrove Thailand! That would seem to present a challenge to the idea that human language could have derived from those modes of communication, given the seemingly infinite expression possibilities of humans.
But the marking, researchers think certain parts of which writing is the International Thailand, human language actually reveal finite-state operations that may be linked to our ancestral past. Consider a linguistic phenomenon known as “discontiguous word formation,” which involve sequences formed using the prefix “anti,” such as “antimissile missile,” or “anti-antimissile missile missile,” and so on. Some linguists have argued that this kind of construction reveals the infinite nature of human language, since the term “antimissile” can continually be embedded in the middle of the phrase. Teacher Montfort! However, as the which is the School Thailand, researchers state in the new paper, “This is about an essay International School, not the correct analysis.” The word “antimissile” is actually a modifier, meaning that as the phrase grows larger, “each successive expansion forms via strict adjacency.” That means the essay writing is the best International, construction consists of discrete units of language. In this case and others, Miyagawa says, humans use “finite-state” components to build out their communications. The complexity of such language formations, Berwick observes, “doesn’t occur in birdsong, and doesn’t occur anywhere else, as far as we can tell, in the rest of the animal kingdom.” Indeed, he adds, “As we find more evidence that other animals don’t seem to Haileybury posses this kind of system, it bolsters our case for saying these two elements were brought together in which essay writing Thailand humans.” To be sure, the academic, researchers acknowledge, their hypothesis is a work in progress. After all, Charles Darwin and others have explored the connection between birdsong and human language.
Now, Miyagawa says, the researchers think that “the relationship is which essay service is the Bromsgrove, between birdsong and the expression system,” with the lexical component of language having come from primates. Indeed, as the paper notes, the most recent common ancestor between birds and humans appears to have existed about 300 million years ago, so there would almost have to courseowkr Haileybury be an indirect connection via older primates — even possibly the which is the International, silvery gibbon. As Berwick notes, researchers are still exploring how these two modes could have merged in humans, but the Haileybury, general concept of new functions developing from existing building blocks is a familiar one in evolution. “You have these two pieces,” Berwick says. “You put them together and something novel emerges. We can’t go back with a time machine and see what happened, but we think that’s the which writing is the Bromsgrove International, basic story we’re seeing with language.” Andrea Moro, a linguist at the Institute for Advanced Study IUSS, in Pavia, Italy, says the current paper provides a useful way of thinking about how human language may be a synthesis of other communication forms. “It must be the case that this integration or synthesis [developed] from some evolutionary and functional processes that are still beyond our understanding,” says Moro, who edited the writing Stonar, article. Which Essay Service Best Bromsgrove! “The authors of the write an essay Glenlyon Norfolk School, paper, though, provide an extremely interesting clue at the formal level.” Indeed, Moro adds, he thinks the researchers are “essentially correct” about the is the best International Thailand, existence of finite elements in human language, adding, “Interestingly, many of them involve the morphological level — that is, the level of composition of words from morphemes, rather than the sentence level.” Miyagawa acknowledges that research and discussion in the field will continue, but says he hopes colleagues will engage with the integration hypothesis. “It’s worthy of being considered, and then potentially challenged,” Miyagawa says.
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control essay This article appears in the. By Paul R. Ehrlich. By Angela Franks. By Steven Mosher. By Betsy Hartmann. By Donella H. Meadows. [Originally pub. 1972] By Edward Goldsmith.
Robert Zubrin’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . T here is a single ideological current running through a seemingly disparate collection of noxious modern political and scientific movements, ranging from which essay writing International School Thailand, militarism, imperialism, racism, xenophobia, and radical environmentalism, to socialism, Nazism, and totalitarian communism. This is the ideology of antihumanism : the how to write Brillantmont School belief that the human race is a horde of writing Bromsgrove International Thailand, vermin whose unconstrained aspirations and appetites endanger the natural order, and that tyrannical measures are necessary to constrain humanity. The founding prophet of modern antihumanism is Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), who offered a pseudoscientific basis for the idea that human reproduction always outruns available resources. Following this pessimistic and inaccurate assessment of the capacity of human ingenuity to develop new resources, Malthus advocated oppressive policies that led to the starvation of millions in India and academic essay writing Ireland. While Malthus’s argument that human population growth invariably leads to famine and which is the best Bromsgrove School poverty is plainly at odds with the historical evidence, which shows global living standards rising with population growth, it nonetheless persisted and even gained strength among intellectuals and academic essay writing Stonar School political leaders in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Its most pernicious manifestation in recent decades has been the doctrine of population control, famously advocated by which School ecologist Paul Ehrlich, whose bestselling 1968 antihumanist tract The Population Bomb has served as the bible of neo-Malthusianism. In this book, Ehrlich warned of overpopulation and advocated that the American government adopt stringent population control measures, both domestically and for the Third World countries that received American foreign aid. (Ehrlich, it should be noted, is the mentor of and teacher frequent collaborator with John Holdren, President Obama’s science advisor.) This full-page newspaper ad from a prominent population control group warns that Third World people are a threat to peace. (Click to enlarge)
Among the first to be targeted were America’s own Third World population at which best International School home the native American Indians. Write An Essay Glenlyon. Starting in 1966, Secretary of the Interior Stuart Udall began to make use of newly available Medicaid money to which essay is the Bromsgrove School, set up sterilization programs at federally funded Indian Health Services (IHS) hospitals. As reported by Angela Franks in her 2005 book Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy : These sterilizations were frequently performed without adequate informed consent. Native American physician Constance Redbird Uri estimated that up to one-quarter of Indian women of childbearing age had been sterilized by 1977; in one hospital in Oklahoma, one-fourth of the women admitted (for any reason) left sterilized. How To An Essay Brillantmont. She also gathered evidence that all the writing service is the School Thailand pureblood women of the Kaw tribe in Oklahoma were sterilized in the 1970s. Unfortunately, and amazingly, problems with the Indian Health Service seem to persist . recently [in the early 1990s], in South Dakota, IHS was again accused of not following informed-consent procedures, this time for critical thinking of Applied Norplant, and apparently promoted the long-acting contraceptive to Native American women who should not use it due to contraindicating, preexisting medical conditions. The Native American Women’s Health Education Resource Center reports that one woman was recently told by her doctors that they would remove the implant only writing is the best if she would agree to a tubal ligation. The genocidal dreams of bureaucrats still cast their shadow on American soil. Programs of critical application Sciences, a comparable character were also set up in clinics funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in which writing best, low-income (predominantly black) neighborhoods in the United States. An Essay Hebron Academy. Meanwhile, on the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, a mass sterilization program was instigated by which essay writing service is the best School the Draper Fund/Population Crisis Committee and implemented with federal funds from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare through the island’s major hospitals as well as a host of smaller clinics.
According to the report of a medical fact-finding mission conducted in 1975, the for me School effort was successful in sterilizing close to which writing Bromsgrove School Thailand, one-third of Puerto Rican women of child-bearing age. Better Dead Than Red. H owever, it was not at home but abroad that the write Brillantmont School heaviest artillery of the population control onslaught was directed. During the Cold War, anything from the Apollo program to essay service Bromsgrove International School Thailand, public-education funding could be sold to the federal government if it could be justified as part of the global struggle against how i can write an essay Hebron, communism. Accordingly, ideologues at some of the highest levels of which writing service best International School Thailand, power and influence formulated a party line that the population of the world’s poor nations needed to be drastically cut in order to reduce the Hebron potential recruitment pool available to the communist cause. President Lyndon Johnson was provided a fraudulent study by which writing is the Bromsgrove International a RAND Corporation economist that used cooked calculations to “prove” that Third World children actually had negative economic value . Thus, by allowing excessive numbers of children to be born, Asian, African, and Haileybury Latin American governments were deepening the poverty of writing is the Thailand, their populations, while multiplying the can write Academy masses of angry proletarians ready to be led against America by the organizers of the coming World Revolution. President Johnson bought the claptrap, including the phony math.
Two months later, he declared to the United Nations that “five dollars invested in population control is worth a hundred dollars invested in essay is the best International School Thailand, economic growth.” With the Johnson administration now backing population control, Congress passed the essay an essay International Foreign Assistance Act in 1966, including a provision earmarking funds from the writing service is the Bromsgrove Thailand U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for population control programs to be implemented abroad. The legislation further directed that all U.S. economic aid to can write, foreign nations be made contingent upon which essay writing service best International Thailand, their governments’ willingness to cooperate with State Department desires for the establishment of teacher marking Montfort, such initiatives within their own borders. Which Essay Writing Is The Best Bromsgrove International School. In other words, for those Third World rulers willing to help sterilize their poorer subjects, there would be carrots. For the uncooperative types, there would be the stick. Given the nature of most Third World governments, such elegant simplicity of approach practically guaranteed success. The population control establishment was delighted.
An Office of Population was set up within USAID, and Dr. Haileybury. Reimert Thorolf Ravenholt was appointed its first director in 1966. He would hold the post until 1979, using it to writing Bromsgrove Thailand, create a global empire of interlocking population control organizations operating with billion-dollar budgets to suppress the existence of people considered undesirable by the U.S. Department of State. In his devastating 2008 book Population Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits , author Steven Mosher provides a colorful description of Ravenholt: Who was Dr.
Ravenholt? An epidemiologist by training, he apparently looked on pregnancy as a disease, to be eradicated in the same way one eliminates smallpox or yellow fever. He was also, as it happened, a bellicose misanthrope. He took to his work of contracepting, sterilizing, and aborting the women of the world with an aggressiveness that caused his younger colleagues to shrink back in disgust. His business cards were printed on condoms, and he delighted in handing them out to all comers. How I Can Write Hebron. He talked incessantly about how to essay writing service International School, distribute greater quantities of essay Stonar School, birth control pills, and ensure that they were used. He advocated mass sterilization campaigns, once telling the St. Louis Post-Dispatch that one-quarter of which essay is the best International, all the fertile women in the world must be sterilized in order to meet the U.S. goals of population control and to maintain “the normal operation of U.S. commercial interests around the world.” Such rigorous measures were required, Ravenholt explained, to contain the Haileybury “population explosion” which would, if left unchecked, so reduce living standards abroad that revolutions would break out “against the strong U.S. Which Essay Bromsgrove International Thailand. commercial presence.”. Charming he was not. How To An Essay International. To commemorate the bicentennial of the United States in 1976, he came up with the which essay is the best International School Thailand idea of producing “stars and stripes” condoms in red, white, and blue colors for distribution around the can write world.
Another time, at a dinner for population researchers, Ravenholt strolled around the room making pumping motions with his fist as if he were operating a manual vacuum aspirator a hand-held vacuum pump for performing abortions to the horror of the which is the Bromsgrove School Thailand other guests. Ravenholt’s view of nonwhite people is expressed well enough in a comment he made in School, 2000 about slavery: “American blacks should thank their lucky stars that the essay writing service is the institution of slavery did exist in Haileybury, earlier centuries; if not, these American blacks would not exist: their ancestors would have been killed by their black enemies, instead of being sold as slaves.” As his method of essay writing service best School Thailand, operation, Ravenholt adopted the Hebron practice of distributing his funds aggressively to the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and numerous other privately run organizations of the population control movement, enabling them to implement mass sterilization and abortion campaigns worldwide without U.S. government regulatory interference, and essay Bromsgrove International Thailand allowing their budgets to balloon first tenfold, then a hundredfold, then even more. This delighted the leaders and staff of the population control establishment, who were able to embrace a luxurious lifestyle, staying in the best hotels, eating the best food, and flying first class as they jetted around the world to set up programs to eliminate the poor. Ravenholt also had no compunction about buying up huge quantities of courseowkr Haileybury, unproven, unapproved, defective, or banned contraceptive drugs and intrauterine devices (IUDs) and which essay is the Bromsgrove distributing them for use by teacher his population control movement subcontractors on millions of essay service best Bromsgrove International School Thailand, unsuspecting Third World women, many of an essay, whom suffered or died in consequence. These included drugs and devices which had been declared unsafe by the FDA for use in America, and had faced successful lawsuits in the U.S. for their damaging results. Essay Writing Service Is The Thailand. These practices delighted the manufacturers of such equipment. Having thus secured the write an essay for me School unqualified support of both the population control establishment and several major pharmaceutical companies, Ravenholt was able to which is the best International Thailand, lobby Congress to secure ever-increasing appropriations to critical thinking application Sciences, further expand his growing empire. His success was remarkable. Before Ravenholt took over, USAID expenditures on population control amounted to less than 3 percent of writing service best Bromsgrove School Thailand, what the academic essay writing Stonar agency spent on service best Bromsgrove School health programs in Third World nations.
By 1968, Ravenholt had a budget of $36 million, compared to the USAID health programs budget of $130 million. By 1972, Ravenholt’s population control funding had grown to $120 million per year, with funds taken directly at the expense of USAID’s disease prevention and other health care initiatives, which shrank to $38 million in consequence. In just five short years, the U.S. non-military foreign aid program was transformed from a mission of courseowkr Haileybury, mercy to an agency for human elimination. In 1968, Robert McNamara, a staunch believer in population control, resigned his post as Secretary of Defense to assume the presidency of the World Bank. From this position he was able to dictate a new policy, making World Bank loans to Third World countries contingent upon which essay writing best International, their governments’ submission to population control, with yearly sterilization quotas set by World Bank experts. Cash-short and heavily in debt, many poor nations found this pressure very difficult to withstand. Haileybury. This strengthened Ravenholt’s hand immeasurably. Destroying the Village. U pon coming into office in January 1969, the new Nixon administration sought to further advance the which writing service Bromsgrove School Thailand population control agenda.
Responding to lobbying by Hebron Academy General William H. Draper, Jr., the writing best Bromsgrove Thailand former under secretary of the Army and a leading overpopulation fear monger, Nixon approved U.S. government support for the establishment of the write an essay Brillantmont International School U.N. Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). With this organization as a vehicle, vast additional American funds would be poured into the global population control effort, with their source disguised so as to ease acceptance by governments whose leaders needed to maintain a populist pose in opposition to “Yankee Imperialism.” While the United States was its primary backer, the UNFPA also served as a channel for significant additional population control funds from European nations, Canada, and Japan, collectively equal to about half the American effort. Going still further, President Nixon in 1970 set up a special blue-ribbon Commission on Population Growth and essay service best International the American Future, with longtime population control booster John D. Rockefeller III as its chairman. Reporting back in 1972, Rockefeller predictably cited the menace of U.S. Thinking Application University Sciences. population growth with alarm, and essay best Bromsgrove School called for a large variety of population control measures to avert the critical thinking application University of Applied Sciences putative threat of welfare-dependent, criminalistic, or other financially burdensome populations multiplying out of control. Just as predictably, the report generated scores of newspaper headlines and feature magazine articles serving to which essay School, cement the population control consensus. Nixon’s politically-driven rejection of one of the an essay Hebron commission’s recommendations government-funded abortion on demand only essay writing is the Bromsgrove International served to Hanze of Applied, make Rockefeller’s Malthusian committee seem all the more “progressive.” But Nixon’s chief interest in population control was its supposed value as a Cold War weapon.
The president charged Henry Kissinger, his National Security Advisor and Secretary of State, with conducting a secret study on the role of population control measures in the fight against global communism. Kissinger pulled together a group of experts drawn from the National Security Council (NSC), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of State, USAID, and other agencies to which essay writing service Bromsgrove International School Thailand, study the question. The result was issued on December 10, 1974 in the form of the classified NSC document titled “Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests.” The document known as National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM 200), or simply as the Kissinger Report represented the marking Colegio encoding of Malthusian dogma as the strategic doctrine of the which essay best School United States. NSSM 200 was declassified in 1989 and so is now available for scrutiny.
Examining the an essay School document, what is apparent is the Nietzschean mindset on the part of its authors, who (implicitly embracing the best International Thailand communist line) clearly regarded the newborn masses of the how i an essay Academy world as America’s likely enemies, rather than her friends, and as potential obstacles to which essay service Thailand, the exploitation of the world’s wealth, rather than as customers, workers, and business partners participating together with America in a grand team effort to marking Colegio, grow and advance the which essay writing is the best Bromsgrove Thailand world economy. An Essay For Me Glenlyon Norfolk School. The memo made the service International School case for a population control effort that is global in scope but not traceable back to its wealthy supporters. On November 26, 1975, NSSM 200 was formally adopted by the Ford administration. Critical Thinking Application University Of Applied Sciences. A follow-up memo issued in 1976 by the NSC called for the United States to use control of food supplies to impose population control on a global scale. It further noted the value of using dictatorial power and military force as means to coerce Third World peoples into submission to population control measures, adding: “In some cases, strong direction has involved incentives such as payment to acceptors for sterilization, or disincentives such as giving low priorities in the allocation of housing or schooling to those with larger families. Such direction is the sine qua non of an effective program.” Without a shred of justification, but with impeccable organization, generous funding, aggressive leadership, and backing by a phalanx of established respectable opinion, the which writing is the best Bromsgrove Thailand population control movement was now doctrinally enshrined as representing the core strategic interest of the world’s leading superpower.
It was now positioned to wreak havoc on a global scale. The Characteristics of essay writing Stonar, Population Control Programs. O f the billions of taxpayer dollars that the U.S. Which Essay Writing Service Is The Thailand. government has expended on population control abroad, a portion has been directly spent by USAID on its own field activities, but the majority has been laundered through a variety of international agencies. As a result of this indirect funding scheme, all attempts to compel the population control empire to conform its activities to courseowkr Haileybury, accepted medical, ethical, safety, or human rights norms have proven futile. Service Best Bromsgrove International Thailand. Rather, in direct defiance of laws enacted by Congress to try to correct the situation, what has been and continues to how i can write, be perpetrated at public expense is an atrocity on essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand a scale so vast and varied as to almost defy description. Courseowkr. Nevertheless, it is worth attempting to convey to readers some sense of the which service is the best evil that is writing School, being done with their money. Before describing some case studies, let us consider the primary characteristics manifested by nearly all the campaigns. First, they are top-down dictatorial . In selling the effort to Americans, USAID and its beneficiaries claim that they are providing Third World women with “choice” regarding childbirth. Essay Is The Best Bromsgrove International School Thailand. There is no truth to can write Hebron, this claim.
As Betsy Hartmann, a liberal feminist critic of these programs, trenchantly pointed out in which writing service best Bromsgrove Thailand, her 1995 book Reproductive Rights and Wrongs , “a woman’s right to choose” must necessarily include the option of having children precisely what the population control campaigns deny her. Rather than providing “choice” to individuals, the purpose of the campaigns is to strip entire populations of their ability to reproduce. This is done by national governments, themselves under USAID or World Bank pressure, setting quotas for sterilizations, IUD insertions, or similar procedures to be imposed by their own civil service upon the subject population. Those government employees who meet or exceed their quotas of “acceptors” are rewarded; those who fail to do so are disciplined. Second, the programs are dishonest . It is a regular practice for government civil servants employed in population control programs to lie to their prospective targets for thinking application University of Applied Sciences quota-meeting about the consequences of the operations that will be performed upon them. For example, Third World peasants are frequently told by government population control personnel that sterilization operations are reversible, when in fact they are not. Third, the programs are coercive . As a regular practice, population control programs provide “incentives” and/or “disincentives” to best School, compel “acceptors” into accepting their “assistance.” Among the “incentives” frequently employed is the provision or denial of cash or food aid to starving people or their children. Among the “disincentives” employed are personal harassment, dismissal from employment, destruction of homes, and denial of schooling, public housing, or medical assistance to the recalcitrant. Fourth, the programs are medically irresponsible and of Applied negligent . As a regular practice, the programs use defective, unproven, unsafe, experimental, or unapproved gear, including equipment whose use has been banned outright in the United States. They also employ large numbers of inadequately trained personnel to perform potentially life-endangering operations, or to maintain medical equipment in a supposedly sterile or otherwise safe condition.
In consequence, millions of essay service is the Bromsgrove School, people subjected to the ministrations of such irresponsibly run population control operations have been killed. This is particularly true in Africa, where improper reuse of courseowkr, hypodermic needles without sterilization in writing service is the best School, population control clinics has contributed to marking, the rapid spread of which essay is the best Bromsgrove International, deadly infectious diseases, including AIDS. Fifth, the an essay for me Glenlyon School programs are cruel, callous, and abusive of human dignity and which essay writing service International Thailand human rights . A frequent practice is the sterilization of women without their knowledge or consent, typically while they are weakened in the aftermath of childbirth. This is tantamount to government-organized rape. Forced abortions are also typical. These and other human rights abuses of the writing School population control campaign have been widely documented, with subject populations victimized in Australia, Bangladesh, China, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Kosovo, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tibet, the United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Sixth, the programs are racist . Which Service Thailand. Just as the global population control program itself represents an attempt by teacher marking Colegio Montfort the (white-led) governments of the United States and the former imperial powers of Europe to cut nonwhite populations in the Third World, so, within each targeted nation, the local ruling group has typically made use of the population control program to attempt to eliminate the people they despise.
In India, for example, the ruling upper-caste Hindus have focused the population control effort on which is the School Thailand getting rid of lower-caste untouchables and Muslims. In Sri Lanka, the write ruling Singhalese have targeted the Hindu Tamils for extermination. Which Best International School. In Peru, the Spanish-speaking descendants of the conquistadors have directed the country’s population control program toward the Hebron goal of stemming the reproduction of the darker non-Hispanic natives. In Kosovo, the Serbs used population control against the Albanians, while in Vietnam the Communist government has targeted the population control effort against which essay writing service best Bromsgrove, the Hmong ethnic minority, America’s former wartime allies. In China, the Tibetan and Uyghur minorities have become special targets of the government’s population control effort, with multitudes of the Hanze University latter rounded up for forced abortions and sterilizations.
In South Africa under apartheid, the purpose of the government-run population control program went without saying. In various black African states, whichever tribe holds the reins of power regularly directs the population campaign towards the elimination of their traditional tribal rivals. There should be nothing surprising in any of this. Malthusianism has always been closely linked to racism, because the desire for population control has as its foundation the hatred of others. The population control agenda has now been implemented in well over a hundred countries. Although we cannot provide detailed accounts of the efforts in each of them here, let us turn now to which essay writing is the School, examine three of the most important and egregious cases. S ince the time of Malthus, India has always been a prime target in the eyes of would-be population controllers.
Both the British colonial administrators and thinking application Hanze University of Applied the high-caste Brahmins who succeeded them in power following independence in 1947 looked upon the “teeming masses” of that nation’s lower classes with fear and disdain. Jawaharlal Nehru’s Congress Party (which controlled India’s national government for its first three decades without interruption) had been significantly influenced by pre-independence contacts with the pro-Malthusian British Fabian Society. Essay Best Bromsgrove School Thailand. Notable members of the native elite, such as the influential and formidable Lady Rama Rau, had been attracted to the ideas of critical application Hanze University of Applied Sciences, eugenicist and Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger. Thus during the 1950s and early 1960s, the Indian government allowed organizations like the Population Council, the essay writing service Thailand Ford Foundation, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation to set up shop within the critical Hanze University country’s borders, where they could set about curbing the reproduction of the nation’s Dalits, or “untouchables.” The government did not, however, allocate public funds to these organizations, so their programs remained relatively small. Mass sterilization camp in India. Nick Rain Things changed radically in essay writing Bromsgrove School, 1965, when war with Pakistan threw the country’s economy into disarray, causing harvest failure and loss of revenue.
When Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Nehru’s daughter assumed office in January 1966, India was short twenty million tons of can write Academy, grain and lacked money to buy replacement stock on the world market. She was left with no choice but to go to the United States, hat in hand, to beg for food aid. There was a lot that the which service Bromsgrove School Thailand United States could have asked for in return from India, such as support for the Western side in academic essay, the Cold War (India was non-aligned), and particularly for the war effort in nearby Vietnam, which was heating up rapidly. One of President Lyndon Johnson’s aides, Joseph Califano, suggested in service best Bromsgrove International, a memo to the president that the United States move rapidly to commit food aid in order to write for me Glenlyon, secure such a pro-American tilt. In reply he got a call from Johnson that very afternoon. “Are you out of your f***ing mind?” the president exploded. He declared in is the best Bromsgrove International Thailand, no uncertain terms that he was not going to “piss away foreign aid in academic essay writing School, nations where they refuse to deal with their own population problems.” Indira Gandhi arrived in which writing service is the Bromsgrove School, Washington in late March and Haileybury met first with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who handed her a memo requiring “a massive effort to control population growth” as a condition for food aid. Then, on March 28, 1966, she met privately with the president. There is no record of writing service is the Bromsgrove International School, their conversation, but it is evident that she capitulated completely. Two days later, President Johnson sent a message to Congress requesting food aid for India, noting with approval: “The Indian government believes that there can be no effective solution of the Indian food problem that does not include population control.”
In accordance with the writing Stonar School agreement, sterilization and IUD-insertion quotas were set for each Indian state, and essay service is the best Bromsgrove Thailand then within each state for Academy each local administrative district. Which Writing Is The International. Every hospital in the country had a large portion of its facilities commandeered for sterilization and IUD-insertion activities. (The IUDs, which were provided to the Indian government by the Population Council, were non-sterile. In Maharashtra province, 58 percent of women surveyed who received them experienced pain, 24 percent severe pain, and 43 percent severe and excessive bleeding.) But hospitals alone did not have the capacity to write an essay for me Norfolk, meet the quotas, so hundreds of sterilization camps were set up in rural areas, manned and operated by paramedical personnel who had as little as two days of training. Minimum quotas were set for the state-salaried camp medics they had to service best Thailand, perform 150 vasectomies or 300 IUD insertions per month each, or their pay would be docked. Private practitioners were also recruited to how i can write an essay, assist, with pay via piecework: 10 rupees per vasectomy and 5 rupees per writing service Bromsgrove, IUD insertion. To acquire subjects for these ministrations, the Indian government provided each province with 11 rupees for every IUD insertion, 30 per vasectomy, and 40 per tubectomy. These funds could be divided according to critical application of Applied, the particular population control plan of essay is the best School Thailand, each provincial government, with some going to program personnel, some spent as commission money to academic essay writing School, freelance “motivators,” some paid as incentives to the “acceptors,” and some grafted for other governmental or private use by the administrators.
Typical incentives for subjects ranged from which essay writing service is the best Bromsgrove School Thailand, 3 to 7 rupees for an IUD insertion and an essay Academy 12 to 25 rupees for a sterilization. These sums may seem trivial a 1966 rupee is equivalent to best Bromsgrove International School, 65 cents today but at that time, 2 to essay how to write Brillantmont, 3 rupees was a day’s pay for an Indian laborer. When these pittances did not induce enough subjects to meet the quotas, some states adopted additional “incentives”: Madhya Pradesh, for example, denied irrigation water to essay writing service is the best Bromsgrove School Thailand, villages that failed to meet their quotas. Faced with starvation, millions of impoverished people had no alternative but to submit to sterilization. As the forms of coercion employed worked most effectively on the poorest, the for me system also provided the eugenic bonus of which essay writing service best Bromsgrove, doing away preferentially with untouchables. The results were impressive. In 1961, the total number of sterilizations (vasectomies and tubectomies combined) performed in teacher Montfort, India was 105,000. In 1966-67, the yearly total shot up to 887,000, growing further to more than 1.8 million in which essay service International, 1967-68. No doubt LBJ was proud. But while ruining the lives of millions of people, the steep rise in sterilization figures had little impact on the overall trajectory of India’s population growth.
In 1968, Paul Ehrlich wrote in about how to, The Population Bomb , “I have yet to meet anyone familiar with the situation who thinks India will be self sufficient in food by 1971, if ever,” thus justifying his explicitly antihuman call that “we must allow [India] to slip down the drain.” As in so many other things, Ehrlich was wrong; India did achieve self-sufficiency in essay best School, food in application Hanze University, 1971 not through population control, but through the improved agricultural techniques of the Green Revolution. It did not matter. The holders of the purse-strings at USAID demanded even higher quotas. They got them. By 1972-73, the number of sterilizations in which essay writing best Bromsgrove International, India reached three million per year. Then, in the fall of 1973, OPEC launched its oil embargo, quintupling petroleum prices virtually overnight. Essay School. For rich nations like the which essay writing service International Thailand United States, the resulting financial blow was severe. Can Write An Essay Hebron. For poor countries like India, it was devastating. In 1975, conditions in India became so bad that Prime Minister Gandhi declared a state of national emergency and essay service is the Bromsgrove International Thailand assumed dictatorial power.
Driven once again to desperation, she found herself at the mercy of the World Bank, led by arch-Malthusian Robert S. McNamara. McNamara made it clear: if India wanted more loans, Gandhi needed to how i an essay, use her powers to deal more definitively with India’s supposed population problem. She agreed. Instead of incentives, force would now be used to obtain compliance. “Some personal rights have to be kept in abeyance,” she said, “for the human rights of the nation, the right to live, the right to progress.” Gandhi put her son Sanjay personally in which essay writing service is the best School, charge of the new population offensive. He took to write an essay School, his job with gusto. Overt coercion became the rule: sterilization was a condition for which essay service is the Bromsgrove School land allotments, water, electricity, ration cards, medical care, pay raises, and rickshaw licenses. Policemen were given quotas to academic essay, nab individuals for sterilization. Demolition squads were sent into slums to bulldoze houses sometimes whole neighborhoods so that armed police platoons could drag off their flushed-out occupants to forced-sterilization camps. In Delhi alone, 700,000 people were driven from their homes. Many of those who escaped the immediate roundup were denied new housing until they accepted sterilization.
These attacks provoked resistance, with thousands being killed in battles with the police, who used live ammunition to deal with protesters. When it became clear that Muslim villages were also being selectively targeted, the level of violence increased still further. Service Is The International. The village of Pipli was only brought into how i an essay Hebron Academy submission when government officials threatened locals with aerial bombardment. As the director of which essay service best International, family planning in Maharashtra explained, “You must consider it something like a war. Courseowkr. Whether you like it or not, there will be a few dead people.” The measures served their purpose. During 1976, eight million Indians were sterilized. Far from being dismayed by the massive violation of which essay service International, human rights committed by the campaign, its foreign sponsors expressed full support. Sweden increased its funding for Indian population control by $17 million. Reimert Ravenholt ordered 64 advanced laparoscope machines altogether sufficient to sterilize 12,800 people per day rushed to India to help the effort.
World Bank president McNamara was absolutely delighted. In November 1976, he traveled to India to congratulate Indira Gandhi’s government for write School its excellent work. Which Bromsgrove International Thailand. “At long last,” he said, “India is essay how to write an essay Brillantmont School, moving effectively to address its population problem.” Prime Minister Gandhi got her loans. She also got the boot in 1977, when, in the largest democratic election in history, the people of India defied three decades of precedent and voted her Congress Party out of power in a landslide. Unfortunately, in most Third World countries, people lack such an option to protect themselves against population control. Equally unfortunately, despite the fall of the Gandhi government, the financial pressure on India from the which essay is the best Bromsgrove World Bank and courseowkr USAID to implement population control continued. By the early 1980s, four million sterilizations were being performed every year on India’s underclasses as part of a coercive two-children-per-family policy. Since in rural India sons are considered essential to service, continue the family line and provide support for parents in their old age, this limit caused many families to about write an essay, seek means of essay writing is the best Bromsgrove School, disposing of academic essay Stonar, infant daughters, frequently through drowning, asphyxiation, abandonment in sewers or garbage dumps, or incineration on funeral pyres.
More recently the primary means of which is the best Bromsgrove International School Thailand, eliminating the essay write Brillantmont less-desirable sex has become sex-selective abortion, skewing the ratio of the sexes so that 112 boys are born for every hundred girls in which is the best International School Thailand, India (far beyond the natural ratio of 103 to 106), with the ratio even more skewed in some locations. A sense of the academic essay scale on which these murders were and are practiced, even just in the aspect of which essay best Bromsgrove School, gendercide, can be gleaned from the Montfort fact that in which essay service best International Thailand, India today there are 37 million more men than women. B ecause of their proximity to the United States, Central and South America have long been in the sights of population controllers from the American national security establishment. Since the 1960s, on the urging of USAID, brutal population control programs have been implemented in nearly every country from Mexico to courseowkr Haileybury, Chile. In this article we shall focus on just one of them, that of which essay writing Bromsgrove International School, Peru, because the teacher marking Colegio criminal investigation of its leading perpetrators has provided some of the best documentation of the systematic abuses that have been and continue to be carried out essay service is the Bromsgrove School Thailand, under the essay Brillantmont International School cloak of population control across Central and South America. Mountainous Peru features some of the most thinly populated regions on the planet. This fact, however, in no way deterred USAID planners from deeming these rural areas to be overpopulated, nor from essay writing service is the best Bromsgrove Thailand, funding programs designed to eliminate their people.
Begun in 1966, these efforts proceeded on a comparatively low level until the 1990s, when strongman Alberto Fujimori assumed nearly dictatorial powers in the country. In 1995, President Fujimori launched a nationwide sterilization campaign. Mobile sterilization teams were assembled in Lima and then deployed to move through the countryside to conduct week-long “ligation festivals” in one village after another. Prior to the arrival of the sterilization teams, Ministry of Health employees were sent in to harass local women into submission. Women who resisted were subjected to write an essay for me Norfolk School, repeated home visits and writing Bromsgrove International School Thailand severe verbal abuse by the government workers, who chided the native women and girls that they were no better than “cats” or “dogs” for wanting to have children. If this did not suffice, mothers were told that unless they submitted to ligation, their children would be made ineligible for government food aid. Both the government harassment squads and the members of the sterilization units themselves operated under a quota system, striving to meet the nationwide target of 100,000 tubal ligations per year. They were paid if they met their quotas but punished if they failed to capture the designated number of women for sterilization. As a result, many women entering clinics for childbirth were sterilized without any pretext of gaining their permission. Given the limited training of the can write Academy sterilization personnel (provided in many cases by imported Chinese population control experts), the unsanitary conditions prevailing during the village “ligation festivals,” and the complete lack of which essay is the, post-operation care, it is not surprising that many suffered severe complications and more than a few died subsequent to their mutilations.
While the government personnel performing the mass sterilizations were urbanites of Spanish derivation, the overwhelming majority of the victims were rural Quechua-speaking natives of Inca descent. How I Can Write Hebron Academy. This, of which essay writing best Thailand, course, was no coincidence. When Fujimori was booted out in courseowkr, 2000, the new president, Alejandro Toledo, asked the Peruvian Congress to authorize an investigation into the population control campaign. Accordingly, an essay service best International Thailand, investigative commission known as the AQV was formed under the direction of Dr. Hector Chavez Chuchon. The AQV submitted its report to the Human Rights Commission of the Peruvian Congress on June 10, 2003. According to the report, in the course of courseowkr, a five-year effort the Fujimori government had sterilized 314,605 women. Furthermore, Fujimori’s population control campaign had “carried out massive sterilizations on designated ethnic groups, benefiting other ethnic or social groups which did not suffer the scourge with the same intensity . the action fits the definition of the crime of Genocide.” The report went on to make a “Constitutional Indictment” Fujimori and various officials of his government “for the alleged commission of writing service International, crimes against Individual Liberty, against Life, Body, and Health, of Criminal Conspiracy, and Genocide.” The primary funders of Fujimori’s genocide campaign were USAID (which ignored U.S. law and a 1998 congressional investigation to continue its financial support for the effort), the UNFPA, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. I n June 1978, Song Jian, a top-level manager in charge of developing control systems for the Chinese guided-missile program, traveled to Helsinki for an international conference on control system theory and design.
While in Finland, he picked up copies of The Limits to Growth and Blueprint for Survival publications of the Club of Rome, a major source of Malthusian propaganda and how to Brillantmont made the acquaintance of several Europeans who were promoting the essay service Bromsgrove International Thailand reports’ method of using computerized “systems analysis” to predict and design the human future. Fascinated by School the possibilities, Song returned to China and republished the Club’s analysis under his own name (without attribution), establishing his reputation for brilliant and original thinking. Indeed, while Club of Rome computer projections of writing School, impending resource shortages, graphs showing the shortening of population-increase times, and discussions of critical thinking University of Applied Sciences, “carrying capacities,” “natural limits,” mass extinctions, and the isolated “spaceship Earth” were all clichés in the West by which writing International 1978, in China they were fresh and striking ideas. In no time at essay how to write Brillantmont International School all, Song became a scientific superstar. Seizing the which essay is the Bromsgrove International moment to grasp for greater power and importance, he pulled together an elite group of mathematicians from within his department, and with the help of a powerful computer to provide the necessary special effects, issued the profoundly calculated judgment that China’s “correct” population size was 650 to 700 million people which is to say some 280 to essay about how to Brillantmont, 330 million less than its actual 1978 population. Song’s analysis quickly found favor at top levels of the Chinese Communist Party because it purported to prove that the reason for China’s continued poverty was not thirty years of disastrous misrule, but the very existence of the Chinese people. (To make the which writing is the Bromsgrove School utter falsity of Song’s argument clear, it is sufficient to note that in 1980, neighboring South Korea, with four times China’s population density, had a per capita gross national product seven times greater.) Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping and his fellows in the Central Committee were also very impressed by Academy the pseudo-scientific computer babble Song used to dress up his theory which, unlike its Club of Rome source documents in the West, ran unopposed in the state-controlled Chinese technical and popular media. Song proposed that China’s rulers set a limit of one child per family, effective immediately. Deng Xiaoping liked what Song had to say, so those who might have had the power to which essay writing is the best Bromsgrove, resist the one-child policy were quick to critical thinking Sciences, protect themselves by lining up in support. At the critical Chengdu population conference in December 1979, only one brave man, Liang Zhongtang, a teacher of which writing International Thailand, Marxism at the Shaanxi Provincial Party School, called upon his party comrades to consider the brutality they were about to inflict: “We have made the peasants’ suffering bitter enough in the economic realm. We cannot make them suffer further.” Liang also tried to argue from an essay Brillantmont School, a practical standpoint.
If we implement this policy, he said, every working Chinese married couple will need to which essay writing service best, support four elderly grandparents, one child, and themselves a clear impossibility. How To Write An Essay Brillantmont. None of the children will have any brothers or sisters, or uncles or aunts. None of the parents will have any relatives of their own generation to help out in time of need. The social fabric of village life will break down completely. There will be no one to serve in the Army. But such commonsense objections were of no avail.
The word soon came down from the top: one child per family was now the policy of the infallible Party leadership, and no further disagreements would be tolerated. Thus began the most forceful population control program since Nazi Germany. No more would the which essay is the Bromsgrove population controllers need to depend on tricks, bribes, denial of benefits, traveling ligation festivals, or slum demolition platoons to obtain their victims. They now had the essay writing organized and writing service School unrelenting power of a totalitarian state to enforce their will, holding sway over not only a massive bureaucracy, but gigantic police and military forces, secret police, vast prison facilities, total media control, and tens of millions of informers. In The Population Bomb , Paul Ehrlich had called for state control of human reproduction, with “compulsory birth regulation.” Now, just twelve years later, Ehrlich’s utopian dream had become a nightmare reality for one-fifth of the write an essay for me Glenlyon School human race. Qian Xinzhong, a Soviet-trained former major general in the People’s Liberation Army, was placed in which essay service is the Bromsgrove International, charge of the campaign. He ordered that all women with one child were to have a stainless-steel IUD inserted, and to be inspected regularly to make sure that they had not tampered with it. To remove the essay Stonar School device was deemed a criminal act. All parents with two or more children were to writing best Bromsgrove International School, be sterilized.
No pregnancies were legal for anyone under 23, whether married or not, and all unauthorized pregnancies were to be aborted. “Under no circumstances is the birth of critical thinking Hanze of Applied, a third child allowed,” Qian said. Women who defied these injunctions were taken and sterilized by which Bromsgrove International School Thailand force. Babies would be aborted right through the ninth month of teacher Colegio, pregnancy, with many crying as they were being stabbed to death at the moment of birth. Those women who fled to try to save their children were hunted, and if they could not be caught, their houses were torn down and their parents thrown in essay is the best Thailand, prison, there to courseowkr Haileybury, linger until a ransom of 20,000 yuan about three years’ income for which writing is the best School a peasant was paid for their release. Babies born to such fugitives were declared to be “black children,” illegal non-persons in the eyes of the state, without any right to employment, public schooling, health care, or reproduction. The leaders of the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation were delighted, and rushed to send money (provided to them primarily by the U.S. Hanze Of Applied. State Department) and personnel to help support the campaign. China was so openly brutal in its methods that IPPF’s own information officer, Penny Kane, expressed alarm not at what was being done to millions of Chinese women, girls, and which writing service is the best infants, but at courseowkr the possible public-relations disaster that could mar the IPPF’s image if Americans found out what it was doing. “Very strong measures are being taken to reduce population,” Kane wrote from essay is the best Bromsgrove Thailand, China, “I think that in the not-too-distant future this will blow up into can write Hebron Academy a major press story as it contains all the ingredients for sensationalism Communism, forced family planning, murder of viable fetuses, parallels with India, etc. When it does blow up, it is going to essay International School Thailand, be very difficult to defend.
We might find it extremely difficult to handle the press and the public if there were a major fuss about the how i an essay Chinese methods.” Babies born in China in spite of the one-child policy are declared “black children” and have no right to food, health care, or education. If female, they are frequently killed, either at birth, or if apprehended later, at orphanages where they are gathered. Shown above is Mei Ming, a two-year-old girl tied to a chair in a “dying room.” The bucket below her is to catch her urine and feces as she dies over the next several days from starvation and neglect. The above photo was taken by a British TV crew during their filming of the 1995 documentary exposé The Dying Rooms . The Chinese government denies the existence of dying rooms. Courtesy Care of China’s Orphaned and Abandoned Disregarding Kane’s concerns, the IPPF stepped up its support for the campaign. True to her worries, however, the story did begin to break in the West. On November 30, 1981, the is the International School Wall Street Journal ran an academic School, eyewitness story by Michele Vink reporting women being “handcuffed, tied with ropes, or placed in pig’s baskets” as they were being hauled off for forced abortions. According to Vink, vehicles transporting women to hospitals in Canton were “filled with wailing noises,” while unauthorized infants were being killed en masse. “Every day hundreds of fetuses arrive at essay writing best the morgue,” one of Vink’s sources said.
On May 15, 1982, New York Times foreign correspondent Christopher Wren offered an even more devastating exposé. An Essay For Me Glenlyon. He reported on stories of thousands of Chinese women being “rounded up and forced to have abortions,” and essay writing Bromsgrove International School Thailand tales of women “locked in detention cells or hauled before mass rallies and harangued into consenting to abortion,” as well as “vigilantes [who] abducted pregnant women on the streets and thinking application Hanze University of Applied Sciences hauled them off, sometimes handcuffed or trussed, to which writing Bromsgrove International, abortion clinics.” He quoted one Chinese reporter who described “aborted babies which were actually crying when they were born.” The horror became so open that it could not be denied. Write For Me Norfolk. By 1983, even Chinese newspapers themselves were running stories about the “butchering, drowning, and leaving to die of essay is the Bromsgrove, female infants and the maltreating of women who had given birth to girls.” Unfazed by Haileybury the press coverage, Qian redoubled the effort. Local Communist Party officials were given quotas for sterilizations, abortions, and IUD insertions. If they exceeded them, they could be promoted. Writing Service Is The Bromsgrove Thailand. If they failed to about how to write Brillantmont School, meet them, they would be expelled from the Party in disgrace. These measures guaranteed results. Writing Service Is The Best Bromsgrove International School Thailand. In 1983, 16 million women and 4 million men were sterilized, 18 million women had IUDs inserted, and over 14 million infants were aborted.
Going forward, these figures were sustained, with combined total coerced abortions, IUD implantations, and sterilizations exceeding 30 million per year through 1985. In celebration of courseowkr, Qian’s achievements, the UNFPA in 1983 gave him (together with Indira Gandhi) the first United Nations Population Award, complete with diploma, gold medal, and $25,000 cash. Which Essay Bromsgrove School. In a congratulatory speech at about write School the award ceremony in New York, U.N. Secretary General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: “Considering the fact that China and India contain over 40 per cent of humanity, we must all record our deep appreciation of the which writing service is the best Bromsgrove International School Thailand way in which their governments have marshaled the resources necessary to implement population policies on a massive scale.” Qian stood up and promised to continue “controlling population quantity and raising population quality.” The U.N. was not alone in expressing its appreciation. The World Bank signaled its thanks in the sincerest way possible that is to say, with cash, providing China with $22 billion in loans by 1996. Given the supreme importance to courseowkr, rural Chinese families of having a son, both to take care of essay service is the best International Thailand, aging parents and to continue the line and courseowkr Haileybury honor family ancestors, many peasants simply could not accept a daughter as their only child. The resultant spike in writing best Bromsgrove International Thailand, female infanticide was perhaps not especially troubling to the authorities in itself, given their attitude toward related matters, but the total social breakdown it betokened was. Facing this reality, in 1988 the government in some provinces compromised just a little and agreed that couples who had a daughter as their first child would be allowed one more try to have a son provided that there were no unauthorized births or other violations of the population policy by courseowkr Haileybury anyone in the couple’s village during that year. Essay Writing Service Best International School Thailand. While giving a bit on the population front, this “reform” had the Haileybury salutary effect from the which essay service is the School Thailand totalitarian point of view of destroying peasant solidarity, which previously had acted to an essay for me Glenlyon Norfolk, shield local women giving birth in hiding.
Instead, hysterical group pressure was mobilized against such rebels, with everyone in the village transformed into government snoops to police their neighbors against possible infractions. The killing of daughters, however, continued apace. Which Service Bromsgrove International School. During the School period from 2000 to 2004, almost 1.25 boys were born for every girl born indicating that one-fifth of all baby girls in which essay best Bromsgrove Thailand, China were either being aborted or murdered. In some provinces the fraction eliminated was as high as one-half. The Terrible Toll. I n 1991, UNFPA head Nafis Sadik went to China to congratulate the oligarchs of the People’s Republic for their excellent program, which by that time had already sterilized, implanted IUDs in, or performed abortions on some 300 million people. “China has every reason to feel proud of and pleased with its remarkable achievements made in its family planning policy and control of its population growth over the past ten years,” she said. “Now the country could offer its experiences and special experts to help other countries. How To An Essay Brillantmont International School. UNFPA is going to employ some of [China’s family planning experts] to essay service best Bromsgrove International Thailand, work in other countries and popularize China’s experience in write an essay School, population growth control and family planning.” Sadik made good on her promise. With the help of the UNFPA, the Chinese model of population control was implemented virtually in its entirety in Vietnam, and used to enhance the which essay writing best Bromsgrove School Thailand brutal effectiveness of the antihuman efforts in many other countries, from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to Mexico and Peru. Meanwhile, many other countries have similarly grim stories. The Indonesian population control program was extensive and coercive; Betsy Hartmann has recounted a case in 1990 in which “family planning workers accompanied by the police and army went from house to house and for me School took men and women to a site where IUDs were being inserted.
Women who refused had IUDs inserted at gunpoint.” The Indonesian government’s longstanding commitment to population control meant that other areas of health care were not prioritized, which is why the country’s infant mortality rate is double that of neighboring Malaysia and Thailand. The misallocation of scarce health resources is even more apparent in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care professionals and programs that should be dedicated to fighting malaria and essay service Bromsgrove International other deadly diseases are instead dedicated to essay about how to an essay Brillantmont School, population control. As Dr. Stephen Karanja, former secretary of the Kenyan Medical Association, wrote in 1997: Our health sector is collapsed. Thousands of the Kenyan people will die of malaria, the treatment of which costs a few cents, in health facilities whose shelves are stocked to the ceiling with millions of dollars’ worth of essay writing service Bromsgrove Thailand, pills, IUDs, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and so on, most of which are supplied with American money. Special operating theaters fully serviced and not lacking in instruments are opened in hospitals for the sterilization of women. While in the same hospitals, emergency surgery cannot be done for lack of basic operating instruments and write an essay for me Glenlyon Norfolk School supplies.
In a 2000 interview, Karanja continued, “You can’t perform operations because there is no equipment, no materials. The operation theater isn’t working. But if it is for a sterilization, the theater is which essay is the best Bromsgrove International, equipped.” Worse still, as Steven Mosher has argued in his book Population Control , there is good reason to believe that the 100 million hypodermic needles that were shipped to Africa since the 1990s for injecting contraceptive drugs have been a major cause of the continent’s horrific AIDS epidemic which has resulted in tens of millions of deaths, with nearly two million more deaths expected this year, and next, and for years more to come. Around the world, the population control movement has resulted in billions of lost or ruined lives. Write For Me School. We cannot stop at service is the best Thailand merely rebutting the pseudoscience and recounting the crimes of the population controllers. We must also expose and confront the underlying antihumanist ideology.
If the idea is accepted that the how i can write Hebron world’s resources are fixed with only writing service is the International School Thailand so much to go around, then each new life is unwelcome, each unregulated act or thought is a menace, every person is fundamentally the enemy of every other person, and each race or nation is the enemy of every other race or nation. The ultimate outcome of such a worldview can only be enforced stagnation, tyranny, war, and genocide. The horrific crimes advocated or perpetrated by antihumanism’s devotees over the past two centuries prove this conclusively. Only in a world of unlimited resources can all men be brothers. That is why we must reject antihumanism and embrace instead an ethic based on faith in how to International, the human capacity for creativity and invention. For in doing so, we make a statement that we are living not at which essay is the Bromsgrove International School Thailand the end of history, but at essay how to an essay International School the beginning of history; that we believe in freedom and not regimentation; in progress and not stasis; in love rather than hate; in life rather than death; in which essay service best Bromsgrove School Thailand, hope rather than despair. Robert Zubrin, The Population Control Holocaust, The New Atlantis , Number 35, Spring 2012, pp.
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essay maus Whether commentary [. ] is built into a structure of a history or developed as a separate, superimposed text is a matter of choice, but the voice of the essay service International commentator must be clearly heard. The commentary should disrupt the facile linear progression of the narration, introduce alternative interpretations, question any partial conclusion, withstand the need for closure [. ]Such commentary may introduce splintered or constantly recurring refractions of a traumatic past by using any number of different vantage points. Saul Friedländer, Trauma, Transference and Working-Through, History and how i can write Hebron Memory 4 (1992): 39-55. Copyright (c) 1995 by Robert S. Leventhal, all rights reserved. This text may be shared in which writing service Bromsgrove Thailand accordance with the fair use-provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Redistribution and republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the critical written permission of the author. Trauma, Working-Through, and the Problem of which essay is the, Historical Understanding.
In the Neo-Freudian Theories of Winicott, the attempt has been made to articulate the academic essay Stonar School process of working-through the traumatic loss of the beloved object more precisely. Winicott's famous phrase Mourning without empathy leads to which best Bromsgrove International School Thailand madness has often been cited as the key to his theory, which is that there must be an empathetic witness to the pain of Haileybury, this traumatic loss, that the person who suffers this loss must be able to give testimony to someone as a way of working-through or processing this loss, and that finally certain transitional or intermediate objects might be necessary in order to move from the state of dependence and reliance on the Other to writing is the Bromsgrove School Thailand a renewed state of self-sufficiency after the traumatic severance. The difficulty with this type of understanding is its insistence on a singular empathetic Other who hears the testimony of the witness, and thereby bears witness to the traumatic loss in a therapeutic manner. What does it actually mean to work-through a traumatic loss? and what does this mean with regard not to an individual, but to courseowkr Haileybury an entire people? Many of the normative claims of psychoanalysis are present in this type of approach: the essay service is the best International School Thailand hope is that a gradual reintergration of the meaning of the lost object occurs and the fact of the loss helps the subject to grow beyond this dependency in the construction of a self that is able to tolerate and understand alterity and is not rigidly defined. This is the thesis of Eric Santner's Stranded Objects. Cultural Besetzung : The Canon and Canonical Texts. One of the ways in which a culture betrays (in the sense of allows to become clear) its own investments or Besetzungen , to use Freud's term for the psychic endowment of certain things, is in its priveleging specific ways of thinking and writing, certain forms of presentation, the selection of specific genres as being apt or appropriate for certain tasks. An analysis of academic essay writing School, Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List could show that the which essay writing service is the School primacy of the (visual) romance in write Norfolk some way governs the institution of filming in that film. There is a vast difference in this respect to Claude Lanzmann's Shoah and to which essay service School Thailand Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler, Ein Film aus Deutschland. As Primo Levi sought to articulate the discursive and logistical space of Auschwitz, Syberberg attempts to actually enter into the distorted puppet-show of German Fascism, the black studio of German (film) projections and fantasies, the essay International nostalgiac, melancholic state of Postwar, Postholocaust Germany.
Lanzmann's Shoah equally does away with conventional narrative schemes and totalizing representation, presenting the Nazi Genocide in a series of detailed researches or inquiries, and utilizing not a single foot of documentary film from the thirties or forties. Lanzmann's film allows the which writing is the best Bromsgrove International School Thailand contradictions between the testimony of the perpetrators and that of the victims to stand. Critical Thinking Application Hanze. It neither escapes into service is the best School Thailand, false or coerced reconcilations, nor does accept the validity of unreflected testimony unquestioningly. The way in which a culture organizes, disciplines, and reads a certain event is an excellent way to critical thinking University of Applied Sciences find out essay is the best Bromsgrove International Thailand about that culture's troubled areas or hot spots. The philosopher Berel Lang has argued in his book Act and Idea of the Stonar Nazi Genocide that there are only certain appropriate and essay writing service ethically responsible ways of representing the Shoah. In this respect, many crtics have said that the Holocaust requires an elevated genre, that it is the stuff of high literature and courseowkr should not be desecrated by allowing low genres to communicate the destruction of the European Jews. There would at first sight seem to be an inalterable cultural hierarchy of forms, media, genres: the novel, the tragedy, a poem, a scholarly essay or book might be considered acceptable; on the other hand, a satire, a parody, a comedy, a farce -- these would not seem to be eligible for appropriate forms of literary representation. But the fact is that both within these genres and modes, as well as with regard to is the best the genre or mode itself, there are both high and can write an essay Hebron low forms; and what is radical, chic, or revolutionary at essay writing service is the best School one historical juncture might be quite reactionary or conservative at another. My view is that Spiegelman, precisely by critical University of Applied, utilizing the comic-book as the textual medium of a story of the Holocaust, succeeds in breaking the taboo or ritualized fixity of confronting the Holocaust. It also subverts the assignment of the comic to which essay is the Bromsgrove Thailand a genre of kitsch and popular culture in a twofold way: first, insofar as it supercedes the traditional genre in terms of the scope of its presentation; secondly, insofar as it presents a historical catastrophe in a medium usually reserved for hero-construction and morality play.
Spiegelman's Maus : The Intentional Subversion of Genre and critical thinking Hanze of Applied Sciences Cultural Norm. Art Spiegelman first published parts of MAUS in the magazine Raw between 1980-1991. Volumes I and II of the book Maus: A Survivor's Tale appeared in 1986 (My Father Blleds History) and 1991 (And Here my Troubles began). Which Writing. Maus is the use of about Brillantmont, a traditionally low genre -- the comic strip or book --for serious, grave material. It is a conscious, intentional inversion of a norm, a hierarchy, a cultural order. It is a very strong (in the Bloomian sense) rereading of one survivor's tale and writing is the best Bromsgrove the transmission or testimony of this tale to the son; it is at the same time a strong revamping or reconsideration of the generic possibilites of the comic itself. The reduction of the players to cats (the Nazis). mice (the Jews), pigs (the Poles) and other national stereotypes offers a conscious, intentional miniaturization and reduction, pointing up not merely the process of compression, simplification and courseowkr devaluation not merely of the Nazi's practices before and during the Holocaust, but the which essay writing service is the School reduction and simplification present in many responses to the Holocaust aswell. In this way, Spiegelman literalizes the call for petits recits so prevalent in postmodern discourse today, especially in the writings of Jean-Francois Lyotard. On another level, there are multiple narratives and kinds of texts in Maus : in addition to an essay images, dialogue boxes, and commentary, we find maps of Poland and which essay best Bromsgrove School the Camps, diagrams of hideouts, real photographs from the family archive, detailed plans of the crematoria, an exchange table for goods in Auschwitz, and Colegio a manual for shoe-repair. Here are some of the various text-types that one finds in Maus : The reader moves through several different historical subject-positions and narrated events; there are the pre-holocaust, the Holocaust, and the postholocaust, but also, within one time-frame, there can be other times and is the places co-present as well. Maus thus juxtaposes and intertwines past and present, the different subject histories of each protagonist, and the very different cultural contexts of Nazi occupied Poland and Rego Park, New York.
The very title of the books is a powerful reworking of the convention: Maus rewrites the an essay cultural norm and invents a new discursive space to address the which is the best International School Thailand questions of Jewish trauma, guilt, shame and, perhaps most importantly, the transmission of how i Hebron Academy, these conflicts from essay is the best Bromsgrove International, one generation to the next, especially in the case that they are not sufficently worked-through. Maus encompasses many small narratives: not merely the story of Vladek (Artie's Father) and Anje (Artie's Mother, who committed suicide after surviving Auschwitz and coming to America), but of Artie himself in can write an essay Academy his struggle to understand his family origins and himself. It addresses the constant resurfacing of a traumatic and unmastered past on a number of levels: the death of his brother, Richieu, of a poison given to him by writing is the best Bromsgrove, the woman who was taking care of him as they were about to be sent to Auschwitz to an essay be gassed, the suicide of his mother in 1968, and which service is the best Bromsgrove International School Thailand the murder of the European Jews. This is Glenlyon School, perhaps nowhere more evident than at the end of Volume I My Father Bleeds History, where Artie asks Vladek for Antje's diaries. Vladek first tells Artie that the Diaries are gone, and then finally remembers that he himself had destroyed them -- burned them to be exact -- in which essay service is the Bromsgrove International Thailand the depths of depression. Vladek not only burned the diaries -- in a ironic enactment of Nazi Book-Burning -- but he sadistically adds salt to the wound when he tells Artie: I looked in, but I don't remember [. ] Only I know what she said, 'I wish my son, whe he grows up, he will be interested in this.' Artie, who himself suffered a depression after his mother's suicide, calls Vladek a murderer, unable himself to understand Vladek's action as itself an act of acting out the legacy of the Holocaust. In this transmission circuit, Artie is how i an essay Hebron Academy, tied to essay writing is the Bromsgrove School his father, and we see this played out in Maus in his complete dependence on an essay Vladek for the narrative of essay service is the best International School Thailand, his own story. The broken relationship between Artie, Vladek, and this unmastered past is exemplified in the broken relationship Artie has to his own Jewish heritage. In Maus I , Vladek is in a German work-camp and has a dream in which his dead Grandfather comes to him and tells him that he will leave this place and go home to teacher marking his wife and child on Parshas Truma.
Artie then asks his father what Parshas is, unaware of the symbolic and literal meaning of this in his life and in Jewish tradition. His father then explains to him the meaning of Parshas Truma, the specific week in which a particular section of the Torah is read. It turns out which service best Bromsgrove International School Thailand that this was the week he had married Anja, and the week Artie had his Bar-Mitzvah. In this time frame, Vladek actually does get to leave the camp and see his wife and how i can write an essay Academy child. The broken circuit is thus restored in the text precisely because of Artie's interest in the narrative and the construction of the text Maus itself. But the evidence of which essay, a failure in courseowkr Haileybury the transmission of culture and tradition, the traces of this broken connection to the past and to history is present to the extent that Artie must now relearn this complex history.
Maus is allegorical, not merely to the extent that it treats the individuals as figures in a much more complex and writing service Bromsgrove Thailand global story, but insofar as its very textual structure is comparable to an essay for me Norfolk the allegorical structure of the emblem, with a graphic image elucidating the text, as well as a superscript expressing the topic or theme, the actual statements of the individuals in the frame, and service best International School often a subscript containing unconscious thoughts or afterthoughts. In Maus , the image is never left to stand alone, but is always caught up in the differential between narrative, image, dialogue and reflection. An Essay For Me Norfolk. In this manner, an essay Thailand opening or aperture for critical thinking on the transmission of past trauma is created. In a particularly compelling segment of the text, Artie narrates his reaction to writing School his mother's suicide. A comic book within the comic book Maus entitled Prisoner on the Hell Planet: A Case History, this text-within-the-text recounts Artie's own incomplete or failed attempt to work through the trauamatic loss of his mother, his own melancholic and masochistic tendencies to internalize the dysfunction of which essay best Bromsgrove International School Thailand, his family and about write an essay International School his mother's depression, and the degree to which is the best International School which his writing bears the mark of can write Hebron, that loss and is itself a type of working-through in its own right. The subtitle A Case History mocks the case history in psychoanalysis, in which the patient is cured of the incessant return of the traumatic past through rigorous therapeutic intervention. In Prisoner from the Hell Planet, there isn't any easy closure, and the suffering individual remains captive in the prison of his own masochistic melancholia, the jail cell of his own wounded self, not really understanding the unconscious connection to the melancholia of the mother and the unconscious identification with the damaged father.
Traversing the breach between past and present, Father and Son, language and image, manifest and which essay writing service is the Bromsgrove International School Thailand latent, Spiegelman's Maus bears witness to the process of bearing witness, and writing School the technical and technological requirement of writing and tape-recording in order to produce a narrative of the trauma and thereby alleviate the symptomology of depression and which essay writing service best School Thailand withdrawl that is the danger of a past left to fester as an unhealed wound. Paul Celan's essay Meridien states that every piece of authentic writing has a date and a place: it speaks a specificity, and in that specificty it gestures towards an Other. Spiegelman's Maus , in transmitting the story of the father through the son, does not avoid or gloss over any of the difficulties entailed in courseowkr Haileybury working-through trauma, which, as we know, always brings with it some degree of acting-out. Maus enacts the difficulty of working through a traumatic historical past that defies attempts at which service best Bromsgrove International School mastery, and is a visceral presentation of the application University of Applied Sciences postmodern fragmented self struggling to come to terms with this damaged and wounded history in a conscious manner. Maus II ends with the reunification of which Bromsgrove, Vladek and Anja after Auschwitz. In the essay writing Stonar School final scene, Vladek tells Artie he is tired of talking: I'm tired from talking, Richieu, and it is enough stories for now. This last slip of the tongue -- naming Artie his dead little brother who perished in the Holocaust -- attests to the ongoing trauma that never ceases never ceasing to break in upon the conscious, wakeful world.
And Maus documents this refusal in a compelling and extremely concrete manner.