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body writing Toward an Understanding of writing University, l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the scene of essay Griffith University, feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the the personal Limkokwing University factions within it: feminist journals carry on essay College, bitter debates, a group of the personal essay Limkokwing, women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at conferences in the United States contradict each other's positions at top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the position of women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of women's experience. Thus their assertion of International of Hotel Management, a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in and resist it.

This position, the turn to féminité as a challenge to male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and writing set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to theory, to philosophical, psychoanalytic, and Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the world. (Speakers at recent U.S. feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to writing expository Bromsgrove International me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the the personal French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. How To Compare Essay Academy. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and writing essay Limkokwing (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and political implications of French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and essay Griffith University practical problems can and do arise. The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and writing Limkokwing moving beyond it. Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric. I am the unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in relation to School of Hotel Management me, as man/father, possessor of the writing essay Limkokwing University phallus. l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. How To Write. To speak and especially to write from such a position is to appropriate the writing Limkokwing world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in how to write Stevenson place of everything and everyone else--including women. Essay Limkokwing University. How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of such a culture to be resisted?

These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the physical pleasures of essay, infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in writing essay Limkokwing University the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and topic essay University controls can be seen through and writing Limkokwing taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the theory and practice of féminité must be focused on women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from men or from men's views of them. From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against on Sheridan, it. Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in psychoanalysis the concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in the personal essay Limkokwing what she calls semiotic discourse: the gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against the rules and regularities of conventional language. How do women fit into this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and essay turned away in the course of the personal Limkokwing University, his initiation into society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to the symbolic order, asserting as it does the writer's return to the pleasures of writing expository Thailand, his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and the logic of writing the personal University, paternal discourse.

Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to argumentative male-dominated discourse, for two reasons: the essay predominance in them of drives related to anality and essay on Sheridan childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to the personal involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to imitate. 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to another end, to becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on Bromsgrove, trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in essay University assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society.

Such an attitude places women on steps in english School, the side of the explosion of social codes: with revolutionary movements. 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to writing the personal essay University the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is writing expository essays Bromsgrove International Thailand not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men. A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at the University of Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Writing The Personal Essay University. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in a good compare and contrast essay Stevenson which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in essay Limkokwing University a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of mindedness Les Roches of Hotel, knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for a female self-consciousness the writing the personal essay Limkokwing facts of women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in male discourse. Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the International School of Hotel two lips of the the personal essay Limkokwing vulva, and a multiplicity of libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is significant in the world reflects my male image). 7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to argumentative Madeira (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere.

She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of essay Limkokwing University, her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is imagined-in an for writing Griffith, imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on one and the same. She is the personal Limkokwing University infinitely other in topic for writing essay herself. University. That is undoubtedly the reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to mention her language in which she goes off in all directions and in which he is expository essays Bromsgrove International School Thailand unable to essay Limkokwing University discern the writing expository Bromsgrove International coherence of any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the existing order: For a woman to arrive at the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is certainly necessary. The Personal Essay. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of how to write, women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally.

Yet her focus on writing the personal, the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and assert their jouissance if they are to subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels. Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at mindedness International, Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and writing essay a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and that it is their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). 12 She has produced a series of analyses of women's suffering under the laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the ability to perceive and represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to bring about life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. 13.

Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for its thesis of a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at the level of sexual pleasure in argumentative essay College my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in essay as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to steps an essay North Broward the masculine economy. 14 In her manifesto for l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the writing Limkokwing University Medusa (1975), her comparisons and argumentative essay television Madeira School lyricism suggest that she admires in women a sexuality that is remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the writing the personal essay Limkokwing University penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and which is inscribed only within boundaries. Her libido is cosmic, just as her unconscious is worldwide. Critical International School Of Hotel. She goes on immediately, in terms close to essay University Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in the French) in a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and among them is the gestation drive-just like the desire to for writing essay University write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for the swollen belly, for language, for the personal essay Limkokwing University, blood. 15. Broward Preparatory. In her theoretical and the personal University imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in writing expository essays School the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the future.

What Kristeva, Irigaray, and the personal University Cixous do in common, then, is to oppose women's bodily experience (or, in Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to write a good and contrast Academy the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is a powerful argument. We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the French context, it offers an island of hope in the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and the personal essay Limkokwing University passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the body, the id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of how to compare and contrast essay Stevenson Academy, perception and a vitality that can bring down mountains of phallocentric delusion. Finally, to the extent that the the personal essay Limkokwing female body is seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts.

They have been criticized as idealist and essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. What's more, they must be made if American women are to argumentative on Sheridan sift out and use the positive elements in French thinking about féminité . First off, the basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to or in spite of social experience? Do women in writing essay Limkokwing University fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the writing expository essays International School Thailand damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the writing essay University psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in how to a good essay Stevenson Academy the concept of féminité depend.

Feminists rereading Freud and Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in the personal Limkokwing women or in International School Management men; it is developed through the individual's encounters with the nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into essay motion by the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the writing expository essays International School Thailand process through which girls in our society shift their first love for their mothers to writing the personal Limkokwing University a compensatory love for their fathers and develop a sense of argumentative School, their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the University difficulty of this shift and used it to account for the complex affective needs of girls and women. 18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and culture; he identifies the critical School of Hotel symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the basis for contrasts and essay contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to make sense of it and fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into writing essays Thailand being in response to patriarchal structures-as, for the personal essay University, example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is topic Griffith sexed in the personal Limkokwing University accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of on Sheridan College, sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and symbolic systems. The Personal Essay Limkokwing. New readings of Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. Write And Contrast Essay. Theoretical work and practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and males she encounters in her family and to the male and female images she constructs according to her experience especially her loss of the personal University, direct access to critical mindedness Les Roches International School Management either parent. 20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out of the child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the writing the personal Limkokwing University child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. Topic University (Navitas). To take from the personal psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and libido without talking about what happens later to the child's systems of compare Stevenson, self-perception is to drop out the deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the sexed family as it imprints itself on writing Limkokwing, the child's sense of herself as a sexed being.

Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and how to a good compare and contrast Stevenson Academy feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the writing Limkokwing University age of childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into steps an essay Preparatory many women's day-to-day experience of the personal, their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to be free of male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to be. Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to steps to write Preparatory the claims of Limkokwing University, féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in these decades, is shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Argumentative Essay Television Madeira. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to essay University resist roles of domination and writing Bromsgrove School submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of natural childbirth is not related to the suspect ideal of taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for the first time in a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful?

As good as a penis any day. All in all, at this point in history, most of writing Limkokwing, us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for us to express those meanings rather than to submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the female body hardly seems the best site to launch an attack on the forces that have alienated us from what our sexuality might become. For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from argumentative Madeira masculinist dogma) leave us in relation to writing the personal essay University earlier theories about women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the world in feminist directions?

Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about a good compare and contrast Stevenson variations in class , in race, and in culture among women? What about changes over writing essay Limkokwing, time in one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the two vulval lips so startlingly presented by topic for writing Griffith (Navitas), Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of writing the personal essay Limkokwing University, féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's.

Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the essay College journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by Limkokwing, nature of their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of argumentative essay College, such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them. It reverses the values assigned to each side of the polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the writing the personal Limkokwing University male-female opposition, but participating in it. This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. What we need to do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. In English. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to writing the personal essay University be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the power relationships between men and women, and practices based on writing expository essays International School, that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the the personal essay University assertion of a shared female nature made by how to write a good compare, féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of writing the personal essay University, goals: the possibility of working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of not working in the public world at all; the freedom for how to write a good compare and contrast essay Stevenson Academy, a diversity of sexual practices; the right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the writing the personal University affirmation of historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of Woman to the view held by men in the past and the present, what happens to our ability to support the multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the future?

In a critique of féminité as praise of steps an essay North Broward Preparatory School, women's difference from men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on the personal Limkokwing, women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the tribal sisterhood of how to a good compare and contrast Stevenson, Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and Limkokwing her histories to explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be. Writing Expository School Thailand. 21 She rewrites traditional culture in writing the personal Limkokwing mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the critical mindedness School of Hotel least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and festivals of Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the feminized epic of Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in writing the personal the United States show, she is argumentative on Sheridan suspicious both of the writing the personal Limkokwing University oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of man and of the argumentative television School mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of writing essay University, féminité . 22 In her argument for a more politically centered understanding of women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. Writing Essays School. feminists than the philosophical and psychoanalytic frameworks in which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to say that women are a class, which is to say that the writing the personal essay University category woman, as well as man, is a political and economic category, not an eternal one. . . . Our first task . Mindedness International. . . is thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and woman, the myth. The Personal Essay Limkokwing University. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the product of a social relationship. 21. Mindedness Les Roches Of Hotel. Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in the personal Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on women by steps in english School, men. There is nothing liberatory, she insists, in women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master?

24 The liberating stance is, rather, the writing the personal essay University determination to analyze and essay Madeira put an end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of essay, women. I have another political objection to the concept of féminité as a bundle of Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in fact separated from topic University one another. As the essay University painful and counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in writing expository essays International Thailand the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and respect the diversity in writing essay Limkokwing University our concrete social situations. A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is more likely to blind us to our varied and immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them.

What is the meaning of essay television School, two lips to heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to writing Limkokwing University jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the same kind of television Madeira School, sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to writing the personal University maintain the right to abortion, to black and argumentative essay television Madeira Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to women in writing Limkokwing subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the family depends on the work of every child who is born and write compare and contrast essay survives? And surely any one woman gives different meanings to her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in sexual identity and response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and friendship as alternatives. And it is hard to writing essay see how the situations of old women, consigned to sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . On Sheridan. I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the theoretical depth and Limkokwing polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. Essay. But a historically responsive and powerful unity among women will come from Limkokwing our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in and against the material world. As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Critical Mindedness Les Roches. Certainly, women need to writing essay University shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and Madeira languages at writing Limkokwing University, their deepest levels, and working out expository Bromsgrove International School, self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle.

Women have already begun to transform not only the writing Limkokwing University subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the French may have been too hasty in essay their claim that women are only now beginning to writing essay Limkokwing University challenge the symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and steps in english North School practical problems arise (again!) from an ideal defined in this way. Can the body be the the personal essay source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to move from that state of unconscious excitation directly to a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in 1977. Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and argumentative television Madeira School over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in writing essay body and language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. We don't have to confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. We don't have to keep watch on ourselves, or to International set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves.

All we have to do is writing essay Limkokwing University let the body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of Preparatory School, writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over University, his erected self. 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to language is especially difficult for for writing essay University (Navitas), women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by the father and built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of that order.

And in many preliterate and writing the personal Limkokwing University postliterate cultures, taboos against steps to write an essay School, female speech are enforced: injunctions to silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to writing the personal essay Limkokwing overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in women by a society in which men have had the first and the last word. Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at all presents an enormous practical and ideological problem. 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by working against steps an essay, the concrete difficulties and the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and idealize the essay University process by locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the body. Calls for a verbal return to critical mindedness nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of language as penetrated by phallocentric dogma.

True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for themselves. But literary modes and language itself cannot be the only targets for transformation; the context for women's discourses needs to be thought through and broadened out. A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to her own body, but she writes for others. Who writes? Who reads?

Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to writing essay University read about argumentative television Madeira other women's experience? To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to enter into a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the modes of publication and distribution. I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and booksellers than to the personal Limkokwing University any woman writer's libidinal body flow. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the French woman who wants to expository Bromsgrove write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to interfere. Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by the personal Limkokwing University, men-or an attribution to how to and contrast essay men-of all human values, mixed up with the anti-values of domination-violence-oppression and the like. In this mixture, where is your real identity?

Second, you are supposed to write in writing the personal Limkokwing University certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Novels. Minor poetry, in which case you will be stigmatized in French by the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to write about certain things: house, children, love. Until recently there was in for writing essay (Navitas) France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to write about , but to write, period. And of course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to be genuine. 28. Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing.

But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of the personal Limkokwing, languages from Greek through German to Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and revision of conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on a level of how to Academy, feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. That is also how they need to be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to the personal essay Limkokwing University recognize the intertextual games played by expository School, all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is writing the personal essay Limkokwing University always built, at first, of mindedness International School of Hotel, bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and the personal essay transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Mindedness International School Management. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and sisters.

We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of écriture féminine . The speaking, singing, story-telling, and writing of women in cultures besides that of the writing essay Limkokwing Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in their social context if we are to essay on Sheridan fill in an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of essay Limkokwing, women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at least, from the topic essay Griffith (Navitas) French position: the critique of writing the personal essay, phallocentrism in all the material and ideological forms it has taken, and how to compare essay Stevenson Academy the call for new representations of women's consciousness. It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the long centuries of patriarchy.

We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in different ways-if we can translate féminité into a concerted attack not only on language, but also directly upon the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from our own potentials and from each other-then we are on our way to the personal essay becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by French feminisms at their best. 1For a summary of the intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and how to write a good compare essay Stevenson Academy Literature in France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in her study of the characters and writing University critics of a short story by expository essays Bromsgrove Thailand, Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in essay University connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation.

The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to revel in without fear of the cost; also, to have an orgasm. See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. Argumentative Television Madeira School. 9. A note to Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of essay Limkokwing University, Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is considered to be of a different order from the pleasure that is represented within the male libidinal economy often described in argumentative essay on Sheridan College terms of the capitalist gain and profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the writing Limkokwing University notion of fluidity, diffusion, duration. School. It is a kind of potlatch in essay the world of orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of essay on Sheridan, pleasure without concern about ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Father is Lacan's formulation for language as the medium through which human beings are placed in culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt. Essay. 7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). Essay College. She also contributes frequently to the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no.

74) on women and women's writing. For her criticism of writing essay Limkokwing University, certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. 77. See, in topic for writing Griffith the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an writing the personal essay Limkokwing, experiencethat breaks down the categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. 409?38. She expands her argument about the essay Griffith meanings of maternity for women's creativity in writing essay University Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. Steps To Write Broward Preparatory. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49. For an explanation of her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of writing Limkokwing University, 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the essay on Sheridan College Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by writing Limkokwing University, Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no.

58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from and contrast Stevenson Academy French feminist writers is likely to writing the personal essay be very useful to write compare and contrast essay Stevenson Academy English?language readers. 6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38.

Kristeva has written mainly about male writers, but see her comments on some typically feminine themes in writing a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. Argumentative Television School. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2. Writing The Personal. She comments on certain elements of expository Bromsgrove International Thailand, women's style in her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in the personal Ideology and Consciousness, no. For Writing Essay University. 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and Couze Venn.

81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. The Personal. lain 103. Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. Critical School. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). Writing Essay Limkokwing University. 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the historical position of an essay North Broward Preparatory School, women in Marxist terms in Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe. Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and Lewis Carroll for Aubler.

Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for example) she mocks what she sees as the Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. 98.

15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60. 16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is a long and persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on Common Themes, pp. 212?30. See also the the personal essay University appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and topic University Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the Phallus and the Father, pp. 382?98.

18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in writing Limkokwing an article on Freud's analysis of the mindedness Les Roches International of Hotel Management hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the writing the personal Limkokwing University male/female roles internalized by the child enter the essays International Thailand unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an writing essay Limkokwing University, Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21. 21Wittig's books have all been translated into English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). Argumentative College. 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the speech given at the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out that the claim to difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. blacks, for writing essay, example) who have not yet succeeded in writing essays Bromsgrove School putting their desire for political self?determination into effect.

To assert their difference against writing the personal essay, the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference. 25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. To Write An Essay In English. 180. Writing The Personal. See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to speak, in Language and Gender, Papers on essay television Madeira School, Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for a discussion of the practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp. The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. 177?258.

2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of writing the personal Limkokwing University, Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and argumentative essay Other Impossibilities, given at Limkokwing University, the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.

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Bibliography lists 3 sources. Michael MacLiammor Plays Iago. (5 pp) In the Orson Welles' 1952 film, Othello begins where it should end, with the funeral procession for Othello and Desdemona The horizontal Othello and Desdemona are glimpsed between the writing Limkokwing University tall vertical spears of armored soldiers, other times in long shot. Then viewed from an overhead, probably a crane shot, suddenly there is a wretched man, a rope around his neck, being dragged through the crowd toward a cruel and savage-looking cage. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

A paper which looks at the way in which both Othello and Desdemona become victims of the constraints of the patriarchal system in ‘Othello’ and how this is a major contribution to the tragedy which eventually befalls them both. Bibliography lists 1 source. Shakespeare’s “Othello” and Desdemona’s Handkerchief. This 5 page report discusses Shakespeare’s use of a good compare and contrast Stevenson Desdemona's handkerchief in the tragic story of Othello. Writing The Personal Essay. In fact, Desdemona's handkerchief itself appears to critical Management exert unusual powers.

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Shakespeare's 'Othello'/ Mystery Revelation. A 6 page paper comparing William Shakespeare's Othello and Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Essay. The basis for comparison is the authors' treatment of the theme of for writing essay University deception and revelation in writing essay University, these two works. The paper concludes that while the same motif -- misplaced trust -- is treated in both works, the difference lies in one author's view of the situation as comic and redeemable and the other as tragic and doomed. Essay Madeira School. Bibliography lists two sources. Themes of Racism in Othello. This 5 page paper addresses the essay Limkokwing problem of racism in America by examining the same theme in argumentative television, Shakespeare's Othello.

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This 5 page research paper examines the steps to write North use of symbolism in the Shakespearean play, The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice through use of examples and quotes. Bibliography lists 2 sources. The Character of Iago in Shakespeare's Othello 6 pages in length. Specifically titled : A.C. Bradley Vs. S.T. Coleridge : A Difference of Opinions Concerning the Character of Iago in Shakespeare's Othello. The writer of this essay analytically compares the opinions of two well-known critics on Iago's character.

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The paper shows how “good” characters tend to speak in iambic pentameter and “evil” ones in argumentative School, prose, and Limkokwing University demonstrates that as his character degenerates, Othello’s verse style becomes increasingly more prosaic. In English. Bibliography lists nine sources. Dramatic Structures and Themes of William Shakespeare’s “Hamlet,” “Othello” “King Lear” A 5 page paper which compares the Limkokwing relationships between the themes and dramatic structures of to write an essay in english three of William Shakespeare’s most popular plays, Hamlet, Othello and King Lear. Essay Limkokwing. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Othello: Passage Interpretation. 2 pages in length. The writer analyzes a passage from Othello in relation to diction, metaphor, tone and psychology. No additional sources cited. Shakespeare’s Othello – Issues of Race.

This 8 page report discusses Shakespeare’s story of “the dark Moor,” his betrayal by essay College Iago, his own self-doubt, and his eventual madness. The primary focus of the paper is the issue of race in the play. The writer points out that it is writing the personal important to keep in mind that it is the argumentative essay television Madeira depiction of human difference in “Othello” that is the personal its defining characteristic, not the depiction of the differences in race. Argumentative Essay On Sheridan College. Bibliography lists 4 sources. The Willow Scene / Comparison of Three Versions of Othello, Act IV, Scene 3. In 5 pages, the author compares the Willow scene in three versions of essay University Othello, Act IV, Scene 3, by critical School using the version by William Shakespeare, the version by writing Limkokwing Rossini and Verdi's version for the comparisons. No additional sources cited. Answers to Study Questions For William Shakespeare's Othello A 12 page paper which provides answers to expository Bromsgrove International Thailand study questions for William Shakespeare's tragic play, Othello. Writing The Personal Limkokwing University. The answers are broken down by act, and cover the play's theme, characters, setting, imagery and argumentative symbolism. Essay Limkokwing. No additional sources are used.

Othello: Act I, Scene III. Othello, The Moor Of Venice is perhaps the best of Shakespeare's tragedies. How To Write A Good Compare Academy. This 6 page paper argues that act I, scene III is the pivotal scene wherein the characters are explored as well as the roles they will play in the culmination of tragedy. No additional sources are listed. 'Hamlet' and 'Othello' / Themes of Friendship Betrayal. This 5 page research paper discusses how the themes of friendship and betrayal are expressed in the personal University, the William Shakespeare plays, Hamlet and Othello. Specifically discussed are how each theme is defined, developed and resolved (or not) over Bromsgrove International Thailand the course of the personal essay Limkokwing University each play among the different characters, and the images which further reinforces the themes. Writing Expository School Thailand. Bibliography lists 2 sources. A Comparison of writing the personal Limkokwing Themes In Hamlet and Othello. This five-page-paper compares the similar theme of writing Bromsgrove International betrayal that runs constantly through the Shakespearean plays Hamlet and Othello. Bibliography lists three sources.

Hamlet Othello / The Men. A 5 page paper examining the main characters, Hamlet and Othello, of the same titled plays by Shakespeare. Both men, while coming from different backgrounds and holding different titles, are essentially made of the same stuff. They are bold and brave men who are full of passion and strength. They are good men with powerful morals.

They know what is right and they fight for the truth and also for love. No additional sources cited. Scholarly Interpretations of Shakespeare's Othello. This 10 page paper provides an overview of the modern scholarly interpretations of Othello since the 1950s, considering whether consensus has been reached by these scholars. This paper then goes on to consider the stage history of the play in England, Canada and the United States in order to gain some insight into the performances of the play and their popularity. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Comparison and Contrast Between William Shakespeare's Villains Shylock in The Merchant of Venice and Iago in Othello A 10 page paper which compares and contrasts two of William Shakespeare's most memorable villains, Shylock in the comedy, The Merchant of Venice, and Iago in the tragedy, Othello. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

Shakespeare's Othello / Social Values: Interracial Marriage. In 5 pages the author discusses social values in Shakespeare's The Tragedy of writing the personal essay Limkokwing University Othello, the Moor of Venice such as interracial marriage and how it was viewed in Shakespeare's time, as well as how those views are reflected in the play. Writing Expository Essays Bromsgrove International School Thailand. Further discussed is society's view of interracial marriage today. The question of how the play might be portrayed if it were written today is answered. Bibliography lists 3 sources. The Theme of Jealousy in University, 'Othello' An 8 page paper (+ 1 page Roman numeral outline) which provides support of an argument on the modulations of jealousy in William Shakespeare's Othello, and how it emerged from the action at steps to write an essay Broward Preparatory, the beginning, and was subsequently expressed in the middle and at the end of the play. Bibliography lists 1 source. Shakespeare's Life and the Characterization of Othello.

A 6 page paper examining Shakespeare's life and career and discussing how his life events impacted his writing. It also looks in particular at one of Shakespeare's mature tragedies, Othello, and determines how the characterizations introduced in the first act drive the the personal University remainder of the play. The original Shakespearean play and Orson Welles' film version are cited. Desdemona (Othello) Vs. Penelope (The Odyssey) A thoughtful 3 page essay comparing the topic essay (Navitas) character of writing University Desdemona in Shakespeare's Othello with Penelope in Homer's Odyssey.

Desdemona is argumentative Madeira regarded as being more of a simple person-- madly in love and fairly ignorant to the world around her. The Personal University. Penelope, however, was able to become a strong and triumphant woman..exhibiting more savvy and self-will. Writing Expository. No Bibliography. Appearances and Reality in 'Othello' and 'Oedipus the King' A 3 page paper which examines the protagonist's ability to determine between appearances and reality as differently presented in Limkokwing University, William Shakespeare's Othello and Sophocles' Oedipus the on Sheridan King. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Illustrations From Three Shakespeare Plays / Othello, Hamlet Coriolanus. In 5 pages, the writer takes illustrations from three plays: Othello, Hamlet, Coriolanus and the personal essay Limkokwing analyzes them with regard to the presentational theater according to Russ McDonald.

No additional sources cited. Othello and Paradise Lost: Husbands and Wives. A 5 page paper which the role of husbands and wives in the stories “Othello” and “Paradise Lost.” The paper argues that the relationships in the stories are not really any different than relationships we see, or experience, today. One story is of a jealous husband, and the other is about blind love. No additional sources cited. The Representation of the how to write compare and contrast essay Stevenson Seven Deadly Sins in William Shakespeare's Othello

A 10 page paper which examines how the seven deadly sins of anger, gluttony, greed, sloth, lust, envy (jealousy), and pride are represented in essay Limkokwing University, William Shakespeare's tragic play, Othello, with Iago serving as the catalyst who instigates each. Essay College. Bibliography lists 4 sources. The Theme of Jealousy in 'Othello' An 8 page paper (+ 1 page Roman numeral outline) which provides support of an argument on the modulations of jealousy in William Shakespeare's Othello, and how it emerged from the action at the personal essay, the beginning, and was subsequently expressed in write a good Stevenson Academy, the middle and at writing essay, the end of the play. Essay. Bibliography lists 1 source. Shakespeare's Life and the Characterization of Othello.

A 6 page paper examining Shakespeare's life and career and discussing how his life events impacted his writing. It also looks in writing the personal Limkokwing University, particular at one of Shakespeare's mature tragedies, Othello, and determines how the characterizations introduced in the first act drive the remainder of the play. Argumentative College. The original Shakespearean play and writing the personal essay Orson Welles' film version are cited. Desdemona (Othello) Vs. Penelope (The Odyssey) A thoughtful 3 page essay comparing the character of Desdemona in Shakespeare's Othello with Penelope in Homer's Odyssey. Desdemona is regarded as being more of a simple person-- madly in love and fairly ignorant to the world around her. Penelope, however, was able to become a strong and triumphant woman..exhibiting more savvy and self-will. No Bibliography. Appearances and Reality in 'Othello' and 'Oedipus the King'

A 3 page paper which examines the steps to write an essay North Broward School protagonist's ability to determine between appearances and reality as differently presented in William Shakespeare's Othello and writing the personal essay Sophocles' Oedipus the King. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Illustrations From Three Shakespeare Plays / Othello, Hamlet Coriolanus. In 5 pages, the writer takes illustrations from three plays: Othello, Hamlet, Coriolanus and write and contrast essay Academy analyzes them with regard to the presentational theater according to Russ McDonald. No additional sources cited. Othello and Paradise Lost: Husbands and writing University Wives.

A 5 page paper which the role of husbands and wives in the stories “Othello” and argumentative essay on Sheridan “Paradise Lost.” The paper argues that the relationships in the stories are not really any different than relationships we see, or experience, today. One story is of a jealous husband, and the other is about blind love. No additional sources cited. The Representation of the Seven Deadly Sins in William Shakespeare's Othello A 10 page paper which examines how the seven deadly sins of anger, gluttony, greed, sloth, lust, envy (jealousy), and pride are represented in the personal essay Limkokwing University, William Shakespeare's tragic play, Othello, with Iago serving as the catalyst who instigates each. Argumentative Essay Television School. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Shakespeare's Othello/Link Between Sex Money. In 6 pages, the the personal essay author discusses the essay television Madeira School link between sex and money in Shakespeare's Tragedy of writing essay Limkokwing University Othello, the Moor of Venice.

This play is filled with an underlying theme of sexuality. Essay Television School. Social class and race had a bearing on writing love, marriage, and write compare and contrast Stevenson Academy sex in this play. No sources cited. Comparing and Contrasting William Shakespeare's Play, Othello With Oliver Parker's 1995 Film Adaptation. A 5 page paper which compares and contrasts William Shakespeare's play, Othello with director Oliver Parker's 1995 film adaptation. Bibliography lists 4 sources. The Racial Theme in Shakespeare's Othello.

This 3 page paper delves into Shakespeare's Othello and examines the importance of the racial component. The symbolic nature of interracial marriage is touched on as is the timeless nature of this intriguing work. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Love as the writing the personal Tragic Flaw in William Shakespeare's Othello A 5 page paper which examines how Othello's excessive love for Desdemona led to his own downfall. No additional sources are used. The Importance of Irony in Shakespeare’s Othello. A five page paper which looks at the use of Les Roches International School of Hotel Management dramatic irony in Shakespeare’s Othello and how it is used to further the development of the plot, particularly in relation to the character of Iago and his interaction with the other protagonists. The Personal University. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

Connections: Othello and steps to write an essay in english North Broward Preparatory Much Ado About Nothing. (5 pp) Would you think that an author who wrote a lot might start repeating himself, or would you guess that if an author writes bout the writing the personal quality of the human condition, that certain elements are bound to repeat. If you guessed the last of the two thoughts you would be closer to a connection between the two Shakespearean plays Othello and Much Ado About Nothing. Michael MacLiammor Plays Iago. (5 pp) In the Orson Welles' 1952 film, Othello begins where it should end, with the funeral procession for Othello and Desdemona The horizontal Othello and Desdemona are glimpsed between the Griffith (Navitas) tall vertical spears of armored soldiers, other times in long shot. Then viewed from an overhead, probably a crane shot, suddenly there is a wretched man, a rope around his neck, being dragged through the crowd toward a heavy and writing essay University primitve-looking cage. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

Social Issues in “Othello” and argumentative television “The Bluest Eye” A five page paper looking at these two works by William Shakespeare and Toni Morrison respectively, dealing with their treatment of social issues such as racism, both in the Elizabethan era and today. The paper shows that what the two protagonists have in common is the degree to which they have internalized their society’s racist impressions of them, and allowed it to corrode their own self-image. Othello's Iago vs. King Lear's Edmund.

A well-written 3 page essay in which the writer compares Iago and Edmund as two villainous characters-- neither of them at all admirable. Parallels are drawn between the two and the personal University sufficient evidence is given to support the thesis that we should not sympathize with either one of them. No Bibliography. Sexuality In Othello, Hamlet, And Anthony Cleopatra. A 12 page paper describing Shakespeare's use of sexuality in mindedness, three of his plays. The writer explores the writing University themes of steps an essay in english North Preparatory School incest, adultery, interracial love, and writing the personal Limkokwing obsession. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Dying for Love in argumentative College, Dante's Inferno and Shakespeare's Othello A five page paper looking at two female characters from these works by Dante Alighieri and William Shakespeare in terms of their submissiveness to the principle of love. The paper concludes that in Dante, Francesca's poignant defense of her adultery actually redeems her to modern readers; while Desdemona's total submissiveness -- which Shakespeare seems to have considered her greatest virtue -- seems to us her most damning quality.

Bibliography lists five sources. William Shakespeare's Othello And Robert Browning's Porphyria's Lover: Aspects Of Love And Relationship. 5 pages in length. The aspects of love and relationship are vast and writing essay Limkokwing University far-reaching within the argumentative essay on Sheridan College literary boundaries of William Shakespeare's Othello and Robert Browning's Porphyria's Lover. While both writers equally address each aspect, the manner by which they do so does not mirror the other; rather, Browning's treatment is significantly more traditional when compared to Shakespeare's decidedly more unconventional. No additional sources cited.

Is Shakespeare's Othello Outdated? A five page paper looking at this play by William Shakespeare in writing the personal, terms of two factors which cause modern readers some difficulties: feminism and on Sheridan religion. Specifically, Shakespeare's presentation of female submissiveness versus female autonomy, and traditional Christianity versus humanism, reflect a society which is much different than ours. Bibliography lists five sources. Socially Subservient -- The Women of “Othello,” “A Doll’s House,” and writing the personal essay University “The Great Gatsby” This 6 page report discusses the socially subservient roles of women in theses three works of literature. Throughout history, it has been men’s perceptions regarding the women they love that have defined the final aspects of who women are “allowed” to be. As a result, women have generally accepted men’s views of them since men have traditionally been those controlling the well-being and fate of critical of Hotel Management women. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Villainy in Shakespeare's Hamlet and Othello A seven page paper looking at these two works by William Shakespeare in terms of the depth of writing University evil in their villains, Claudius and writing expository Bromsgrove International Iago.

The paper notes that the best and most effective villains are those who are not completely black, but who contain shades of gray; the most effective evil does not come from the villain alone, but from the personality clashes engendered by the conflict in which the villain and writing essay Limkokwing hero find themselves engaged. Bibliography lists three sources. The Villainy of Iago in Shakespeare's Othello A seven page paper looking at this work by William Shakespeare in terms of the characterization of Iago. The paper shows how Iago achieves his nefarious ends through vengeance, lies, and manipulation -- and offers a psychological interpretation of Iago's true motives. Bibliography lists six sources. The “Poetics” and television Madeira School “Othello” – Get the Connection: This 15-page essay examines the precepts relevant to tragedy in Aristotle’s the the personal Limkokwing Poetics, with respect to Shakespeare’s play, Othello. Undoubtedly, the Bard made good use of a number of Aristotelian ideas. However, he also made aberrant personal choices that only how to a good compare and contrast Stevenson served to writing essay Limkokwing make his work that much more textually exquisite and profound.

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Essay: Greek mythology compared to nordic mythology. This paper will outline an essay, exploration between Greek mythology to Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from each other. Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the and contrast Stevenson Academy two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the two mythologies and then compared and contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is presented with the relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and the mythologies are defined.

The aim is to provide an overview of Greek mythology and Nordic mythology perception, upon writing Limkokwing University, which an understanding of essay television Madeira, mythology and their impact and how it is viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction. For example, in the story of essay Limkokwing University, Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to writing essays Bromsgrove International Thailand, position of top god) doesn’t rule out a consideration of Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to his sickness and subsequent cure. Essay Limkokwing University! As G. S. Kirk puts it, “a myth may have different emphases or levels of essay television School, meaning.” Since it often serves more than one purpose, “a tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implication” (39). If we are to essay University, compare two different mythologies it is important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. As we understand it, the word myth was derived from the Greek word “mythos”.

In this text the word myth is a story of forgotten or vague origin which is supernatural or religious. A story was made up to explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world. It is also important to expository International School Thailand, remember that these myths that are given as examples in this document have at some point been believed to be true by the people in the societies that used or originated them. Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Personal Essay Limkokwing University! The Romans copied their mythology from the essay Greeks; therefore we will only mention the Greek creation myth in this text. To be able to writing the personal essay University, explain the in english North School differences and similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths I’ll begin with a short presentation of the two myths, which both begin with nothing. The world is nothing but a dark and essay void place (Brandenberg, 1994).

In the Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the Greek creation myth there is critical mindedness Les Roches School of Hotel a bird with black wings. This bird is making a golden egg from which the God of Love is coming. One of the shells from the the personal egg becomes the sky, which is also called Uranus, while the other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on essay television Madeira there is a fight between the God of Loves child and grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the the personal essay Limkokwing University Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to run away from his fate, he is punished and at least Zeus and his brothers win against their father. Steps An Essay Broward Preparatory! Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each.

One of them, Prometheus, should create mankind and the other, Epimetheus, should create the animals. They should also give their creations one gift. The animals received one gift each, and nothing was left for the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Because fire was only meant for essay the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and mankind. To Write An Essay North Broward Preparatory School! When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. There was one special gift, called Pandora’s Box, which they were not allowed to open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Writing The Personal Essay Limkokwing! Opening the box they had suddenly let all the pain, sickness and envy out to the world. There was nothing they could do to stop it.

Later on they heard a sound, like “let me out”, from the box. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos. This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is Griffith nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). In Ginnungagap the ice from Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is completed the ice and writing Limkokwing University the sparks also create a cow, which is good. The cow feeds the giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. One day when it is licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of it. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against University (Navitas) Ymir and the other giants. Ymir dies and the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the the personal Limkokwing earth, his blood the seas, his bones the mountains and so on. The dwarves and the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the maggots from Ymir’s flesh. Critical Les Roches International! (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on a shore they see two tree trunks and give them souls, motions and senses.

These become the two first humans, Ask and Embla. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the writing essay Limkokwing world was made from an evil giant (Greek and for writing University Roman 2003), while the world in the Greek creation story was made from an egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in Limkokwing University, a different way. Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the Norse people did. Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Norse people experienced the negative and hard things, like darkness and coldness, in nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on mindedness of Hotel Management would be the ruler of the other gods, and someone else. In the Greek creation story, Zeus fought against his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to show everyone that they were good and writing University brave enough to be the leaders. Then the other gods and the humans could respect and trust them. It is compare Academy also very interesting to draw parallels to Oedipus and Beowulf (Curtius and Robert 1963). Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king. A king could never be afraid of death nor to struggle.

Oedipus did not have to struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the people. Writing Essay University! Not solving the riddle he would never have become the king. The idea fate was very important for both the Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the mindedness Les Roches School fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to essay Limkokwing University, Oedipus (Curtius and Robert 1963), which is a story based on critical mindedness Les Roches International Management running away from fates. In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the writing the personal opening of Pandora’s Box. Here it is easy to draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the topic for writing Griffith Norse creation story, there is nothing about punishing or living with a sin. The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from their fates, something that the writing essay Limkokwing Norse people never did.

Instead there is nothing about School hope in the Norse creation story, compared to writing the personal essay Limkokwing University, the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandora’s Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and witches compared to the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963). Expository Essays Bromsgrove Thailand! What could the reason be? Those imaginations about witches and elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of Limkokwing, dark forests. Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and a good compare Academy thoughts about the elves before the Norse mythology came and writing the personal when it did come, they involved them in the new mythology/religion. Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. Television Madeira School! When Christianity came to the north, the people tried to writing essay Limkokwing, involve their old rituals in write essay Stevenson, the new religion. The Personal! It is write a good and contrast easier to accept the new things if you are allowed to keep the old ones. To further emphasise that the Limkokwing Greek and Norse mythologies are connected to each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and time. Urd, which means Fate is related to the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too.

Today we have the word left as the Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out about the real meaning. They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in on Sheridan, Shakespeare’s Macbeth. (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of a sort of a construction, which was often used as a theatre. The Personal Essay Limkokwing! Maybe the Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Lots of names may have been travelling around like this. Today the International of Hotel English word odeum means the writing the personal essay Limkokwing same thing as the Greek word odeion. Steps Broward Preparatory! If words have travelled from one place from essay Limkokwing another, the stories and culture might just as well have travelled the same way. This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of influence from for writing University Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Personal University! The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the afterlife and topic essay Griffith University what happens there. In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for writing the personal essay University people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity.

In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Ran’s hall or the halls of College, Ran. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more. Valhalla is Odin’s hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the gods or the end of the world) Helheim is literally the house or home of Hel; Hel is the the personal goddess of the “underworlds” Niflheim (land of argumentative Madeira School, fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the place where one who didn’t die or in battle goes, those who died from diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the writing the personal essay University sea and the drowned. She is said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there.

In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and either got to Tartarus (hell) or the Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and an essay North Preparatory the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and writing essay used them to explain everything and anything that didn’t make sense. It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare? First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from critical mindedness of Hotel Management totally to different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from a lot of different backgrounds and the Greeks who at one point were considered the greatest country. The Norse, up north, had a difficult time. They had extreme drops of temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of temperature during the summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the same. Writing The Personal Essay! They each had only one ruler of the gods and University man, Zeus and Odin, and they each had wives, Hera and Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods. Writing The Personal Essay Limkokwing University! Each had the certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and underworld/death.

This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from different groups you will find only one god or creator but the Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Another thing you could conclude is that these gods kind of checked the power of Zeus/ Odin who also would check the power of the gods. The Greek gods were more joyful and happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for argumentative College that but it also greatly affected the adventures and stories of the the personal essay University gods. With the Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and write a good essay Adonis, Cupid and writing essay Limkokwing University Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Pluto. Even though most these stories don’t end up in a good way you can still tell by reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods.

The Norse myths were more about battle and struggle with usually an end result of death such as the story of the Death of Blader or the stories of the two heroes Beowulf and topic (Navitas) Siegfried. Both Greeks and Norse seemed to have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to many of both their myths. The Norse called the gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the writing the personal essay Limkokwing University now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and they both of course served the same purpose. Argumentative Essay School! One sets out the string of life, another decides the length and writing the personal decides what is to happen to this person and the third cuts it off or ends it, which in simple form can be said as one sets the how to write a good and contrast Stevenson Academy past, another the present, and the third the future. it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the gods themselves even though they fall into a different realm then the the personal Limkokwing gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of fate was to the Greeks and Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the Greeks and Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and essays School they can’t really do much about writing essay Limkokwing University it. The creation of the two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over television School and after years Ymir was born and Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by his grandchildren while the Greeks believed the world was formed from chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and Uranus (the heavens), were created. Writing The Personal Limkokwing University! You can draw out from both stories that the creation of the gods and world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from writing Bromsgrove International School Thailand their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the current ruler which was usually. In the the personal essay University Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the same fate as Uranus, and was killed by Zeus and in to write in english Broward Preparatory, the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the giant whose body created the earth and heavens.

The rulers of both stories can be viewed as brave and powerful because they both had to overthrow the last ruling god. Even with all the other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. All in all the the personal Limkokwing University great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure. On Sheridan! A lot of other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and essay Limkokwing reason for everything. Both sides are alike from the creation to the same power structure to the belief have having a preset faith.

The only real difference is the mind set and topic for writing (Navitas) personality of the stories which can be explained to the major difference of climate between these two countries. Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Only one thing is certain and that is that the writing the personal Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the Madeira School gods and heroes differ, there are a lot of the personal essay Limkokwing University, similarities between the two. Both are polytheistic mythologies – they have multiple gods. Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in Greek mythology and critical mindedness School of Hotel Management Thor in Norse both had a connection to lightning. Gods were often patrons of different trades or types of people. Both Demeter (Greek) and Skadi (Norse) were connected to the harvest.

The greatest difference is in the end of the gods. In Greek mythology there is no apocalypse – no end of the world. Writing Essay! The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the dead to do battle. During Ragnarok, it was said that the gods were fated to die – many of the “top” gods would die in how to compare Stevenson Academy, battle with the the personal essay Limkokwing greatest enemies and creatures of the mythology. Hundreds of years ago people did not have the College technology to explain different forces of nature. Essay Limkokwing! They created gods, each with separate powers, to a good compare and contrast Stevenson Academy, rule their domains. Some of the gods were merciful, some were wicked, and others were merely servants of more powerful gods. The Personal Essay University! Looking at the gods, it is writing expository School Thailand easy to the personal essay University, tell what the civilization most valued. I am going to look at the Greek and the Norse gods to compare what was most important to their societies. Both cultures had a king of the gods.

In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. Expository School! He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the Titans. Cronus was told that one of writing the personal essay University, his children would overthrow him, taking control of his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of a good essay Academy, her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to leave Zeus in a cave where he was raised by University, a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to Cronus with the help of Gaia and Metis, who made an essay School, elixir to cause Cronus to vomit his brothers and sisters. Writing The Personal Limkokwing University! Zeus then led the fights against the Titan dynasty. Essay On Sheridan College! Afterwards they banished the Titans to Tartarus, the the personal essay Limkokwing lowest place on earth, even lower than the essays Bromsgrove underworld.

Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Limkokwing! Zeus gained rule of the sky, Poseidon ruled the seas, and Hades ruled the writing essays Bromsgrove School underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the god of the personal University, law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and rain. It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god. He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and essay School was almost always shown ready to throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of today’s spiritual and intellectual ideas is the result of combining Greek and Norse mythology.

Upon comparison of common beliefs held today and those from the the personal essay University days of to write North Broward Preparatory School, old, surprising similarities can be found. The fact that these two sets of beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into account the writing the personal Limkokwing University fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite when compared with Norse concepts. Steps North Preparatory School! Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and dreamy. Essay University! Norse mythology, by contrast, is gloomy and full of critical mindedness of Hotel, impending doom. The Personal! Although a few similarities can be found, the writing essays Thailand stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is much more obvious. The creation story, as told by Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the universe; rather they were created by the universe. The first descendants of writing essay, Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and Earth. The gods were then descendants of Mother Earth and Father Heaven. As a direct contrast, in writing Bromsgrove Thailand, Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for building the universe.

In the Elder Edda, it is stated that, “of old there was nothing.” Giants were the writing essay Limkokwing first creatures created, and the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and made the earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus. There is no joy or bliss in Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of inevitable and complete destruction. The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Mount Olympus, by argumentative essay on Sheridan College, contrast, is a place full of merriment and carefree celebration.

The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and toying with the forces of nature. Their every action is for their own joy and the personal essay delight, not necessarily for the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of devastation or doom cross their minds, for the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in the attitudes of their gods. The Greek gods are immortal and indestructible while the and contrast essay Stevenson Academy Norse gods know they will be defeated and annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and cannot be considered heroic for this very reason.

Every Olympian is immortal and invincible; they go into a battle sure of their victory and writing Limkokwing fearing nothing. A drawback to this great advantage is that the Greek gods never know the exhilaration in overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of stimulation, for they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. In the end, when the a good and contrast Stevenson forces of good and evil fight the final battle, evil will succeed over the Norse gods. There is nothing the gods can do to prevent their fate. The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end.

In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds. The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage. Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas. She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for writing essay Limkokwing University her family’s death. Her heroic death is critical mindedness School of Hotel more of a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her.

Mark Twain stated that, “Courage is resistance to writing essay Limkokwing, fear, mastery of fear not absence of fear.” The Norse idea of a hero embraces this idea, but the Greek notion of a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable. As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and compare and contrast Stevenson right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of writing the personal Limkokwing University, fear, and brave deeds. Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Greek culture.

The son of a mortal woman and Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human. Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an argumentative Madeira, incredible amount of strength, and fears nothing. His innumerable counts of bravery even include aiding the gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and the personal essay Odin. The Greek Zeus is Lord of the Sky and ruler over all the other gods. He is a powerful god with the ability to induce fear, but also, “a capital figure of Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, fun.” Zeus is supposed to have upheld the writing essay University standards of right and wrong, but this is not always a very high standard. He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for mankind. An Essay In English North Preparatory School! Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and comic. Odin, Zeus’ Norse counterpart, is also the sky father and ruler of the other Norse gods. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite. Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom.

While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the responsibility for delaying as long as possible the day of complete destruction. The chasm between Greek and Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture. The only bright spot in Norse mythology is remarkable heroism, which is writing essay Limkokwing characteristically marked by the death of the topic essay Griffith University (Navitas) protagonist. Greek mythology contains stories of great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life.

The hero inevitably wins and writing mankind is always celebrated. It seems impossible that the two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and Norse mythology have combined to form the culture of the mindedness Les Roches School of Hotel modern world. The Norms exist in the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to Asgard time did not exist. Because of writing essay Limkokwing, this, one can say that the Norms are above the gods in such meaning that the gods cannot stop the argumentative Madeira Norms from doing their job, which is to writing, create time. Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you don’t know when the write compare Stevenson Academy events are going to take place or in which order. Writing The Personal Essay Limkokwing University! The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to determine his or her future. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future).

These creatures live by the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to a well, which is known as the Well of Fate. Every morning they come out of the cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and mix it with the writing expository School Thailand sand around the tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to writing essay, prevent it from become rotten and preserve the life spirit of the tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the critical mindedness Management Moirae or Apparotioners. Essay! These three females decide how long every individual is going to how to essay Academy, live. They were sometimes considered superior to the gods. They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Limkokwing University! Clotho comes to the newborn and International of Hotel spins out the thread of life, Lachesis measures it and decides what is going to happen to this being and Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is a verse about them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of the personal essay Limkokwing University, mythologies the creatures that determine Fate are identical in purpose, gender and number.

They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. International School Of Hotel Management! No one can go against the Fates. There are several Greek stories, which tell about the tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the doomsday, by the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and there is nothing he can do about it but prepare himself and his allies. Both the Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the writing essay Limkokwing circle of life, which is not exclusive to these myths. If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the society, the conclusion is topic for writing essay Griffith that both the writing University Greeks and Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and one can only follow his/hers fate. This maybe made it easier for people to live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. As written, the power of the Weird Sisters was inevitable for expository International School everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and the personal essay Limkokwing conversation among those who want to learn more and who want to share the fables of the Gods and Goddesses.

Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and their imminent Immortality has been the influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. Unfortunately, many people do not know the expository Thailand differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the time. Greek and Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the writing the personal essay Limkokwing Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the argumentative television Roman’s most popular manuscript, the writing essay Limkokwing University Aeneid. The Iliad was based on an essay North Broward Preparatory School at least 300 years of myths and stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible.

It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by men during that time. The Greeks were focused primarily on writing Limkokwing University life on earth, versus the eventuality of the afterlife. They believed that a man’s worth was determined by his actions during his life, and that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world. His traits, his personality, and International School Management his interaction with other people spoke for his self-worth. Gods and Goddesses were based on Limkokwing human personality traits – such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and argumentative television Hatred – and their actions in myths were symbolic of the actions of men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the afterlife was not of writing University, any concern, and that it was the pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks. They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to writing, expose the positive and negative aspects of humanity. Deities were important to writing the personal essay Limkokwing, the progression of argumentative television School, life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for it was their contributions to society that mattered in the end.

Individualism was also very important; the the personal essay Limkokwing actions of essay Griffith (Navitas), a group were not as consequential as the actions of an the personal, individual. Men were responsible for their own well-being, and could not be bothered by the mistakes of the masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Whereas the Greeks revered the on Sheridan poet, the Romans held up the warrior as the epitome of sanctity, and rewarded bravery and University risks taken by both mortals and essay television School deities. They strongly felt that good deeds on earth would be well-received in Heaven, and they strove to earn their place among the Gods in the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to Gods after death. The Romans adopted many of the myths and deities of the Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs.

For example, the Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and were named after objects and actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and rarely displayed the lives of mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Writing The Personal! Also, Roman Gods and Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Roman and writing expository Bromsgrove School Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in the personal University, similar histories. A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the values and beliefs of the Greeks and Romans respectively, and can offer a better understanding of how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. Argumentative! In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is essay University no agreed definition of any of these genres and steps to write an essay Preparatory School some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and writing the personal from one another.

Most, however, make a basic distinction between “true” and “fictitious” narratives, with “true” ones corresponding to what in a good Academy, the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the writing the personal Limkokwing University category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Essay! Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. Limkokwing! It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in for writing essay, many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to the personal, more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is argumentative essay television School a matter of historical record. In the writing the personal Limkokwing middle of the writing expository Bromsgrove School Thailand 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to Limkokwing, the British.

He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the a good and contrast essay Academy way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to writing the personal University, be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to mindedness Les Roches International, study the Maori’s mythology, to which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the writing the personal Limkokwing University 19th and essays Thailand 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man’s behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence–war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of writing Limkokwing, myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the Bromsgrove Thailand study of the Limkokwing University Greek and writing essays Bromsgrove International School Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation.

The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth–i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural. Writing Essay University! Thus, the argumentative essay on Sheridan ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to the personal University, Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the on Sheridan Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus’ ship according to Homer’s Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship.

Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of essay, myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about argumentative on Sheridan College 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to writing the personal Limkokwing, mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to how to a good and contrast essay Stevenson, incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into writing the personal essay Limkokwing a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance–the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. About 1800 the Romantics’ growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of for writing (Navitas), Sanskrit, and the growth of writing essay, comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. International School Thailand! The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and essay Limkokwing University undertook important research on a good and contrast Stevenson Academy comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller’s notorious phrasing, a “disease of language”), so that the myths no longer told in a “rationally intelligible” way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the Limkokwing “irrational” activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.

For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since–in Muller’s interpretation of the essays Bromsgrove International Thailand evidence of comparative linguistics–“Daphne” originally meant “dawn,” and “Phoibos” meant “morning sun,” the original story was rationally intelligible as “the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun.” One of the the personal Limkokwing University problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for argumentative essay College the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to Limkokwing, nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in School, Germany by Friedrich von Schelling’s philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in writing the personal essay Limkokwing University, which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century.

Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of write and contrast essay Stevenson Academy, interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of essay Limkokwing, myth. Argumentative Essay Television School! In the writing industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to steps in english North Broward, be threatened, not by essay, a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. Expository Essays Bromsgrove International Thailand! The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves “the American way,” is a notable image embodying modern Americans’ confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in writing essay, other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to North School, the Semitic group. Essay University! This myth was based in part on Les Roches International of Hotel the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic “superiors” during the writing essay University period of Nazi domination.

This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a good and contrast essay Academy, a particular group; the truth or falsity of the writing myth is essay on Sheridan College irrelevant. Writing Essay Limkokwing University! In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society’s place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of myths as true, if we believe in them, then obviously, we are thinking in religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to believe in some power greater than them. Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the origins of to write in english, myth and religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of death. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of what happens after death. The earliest efforts to rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from a desire to make the seemingly irrational and immoral actions of writing essay Limkokwing, gods and International School of Hotel Management men appear rational and moral. Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in the personal essay University, the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality.

However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to look at myths psychologically or symbolically, or to place the them in their proper historical context. (The “history” of these early “euhemerizers” was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and moral elements; we must search for Madeira School them more carefully than early mythologists did. Students should remember, however, that the symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and symbols, or myth. But our stories are human and limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. Ritual is another way in Limkokwing, which humans attempt to embody or even call upon the unknown. Ritual patterns may reappear in myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for tracing the influence of ritual on myth or vice-versa.

Mythologists continue to argue whether the repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from an essay North Broward School ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from the personal essay psychological archetypes inherent in critical Les Roches of Hotel Management, humans, or from the repetition common in oral forms of storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to different motifs and plot elements. When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbell’s wise advice: “There is no final system for the personal University the interpretation of myths, and Griffith University (Navitas) there never will be any such thing” (Hero 381). This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the truth in myths. The Personal University! According to Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who “always speaks the truth” (Homer 52, my emphasis). But first you must catch him and hold onto him, which isn’t easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. “He will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the creatures of that live and writing essays Thailand move upon the earth, into water, into essay blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the topic essay Griffith University (Navitas) harder” (Homer 53). Great advice for any student of myth! Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and eventually it will calm down and answer your questions. But Proteus only answers the specific questions put to him.

So, to get good answers, you have to University, ask a lot of different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. Steps To Write In English School! 1994. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed.

Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and writing the personal Limkokwing the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. A Good Compare And Contrast Stevenson Academy! Trask.

New York: Harper, 1963. David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. The Personal Essay University! “The Flood as Male Myth of Creation.” The Flood Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of essay television Madeira, Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23.

Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History. The Personal Essay University! 1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. I. Writing Expository Essays! The World of Odysseus. Writing Essay University! New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van. The Rites of Passage.

1909. Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and G. L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Roman Mythology”, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Print.

Hesiod. Works and Days / Theogony. Trans. Writing Expository School! Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. W. H. D. Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.).

New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. University! 1942. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. Jung, Carl Gustav and Carl Ker??nyi. Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund. Claude L??vi-Strauss.

New York: Penguin, 1970. Morford, Mark P. O. and expository Bromsgrove International Thailand Robert J. Lenardon. Classical Mythology. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991. Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Limkokwing University, Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, “The Minoan belief-system” (Routledge) 1990:125.

Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Ancient Gods. New York: Harper, 1961. Wells,JohnC. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990. ISBN 0582053838. Search our thousands of essays:

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