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Prehistoric Fishweirs in Eastern North America. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of critical minds MacEwan Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at Binghamton, May 1992. Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Cologne Business School Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at minds University Binghamton: Charles Cobb, Department of Anthropology. Randall McGuire, Department of Anthropology.
Copyright 1992 by allen lutins. Fish weirs, or semi-permanent traps aimed at the exploitation of aquatic resources, occur throughout the eastern seaboard of North America. Write About School. Many, perhaps hundreds, are of prehistoric construction. Their existence is virtually unrecognized in the archaeological literature for eastern North America, potentially resulting in inadequate reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns in this region. MacEwan University. This thesis is an attempt to synthesize the information for all known prehistoric weirs in how to write School, eastern North America, and to analyze that information for its importance in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. This is the text of critical MacEwan my thesis as it was written in 1992. Since that time, a few strides have been made in fish weir research, particularly the new research at Sebasticook Lake (Maine), renewed research at write an essay about Boylston Street (Boston, Massachusetts), and publication of John Connaway's Fishweirs - A World Perspective . There's one HTML feature which may not be obvious: If you click on a note number, which looks like this:  you'll be put at the Notes section at the end; by clicking on the Note number (which looks like 3.) you'll be returned to your place in the text. This project would have been entirely impossible if not for leads and tidbits of information passed on to me by numerous people over critical minds MacEwan the years. Among those who were particularly helpful were (in alphabetical order) John Cavallo, Dena Dincauze, Jonathan Gell and the rest of the staff at New Jersey DEP's Office of New Jersey Heritage (as well as the staff of how to admission essay Academy other DEP offices, including the Division of Coastal Resources and the Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife), Rob Jacoby, Bill Oliver, Leonid Shmookler, and Vin Steponaitis.
Bill Frazier is to MacEwan, be especially commended for writing American the generous amount of information and photocopies which he provided me; and I thank the staff of the Inter-Library Loan office at the Bartle Library at SUNY-Binghamton for processing my numerous (and often arcane) requests. Special thanks go to critical, Randy McGuire, who provided input and valuable feedback on how to write admission essay and Burton previous incarnations of this project, and both Randy and critical minds MacEwan University, Charlie Cobb for their editorial advice and guidance. Charlie was particularly helpful in helping me to locate sources of information pertaining to southeastern archaeology. For minor but necessary contributions, I gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the New Jersey State Museum staff, and the various archaeologists who have served in the Army Corps of Engineers, New York District over the years. Last but not least, I owe perhaps my greatest debt to my fellow graduate students, too numerous to name, who not only provided me with tips on sources and other useful information, but also maintained the creative, supportive, and cooperative environment necessary for list Kingswood my completing such a task. Any omissions, oversights, or misrepresentations in this paper are completely my own, and do not reflect deficiencies on the part of the above-named people. This thesis is dedicated to Dave Wasilewski, who more than anyone else, helped me to keep my sanity during my years in Binghamton.
When I need a break, Dave is always there; and minds MacEwan University, when I need to get out of the area, Dave is always a willing partner in write about Bishop High School, road trips, back-packing treks, and the like. The few times he wasn't available, Dave generously allowed me the minds, use of his car so that I could escape on my own. Importance of fishing in eastern North America. Archaeologists concentrating on eastern North America have only recently begun to realize the importance of a-g requirements fishing to the reconstruction of prehistoric subsistence patterns in critical MacEwan University, eastern North America (Brumbach 1986:6, 35-36,62; Wheeler and a literary, Jones 1989:1). As a result, little is University known about prehistoric fishing practices in much of the region (e.g., Rostlund 1952:70; Kraft 1984:5). Relatively little work has been done in writing essays, the region which directly addresses this specific topic (Brumbach 1978:225). In addition, a general scarcity of data pointing to MacEwan University, the importance of fish in prehistoric diets contributes to this lack of knowledge. How To Write Essay Academy. Even eastern North America, the settlements, structures, and other accoutrements associated with fishing are, in general, poorly known (Moss and Erlandson 1990:143).
It is likely that fish played an important role in critical minds University, the diet of peoples living in the vicinity of lakes, rivers, and the Atlantic coast, as this was the case for peoples the the essay Cologne School, world over critical beginning in how to School, the Upper Pleistocene (Wheeler and Jones 1989:xii). Fish are an attractive food source because little risk and effort is expended in catching them (Perlman 1980:260,277). Fish are highly fecund, and are able to repopulate quickly despite heavy predation (Wheeler and Jones 1989:4). Among hunter-gatherer/collectors, the only alternatives providing such high yields per effort expended are deer and nuts (Perlman 1980:281). In northeastern North America, Funk (1983) and Snow (1980) claim that only the former were utilized for periods pre-dating the Early to Middle Woodland based on an absence of tools commonly associated with nut-meat extraction. Numerous contact-era accounts attest to the widespread availability and extensive exploitation of fish throughout the entire Atlantic seaboard (Brumbach 1986:37) . University. Archaeologists more commonly associate the Pacific Northwest with the extensive exploitation of fish. How To Write Admission Essay And Burton. However, the critical MacEwan University, Atlantic was capable of providing an a newspaper ks3 Roedean School equal abundance of this resource, with approximately one hundred native species large enough to warrant use as a food source (Brumbach 1986:41; Rostlund 1952:7). Fisher (1983:36) characterizes anadromous  fish as constituting probably the greatest density of critical minds University available food that existed for pre-agricultural societies in the Hudson Valley. They are a particularly attractive resource because spawning runs occur within a highly predictable time frame (e.g., Fisher 1983:40; Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Funk 1983:337). These runs can usually be accurately predicted to within a few days (Schalk 1977:213).
It is unlikely that such a predictably available resource would be ignored. Fishing and the archaeological record. Fishweirs, or simply weirs, are traps built in coastal, estuarine or riverine waters to capture large numbers of fish (Schalk 1977:232). Although they are represented in write essay Burr Academy, the archaeological record throughout eastern North America, there has been an minds MacEwan absence of coordinated research on them. Despite destruction due to age or from urbanization, a number of weirs still survive, as do numerous references (both early ethnohistoric descriptions of their use and more contemporary descriptions of their presence) to how to admission essay Burr Academy, weirs no longer extant. In some parts of the world, prehistoric weirs have received considerable study .
Only one source, Rostlund's Freshwater Fish and MacEwan University, Fishing in Native North America (1952), discusses eastern North American weirs somewhat comprehensively. A-g Requirements Kingswood. Despite listing dozens of areas containing weirs, Rostlund presents no map of weir locations nor accurate sketches of weirs. It is clear that Rostlund omitted a number of sources of minds MacEwan University information which were available to him. Also, a fair amount of new information has been made available since publication of his work. Unfortunately, much of this information derives from contract archaeology reports, which are not widely disseminated. This led Johnston and Cassavoy to write Bishop Guertin, conclude (1978:708): An earnest search of the accessible literature on weirs has revealed that it leaves much to be desired and, with one exception, that there is minds MacEwan University a virtual absence of useful references to archaeological weirs. The paucity of references devoted to fishweirs is not an indication of a-g requirements Kingswood their rarity. Peck (1977:5) claims that (t)housands of stone fish traps occur throughout the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard. This is likely an exaggeration, even including historic and modern weirs. To date, weirs in only four locations have been adequately sketched and accurately mapped .
This is unfortunate, as the continuing processes of river dredging for navigational purposes and natural erosion are serving to destroy weirs. Archaeologists associate a number of minds University general assumptions with weirs. One is that weirs are usually associated with the exploitation of Cologne Business anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Another is that they are temporally and spatially non-diagnostic (Flannery 1939:17). Given the paucity of critical University research undertaken regarding weirs, it is clear that such hypotheses are often untested, especially regarding weirs in essay and Burton, eastern North America. The inadequacy of information regarding fishweirs also impinges on reconstructions of prehistoric subsistence and critical minds University, settlement patterns.
If fishweirs were widely employed, this implies that fish were a more important dietary element than archaeologists currently realize. Write An Essay Guertin High School. Similarly, the minds MacEwan University, use of weirs may have affected settlement patterns because of the time and seasonal constraints necessitated by their construction, repair, and utilization. I will summarize the available literature on prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and analyze their construction and use. Write The Essay Cologne. A discussion of related issues (such as consequences for critical University the reconstruction of subsistence and settlement patterns) follows, in an attempt to better understand the a-g requirements list Kingswood, role of critical minds MacEwan fishing in prehistoric eastern North America, and the nature of weirs themselves. Particular attention will be paid to the possibilities of determining the spatial and temporal variability of weirs, and to augmenting our general knowledge of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns, based on the study of weirs.
Reasons for a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School paucity of critical minds MacEwan University data on weirs and fishing. Why do fishweirs remain virtually ignored in the archaeological literature of eastern North America? One can point to three basic deficiencies as the how to article School, cause: A lack of archaeological data, a shortage of historical references, and a paucity of contemporary research on critical minds MacEwan the subject of weirs. Archaeological data concerning the writing Mercersburg, role of fish weirs and fishing are lacking for a number of reasons. These can be broken down into critical MacEwan three basic categories: the nature of fishing sites and their associated features, lack of preservation, and sampling biases. Perhaps we can include in the latter a relative shortage of financial support given to American School-Salzburg, large-scale and/or long-term projects in the northeastern United States, as compared with other parts of the country (Kraft 1984). Nature of MacEwan fishing sites and weirs. Fishweirs generally consist of impediments across part or all of a river, or walls built to ensnare fish in coastal areas. Most surviving weirs are of stone, rendering direct dating impossible (Godwin 1988:52; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978: 708). This means that most archaeological dating of weirs derives either from direct dating of extant stake weirs (of which there are few), or indirect dating based on associated materials (Godwin 1988:53).
Aside from the weirs themselves, there is a general lack of material technology associated with the exploitation of fish (Whyte 1988:115; Brumbach 1978:7). Weir-fishing renders the use of recognizable fishing implements (such as hooks, net sinkers, etc.) unnecessary. This may account (in part) for the lack of such tools in the archaeological record overall (Fisher 1983:37). It is a-g requirements School also likely that some fish-processing tools and features go unrecognized by archaeologists (Brumbach 1986:37). For example, Fisher (1983:39) reports that in three seasons of excavations at minds MacEwan University the Shantok Cove site in about Bishop School, Connecticut, only one fishing implement (which he fails to identify) was found, yet thousands of fish bones were recovered. No artifacts typically associated with fishing activities were found during limited excavations in critical minds University, the vicinity of known weirs in the Potomac (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319).
Archaeologists seldom discover fish remains, in part because of specific discard patterns associated with such vestiges. Ethnographic and writing effective essays Academy, ethnoarchaeological reports indicate that people usually discard (and process) fish away from habitation areas, or else they thoroughly burn fish remains, because of their b smell and critical minds MacEwan, propensity to attract scavengers (Brumbach 1986:37,44,46; Whyte 1988:115). In general, fish bones are relatively small in size, further hampering efforts aimed at their discovery. A-g Requirements List School. Among some groups, fish bones are valued as a food source during periods of scarcity, so they may be consumed along with the meat and broken down in MacEwan, the intestinal tract. The bones that remain are often destroyed in write Bishop Guertin, the intestinal tracts of scavenging animals (Brumbach 1978:222; Jones 1986:53). Problems with preservation in the archaeological record hinder our knowledge of prehistoric fishing. Stake weirs are preserved only under extraordinary conditions (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:708). Acidic soils, prevalent in the Northeast, tend to destroy osteological remains, especially the small, delicate bones of fish (Brumbach 1978:7; Brumbach 1986:37). Under some conditions, fish bones may be preserved, but the techniques and expertise required for their recognition, recovery and analysis are currently inadequate (Wheeler and critical minds, Jones 1989:3-7).
The destruction of entire sites along the Atlantic seaboard further hampers our ability to understand the importance of fishing in a-g requirements, this region. Due to sea level rises previous to 3,000 to 4,000 B.P. the entire eastern seaboard has been inundated. As a result, prime locations for critical MacEwan fishing (i.e., coastal areas, lagoons, and estuaries) dating to before the Woodland period are now typically 50 to 60 meters below sea level (Emery and Edwards 1966:735). In addition, those surviving sections of the how to write essay Burr, eastern seaboard which were ideal for fishing were focal points for early European settlement, and are now virtually inaccessible to archaeologists due to intensive urban development (Kraft 1984:3). In general, the faunal recovery techniques archeaologists use do not retrieve bones of such small-boned creatures as fish. Better methods of recovery, such as flotation and water screening, have been known to archaeologists in eastern North America for some time now; however, their adoption to date in this area is critical minds MacEwan not widespread (Brumbach 1986:37; Wheeler and Jones 1989:7). Quite a few ethnohistoric accounts depicting native fishing at the time of Cologne School European contact survive, and critical MacEwan, will be related herein.
By the time Europeans reached eastern North America, fishing was likely in decline, owing to an increased dependence on write about Bishop agriculture (Brumbach 1978:6; Ritchie 1980:278). In addition, Brumbach (1986:36) notes that agricultural activities were given undue emphasis, perhaps, in the observations and MacEwan University, descriptions of the early European colonists. Therefore, fishing was likely more important throughout prehistory than is suggested by these accounts. Contemporary folklore and stereotypes that we are exposed to contribute to write an essay about Bishop, a lack of knowledge concerning native American fishing practices. Brumbach (1986:36) noted that popular folklore emphasizes fertilizer value of the fish but seems vague about their consumption as food. Perhaps the stereotype of the hunter/gatherer among anthropologists similarly attenuated a focus on fishing, as the word fishing is not included in the phrase hunting/gathering. University. Despite this fact, in some societies, the how to the essay Cologne Business School, role of fishing may have been equal to or surpassed that of hunting and/or gathering.  The depletion of east coast fisheries is associated with overexploitation by early European settlers. This renders contemporary reconstructions of prehistoric fishing conditions difficult to MacEwan, impossible (Brumbach 1978:225; Brumbach 1986:50). Write About. The depletion of fisheries is a problem with roots centuries old (Brumbach 1978:250; Brumbach 1986:61).
Concerning early colonial New England, Bakeless (1961:223) reports: Plymouth set the (fishing) limit between five hundred and one thousand barrels (of fish) for MacEwan University the town as a whole. By the Revolution this had come down to two hundred barrels. In 1730 each household was limited to four barrels. In 1763, the towns of how to article ks3 Roedean Plymouth and Wareham took 150 barrels from minds MacEwan University, Agawam Brook alone. Sad to say, in article ks3 Roedean, the Merrimac River, salmon, shad, and alewives were growing less abundant as early as 1753. An incredible array of practices resulted in the depletion of Atlantic fisheries, especially in the Northeast. These included water diversion for canals, thermal and chemical pollution, dam-building, dredging for navigational purposes, and over-fishing (Brumbach 1978 228, 251-2; Brumbach 1986:61-2; Brydon 1974). In addition, a number of species were displaced (sometimes intentionally, sometimes accidentally) by non-native species such as the carp and rainbow trout (Brumbach 1986:36; Wheeler and Jones 1989:34). Weirs themselves suffer from a lack of research in eastern North America. Critical. Both historic and prehistoric weirs dot the landscape, yet they seem to have escaped the attention of historians and how to admission essay and Burton, archaeologists alike.
Like the populations of fish which crowded eastern rivers, fishweirs too are certainly far fewer in critical MacEwan University, abundance than they once were. Their location in (and often under) bodies of water means that access to them will be limited, if they are sighted at all. Archaeologists often draw a distinction between weirs and traps (see, for how to a newspaper article School example, Chapman 1975:3). Erhard Rostlund, in a comprehensive discussion of weirs in North America, notes that the function of every weir is to MacEwan, obstruct the writing Mercersburg, passage of the fish in order to facilitate its capture, and MacEwan University, the purpose of every trap is to impound the fish so that it cannot get away (Rostlund 1952:101). Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:706) reiterate this distinction, but note: Weirs and traps may be used independently but their functions are often combined in a single structure when traps are used to collect the write admission essay Burr, fish forced by the weir to a narrow outlet. Thus, it is not always a simple matter to distinguish between the two.
In this thesis, any large-scale, relatively permanent  device used to minds University, aid in admission essay Burr and Burton, the capture of critical MacEwan large numbers of writing a literary analysis essay American International fish will be referred to as a weir. Also, the term tidal weir will be used refer to any device (again, large-scale and relatively permanent) used to trap fish behind an critical MacEwan obstruction with the fall of the how to Cologne, tide, following Rostlund's definition of a tidal trap (Rostlund 1952:101). There are two basic materials from which weirs are constructed: stone, and wooden stakes. Archaeologists sometimes refer to brush weirs, but the term `stake' will be used throughout this thesis to MacEwan University, distinguish a device made from upright poles. Stake weirs are generally constructed of similar-sized poles, as opposed to `brush,' which is interpreted herein as the placement of piles of branches without regard to size and length (this latter method is sometimes employed as part of a weir, as will be seen later). A Maine fisherman who employed weirs in this century once said, all weirs are alike but no two are the same. This refers to the fact that all weirs were used for the same purpose, but each is especially adapted to its particular environmental and topographic setting (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:705). In order to an essay Bishop Guertin, be practical, weirs must be built in locations where fish are in abundance for at least part of the year (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:705).
If they are not moving in critical MacEwan, large numbers of their own accord (i.e., during spawning runs), the write an essay Bishop School, fish must be induced to do so (Rostlund 1952:101). Additional factors which influence the location of weirs include their proximity to raw materials for the weir's construction, and water of a particular depth range (Avery 1975:105; Chapman 1975:8; Rostlund 1952:101). For tidal weirs, this may mean a location where water levels vary only 2.2 meters between high and low tides (Avery 1975:111) . Riverine weirs commonly seem to be built on existing shoals and in other naturally shallow areas. The sandy nature of critical minds MacEwan University sea bottoms and how to write the essay School, the force of ocean gales and critical minds MacEwan, waves on write Business School the coast add to the complications of critical minds University fishweir construction.
Tidal weirs were likely restricted to lagoons and estuaries to avoid some of these difficulties (Larson 1980:10-11). The construction of riverine traps carries different concerns. They must be built in write admission essay Burr Academy, rivers that are not so swift as to destroy the weirs, yet are not too sluggish (Chapman 1975:8; Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). In addition, they must be designed to be resistant to river currents (Chapman 1975:8). Based on MacEwan University observations from Alaska, Australia, Japan, and southern Africa, weirs seem to conform to write Bishop Guertin High School, one of three basic designs: The first is the minds MacEwan, tidal weir. Effective Mercersburg Academy. The second is a maze-like arrangement of walls; the design is such that fish easily find their way in, but can not easily escape. This design is usually used in estuarine areas, and so may be defined as a type of critical MacEwan tidal weir. The third is an obstructing wall which funnels fish to a particular point at which they may be trapped or removed (Godwin 1988:52). Writing. This is the form used in minds MacEwan, all riverine structures.
There are perhaps other types of weirs which do not fall into these basic categories, but they are rare, and there are no reports of them from a literary essay, eastern North America . While conforming to these three basic designs, weirs are constructed with a great diversity of specific shapes and minds, materials. Both tidal (lagoon and estuarine) and riverine weirs are subject to damage from the a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, elements, including excessive currents (flooding in riverine/estuarine environments and gales in lagoon/coastal environments) and damage from large floating objects. Therefore, it is minds MacEwan University likely that weirs needed to be rebuilt from time to time (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:706-7). How difficult is it to a newspaper, build and critical minds, maintain weirs? It is possible that some weirs are relatively simple to build. Analysis Essay American School-Salzburg. However, this view is based on analogies with simple contemporary projects or with weirs from other parts of the world, rather than the large stone or stake weirs known from eastern North America (for example, Godwin 1988:56; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28,171). Swezey and Heizer (1984:973) make it clear that it often takes a relatively large number of people in order for weir construction to be an easy task. Alternatively, weir construction may be relatively labor-intensive (Hubbert and Wright 1987:98; Schalk 1977:232). This assumption is similarly flawed, apparently being based on MacEwan simple observations of stone weirs, rather than controlled studies or observations of how to the essay Business School their construction (e.g., Peck 1977:3; Larson 1980:123).
In truth, it is almost certain that the difficulty of weir building depends on a number of factors, including the number of people available, the topography of the location, the availability of materials, and the design of the weir. Descriptions of weir use in the archaeological literature are extremely contradictory. Critical Minds MacEwan University. I will relate the basic methods of weir use as reconstructed in the archaeological literature. Actual descriptions of Bishop High School weir use from ethnographic accounts will follow, succeeded by critical minds MacEwan, discussions relating to High, these reconstructions and descriptions. Weirs can be used in either an active or passive manner, or occasionally a combination of the two (Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). Tidal weirs are an example of the latter; they simply trap fish behind an MacEwan University obstruction with the fall of the tide.
One then collects the fish at a convenient time. List Kingswood School. Riverine and estuarine weirs (and perhaps some coastal weirs as well) may be used either way; fish may be ensnared in large numbers of their own accord during spawning runs, or they may be corralled in the weir through human intervention (Rostlund 1952:101). All of the descriptions of weir use in the ethnographic accounts to minds MacEwan, follow fit these patterns. As with discussions of weir construction and use, there is no consensus concerning the species selectivity of weirs. Since older ethnographic accounts are seldom sufficiently detailed, most of the data on this issue derive from contemporary experiments and analogies from other regions.
Some reports claim that the variety of species obtained in a weir is quite small, but these generally derive from analogies with fishing in Africa, Tasmania, or other regions whose comparison to the situation in eastern North America is questionable. Other reports from these same regions are at variance with these conclusions (Godwin 1988:53). A similar debate exists as to write an essay about, the size range of fish caught with weirs (Godwin 1988:54; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28). Literature discussing the species and size selectivity of fish trapped in weirs is insufficient from which to draw definitive conclusions, but experimental evidence suggests that, with little difficulty, traps can be constructed so as to critical minds University, select for write an essay about Bishop High School particular size ranges of fish (Mahaffy 1978:59). Like species selectivity, seasonality of weir fishing is also characterized by conflicting testimony. Archaeologists in the Northeast often refer to sites associated with fishing locations as fishing stations (e.g., Snow 1980:200,216,230). They often assume that such sites were occupied for short terms only in both the minds University, Northeast (e.g., Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Fisher 1983:36; Lenik 1985:153; Williams and effective Mercersburg Academy, Thomas 1982:122) and the Southeast (e.g., Jones 1873:324; Jenkins and Krause 1986:41,119). However, assumptions of critical minds short term usage are unjustified. There are areas (particularly in essay Burr and Burton, the Southeast) where fish are available nearly year-round. Due to species diversity in the Southeast, anadromous fish runs take place throughout much of the MacEwan, year (Schalk 1977:216,241). This is a particularly important issue, as it relates directly to questions regarding the settlement patterns of people employing fishweirs.
Since weirs were employed throughout the how to Burr, entire eastern seaboard, these issues carry immense implications. Known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America. The following discussion of prehistoric fish weirs is based on critical University ethnographic accounts, historic and contemporary descriptions of extant weirs, and contemporary archaeological findings. They are presented primarily from north to south, starting with the western Great Lakes region, and proceeding thence to New England, then southward along the Atlantic coast. It usually difficult to ascertain the a literary American, age of a fishweir with any degree of certainty. The three basic criteria used in this thesis include contemporary archaeological analyses, contact era accounts, and historic (i.e., eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century) descriptions. Of these criteria, archaeological analyses which include modern dating techniques are the most reliable indicator of University age. Unfortunately, few weirs have been so analyzed to date. Contact-era accounts of weir use are the next best alternative for information regarding prehistoric weirs.
Most of the sources cited herein are extremely early (often sixteenth century), when native fishing practices presumably remained little influenced by European practices. How To Write Admission. These accounts seem credible judging by the great consistency between them (Rostlund 1952:80). Critical. Also, the practices and devices described were alien to a newspaper, the authors of these works; therefore, they tended to include meticulous details concerning these devices. In addition, there was little incentive to exaggerate or fraudulently depict the use of weirs, as opposed to exaggerations involving issues of land productivity or religion. Historic accounts dating to the last few centuries are less reliable sources of information concerning prehistoric weirs. Minds. Prehistoric weirs were sometimes refurbished and re-used by both Native Americans and colonists during historic times (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:313), and new weirs were constructed by European colonists. Therefore, when historic accounts claim that a particular weir or set of how to admission essay weirs is prehistoric, every attempt was made to discover corroborating or contradictory evidence for such claims. This section is divided into sections based primarily on contemporary state boundaries. Although this is an minds MacEwan University admittedly arbitrary delineation (bearing in mind that these boundaries did not exist throughout the how to admission essay Burr Academy, time period when these structures were built), there are two basic reasons for retaining this hierarchy: First, most of the overviews from which these data are derived consist of surveys done on a state-wide basis.
Second, it will be important for comparative purposes to critical minds, separate these accounts by region, and writing effective essays Academy, this method will permit a high degree of specificity in this regard. Allouez, a Jesuit missionary to the Sac Indians in Wisconsin in the seventeenth century, described a stake weir which spanned the width of the St. Francis River, used to catch Sturgeon and every other kind of fish in the spring and summer (Brumbach 1986:39). Only one extant weir has been described from the midwest, a stone structure located on the Chariton River (near its confluence with the Missouri River) in Missouri (Connaway 1982:156). Shields (1967:490) presents evidence that this was indeed a prehistoric structure, and that it was originally V-shaped (with a gap in the center), but was reconstructed (and its design altered) by European Americans sometime after 1837. The structure was repeatedly dynamited in the early twentieth century (after several sequences of minds University rebuilding) by the Missouri Fish and Game Commission when weir fishing was outlawed (Shields 1967:491). A postcard in how to essay Burr, this author's possession depicts a stone weir on minds MacEwan the Iowa River (in Iowa) which is a-g requirements list Kingswood reputed to be prehistoric (Figure 1). Minds. The exact shape is unclear, but appears to correspond roughly to the common V-configuration.
Unfortunately, no scholarly sources discussing this feature could be located. The text of the postcard indicates that this structure can only be seen in the essay Business School, times of low water. Peter Kalm recorded the use of weirs in this region in his diary on 4 August 1749. MacEwan. He described a tidal weir on the St. Lawrence River near Quebec, employed predominantly for catching eels, made of write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School twisted oziers, so close that no fish can get through them. on one side near the bottom is an entrance for the fishes, made of twigs, and sometimes of yarn made into critical minds MacEwan a net. (Benson 1964:423-424). LeJeune described these weirs at an earlier date, mentioning their use by the Montagnais (Brumbach 1986:40). Again, eels were mentioned as the predominant species obtained. LeJeune described a stake weir that included stone walls on either side. How To Academy. The earliest known reference to these weirs dates to the sixteenth century, when Samuel de Champlain noted: (a) great catch of fish takes place by means of a number of critical weirs which almost close the strait, leaving only small openings where they set their nets in which the fish are caught. Writing American International School-Salzburg. (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:698).
Neither this description nor that of Peter Kalm mentions stone elements. Archaeological investigations demonstrate that weirs were in use in MacEwan, the St. How To Cologne School. Lawrence drainage long before European contact. Between 1973 and 1974, an archaeological investigation at the outlet of Lake Simcoe, at Atherley Narrows, Ontario, revealed 535 stakes clearly arranged for use as fish weirs (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978). Critical University. These were accompanied by a feature composed of how to essay Burr and Burton Academy rocks, presumably to serve as a footing in this area of critical minds MacEwan University soft mud (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704). In one area, the stakes ranged from one-half to a newspaper School, three inches in diameter, and critical MacEwan University, were oriented to obstruct fish swimming with the how to write Cologne Business School, current toward Lake Couchiching and direct them toward the outlet in the vicinity of the rock-covered bottom (Johnston and Cassaovy 1978:704). Minds MacEwan University. In another area, Johnston and Cassavoy claim that the stakes are oriented on list the diagonal northwest-southeast and would serve to obstruct fish swimming upstream toward Lake Simcoe. Radiocarbon dates on a number of the stakes demonstrate that the weir was constructed during the Late Archaic (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704) .
An unidentified early colonist commented that the Micmac employed a fence of wood clear across the critical University, river to hinder the passage of fish in which an opening was left for a net trap (Rostlund 1952:170). This description almost certainly refers to a weir constructed of stakes or brush, but neither the author, a specific date, nor the river(s) in a-g requirements list School, question are provided. Wintemberg (1902) makes mention of stake alignments, which appear to critical minds, be the remains of weirs, in Burgess Lake, near Drumbo, Ontario. The feature consists of a double row of stakes aligned in an L-shape at a point presumed to be the an essay Bishop High, prehistoric shore of the lake (Wintemberg 1902:36). Contact-era accounts attest to the use of weirs by the various nations of the MacEwan University, Iroquois Confederacy. Beauchamp (1900:133) mentions that the Onondagas and Oneidas employed eel weirs (of an indeterminate type) on the Onondaga River at Caughdenoy. He claims that (e)arly travelers described these, although he provides no references. Write Article Ks3 Roedean. He may be referring to the account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary to the Oneida, who wrote in 1670: Our savages construct their dams and sluices so well, that they catch at the same time the Eels, that descend, and the Salmon, that always ascends (Brumbach 1986:40). Again, a description of this weir is lacking. Minds MacEwan University. Jacques Bruyas, an Iroquois linguist, commented in the mid-19th century that the Iroquois of his time were using stone weirs lined with brush, with box traps set into them (Beauchamp 1905:148).
An 1894 Bureau of how to write article ks3 Roedean School American Ethnology report noted at the time that (s)tone fish weirs yet remain in some New York streams, though many have been destroyed. That report specifically mentioned a stone weir in the Seneca River, and also refers to an account dating nearly 100 years earlier attesting to the existence of stone weirs in the Seneca River. This earlier account noted that they were V-shaped, being well made of field stones of considerable size (Thomas 1894:549). In 1900, Beauchamp described one of the Seneca River weirs (reported to be near Baldwinsville) as having three bays of unequal length reaching up to the river as it tended to the north shore. It was built of fieldstone and was about 1,200 feet long. He claimed that the remains of minds a second weir existed nearby, and how to write admission essay Burr Academy, that others are found elsewhere (Bradley 1987:210). Trigger (1978:153) maintains that weirs (of an unspecified type) were in use by minds, the Western Abenaki at the time of European contact. He is unclear about where in New England this group resided at write admission essay that time. Trigger (1978:138) notes that the Eastern Abenaki in Maine utilized weirs at the time of critical University European contact.
Unfortunately, he provides no description of the weirs nor their location. Three stone weirs were described in the 1930's in the Winnepesaukee region; two V shaped and the third W shaped. The points were oriented downstream, and spaces were left at each point (Proctor 1930:41-42,49). Moorehead (1931:51) noted one year later that most of the writing Mercersburg Academy, weirs were removed for navigational purposes, rendering contemporary analysis impossible. A Captain Gosnold reported in 1602 that at Martha's Vineyard, we found an minds University old piece of a weare of the write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, Indians to catch fish (Rostlund 1952:170).
A single stake found at the Buswell site on the lower Merrimack is claimed to be part of a prehistoric fishweir (Brumbach 1986:39; Barber 1980:97), but the critical minds MacEwan University, claim is dubious, as the stake was left in situ untested, and no evidence for a prehistoric date is presented (Barber 1980:103). The best known prehistoric weir on the eastern seaboard is the Boylston Street weir, located under the streets of Boston. About 65,000 stakes interwoven with brush wattling occur throughout an area of approximately two acres (Johnson et al 1942; Johnson 1949; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:708). Recent investigations (yet unpublished) determined, contrary to previous reconstructions, that these stakes constituted numerous small weirs built over many centuries (Dena Dincauze and Elena Décima, personal communication). Writing Effective Essays Mercersburg Academy. Like the stake weirs at Atherley Narrows, these features date to the Late Archaic , and seem to be tidal weirs (Dincauze 1973:31).
An unidentified number of stake weirs are known from the critical MacEwan, Housatonic River. Seven are said to occur within a distance of approximately 610 m with additional rows of slightly different manufacture further upriver. They are described as consisting of palisades of stakes about 5 cm (2 inches) apart across the mouth of the a newspaper School, river (Brumbach 1978:211)). Mourt's Relation, written by one of the critical University, colonists of the Plymouth Plantation, mentioned the use by Native Americans of a weir (type unspecified) near present-day Bristol (Heath 1963:63). Write Business School. There are no known accounts of extant weirs in Rhode Island. A number of contact era accounts attest to critical minds MacEwan, the use of a-g requirements Kingswood School weirs in New York State. Trigger (1978:199) claims that weirs were used by the Mahicans in the smaller streams in northeastern New York, but fails to provide a more exact location or description of these weirs. Further downstream in the Hudson drainage, Native Americans employed an eel weir (no description is available) in Orange County in historic times (Beauchamp 1900:131). Weirs may have been utilized on critical minds University the lower Hudson in the early seventeenth century when the Dutch first settled there. DeVries described the use of large seines, and Guertin High, also nets set. on sticks in MacEwan, the river, one and one-half fathoms deep (Brumbach 1986:42-43); the latter may refer to weirs, or simply weir-like devices. A semi-circular stone weir is now or was once present on Fish Creek, at the outlet of writing Mercersburg Saratoga Lake (Rau 1885: 201).
Rau (1885:202) claims that it is prehistoric because the oldest settler has no record or tradition regarding it, and. there are directly upon the top of the minds MacEwan, wall, in different places, stumps of white oak betokening a growth of several centuries. Brumbach (1986:39) doubts that this is a prehistoric structure. If it is prehistoric, this would be the only weir of its type ever described from writing essays Mercersburg Academy, eastern North America. In southern New York, the use of a brush weir by the Oneida to catch shad on the Susquehanna was described in the 1670 account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary (Brumbach 1986:39). Critical. A late eighteenth century description from the same area noted: . Write Cologne School. they tye Bushes together so as to reach over the River. (and) sink them with Stones (Brumbach 1986:40). Trigger (1978:217) claims that early European settlers observed the use of weirs by the Delaware. He is unspecific about the exact region or type of weirs. Rostlund (1952:170) mentions accounts of stone weirs in use on the Juniata and Lehigh Rivers (the latter in MacEwan University, the vicinity of Bethlehem) written by European settlers in the early seventeenth century. These were classic V-shaped structures whose points were oriented downstream; they contained openings where basket traps were placed (Rostlund 1952:170).
In more recent times, stone weirs were sighted in the Schuykill River, but no descriptions or accurate locations are provided (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319). Stone weirs may also exist on the Delaware in Pennsylvania, but the allusion to this possibility by Strandberg and Tomlinson (1969:319) is essay American International School-Salzburg so unspecific that it is unclear to which part of this long river the authors refer. Flannery (1939:17) mentioned tidal weirs in the Delaware, which would implicate the lower part of that river, but he fails to provide a better description of the location or design. In 1913, Skinner and Schrabisch (1913:75-78 listed eleven stone weirs in the Passaic River ; ten years later, nine of these still remained (Heusser 1923:23). All are in the shape of a V with the apex oriented downstream (Lenik 1985:26). One of these, the Fair Lawn/Paterson fishweir, remains visible to this day, and is under study by the author  (Figure 2). Minds MacEwan University. There is early historic evidence that these weirs are of prehistoric origin . The weir spans the entire width of the river, and there is no opening at the apex as is described for many similar structures. Kraft mentions two stone weirs in the Ramapo River (Bergen County Office of essays Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983:L11; Kraft 1976:7).
One was reportedly destroyed in 1988 when construction vehicles used it to ford the river (T. Critical Minds MacEwan University. Robin Brown, personal communication); the other is how to write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean unlikely to be of prehistoric origin, based on personal inspections. This latter `weir' consists of a unique arrangement in the form of two L-shaped masses of rock (Kraft 1976:7; Marshall 1983:27); a large sawed wooden beam is deeply embedded within the structure. There is no clear evidence for prehistoric weirs in Delaware. Individual stakes were found in the last century in the Delaware River near Wilmington, but their association with a weir is tenuous at best (Holmes 1896; Connaway 1982:158).
Thirty-six stone weirs were discovered in a survey of the Potomac River between Point of Rocks, Maryland and Harper's Ferry, West Virginia (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969; Strandberg 1962) (Figure 3). Critical Minds MacEwan University. A number of these are likely of a-g requirements list Kingswood colonial construction, but Strandberg and Tomlinson claim that some undoubtedly date to before European contact  (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969). Ethnographic and contemporary accounts of critical University weirs are perhaps more common for Virginia than for how to a newspaper School any other state. Trigger (1978:258,284) mentions that the Algonquians in this state employed weirs at the time of European contact, as did Iroqouian tribes on the Virginia/North Carolina border. He is unclear about the location or type of weirs utilized by critical minds MacEwan University, the Algonquians, but does note that Iroquoian groups utilized reed weirs. Luckily, numerous other contact-era sources relate more detailed accounts of these practices. Accounts of weir use in Virginia date back to the 1580's. M. Thomas Hariot and Ralph Lane observed the effective Mercersburg, use of reed weirs at MacEwan the time, but failed to describe such details as layout, location and method of employment (Hakluyt 1907:183). However, the engravings which accompanied Hariot's book (published in 1588) serve to ameliorate some of write these shortcomings.
The engravings, prepared by Theodore DeBry from John White's watercolors (painted between 1585 and 1586, and now lost) depict stake weirs on the coast near Roanoke. One of the weirs appears to be a simple reed fence (Figure 4), while another consists of interconnected enclosures that open one into the next (Figures 5 and 6) (Hariot 1588). One century later, these same weirs were still in use, as were other types, judging by the following account (Beverley 1705:148): The larger Fish, that kept in deeper Water, they were put to a little more Difficulty to take; But for these they made Weyrs; that is, a Hedge of small riv'd Sticks, or Reeds, of the MacEwan, Thickness of a Man's Finger, these they wove together in a Row, with Straps of Green Oak, or other tough Wood, so close that the small Fish cou'd not pass through. Analysis American. (they) were contrived so, that the Fish could easily find their Passage into those Cods (pockets). but not see their Way out again, when they were in; Thus if they offered to critical, pass through, they were taken. Sometimes they made a Hedge as this, quite a-cross a Creek at High-Water, and at Low wou'd go into the Run, so contracted into a narrow Compass, and writing essays, take out what Fish they pleased. At the Falls of the Rivers, where the Water is shallow, and the Current b, the Indians use another kind of Weir, thus made: They make a Dam of loose Stone, where of there is plenty at hand, quite across the River, leaving One, Two, or more Spaces or Trunnels, for the Water to pass thro'; at the Mouth of which they set a Pot or Reeds, wove in minds MacEwan, Form of a Cone, whose Base is about Three Foot, and in perpendicular Ten, into which the Swiftness of the Current carries the Fish, and wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return. In this description, Beverley describes three distinct types of a-g requirements list Kingswood weirs in use. The first consists of a stake trap into which fish simply wandered and were ensnared; this appears to be of the critical minds University, `labyrinthine' variety.
The second is also a stake weir, but is School a simpler tidal trap. The third is a stone weir on a river. No stake (reed) traps are known today from Virginia; indeed, there are no extant tidal traps anywhere along the Atlantic coast (Larson 1980:119). However, accounts of stone weirs in Virginia's rivers abound. Unfortunately, it is minds MacEwan often difficult to distinguish prehistoric from historic weirs. Strandberg and Tomlinson (1969:319) described a number of stone weirs in High School, this century in the James and Shenandoah Rivers. At least two of the James River weirs, in Richmond, are very likely of prehistoric origin, judging by their inclusion in University, a seventeenth century manuscript. They are W-shaped with the writing essays Academy, points oriented downstream (Bushnell 1930:8). In addition, there are mid-18th century references to a stone weir on the Otter River in Bedford County (northwest of Altavista) (Gravely n.d.). Stone weirs are also known from the Rappahannock River (above Fredericksburg) and the Rapidan River (at Skinkel's Ford) (Bushnell 1935).
At least one of the Rappahannock weirs is visible in Fredericksburg to this day; it is another V-shaped stone structure (Chris Lowe, personal communication). There is also a stone weir (V-shaped) visible in the Smith River in Martinsville (Gravely 1973). There are reports of minds MacEwan University historic Native American weirs on analysis International the Rappahannock, but their design is unlike any other known prehistoric weirs, and they are confirmed to be of historic construction (Speck, Hassrick and Carpenter 1946). A large number of stone weirs are known from North Carolina; unfortunately, none have ever been studied nor adequately mapped. Peck (1977:5) alleges that over one hundred weirs (certainly not all prehistoric) are said to be visible from the air in the Rocky River, but he fails to cite scholarly sources attesting to this fact. Better evidence exists for critical MacEwan University other, isolated weirs. How To Cologne. William Oliver (personal communication) affirms the existence of a V-shaped stone weir at the Town Creek Indian Mound (31 Mg 3) in Montgomery County, another stone weir (no description provided) at the Trestle Site (31 An 19), and minds MacEwan, other stone weirs in the Pee Dee River in Montgomery, Richmond, Stanly and how to write the essay Cologne School, Anson counties. In a voyage down the Yadkin and Pee Dee Rivers in the 1920's, Douglas Rights (1929) encountered a dozen V- and W-shaped stone weirs. He claims (Rights 1929:18) that they are of prehistoric origin based on the proximity of Indian village sites.
Peck (1977) established that stone weirs on the Pee Dee River consist of four distinct types, including V-shaped with a simple opening, V-shaped with a parallel opening, W-shaped, and University, Multiple V-shaped. All of these types are described as having openings at how to write the essay Business the apexes. Ethnographic accounts of critical minds weir use in how to admission essay Burr and Burton, North Carolina are rare. MacEwan. Contact-era sources mention that Algonquian tribes in how to write admission essay Burr and Burton, this state used reed weirs (Trigger 1978:273). In his diary, Ralph Lane discusses the use of weirs (of an unspecified type) on the coast in March of 1586 (Larson 1980:121). There is a single ethnographic report of a weir in use by Native Americans from 1765 on the Little River (Merriweather 1940:169). It is critical minds University unclear what type of how to essay weir this was, and whether or not it was in use previous to European colonization. Four stone weirs exist in the Trotters Shoals Reservoir area. Investigations in the early 1970's focused on three of critical MacEwan University these structures  (Hemmings 1970). The first, 38 Ab 8, is effective essays Mercersburg located on critical the Savannah River at its juncture with the Calhoun Branch.
It consists of a 400 foot-long wall of boulders paralleling the stream bank, with another 200 foot-long wall angling away from it as one follows it upstream. The only evidence that it may be prehistoric is the close proximity of a prehistoric site (38 Ab 10) (Hemmings 1970: 49-50). Writing Effective Mercersburg. The second, 38 Ab 16, consists of an irregular boulder alignment, approximately 200 feet long, with openings at irregular intervals. This structure is MacEwan also in writing analysis American International, the vicinity of critical MacEwan a known prehistoric site (Hemmings 1970:50). The third, 38 Ab 15, is near Carter Island on the upper Savannah River, and it too is associated with a prehistoric site in the immediate vicinity. A 300 foot-long irregular wall of boulders contains two V-shaped alignments near the center of the feature.
Logs incorporated into the feature were tentatively radiocarbon dated to ca. A.D. 1400 , with a rebuilding episode around 1770 (presumably by European colonists) (Hemmings 1970:50; Hemmings 1973:44). It is clear that stone weirs in the Tallapoosa River are of prehistoric affiliation (Hubbert and Wright 1987). There, Hubbert and Wright (1987:8,51) discovered over 50 stone weirs, mostly located on shoals. How To A Newspaper Article Ks3 Roedean. Four types were distinguished: Single V, Double V, Triple V, and straight (Hubbert and Wright 1978:59-61) (Figures 7 and MacEwan University, 8). They were deemed to be of prehistoric origin, based on criteria which included: 1) a lack of write Cologne Business historic settlement due to critical minds MacEwan University, inaccessibility (except by canoe) (Hubbert and Wright 1978:ix); 2) a large number of prehistoric sites, whose locations were very bly correlated with the locations of weirs (Hubbert and list School, Wright 1978:96); and 3) a lack of exploitable resources aside from fish (Hubbert and Wright 1978:95). Two interesting types of feature accompanied these weirs. The first was the presence of beds of burned rocks at sites associated with weirs. These features were interpreted as the locations of drying racks for critical minds MacEwan University the preservation of fish (Hubbert and a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School, Wright 1978:99) . The second type of feature consisted of critical University piles of rocks of the type utilized in the construction of the weirs.
Hubbert and Wright (1978:41) claim that these features could represent the raw materials from which the weirs were constructed. Based on how to write a newspaper School analysis of the MacEwan University, nearby sites, these weirs are said to date back to the Middle Archaic, with the associated sites being occupied for ks3 Roedean School only brief periods (Hubbert and minds MacEwan, Wright 1978:99-100). In the only early account describing Native American weir use in Tennessee, Lieutenant Henry Timberlake, in his memoirs (1756-1765), recounted the use of a V-shaped weir. He did not describe the materials used (Williams 1927:69). An extensive survey in 1985 of large stretches of the Tellico and Little Tennessee Rivers revealed that no weirs were extant (Chapman 1985). Myer (1928:26,782) and write about Bishop Guertin, Swanton (1946:335) identified V-shaped stone weirs in the Tennessee River in Knox County, and in the Obey River (near the mouth of Eagle Creek) in Pickett County. Stone weirs in the lower Holston River were firmly dated to the nineteenth century (Cobb 1978).
Chapman documented 37 stone weirs were in critical University, a 45 mile stretch of the Etowah River between Cartersville and a-g requirements Kingswood, Rome, but admitted that a number are historic (Chapman 1975:6). Critical. They consist of four basic shapes: curved, V-shaped (with one or more openings), L shaped (with openings), and irregularly shaped (Chapman 1975:8). Chapman (1975:6-7) describes a dichotomy between weirs utilizing large rocks and those with small. Embedded historic materials appear to be associated solely with the former. George Henry Loskiel described a V-shaped stone weir in use by how to essay Burr and Burton, Native Americans in 1794: (T)he Indians run a dam of critical University stones across the stream, where its depth will admit of it, not in a straight line, but in two parts verging towards each other in an angle. An opening is left in the middle for Kingswood the water to run off. At this opening they place a large box, the bottom of which is full of holes (Jones 1873:332-3). The only reference regarding weirs in Kentucky is mention of a stone weir in Bourbon County. Minds MacEwan. A more exact location and description are unavailable (Funkhouser and Webb 1932). Only a single weir is known from writing analysis International School-Salzburg, this state, the Sturdivant Fishweir, in the Homochitto River in minds University, Amite County. This feature was the site of extensive archaeological investigation, and is the best preserved weir of its type (Connaway 1982).
It consisted of rows of stakes (314 were recovered, most of Yellow Pine), clearly worked with stone tools, which were interwoven with split cane mats. The weir is in the shape of High School a V, with a gap at critical minds MacEwan University the apex. Parallel rows of stakes attest to episodes of rebuilding, and the stakes were radiocarbon dated to the Late Mississippian/early Protohistoric period (Connaway 1982:138-152) . A number of sixteenth-century accounts describe the use of tidal weirs on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida. The earliest such account is probably that of Garcilaso. An Essay Bishop School. He described what apparently was a stone tidal weir at Tampa Bay utilized to catch rays (Swanton 1946:333). Jean Ribault and Sir John Hawkins described the use of stake weirs in the 1560's (Larson 1980:121; Connaway 1982:159).
Ribault noted that the weirs were built in the water with great reeds, so well and cunningly set together after the critical minds University, fashion of a labyrinth, with many turns and crooks (Connaway 1982:159). Laudonnière described these same weirs as inclosures, made of reeds, and framed in the fashion of a labyrinth, or maze. (Laudonnière 1869:180). They are depicted in Le Moyne's paintings, which date to the 1560's (Lorant 1946:41) (Figures 9 and 10), but none of these weirs are reported to be extant. There appears to list School, be little, if any, correlation between weir design and MacEwan, geographic province. Tidal weirs made of stakes are known from Canada to Florida, and other stake weirs are known from Maine to Mississippi. Stone weirs in riverine settings, most often of the V-shaped variety, are known from nearly every state from New York to Georgia. Tidal weirs of stone are reported from Florida only, but there is an ambiguous reference to tidal weirs in the Delaware River (in Pennsylvania) which may also be of stone. The use of tidal weirs is relatively straightforward.
There is general agreement among all accounts that a barrier is positioned so as to a-g requirements list, trap fish behind the falling tide (Rostlund 1952:101). Unfortunately, there are no detailed descriptions of tidal weirs. However, early engravings and paintings depict either straight walls perpendicular to the shoreline, or labyrinthine structures. Based on these depictions, tidal weirs seem to have operated in a passive fashion. Descriptions of the use of riverine weirs vary remarkably, and are often times contradictory. Most agree that these weirs are generally associated with the exploi-tation of anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Discussions of riverine weirs place great emphasis on their operation during spawning runs, generally in the spring and summer along the Atlantic (see, for example, Bakeless 1961:223,262; Brumbach 1986:42; Beverley 1705:146). Many stone weirs throughout eastern North America are described as having openings for traps, invariably at the downstream-pointing apexes (for example, Connaway 1982:156; Rostlund 1952:170; Myer 1928:782; Chapman 1975:8). MacEwan University. This is odd, as fish traveling upstream would be diverted by the stone walls to the sides of the river, not to the openings in analysis essay American School-Salzburg, the center. In fact, there are accounts of the use of weirs to capture fish as they traveled downstream (aside from eels, which migrate downstream to spawn) in both active and passive manners. Minds University. Beverley, in a quote related previously, described the passive operation of such a weir, whereby the Current carries the Fish, and wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return (Beverley 1705:148).
The operation of weirs in write admission essay and Burton, this fashion is known historically from southeast Alaska (Moss and critical minds MacEwan University, Erlandson 1990:144). Writing Effective Essays. More common are descriptions whereby fish are driven into the apex of V-shaped weirs through agitation of the critical minds MacEwan, water upstream (Williams 1927:69; Chapman 1975:3). Historic weirs served to how to Business, capture fish traveling both upstream and downstream (Reed 1979), and it is critical minds University clear that native Americans made use of the essay Business this method in some places (Wheeler and Jones 1989:168). For example, the Jesuit missionary Dablon described the capture of both anadromous and catadromous species with the MacEwan, same weirs in New York (Brumbach 1986:40). Similarly, the Micmac would leave an opening in which they place a bag net so arranged that fish run into it. In autumn, when the fish descend, the opening of the bag is in a-g requirements, the other direction (Rostlund 1952:170). Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:704) allege that the Atherley Narrows weirs appear to be oriented to capture fish migrating upstream, and indeed, fish remains are found at local sites; however, previously cited contact-era accounts attest that the most important species caught there was eel, which migrate downstream to spawn. It is MacEwan evident that, despite a focus on the use of weirs to capture anadromous fish passively on their upstream migrations, riverine weirs were employed to write School, capture fish traveling downstream as well, and furthermore were employed in an active fashion. All of the described methods of critical minds utilization result in how to write Cologne Business, catches of substantial amounts of fish. Since weirs were used throughout the minds MacEwan, entire eastern seaboard of how to article ks3 Roedean School North America, the University, widespread exploitation of fish certainly carries implications for subsistence patterns throughout the region.
Certain other practices related to subsistence are implied as well. Weirs are designed to capture fish in large numbers. A Literary Essay International School-Salzburg. Since fish spoil very rapidly, a knowledge of preservation is an essential accompaniament to weir utilization. The extensive use of weirs in eastern North America indicates that a knowledge of preservation was widespread throughout this region (Schalk 1977:232). Wheeler and critical University, Jones (1989:28) characterize the preservation of fish as a relatively easy task, involving drying, salting, smoking, fermenting, or a combination of these. However, the exact application of these methods was diverse, and may have been species and/or size specific (Whyte 1988:115).
A great diversity of specific methods was employed across the varying regions and among different groups in eastern North America. Rostlund (1952:195-6) observes that the methods known to how to the essay Cologne, be in use at the time of European contact included drying, presumably by fire (among the Delaware, Chitimacha, and critical MacEwan University, Atapaka, and in the St. Lawrence River and Apalachee Bay areas), sun-drying (along the write essay Burr and Burton Academy, lower Hudson River), fire-drying (in Virginia), a combination of critical minds MacEwan University sun-drying and smoking (among the Hurons and how to write the essay Cologne, Narraganset), smoking alone (among the Natchez, and among other groups in critical minds MacEwan, the Roanoke Islands and South Carolina mainland), drying, smoking, and freezing (among the write Business, Ojibwa), and a combination of drying and salting (among the Yuchi). There are isolated examples of more unusual methods of preservation. Minds University. The Hurons, Mohawk, and other Iroquoian tribes ate powdered dried fish (Rostlund 1952:199). The Hurons also prepared sagamite, or spoiled fish, apparently preserved through natural fermentation (Brumbach 1978:254). Fish preserves, whereby live fish were impounded in artificial canals and ponds, are known from DeSoto's expeditions (Jones 1873:325-6). And one site near the Delaware River in New Jersey (in the vicinity of Trenton) is interpreted as the location of a vast complex for rendering fish oil (Louis Berger and Associates, Inc. 1987:VIII-5) . Length of ks3 Roedean School occupation of weir sites. The availability of critical minds large quantities of fish in a restricted area increases the writing a literary analysis essay International, opportunity for sedentism (Schalk 1977:232).
In addition, the chores (setup and maintenance of facilities, processing of catch, etc.) necessitated by weir use require a certain level of (at least seasonal) sedentism (Avery 1975:113; Brumbach 1986:35,37; Larson 1980:125; Schalk 1977:232). We do not yet have the information to describe typical weir use, but it is still possible to reconstruct the potential minimal time during which a weir site may have been occupied. The most important variable for this reconstruction is the availability of fish (Brumbach 1986:35). A number of authors who concentrate on fish as a subsistence item place great emphasis on the seasonal spawning habits of anadromous fish. This is minds University no doubt due to the convergence of considerable numbers of large fish in a short time-span, which makes this food resource easily obtainable in writing American School-Salzburg, a small area and over critical minds University a short period of write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School time (Fisher 1983:36; Schalk 1977:213; Wheeler and critical, Jones 1989:5). In preceding discussion, I noted that weirs were not employed exclusively or predominantly for list School capturing anadromous species during their upstream migrations.
However, anadromous fish are a qualitatively superior food resource during their spawning runs, at which time their fat reserves are highest (Brumbach 1986:36). The high fat content of anadromous species rendered them attractive, and sometimes necessary, to a diet which was likely low in fat during the winter in some regions, particularly the University, Northeast (Speth and Spielmann 1983:2). The specific mechanisms regulating anadromous spawning are not yet completely understood, particularly regarding the environmental conditions which determine the a literary essay American International, timing of their runs. There are two predominant schools of thought regarding the mechanisms governing spawning runs: The first points to water temperature as the overriding factor initiating spawning runs (Schalk 1977). An illustrative example is the spawning habits of the critical, shad (Alosa spp.), which.
adhere to similar temperature regimes by following the a literary essay American School-Salzburg, isotherms or thermal zones in the range of 13? to critical, 18? C. By following these zones the fish arrive at Academy the rivers at critical minds University the proper time for migration and how to a newspaper, spawning: In their southern range the shad enter the St. Johns River in Florida in January when water temperature has cooled to around 15?C. Further north, the spawning runs occur progressively later in critical MacEwan University, the year when the waters have warmed adequately . (Brumbach 1978:224) Water temperature is not necessarily determined solely by write a newspaper article School, drops in ambient temperature due to critical minds MacEwan, the season. Observations from California demonstrate that spawning runs may be initiated by a-g requirements list Kingswood, water cooled both in the autumn (through ambient temperature change) and spring (due to melting snow from nearby mountains) (Swezey and Heizer 1984:970). Minds University. This appears to be the case only in larger rivers (Swezey and list, Heizer 1984:971-2). The alternate explanation of anadromous migrations is that they are regulated by the volumetric flow of water from the rivers in which anadromous fish spawn (Banks 1969). Critical MacEwan University. Although the exact reasons for this are not clear, Banks claims that many factors like water and air temperature, turbidity, atmospheric pressure, cloud cover, pH and variations in concentrations of many dissolved ions are associated with the rate of water discharge (Banks 1969:86). This phenomenon was confirmed through a number of controlled experiments which were successful regardless of writing a literary essay International water temperature, leading Banks (1969:120) to conclude that (t)he evidence of the influence of temperature on upstream migration is both conflicting and inconclusive.
He notes, though, that this phenomenon may apply only to smaller streams, and that (e)arly in the season, temperature may be the factor controlling migration (Banks 1969:107,115). Regardless of the factor initiating spawning runs, it is clear that different species spawn at different times of the year; therefore, the higher the diversity of species present, the greater the time period during which fish can be exploited in abundance (Schalk 1977:216,241). A number of MacEwan University factors influence species diversity; diversity is more restricted in northerly latitudes, and write a newspaper, is greatest south of 45. The size and University, section of a river also bly influence species diversity. Larger rivers support greater numbers of species, their lower sections being the most productive. Surrounding topography as well plays a part in diversity.
Rivers in estuary or upwelling zones are most suitable, especially when they are associated with wide continental shelves at the coast (Schalk 1977:218,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). It would do well at this point to write Guertin High School, look at the actual observed availability and exploitation of fish on a regional basis to add to the theoretical knowledge explicated above. As previously pointed out, the contemporary situation has been compromised too greatly for direct comparison with the prehistoric period. Research derived from critical MacEwan University, contemporary studies is cited with the understanding that prehistoric availability either met or exceeded modern yields, and when possible, contact-era and other historic accounts are cited for reconstructing past availability. Each of the species discussed below is how to write the essay known (through either contact-era accounts or archaeological investigation) to have been exploited by various native American groups. Judging by critical minds MacEwan, numerous contact accounts, fish were available throughout most of the year from the Great Lakes/Finger Lakes to the Canadian Maritime provinces. How To Essay Burr. These accounts tend to be the very early accounts of Jesuit missionary and pioneer explorers in the region. Pierre Biard, a Jesuit missionary near present-day Annapolis, Nova Scotia, wrote in 1616: In the middle of March, fish begin to spawn, and to come up from the sea into certain streams, often so abundantly that everything swarms with them.
Any one who has not seen it could scarcely believe it, you cannot put your hand into University the water, without encountering them. (Brumbach 1986:42) From the month of effective May up to the middle of September, they are free from all anxiety about their food; for critical MacEwan the cod are upon the coast, and write admission essay, all kinds of fish and shellfish. In the critical MacEwan University, middle of September (they) withdraw from the sea, beyond the reach of the tide, to the little rivers, where the eels spawn, of which they lay in a supply; they are good and write article ks3 Roedean School, fat. (Snow 1980:43) Fish continued to be available through the fall (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707), during which time Samuel Champlain observed a group of Iroquois fishing (in October) (Brumbach 1978:219). Because of the diversity of species, fish are available year-round in minds MacEwan, this region, and at least one group, the Huron, are known to have exploited this resource throughout the entire year (Heidenreich 1971:208). We have fewer early descriptions from a-g requirements Kingswood, New England from which to critical, reconstruct subsistence patterns. We know, based on descriptions provided by the Plymouth colonists, that Native Americans fished for alewife in April and eels in September in Massachusetts (Bakeless 1961:22-3). Write Admission Essay. Sturgeon were also plentiful in that state, and were exploited during their spawning runs in the Spring (Barber 1980:107). Other species which still make spring spawning runs in New England to this day include the shad and critical University, salmon (Brumbach 1986: 47,60). Of course, freshwater species are also available; the Plymouth colonists noted that bass fishing was practiced in the summer in the vicinity of writing a literary analysis American Rhode Island (Heath 1963:63).
Contact-era sources from the Middle Atlantic region which describe native fishing with any detail are almost nonexistent. Critical MacEwan University. Based on write about Guertin High contemporary studies of known native species and a few historic descriptions, however, we may infer that fish were widely available throughout the year. Van der Donck, describing Native Americans fishing on the lower Hudson, alluded to this in an inexact fashion when he wrote: First in the fishing season they caught many shad. Later they caught striped bass. Later still they caught the minds MacEwan, drums. Write A Newspaper Article School. For those fishes succeeded each other in their seasons. There are also carp, snook, forrels, pike, trout, suckers, thickheads, eels, palings, brickens, and lampreys. (Van der Donck 1656:54) A number of anadromous species were available in this region, including sturgeon, herring, alewives, shad, and eel, most of which made significant spawning runs beginning in the spring and critical minds MacEwan University, were available through the summer (Brumbach 1978:229-234; Brumbach 1986:50-1). In addition, striped bass were available throughout the year in the lower Hudson River and its tributaries, as were numerous freshwater (non-anadromous) species (Brumbach 1978:20,233). Similarly, two species of sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum and A. oxyrhyncus, also known as A. sturio) were available in the Delaware and Hudson Rivers year-round (Brumbach 1978:226).
Detailed contact-era and early historic accounts of a literary analysis essay American International native fishing practices are similarly lacking for critical southeastern North America, but as with the Middle Atlantic region, contemporary studies of how to write admission essay Burr and Burton Academy non-introduced species can aid us in reconstructing the prehistoric availability of fish. Previously mentioned anadromous species (especially the sturgeon, herring, and shad) were all procurable beginning in the spring, and were certainly exploited (Brumbach 1978:227; Larson 1980:112-3; Brumbach 1986:47; Hakluyt 1907:182; Jones 1873:324). Because of the topography and species diversity, anadromous fish were accessible for an extended period of time (Schalk 1977:216,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). In addition, non-anadromous species, both freshwater and ocean species, were available and exploited throughout the minds MacEwan University, rest of the year (Chapman 1975:2; Larson 1980:81-95,123; Hakluyt 1907:182; Whyte 1988:115). How To Write The Essay Cologne School. Early historic accounts attest to winter fishing in Florida (Bennett 1975:15). The role of fish in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. In the Northeast, hunting, gathering and fishing constituted the primary subsistence activities throughout nearly all of prehistory. This basic pattern persisted until the Late Woodland period, at critical minds which time plant domestication became widespread (Brumbach 1978:163). Excluding the `Maritime Archaic Tradition' on the east coast of Labrador, the earliest known fishing on a large scale in the Northeast was during the `Brewerton Phase' in write an essay Bishop Guertin High School, the Late Archaic in central and minds MacEwan University, northern New York Sate. However, there is little archaeological evidence for the Early and Middle Archaic periods (Funk 1983:317,323).
The Late Archaic period is how to essay Academy generally characterized by the existence of hunting/fishing stations in the spring and summer, with settlements relocating further inland, where hunting predominated, during the fall and winter (Funk 1983; Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Brumbach 1978:164). Overall, evidence for fishing is slight for both this period and the succeeding Transitional Phase (Funk 1983:331-332). Sites throughout the Archaic are usually small, with larger sites being interpreted as evidence of repeated seasonal use (Ritchie 1956:74). The Early and Middle Woodland are similarly characterized by small, seasonal camps, situated near waterways in minds MacEwan, the warmer months and further inland during the fall and winter (Funk 1983:337,344; Williams and Thomas 1982:122). Overall, the write the essay Business School, archaeological literature fails to emphasize fishing as an important resource. However, the data from individual site reports, as well as information regarding general settlement trends, hint at critical the importance of fish in essay American School-Salzburg, the diet of prehistoric North Americans. Interestingly, most major sites appear to be located adjacent to waterways where considerable quantities of fish are attainable (Brumbach 1978:164; Bradley 1987:15; Trigger 1978:324), and many are situated exactly at those points most conducive to fishing (Brumbach 1986:37).
Sites along the Charles River in Massachusetts date progressively earlier as one moves downstream. Dincauze (1973:25) interprets this pattern as evidence that ideal fishing locations were the basis for situating sites, and that sites needed to be relocated upstream as post-glacial sea transgression caused suitable fishing stations to be located further inland. The Dougall Site, near the minds, Atherley Narrows weirs, contains extensive evidence of being a provenance for a-g requirements list Kingswood School fish exploitation. Cultural deposits at that site date from the Middle Woodland through the Late Woodland (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707). As was previously pointed out, the weirs themselves date back to the Late Archaic, as do those at Boylston Street. In fact, a few sites demonstrate evidence of large-scale fishing dating as far back as the Early Archaic and even Paleo-Indian periods (Gramly and Funk 1990:24) . Evidence for the role of fishing, as well as overall reconstructions of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns for critical minds MacEwan University the Southeast, are meager. This is especially true for the pre-Woodland periods. Most authors of regional overviews see subsistence and settlement hinging on write article School seasonal migrations between areas offering differing resources throughout prehistory. When fishing is mentioned, it is seen as a short-term occupation (generally during the MacEwan University, summer) (Jones 1873:324-325; Jenkins and writing a literary School-Salzburg, Krause 1986:41; Hubbert and Wright 1987:99).
Sedentism in the Southeast preceded sedentism in the northeast, appearing by the Late Woodland period in the interior River Valleys in (the) mid-South (Anderson and Garrow 1988:133-5). Most authors ascribe sedentism to the increased exploitation of plant and animal resources, primarily deer and nuts. Aquatic resources are occasionally mentioned as an element correlating with increased sedentism (Anderson and Garrow 1988:136,155). Still, a sedentary lifestyle did not become widespread until much later. Critical Minds MacEwan University. In discussing the reasons for a lack of sedentism in Cologne Business, this region, Jenkins and Krause (1986:119) point out: A continuing need for fresh meat and skins for critical minds MacEwan blankets, robes, and clothing could not be. An Essay About Guertin High School. satisfied.
Nor could the local reserves of collectible non-nut foods be efficiently utilized. The local game animals and collectible non-nut foods would soon be exhausted by a fully settled population. Jenkins and Krause omit discussion of the many factors which could alleviate many of these shortages, such as domestication of minds MacEwan University plants, the ritual or purposive regulation of resources , and write the essay Cologne Business School, a higher availability of resources (especially fish) than is critical MacEwan University generally assumed. The importance of fish as a resource is well documented at some southeastern sites (e.g., Jenkins and Krause 1986:69), as is evidence of the exploitation of a great diversity of species (e.g., Whyte 1988:115). Seasonal availability of fish in the Southeast is the least constrained of all areas on the Atlantic seaboard, providing not only the most diverse anadromous species, but also numerous freshwater and how to write essay and Burton, saltwater species, for critical minds MacEwan which evidence of prehistoric utilization is how to School presented in critical minds MacEwan, section 184.108.40.206 (beginning on p. 51). In light of this evidence, and the fact that far more weirs are known from the write an essay High, Southeast than from the Northeast, it is clear that more research is needed before concluding that short-term seasonal occupation characterized the predominant modes of settlement and subsistence in this region . The use of weirs remains poorly understood despite the existence of numerous ethnographic descriptions of their use and minds MacEwan University, the remains of a large number of extant weirs.
In addition, the implications of their use have yet to be fully incorporated into how to Cologne Business School general reconstructions of critical MacEwan University subsistence and writing analysis American, settlement patterns for the eastern seaboard of North America. The oversight of the importance of weirs stems in MacEwan, part from a lack of preservation in the archaeological record. The limitations imposed by contemporary recovery techniques further exacerbate this problem. A shortage of available historic information further compound this difficulty. Underestimations of the importance of fish as a food resource contribute to our inadequate understandings. Of the general assumptions which have come to characterize weirs, many are clearly in error. Foremost among these is the assumption that weirs are only useful for short periods of time, i.e., seasonally. The evidence presented herein suggests that these devices could be used for much greater portions of the year throughout most of the Atlantic seaboard. Ethnographic evidence provides testimony that fishing was indeed practiced year-round in writing a literary American School-Salzburg, many areas.
Another characterization of weirs is that their primary importance is for passively obtaining anadromous fish during their upstream spawning runs. Numerous ethnographic descriptions suggest that they were quite often used in minds MacEwan, an active fashion, and descriptions of list Kingswood School their layout suggest that fish were more often caught in stone weirs during downstream movements, rather than upstream. This applies not only to the capture of catadromous species (eels) during downstream spawning runs, but also to anadromous species in their post-spawning phase, and to non-anadromous species either swimming with the current or forced downstream by agitation of upstream waters. Flannery's characterization of weirs as `undiagnostic' (1939:17) appears to be correct. Critical MacEwan University. Weirs of two basic types (stake and stone) occur throughout the entire Atlantic region, and there are no observable regional differences in design. Stone weirs are usually V or W-shaped, with apexes always aligned downstream, and they occur almost exclusively in an essay Bishop Guertin, riverine settings.
Stake weirs occur in critical MacEwan University, both riverine and estuarine/coastal areas, but too few survive from which to a literary essay American International School-Salzburg, draw firm conclusions regarding similarities and differences in design. Without a way of dating stake weirs, it is difficult as well to determine whether there are specific temporal design characteristics. The decision to use weirs affected settlement and subsistence strategies. Weir use (and the accompanying responsibilities ancillary to their use, such as weir set-up/maintenance and fish processing) indicates at least semi-sedentary settlement. Since large catches are easily obtained through weir use, and weir use was widespread, it follows that fish were exploited on a large scale across much of eastern North America at least as far back as the MacEwan University, Late Archaic. List Kingswood School. The lack of archaeological evidence attesting to aquatic resource procurement does not necessarily reflect a concomitant deficiency in MacEwan University, the availability or exploitation of Bishop High School this particular resource.
Because weirs are known from throughout the Atlantic coast, there is potentially a need for an overall re-evaluation of the general subsistence and minds MacEwan, settlement patterns, throughout the entire prehistoric period, for this immense area. This evaluation can only be accomplished if more light is how to write essay and Burton Academy shed on the nature of the construction and use of weirs and their temporal affiliation. In addition, a more thorough understanding of aquatic resource procurement and exploitation is required. The latter is a problem which will likely be better understood as archaeological recovery techniques improve. The primary hindrance in this realm stems from a lack of critical minds expertise in recovering and the essay, analyzing the osteological remains of critical minds MacEwan aquatic species, a situation which seems to be improving (Wheeler and Jones 1989). In addition to concentrating on aquatic resources in general, archaeological sites which appear to be linked to weir use in particular need to be examined, with emphasis placed on the retrieval and analysis of remains at writing Academy a very small scale (to enhance the minds, recovery of fish bones, scales, etc.). Weirs themselves are seldom the focus of archaeological investigation. Few weirs have been sketched, and fewer still have been accurately mapped. Since weirs are more highly subjected to natural and human destruction than subsurface archaeological sites, the opportunity to examine them is quickly vanishing. Hopefully, a comprehensive program to accurately locate, sketch, and map these features will commence in the near future.
Granted, there are logistical difficulties involved, considering that almost all of these structures are either partially or completely submerged; however, present technology (including aerial survey and the use of sonar for underwater mapping) should be sufficient to accomplish the how to write the essay Cologne Business School, task. From New England: Yea, when a heape of stones is reared up against [the alewives during their spawning runs] a foot high above the water, they leape and tumble over critical MacEwan and will not be beaten back with cudgels. (Bakeless 1961:223; attributed to Puritan settlers.) [T]he greate smelts passe up [the Smelt River, near Plymouth, Massachusetts] to the essay Cologne, spawne likewise in troupes innumerable, which with a scoupe, or a boule, or a peece of barke, a man may cast upon the bank. ( ibid. ; attributed to colonist John Pory.) [D]uring one month the fish ascend the critical minds, river in so great numbers that a man could fill fifty thousand barrels with them in a day, if he could be equal to that work. (Brumbach 1986:42; from the 1723 account of Râle;, a Jesuit missionary to writing effective essays Mercersburg Academy, the Abenaki.) From the Middle Atlantic: There are more records of shad [in the Susquehanna River] than of anything else, though there must have been just as many fish of critical MacEwan other kinds. Two thousand shad were taken in a single night at Wyalusing, Pennsylvania, but that was nothing compared with the celebrated `widow's haul' on the North Branch, which brought in ten thousand at once. How To Write Admission Essay Burr. (Bakeless 1961:262; describing the travels of Conrad Weiser, a Moravian missionary in the early 18th century.) The Indians come up this river in critical minds University, canoes to fish, because it is one of the richest fisheries they have. (De Yoe 1961; quoting Jasper Danckaerts, a Labadist missionary in how to the essay Business School, the vicinity of the lower Hudson River in March, 1680.) From the critical MacEwan University, Southeast: In the article School, Spring of the critical MacEwan University, Year, Herrings come up in such abundance into their Brooks and Foards, to spawn, that it is almost impossible to ride through, without treading on them. Thence it is, at this Time of the Year, the Freshes of the Academy, Rivers, like that of the critical minds, Broadruck, stink of Fish. (Beverley 1705:146; based on late seventeenth century observations.) For quotes attesting to the availability and exploitation of fish on a grand scale in write a newspaper article, Canada, see the critical, quotes in the section entitled, Observed availability . 2. Anadromous fish are those which migrate upstream from the sea to spawn; conversely, catadromous fish (primarily eels) are those which swim from lakes, rivers and streams out to sea to spawn (McClane 1978). 5. For an example that fishing is not considered to be an aspect of hunting, see Lee Devore's classic Man the Hunter (1968), which is write article School typical in its emphasis on hunting land-animals, to the exclusion of aquatic resources.
6. It is not necessary that the entire device be permanent, but rather that significant portions remain in minds MacEwan, place. For example, it was noted in writing effective essays Mercersburg Academy, Alaska that the MacEwan University, native Salish employed framework weirs from year to analysis, year which utilized removable latticework sections (Moss Erlandson 1990:144). Ethnographic descriptions presented later in this thesis often make mention of removable traps, such as boxes, from stone weirs in riverine settings. 7. Larson (1980:123) claims that, for this reason, tidal weirs in minds MacEwan, the Southeastern U.S. only existed at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina and in Florida, but he is clearly unaware of the description (to be related later) by writing American International, Beverley of a tidal trap in Virginia. In addition, it is critical minds University not at all clear that the how to Burr, coastal weirs in critical minds University, use in North Carolina were tidal traps, as they were built perpendicular to the shore ( ibid. p.120; discussion of which is also included later in this thesis). 8. For example, weirs are reported from southeast Alaska which consist of rows of how to a newspaper School sharp stakes, upon which salmon impale themselves when attempting to hurdle these obstructions during spawning runs (Moss Erlandson 1990:143-4).
9. These are the (presumably uncorrected) radiocarbon dates listed in Table 1 on page 704: 4560 ± 115 B.P. (2610 B.C.) 4430 ± 95 B.P. (2480 B.C.) 4500 ± 95 B.P. Critical Minds MacEwan. (2550 B.C.) 4375 ± 95 B.P. (2425 B.C.) 10. The following (presumably uncorrected) dates are reported by Dincauze (1973:29): 3851 ± 390 B.P. [1901 B.C.] 4500 ± 130 B.P. [2550 B.C.] 4450 ± 130 B.P. [2500 B.C.] 4860 ± 130 B.P. [2910 B.P.] 11. They are as follows (Skinner Schrabisch 1913): 12. This is the only stone weir confirmed to be extant in northeastern North America. It is located approximately 300 yards north of the Fair Lawn Avenue/Fifth Avenue bridge between the City of Mercersburg Paterson and critical minds MacEwan University, the Borough of Fair Lawn.
13. Although direct proof of Kingswood School their affiliation with prehistoric peoples does not exist, overwhelming evidence suggests that these weirs predate European colonization in the area. The area was called Sloterdam by the earliest (Dutch) settlers there. The word means Sluice Dam, and describes the resemblance of the weirs to vaguely similar-looking structures in Holland (Rogers 1960; Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983). MacEwan. The earliest known written occurrence of the term is in 1708 (Rogers 1960:12), which indicates that the term was probably in use prior to the beginning of the eighteenth century, at which time European settlement in the area was extremely sparse. Writing A Literary Analysis Essay International. By the latter part of the century, use of the term was in decline. A 1764 Road Return notes that the Road of critical minds MacEwan University Slotterdam, a thoroughfare traversing the length of the Passaic River on its eastern side, was by that time now known as River Road (Bergen County Road Returns, Folder B9). The appearance of the term on Erskine's maps (1778-9) is one of the latest known uses (Smullen 1921). Another reason to believe that the weirs predate European settlement is the total lack of historical reference to them.
The area was thinly populated by Dutch farmers through the middle nineteenth century, and there is write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean School no mention in critical MacEwan, historic records of about High School fish as a resource in this area during the colonial period. The only known historic use of fish weirs in the entire state before 1800 was by John Read, an agriculturalist from Burlington (far to MacEwan, the south). Effective Academy. In 1763 he began a commercial fishing operation on critical the Delaware River, employing weirs constructed of mats and nets which in no way resembled the stone weirs found in how to admission essay Burr and Burton Academy, the Passaic (Woodward 1941:399-400). 14. Part of the evidence for this claim derives from the fact that some of the weirs are deep underwater (Strandberg Tomlinson 1969:312), and it is reported that one of them was in use in 1724, when a Mr. William Nelson, the first white settler, visited the area (Strandberg 1962:478). 15.
The fourth, known as Fishdam Ford, is located on the Broad River near the town of Carlisle. No known description of critical minds this features exists. 16. Only two dates were procured; the first was 545 ± 100 B.P., the second 180 ± 80 B.P. (Hemmings 1973:44). 17. Write School. Interestingly, Charles Cobb (personal communication) has observed similar features in association with natural shoals in the Georgia. 18. The dates are as follows [Connaway 1982:152]: 470 $± 65 B.P. [A.D.
1480] 490 $± 65 B.P. Minds University. [A.D. 1460] 320 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. Essay Burr. 1630] 385 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1565] 320 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. Critical MacEwan. 1630] 360 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1590] 265 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1685] 370 $± 55 B.P. [A.D. 1580] 355 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. 1595]
19. The unique interpretation of this site (the Trenton Complex, Area B ) is based on write High School 1) the presence of anadromous fish (indirectly inferred from minds MacEwan University, high levels of strontium and mercury in writing a literary analysis essay American International, the soil); 2) a lack of other exploitable resources in the vicinity; 3) the presence of boiling-stone heaps as a predominant feature; and 4) analogy with Northwest Coast practices (Louis Berger Associates, Inc. 1987). 20. MacEwan. This raises an interesting point: if Florida's waters need to cool, and northerly waters need to warm up, this seems to a-g requirements Kingswood, imply that there is there a point in between where the proper temperature for spawning exists year-round. 21. Examples include the minds University, Kipp Island site in central New York, where freshwater fish made up the Kingswood School, bulk of faunal remains (Trigger 1978:324); the Buswell site in the lower Merrimack Valley in Massachusetts, where a nearly continuous 7,000 year occupation (from Middle Archaic through Late Woodland) is interpreted as a settlement used for the exploitation of spawning anadromous fish, based on its unique topography, and faunal and artifact analyses (Barber 1980:97); and the Neville site, at Amoskeag, New Hampshire, where fish were being exploited nearly continuously from 8,000 B.P. onward (Dincauze 1976). 22. See Swezey Heizer 1984 pp. 981 and 985 for examples of the critical minds, regulation of anadromous resources in Northern California. 23.
At least one example of a semi-sedentary site based on the exploitation of fish is known from contact-era accounts: Early Spanish chroniclers, including Garcilaso de la Vega, noted that in the town of Hirihigua (also known as Ucita), a semi-sedentary site in or near Tampa Bay, Florida, little or no maize was available, but fish were an important resource, and weirs were heavily utilized (Larson 1985:125). Avery, G., 1975: Discussion and use of tidal fish-traps. South African Arch. Bull. 30:105-113. Bakeless, John, 1961: America As Seen by its First Explorers: The Eyes of Discovery. Dover Pubs., New York. Banks, J.W., 1969: A review of the literature on the upstream migration of adult salmonoids. J. A Literary Analysis Essay American. Fish Biol. 1:85-136.
Barber, Russell J., 1980: Post-pleistocene anadromous fish exploitation at the Buswell site, northeastern Massachusetts. In Early and Middle Archaic Cultures in the Northeast (D.R. Starbuck and C.E. Minds University. Bolian, eds.). How To The Essay Cologne Business School. Occ. Pubs. in Northeastern Anthro. No. 7, Franklin Pierce College, Rindge, NH, pp. 97-113. Beauchamp, William M., 1900: Aboriginal Occupation of New York. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 32(7), University of the State New York, Albany.
Beauchamp, William M., 1905: Aboriginal Use of MacEwan University Wood in how to write the essay Business, New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. #89, pp. 87-272. New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bennett, Charles E., ed., 1975: Three Voyages: René Laudonnière . Critical Minds University. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Benson, Adolph B., ed., 1964: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America: The English Version of 1770 (Vol. A-g Requirements School. II). Dover Pubs., Inc., New York. Bergen County Office of MacEwan Cultural and Historic Affairs, 198/3: Bergen County Historic Sites Survey, Borough of effective essays Oakland. Bergen County Office of critical minds MacEwan Cultural and Historic Affairs, Hackensack, NJ. Beverley, Robert, 1705 : The History and how to the essay, Present State of Virginia, in Four Parts. Univ. No. Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Brinkhuizen, D.C. and critical minds MacEwan University, A.T. Clason, eds., 1983: Some notes on recent and admission essay Burr and Burton Academy, pre- and protohistoric fishing gear from critical minds MacEwan, northwestern Europe.
Paleohistoria 25:7-53. Brumbach, Hetty Jo, 1978: Middle Woodland Fishing Economics: The Upper Hudson River Drainage. Effective Academy. Ph.D. Critical MacEwan. dissertation, State Univ. of New York at Albany. Brumbach, Hetty Jo, 1986: Anadromous Fish and how to School, Fishing: A Synthesis of Data from the Hudson River Drainage. Man in the Northeast 32:35-66. Brydon, Norman F., 1974: The Passaic River - Past, Present, Future.
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Bull. Critical Minds University. 38:25-39. Dincauze, Dena F., 1976: The Neville site : 8,000 years at Amoskeag, Manchester, New Hampshire. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Emery, K.O and how to write admission essay and Burton Academy, R.L Edwards, 1966: Archeaological potential of the Atlantic continental shelf. Am.
Antiq. 31(5):733-737. Fisher, Charles, 1983: Social Organization and Change During the Early Horticultural Period in the Hudson River Valley. Critical MacEwan. Ph.D. Dissertation, SUNY-Albany. Flannery, Regina, 1939: An Analysis of Coastal Algonkian Culture . Catholic Univ. A-g Requirements. Of America Anthropological Series, #7. Catholic Univ. Critical Minds. Of America, Press, Washington, D.C. Funk, Robert E., 1983: The Northeastern U.S.
In Ancient North Americans (J.D. Jennings, ed.). W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 302-371. Funkhouser, W.D. and William S. Webb, 1932: Archaeological survey of Kentucky. Univ. Kentucky, Reports in Arch. and writing effective essays Mercersburg, Anthro. Vol. 2. Godwin, Luke, 1988: Around the traps: a reappraisal of stone fishing weirs in MacEwan University, northern New South Wales. How To Cologne Business School. Arch. of Oceania 23:49-59.
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Gravely, Richard P., Jr., n.d. : Private papers; copies in minds University, author's possession; provided by writing effective essays Mercersburg, V. Steponaitis, Univ. North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Hakluyt, Richard, 1907: The principal navigations, voigas, traffiques and discoueries of the English nation G. Bishop R. Newberies for C. Minds. Barker, London. Hariot, Thomas, 1588 : brief and true report of the writing Mercersburg, new found land of MacEwan Virginia. Admission Essay And Burton. Virginia: Four Personal Narratives. Arno Press, New York. Heath, Dwight B., ed., 1963: A Journal of the critical minds University, Pilgirms at Plymouth: Mourt's Relation. Write A Newspaper Ks3 Roedean. Corinth Books, New York. Heidenreich, Conrad E., 1971: Huronia: A History and Geography of the MacEwan University, Huron Indians, 1600-1650. McLelland Stewart, Toronto. Hemmings, E. Thomas, 1970: Archaeological survey of the a-g requirements, Trotters Shoals Reservoir area in South Carolina.
Inst. of Arch. and Anthro., Univ. So. Carolina, Research Manuscript Series , vol. 3. Hemmings, E. Thomas, 1973: Update on the Trotter's Shoals Reservoir. Notebook V(2), Inst. of Arch. and Anthro., Univ. So. Carolina. Heusser, Albert H., 1923: Homes and Haunts of the critical minds MacEwan, Indians . Braen-Heusser, Paterson, N.J.
Holmes, W.H., 1896: Prehistoric textile art of eastern United States. Bur. Am. Ethnol., Thirteenth Annual Report. Hubbert, Charles and Richard A. A-g Requirements Kingswood School. Wright, 1987: Lalakalka, the University, fishing place. J. Alabama Archaeol. 33(1). Jenkins, Ned and Richard A. The Essay Business. Krause, 1986: The Tom Bigby Watershed in Southeastern Prehistory.
Univ. Alabama Press. Johnson, Frederick, ed., 1949: The Boylston Street Fishweir II. Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Vol IV, Number 1, Andover, Mass. Johnson, Frederick, et al. , 1942: The Boylston Street Fishweir . Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Vol. 2, Andover, Mass.
Johnston, Richard B. and Kenneth A. Cassavoy, 1978: The fishweirs at Atherley Narrows, Ontario. Critical Minds MacEwan. Am. Antiq. How To The Essay. 43(4):697-709. Jones, Andrew K.G., 1986: Fish bone survival in MacEwan, the digestive systems of the pig, dog and man: some experiments. In Fish and Archaeology: Studies in article ks3 Roedean School, Osteometry, Taphonomy, Seasonality and critical MacEwan University, Fishing Methods . B.A.R. International Series 294, Oxford, pp. 53-61. Jones, Charles C., 1973 : Antiquities of the analysis American School-Salzburg, Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes . Appleton and Co., New York.
Kraft, Herbert C., 1976: Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Proposed Right of Way for the Sanitary and Interceptor Sewer Lines, Borough of Oakland, Bergen County, New Jersey. Archaeological Research Center, Seton Hall University Museum, South Orange, NJ. Kraft, Herbert C., 1984: The northern Lenape in prehistory and early colonial times. In The Lenape Indian - A Symposium . (H.C. Kraft, ed.) Seton Hall Univ. Museum, South Orange, N.J., 1-10.
Kraft, Herbert C. and minds MacEwan University, Alan Mounier, 1982: The Archaic period in Burr and Burton Academy, New Jersey (ca. Critical Minds. 8000 B.P. - 1000 B.C.). In New Jersey's Archaeological Resources from the Paleo-Indian Period to the Present . (O. Chesler, ed.) Office of New Jersey Heritage, Trenton, 52-102. Langdon, Steve J., Douglas Reger, and Christopher Wooley, 1986: Using Aerial Photographs to Locate Intertidal Stone Fishing Structures in the Prince of Wales Archipelago, Southeast Alaska. Alaska Division of how to write a newspaper article School Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Public Data File 86-9, Anchorage. Larson, Lewis H., 1980: Aboriginal Subsistence Technology on minds MacEwan the Southeast Coastal Plain During the Late Prehistoric Period.
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Wayne Township Historical Commission, Wayne, N.J. Lorant, Stefan, editor, 1946: The New World: The First Pictures of minds MacEwan University America. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York. Louis Berger Associates, Inc., 1987: Area B (28 Me 1-B): Archaeological Data Recovery, I-295, and Wetlands Area Interchange (Trenton Complex Archaeology: Report 8). Louis Berger Associates, Inc., Cultural Resouce Group, East Orange, NJ. Mahaffy, John J., 1978: A typology and functional analysis of fish weir configuration, R.L.
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Can. J. Arch. 14:143-158. Myer, William E., 1928: Indian trails of the Southeast. Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology , 1919-24, pp. 727-857. Peck, Rodney M., 1977: Stone fish traps in the Upper Pee Dee River. The Chesopiean 15(1-2):2-8.
Perlman, Stephen M., 1980: An optimum diet model, coastal variability, and hunter-gatherer behavior. In Advances in Archaeological Method and critical minds MacEwan, Theory, Vol. 3 (M.B. Schiffer, ed.). Academic Press, New York, 257-310. Proctor, Mary A., 1930: The Indians of the Winnipesaukee and Pemigewasset Valleys. Towne Robie, Pubs., Franklin, NH. Rau, Charles, 1885: Prehistoric fishing in Europe and North America. American International School-Salzburg. Smithson Contributions to Knowledge 25:1-342. Rights, Douglas L., 1929: A Voyage Down the Yadkin-Great Peedee River . Winston-Salem, NC. Ritchie, William A., 1956: Prehistoric settlement patterns in northeastern North America.
In Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in critical minds University, the New World (G.R. Willey, ed.). Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc., New York, 72-80. Ritchie, William A., 1980: The Archaeology of New York State (revised ed.). Harbor Hill Books, Harrison, N.Y. Rogers, Robert Q., 1960: From Slooterdam to Fair Lawn . Admission Burr And Burton Academy. Thomas Jefferson Junior High School, Fair Lawn, N.J.
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Skinner, Alanson and Max Schrabisch, 1913: A Preliminary Report of the Archaeological Survey of the writing essays, State of New Jersey . MacCrellish and Quigley, Trenton. Smullen, Edward L., 1921: Surveys Done for critical MacEwan University His Excy General Washington by Robert Erskine 1778-1779. (retracing). Snow, Dean, 1980: The Archaeology of New England. Academic Press, New York. Speck, Frank G., Royal B. Hassrick and Edmund S. Carpenter, 1946:Rappahannock taking devices: traps, hunting and fishing. Joint Pubs. , Mus. of the Univ. Penn. and the Phila. Anthropol.
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In The Fishing Cultures of the World - Studies in Ethnology, Cultural Ecology and Folklore, Vol. 2. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Thomas, Cyrus W., 1894: Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Critical MacEwan University. Bur. Am. Ethnol., Twelfth Annual Report, 1890-1891, pp. 3-742. Trigger, Bruce G., ed., 1978: Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15 - Northeast. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Van der Donck, Adriaen, 1656 : A Description of New Netherlands (ed. by Thomas O'Donnell).
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Henry Timberlake's Memoirs, 1756-1765; with Annotations, Introduction, and Index. Wautauga Press, Johnson City, Tenn.
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One should keep in mind that there are numerous essay writers whose native language is not English. That is why if a person wants their essay to be written professionally, it may be better to look for agencies that employ native speakers. Other than that, college essay writing help can be obtained in numerous ways ranging from asking a friend to minds University, look through your paper, to consulting books that were written on the subject. Searching “write my essay” should be seen as the last resort under the most difficult of admission Burr and Burton, conditions. We have already established that there is a way to hire a person to minds, write an essay for you. However, there is one special reservation that should be made: not every agency offers custom essays. It would not be a surprise for you to learn that the curriculum of an educational facility does not change that often.
Given the fact that essay writing service agencies have existed for a long time, it becomes obvious that there is a database of essays that have been written by previous writers. Admission Essay Burr Academy? As a result, there is a chance that you may end up with an essay that was written for someone else. A custom essay writing service is above that: every order that is submitted to it will be written from scratch. That is why it may be rather difficult to critical MacEwan University, become a custom essay writer. The writers have to list School, write about the same topic over and over again, but each new essay has to be unique. That is why they call it a “custom essay” after all. The content is minds University, customized to meet the client’s’ needs. Another point that should be mentioned with this regard is that custom writing usually costs more than ‘regular’ writing.
This can be justified by the fact that a client will end up with a unique text that has never existed before. Who are the men and women who help you write your essay? The answer is simple: they are called “essay writers”. Seems kind of obvious, doesn’t it? At the present moment, this is one of the most popular professions among freelancers of all different backgrounds. It is not easy to become an essay writer. Write? A person has to have perfect English, deep knowledge of the subject, and flexibility of mind. That is why when you want to hire an critical minds MacEwan essay writer, make sure that you hire those of the highest class. This way the quality of the assignment will be nothing short of amazing.
However, this does not mean that regular paper writers are not good. One should keep in mind that every premium essay writer used to be a regular writer at some point. Write An Essay High? So, don’t hesitate to ask an essay writing service about the critical MacEwan, professional background of the writer assigned to you. This way you will know what to expect. Finally, there is one last aspect that should be mentioned about online essay writers. Each of them is a professional with a distinct personality. Some of them may be willing to do something extra for you, while others will insist on writing effective Mercersburg, not following the rules precisely.
The important point here is to critical University, find you own special writer who will help you. Don’t hesitate to explore new writers, and how to Burr Academy when you find the one who lives up to your expectations, you can be sure that all of your future papers will be written perfectly. To begin with, it is worth pointing out that there is critical MacEwan University, no manual that will teach you how to write a great essay every time. As the old saying goes, only practice makes perfect. Nevertheless, there are some college essay writing tips that are more important than others.
First of all, when writing an essay, planning is key. Many think that you need inspiration to write an essay, while what you really need is a good plan. It can be schematic, such as: .. or more detailed. A detailed plan is a literary essay, also called an outline. The importance of an outline can hardly be overestimated since it saves a considerable amount of time when writing.
However, it does require a lot of time to write it. Speaking of other tips for writing essays, one should mention the following: you should know how many words you should assign to each part. This way each part will be proportional. It often happens so, that when people write without a plan, the body is critical minds MacEwan University, too long, while the conclusion is too short. The key takeaway here is to write an essay about Bishop Guertin High School, determine how many words each of those parts need, and to write accordingly. When people think about essays, they often overlook the fact that there are several types. Indeed, the latter are written for different situations, it is natural that they will be different in and of themselves. An important point to keep in mind is that the more a text is aligned with the situation, the more convincing power it will have.
This is the fundamental part of a successful essay: know your type, and write accordingly. These are the types of essay that will be analyzed here: Expository essay Persuasive essay Analytical essay Argumentative essay Descriptive essay Definition essay Narrative essay Process essay Critical essay. In addition to that, one should also note that there are several types of essay formats. Minds MacEwan University? In the academic environment, essays often use references and headings. They often depend on the field of study and how to admission essay Burr and Burton Academy the purpose of the essay. While each particular educational facility may develop its own format, there are several that are quite common. They are:
The major differences between them focus on the format of references, the layout of the title page, and the format of the critical MacEwan University, headings. All this information can be easily found online. There are several guides that offer answers to all of these questions. Now, it may be useful to explore what an expository essay is. As one can easily guess from the name itself, this is a kind of writing Academy, essay that exposes facts. This does not mean that one is minds MacEwan University, expected to reveal something too personal or controversial. Write An Essay Bishop High? The major part here is that the facts must be presented properly or “exposed” to critical University, the audience, hence the name. It is largely seen as one of the most fundamental types of essay and one of the easiest ones to write. An Essay Bishop Guertin High? There are several reasons for this. First of all, by definition, a writer does not have to argue a particular topic, but merely describe the MacEwan, situation.
Secondly, there is a clear structure to every expository essay. By simply filling in the blanks, it is how to admission essay Burr and Burton Academy, possible to write a decent essay in no time. Another point that should be mentioned with this regard is that an expository essay often supports the neutral point of MacEwan, view on what it being described. Suppose a writer is fond of badgers and writes an expository essay about Kingswood School them. According to the rules, this essay must not feature any emphatic information, meaning that the description of one’s favorite subject should not differ from the description of one’s least favorite subject. In short, it is quite easy to write an expository essay. It is worth pointing out minds, that this type of writing, essay is often seen as the fundamental type since it features all of the key elements that will be used in all other types. Click on the picture in order to see the typical structure of an expository essay.
Now, I will explain it in detail. This type of essay is often divided into five paragraphs: This is the skeleton of every expository essay. The introduction is the paragraphs which provides a general background on the topic. It gradually narrows down to the thesis sentence which is the essence of the entire essay. Critical? It is advised to foreshadow the points that will be discussed in the rest of the paper. The thesis statement is often the very last sentence of the how to write a newspaper ks3 Roedean School, introduction.
Speaking of each body paragraph, one should note that they also follow a specific structure: Topic sentence. MacEwan? Supporting example Analysis of how the example supports the argument Closing statement. Since there are at least three body paragraphs, this structure will be repeated over and over again. It is also worth mentioning that the topic sentence and closing statement are always a single sentence. So, if you want your body paragraphs to be longer, work on the supporting examples and analysis.
The last paragraph will also have a distinct structure: Restatement of thesis Restatement of body paragraph #1 Restatement of writing, body paragraph #2 Restatement of body paragraph #3 Implications for minds the future. As you can see, the list Kingswood School, majority of the last paragraphs is the repetition of information that has already been expressed. This means that no new information should be added, other than possible implications for critical minds the future. Let’s create a basic structure of expository essay about badgers. The first paragraphs may feature general considerations about the a literary International, role of animals. Then it may be useful to note that each animal has unique features. The thesis will focus on the three major characteristic features of badgers. Each body paragraph will be devoted to a particular element, for example, the description of the body, the minds University, animal’s habits, and its impact on humans. It will start with a topic sentence drawing the attention of the how to admission Burr, audience to the element that will be discussed.
Then, some examples should be mentioned. Closing statements should end the MacEwan, discussion of how to write a newspaper article, one element and introduce the MacEwan, next one. The last paragraphs will feature the thesis, brief mentioning of the points made in each body paragraphs, and some statement about why it is useful to study animals. As one can easily see, this is a great expository essay since it describes facts without giving any evaluation of them, follows a predetermined structure, and it is designed to inform the a-g requirements list Kingswood, audience about a particular phenomenon. The second type of essay that will be discussed is a persuasive essay. MacEwan University? In order to be able to write one, it is essential to develop a proper understanding of what a persuasive essay is.
Just like in the previous example, the name contains some hints about the content.It is safe to assume that this type of essay is written to persuade the audience to list Kingswood, adopt the point of view of the author and/or perform a certain action. As you can easily see, this type is dramatically different from the one which was analyzed before as it encourages the writer to MacEwan, express one’s personal opinion about the topic. School? In addition to that, it is also worth pointing out that a good persuasive essay can be quite emotional. In spite of the fact that appealing to University, emotions may not always be the best strategy to convince the the essay Business School, audience, it may still work on various occasions. Speaking of the role of the audience, one should note that each persuasive essay is written to fit a particular situation and audience. So, in addition to minds University, writing a plan, one should also analyze the people that will read the essay. Given all of this, it becomes obvious that writing a persuasive essay can be slightly more difficult if compared to the expository essay, but it is not impossible. Let us review how to write a persuasive essay in no time. The first step is analyzing the audience.
In spite of the fact that an essay can address a number of topics and be aimed at reaching different kinds of people, it is better to write a text that would be appealing to a well-educated, general audience. The structure of the essay will use similar elements as the expository essay, but they will be modified slightly. For example, the thesis will take the form of an essay Bishop, a clear evaluative statement that will set the tone for the entire paper. Speaking of body paragraphs, one should note that topic sentences will also be more direct. In other words, the minds, author should not try to maintain neutrality when discussing the topic. It is an essay about Bishop Guertin High School, worth mentioning that it is critical University, still not advised that the text features too much emotion.
In other words, while making a statement, the the essay Business, author should know that others may not share it. What is also important is that the reasoning that this type of critical MacEwan University, essays features will be slightly different from what was discussed before. Other than describing the a-g requirements School, phenomenon, the author will connect different aspects of it to the thesis statement. This will make it seem that the very nature of the critical minds MacEwan, phenomenon supports the essay International, point of view of the author. Click on MacEwan University, the picture in how to write Cologne Business School order to see the basic structure of MacEwan, a persuasive essay. Here is an example of a good persuasive essay. Suppose, an author writes about analysis essay International School-Salzburg dogs and cats, trying to persuade the audience that cats are better than dogs.
The introduction will feature some background on the topic, following a thesis statement that clearly states that cats are better than dogs because they do less damage to MacEwan University, the property, require fewer resources, and fun to play with. As you can see, the Kingswood School, author states one’s position regarding cats directly. So, each body paragraph will be used to support this position. MacEwan? If one considers a possible topic sentence, it may take the following forms: “Cats are better than dogs because they can do less damage to property”. It is obvious that this is a somewhat debatable statement, but the author explicitly supports one point of view.
Note the fact that this is not done in a way that is disrespectful to how to write essay and Burton Academy, the opposite MacEwan, side. So, argument by argument body paragraphs will support the admission essay Burr Academy, thesis statement. In the end, the concluding paragraphs will feature the critical minds MacEwan, following: “Based on the considerations mentioned above, it is clear that cats are better than dogs”. The implication for the future, in this case, will focus on a literary analysis essay American, persuasion itself, namely that those people who disagree with the author should change their point of view because the arguments that were mentioned above are quite convincing. The next type of essay that should be carefully examined is the analytical essay. It may be particularly beneficial to take a very close look at the name of this type since it tells a lot about the content. If one wants to critical, understand what an analytical essay is, one should understand the how to, idea of analysis first. The latter is an approach that focuses on identifying different aspects of examining a phenomenon and dismantling them. Therefore, “to analyze” practically means “to take apart”.One should not think about it as a physical action since the analysis of any abstract concept does not allow for this to take place. The fundamental element of any analytical essay is carefully examining the minds MacEwan, premises of a particular argument, and focusing on the smallest details of ks3 Roedean, it. In other words, the author expects the critical University, audience to have a general knowledge of the subject.
That is why this type of essay does not present any commonly known facts about the an essay about Bishop High, phenomenon. Quite the opposite: a good analytical essay seeks to uncover something new about a phenomenon that the critical minds University, audience is familiar with. As a result, the extent to which an author is able to make insightful, as well as unexpected remarks about the phenomenon, is the true criterion of whether an write an essay about Bishop Guertin High School essay of this type is good or not. Now, let’s go through the guidelines that show how to write an critical analytical essay. To begin with, the author has to be familiar with the topic that is being discussed. It is a prerequisite that the author has a deep understanding, preferably from different perspectives. This is important because it will allow one to uncover aspects that may have been overlooked by a-g requirements list Kingswood School, the public. Click on the image to see the different layers of meaning. The next important element of an analytical essay is methodology. Some authors may be willing to critical MacEwan University, make wild guesses about the true meaning of a phenomenon; however, it is generally expected that the author will be able to come to write the essay Business School, a conclusion in a logical manner.
It is essential for an essay to feature analysis that is transparent. The audience should be able to trace the logic of the author. Furthermore, it is also important that an analytical essay has a thesis that the author will defend. Since there are numerous ways in which a phenomenon can be interpreted, the essay should choose one and minds prove that it is worth the attention of the audience. However, this claim that the Kingswood, author will defend may never be biased. It may reflect the MacEwan, position of a person, but it should be grounded in logic, not in prejudice. The important thing to list, stress here is that the author should approach the topic passionately, but adhere to some objective guidelines.
One can easily understand this type of essay if one examines the following example. Minds University? Suppose a person has to write an analytical essay regarding the writing effective essays Mercersburg Academy, poem titles “Do not go gentle into critical minds MacEwan University, that good night” by Dylan Thomas. First of all, the author should read the poem several times and highlight the a newspaper ks3 Roedean School, words or phrases that he or she believes are important. The second step is to formulate a thesis that the paper will defend. Minds MacEwan? In this case, it may be “The author of the poem uses many synonyms to describe death in order to show its variations”. As soon as one comes up with the thesis, one can start writing the an essay Guertin School, essay. The basic structure will be the same: introduction, body, and conclusion.
However, the body paragraphs will be devoted to defending the thesis. The author generally expects that the minds, audience is familiar with the poem or will read it before reading the essay. T However, it is essays Academy, essential to University, quote different parts of the poem in order to provide evidence for the thesis. Thus, the how to write Burr, author should show that there are images of night, dying light, and darkness used to refer to the idea of death. All this should lead to critical minds MacEwan, a logical conclusion that the author of the admission essay Burr and Burton Academy, poem wanted to explore different manifestations of death in life of critical, a person which is a rather insightful claim about the original text. There is one particular type of essay that is quite common for educational facilities – the argumentative essay. It is considered to how to write Burr and Burton Academy, be more complex than others, yet if a student has enough practice, they will be able to master it.
The name of the essay is somewhat misleading. Critical Minds MacEwan University? Contrary to the name, the author is not expected to provide arguments about the topic, but is essays Academy, expected to MacEwan, engage different arguments, often opposing ones, regarding a topic or an essays Academy issue. So, the simplest answer to “What is an argumentative essay?” may be the following: it is a collection of views on a topic or an issue that present it from critical different sides. A “pros and cons” essay may be seen as a great example of an argumentative essay because it involves presenting different points of view. However, one should keep in mind that not every topic has advantages and a-g requirements disadvantages. Sometimes it may be difficult to identify polar views on critical minds MacEwan, an issue. How To Write The Essay School? That is why it is generally advised that the authors refrain from looking for opposite opinions since sometimes there may be none, only some that diffet to a certain extent. Another point to be mentioned is that an argumentative essay will feature the reasoning of other authors.
Therefore, it is crucial to credit the original authors. It may be useful to follow these guidelines if one wants to know how to write an analytical essay. To begin with, one should write a preliminary plan featuring at least two points of view on critical minds MacEwan University, the issue. If there is a strict word limit and list one is not able to write a lot, it may be useful to keep the argumentation to a minimum. In any case, it is essential to have at least two competing points of view on minds University, the topic. Once again, they do not have to how to Burr and Burton, be opposing, just different. The next step is to group different arguments. It is minds University, obvious that the proponents of writing effective essays Academy, one point of view support it using different evidence. The goal of the author is to collect that evidence and present as clear as possible.
Given the fact that a certain point of view may be shared by different scholars, it may be useful to engage the works of critical University, several people in order to gain a proper perspective on the issue. Writing A Literary Analysis American? The same should be done regarding the minds University, second point of view. While the how to write article ks3 Roedean, author can use numerous perspectives, it is often advised that a good argumentative essay should feature at least two. Minds University? Finally, the last body paragraph should feature the summary of the two points and their brief comparison. Click on the image in order go see the write an essay High School, structure of the essay. Let us consider the critical University, following example of an argumentative essay.
The topic is Kingswood School, going to gym to lose weight. This is a quite controversial topic so it will be easy to find opposing points of view on it. The introduction may point out that obesity has become a significant problem and people use different tools to deal with it. Going to the gym is one of the ways that are available to a person. The thesis of such an critical essay will take the following form: “Going to the gym is generally seen as an effective way to fight excessive weight, but there are some limits to its effectiveness”. The first body paragraph will be devoted to effective essays, the point of view that states going to gym a viable way to lose weight.
It will focus on how exercise burns calories, improves health, and allows a person to be active. The second body paragraph will represent the opposing point of view. It may point out that there may be medical conditions that will prevent a person from losing weight no matter how much one tries, or that one will not be able to lose any weight because of exercise. The body paragraphs will show that the two point of view outlines the limitations of the effectiveness of going to the gym, but it still may be useful for those who want to lose weight and MacEwan University do not have any particular pre-existing conditions. A descriptive essay is a type of essay that is often confused with the expository essay. While these two types do have some similarities, one should keep in mind that they are quite different and must not be confused. The major element to be mentioned in this regard is the goal of how to the essay Cologne Business, each essay.
As it has already been mentioned before, expository essays serve to present the existing state of affairs of a phenomenon without giving any particular evaluation of it. While a descriptive essay also presents the existing state to a certain extent, it is minds University, much more detailed. So, the best answer to “What is how to write admission Burr Academy, a descriptive essay?” is “It is a type of essay that aims to present a phenomenon in minds great detail”. Indeed, some find it rather difficult to about Bishop Guertin High, write a descriptive essay because it requires a lot of specific vocabulary. It is true that one may use general words to describe any phenomenon however, in order to write a good descriptive essay, one may be interested in critical minds including some proper terms. That is why it may be useful to make some preparations before writing an essay.
Another point that should be mentioned is that the description should be made in a logical way. Effective Essays? In other words, the critical minds MacEwan University, author must not jump from one element to writing effective Academy, another. There should be a master plan that one will follow. Now, let’s focus on minds, the how to write a descriptive essay. Cologne Business School? As you may have probably guessed by far, the actual structure of the essay will be similar to the types which were discussed above. There will be an introduction, three or more body paragraphs, and critical University a conclusion. One should point out that since this type of essay is primarily aimed at describing the phenomenon, it may be rather difficult to defend a particular thesis since the text will focus on how to Business, the objective quality of the topic. As a result, the thesis, in this case, will not be something that should be defended, but it will be a statement that outlines the elements that will be discussed further in critical the paper. Clearly, the major focus of the paper will be on Kingswood, developing proper body paragraphs.
It may be useful to devote a single paragraph to a single characteristic. There are two points to critical minds MacEwan University, be mentioned here: if the word limit of the the essay Cologne Business School, essay permits, the author may try to describe the phenomenon in great detail, but on the other hand, if word limit is not that big, then it may be useful to focus on minds University, three characteristic features of the phenomenon. It is also important to write admission Burr, mention them in the topic sentence as this will help the audience browse through the text. Now, let us consider a possible example of a descriptive essay. One should point out critical MacEwan University, that this type of essay may focus on any phenomenon or object ranging from a material object to the most abstract of ideas. It is quite understandable that material objects are the easiest to describe. Suppose a person needs to write a descriptive essay regarding the Last Supper by writing a literary essay International School-Salzburg, Da Vinci. The introduction should feature some information about the author, the work, and the historical context. The thesis, in this case, may outline the major elements that will constitute the discussion in the paper. For example, the use of perspective, the presentation of the Biblical characters, and the use of colors. It is obvious that one may spend the entire paper describing every single element, so it may be useful to group them so that they may be presented easier.
For example, when the perspective is described, it will mention the position of each character, providing insight about the spatial dimension of the critical minds MacEwan University, painting. The same can be said about the use of color. When discussing what color the clothes of each character is, the author provides a broad overview of the painting. The concluding paragraph may feature a summary of the body paragraphs and use general terms to show what each of a literary analysis essay American, them described. Critical Minds MacEwan University? For example, it may refer to the elements of art and writing essays show how they were manifested in the painting. There is one particular kind of essay that is not widely used in many subjects, but is particularly useful for some. It is called a definition essay. The answer to “What is a definition essay” lies in the very name of the term. There are several points that should be stressed in order to gain a proper understanding of it. A definition essay has a clear and straightforward goal. Critical? It is written to develop or reflect on a definition of a certain phenomenon.
The major point here is that the an essay about Bishop, content of the definition is explored, not the phenomenon itself. One should not confuse this type of essay with those that have descriptive nature. For example, exposition essays do not feature insightful analysis of the definition.To a certain extent, definition and descriptive essays are similar as they pay a considerable amount of University, attention to one particular aspect of a phenomenon, even though their application is dramatically different. The former focuses on the abstract nature, that is the writing essays Mercersburg Academy, definition of the phenomenon, while the latter deals with characteristics. It is worth mentioning that definition essays are common for critical MacEwan University sciences that put a significant emphasis on abstract matters as the slightest difference in word choice can change the perception of the phenomenon. If one wants to learn how to write a definition essay, one may follow the guidelines that will be discussed in this section. First of all, it is essential to find a good definition. An Essay High School? One of the best sources include dictionaries as well as peer-reviewed articles. One should note that sometimes the author may be interested in developing their own definition of the phenomenon. In this case, the working definition will become the thesis of the paper.
One would make no mistake arguing that every definition has certain keywords that it relies on. It would be logical to critical MacEwan University, assume that these keywords will become the points which will be discussed in the body paragraphs. Clearly, a definition may have more than or less than three keywords that it will rely on. It is generally advisable that the number of characteristics that will be discussed is a-g requirements list School, limited to critical MacEwan, this number. Furthermore, it is advised that each body paragraph feature several examples that would support the writing essays Academy, major claim.
In this case, the audience will see that the minds MacEwan University, author does not adjust the fact to the theory, but vice versa. The concluding paragraph will feature the full definition that was developed by the author or a reflection on how to ks3 Roedean, the existing definition. Let us consider the following example in critical minds University order to gain a proper understanding of the issue. Suppose a person was given the task to write on writing a literary essay, the definition of free trade. It is quite obvious that one can open a dictionary and look up the definition of it however, a good definition essay would try to come up with a unique definition based on critical MacEwan, the characteristic features of the phenomenon. So, the introduction should feature some considerations about the role that free trade plays in how to essay Burr Academy the contemporary world and how important it is to develop a proper understanding of it. The thesis should feature the working definition of free trade which was developed by critical MacEwan, the author beforehand.
There will be three major aspects that will be highlighted in the thesis and analysis essay American International School-Salzburg each of them will become the major element of each body paragraph. The structure of the body paragraphs is simple. In the very beginning, the characteristic that will be discussed should be mentioned. Then, the example that supports this feature should be provided. Then, the author should conclude that this feature is important for the understanding of the phenomenon of minds MacEwan University, free trade.
The concluding paragraph should feature the full definition that was adjusted after each of the keywords was properly examined. List School? As a result, this essay will present a well-developed definition of the concept based on the examples which were featured in the paragraphs above. When it comes to the types of essays that are quite misleading, one should note narrative essays. Some might suggest that this may be one of the easiest types of essays because it simply presents a narrative in the form of an essay. However, the people who support this point of view have never asked themselves “What is a narrative essay?” It is true that some believe that the major hint is found in critical minds MacEwan University the very name. One should be really careful when it comes to oversimplification since one risks overlooking important aspects. It is true that the writing a literary essay American, major focus of this type of essay is the narrative. However, if some guidelines are not adhered to then the essay will turn out to critical minds, be a story. Analysis Essay American International School-Salzburg? This is MacEwan University, exactly what a writer should to avoid. There is great temptation to writing effective Academy, focus on the narrative entirely, but this will have a negative impact on the fundamental elements of the essay.
This type may be compared to a hybrid of a narrative story and an expository essay. On the one hand, it tells a certain story that the audience will focus on, while on critical minds MacEwan, the other hand, it is structured in a peculiar way that sets it apart from other writing. Therefore, the author should not be deceived by the simplicity of this type as it is quite easy to make a mistake. Now, it may be useful to learn how to write a narrative essay. To begin with, one should keep in mind that one is School, not writing a story, one is writing an essay.
That is why the fundamental elements must be present. This means that the critical minds MacEwan University, actual narration should not start until the how to write essay Burr and Burton, first body paragraph. When writing the introductory paragraph, it may be important to provide a certain background to MacEwan University, the story so that the reader knows what the essay will be about. List Kingswood? What is even more important is that the thesis should be engaging enough, but not too revealing. Otherwise, it will not be interesting for the audience to read the essay. Critical Minds MacEwan? Speaking of the body paragraphs, one should note that they should reflect the major development stages of the story. Some might suggest that the five paragraph structure might resemble the classic model of plot development.
This means that the introduction will correspond to Burr and Burton Academy, the exposition, the first body paragraph – rising action, the second body paragraph – climax, the third body paragraph – falling action, and critical minds MacEwan the conclusion – resolution. Nevertheless, it may be useful to devote the first two body paragraphs to rising action and present the climax and the exposition. As a result, this will make the an essay about Guertin High School, narration even more interesting and minds MacEwan University the attention of the audience will be maintained longer. It may be useful to apply this theory to essay Burr and Burton Academy, a concrete example. Suppose a person was given a task to write a narrative essay about one’s field trip. First of all, it may be important to write down the plan of the field trip and critical minds outline the write essay, important events that happened during it. This will allow the author to know what should be given extra attention and what can be overlooked. The thesis, in this case, may take the following form: This essay will present my reflection on the field trip. The first two body paragraphs may be devoted to the description of the main events that took place . It is minds, true that it may not be useful to pay too much attention to some trivial details regarding traveling or the place of effective, action.
The author is expected to find the right balance between moving the action forward and describing what happened. Speaking of the climax, there may not have been any climax in the field trip, so the author should identify one particular aspect that should be mentioned as the critical MacEwan University, most important one. This aspect will be presented in the third body paragraph. Speaking of the conclusion, one might suggest that it is useful to provide the summary of the trip and make the audience develop a broad picture of what happened. Some types of essays are designed to serve a particular purpose that is often well defined. Thus, when a person reads an argumentative essay, one may have the goal of developing a proper understanding of a phenomenon.. Contrary to writing International, that, a process essay always has a clear application. So, let’s see what is a process essay. The peculiarity of this type of essay can be easily guessed from the name.
This is a piece of writing that describes a process. Nevertheless, one should not confuse it with the descriptive essay. In spite of the fact that the two have many similarities and critical MacEwan University primarily aim to provide a thorough description, the ultimate goals are quite different. A descriptive essay primarily focuses on the actual description, trying to create a comprehensive image of a phenomenon or an the essay Cologne Business School issue in minds MacEwan University one’s head while a process essay tries to about Guertin High, convey some knowledge about a certain activity. Therefore, the goal of this type of essay is to help a person perform an action that one may not have a sufficient amount of knowledge of. It goes without saying that the author has to have extensive expertise in critical minds MacEwan University what is being written about. It is a-g requirements Kingswood School, unacceptable to copy and paste the existing instructions or paraphrase what other people have already said about the critical minds MacEwan University, issue.
Therefore, it is essential to point out that the author is often expected to share their own experience or at a-g requirements Kingswood School, least comment on some common mistakes that should be avoided. If one wants to know how to write a process essay, one should follow these steps. First of minds MacEwan, all, it may be useful to effective essays, write down all of the steps of a particular operation or action. Then, the critical minds MacEwan University, author should group the steps so that they form certain categories, like “preparation”, “execution” and so on. These categories will form the body paragraphs of the future essay. It is extremely important to take into account all the possible situations that may occur while performing the action in question. However, since one’s word count may be limited, it may also be reasonable to limit one’s analysis to a certain scenario. For example, performing a certain action under normal conditions.
After all the steps are outlined and grouped, the author may start writing. Once again, the write a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, standard structure will be relevant. The introduction provides the background of the issue and spells out the University, requirements, the body paragraphs represent the actions that should be taken, and the conclusion provides some remarks and advice. Ideally, any person will be able to perform a certain action after reading the essay, so it is expected that the writing essays Academy, language will be precise, and not particularly sophisticated so that it can be easily followed. The best way to learn how to write such an essay is to take a close look at the examples. Critical University? Suppose a person was given the a literary essay American International School-Salzburg, task to write a process essay that depicts the process of frying eggs. While many may believe that this is a rather simple task, it is advised that the author writes a plan prior to writing.
This plan should list all the actions required and the groups that they correspond to. Let’s agree that there are three major groups: preparing the ingredients, the actual action of frying the egg, and MacEwan University serving. The introduction paragraph will feature some general information about frying eggs, calling it one of the how to write Cologne Business, easiest dishes that one could prepare. The thesis statement, in critical MacEwan this case, will be quite simple: This paper will describe the process of frying eggs. Then the first body paragraph will describe what is needed to fry eggs: a frying pan, several eggs, oil, salt, pepper, and so on. It is essential to mention all the the essay Business, ingredients that will be mentioned in the further paragraphs so that the audience is critical minds University, well-prepared to follow the instructions. The second body paragraph will be the most important because it will describe the writing effective essays Academy, process of frying eggs. The author should be able to find the right balance between precise and sophisticated words. When writing a process essay, it may be useful to break some difficult actions into several simple ones and explain them thoroughly. The third body paragraph may feature some comments about minds MacEwan serving.
Finally, the concluding paragraph will provide a quick summary of the writing a literary analysis School-Salzburg, actions. A critical essay is one of those types of essay that are quite misleading. On the one hand, some might suggest that the MacEwan University, purpose of this essay is to criticize something, but this is not always,the case. On the other hand, some may confuse this type of write, essay with analytical essays. Given all the critical minds University, peculiarities of meaning that were mentioned above, it may be useful to determine what is a critical essay. The key point here is reflected in a-g requirements list the name and it is “criticism”. However, the latter has a different meaning in the academic world that it had in ordinary life. It is critical MacEwan University, not something that is related to expressing negativity, it is more related to evaluating the phenomenon. This particular aspect makes this type of essay quite unique since it is one of the rare types that requires an evaluation of the topic. Sometimes the latter may be subjective and will reflect the views of the writing a literary essay International, author completely.
It may also be based on the view of other scholars, thus presenting a discussion of the topic. The main idea is that a critical essay will focus on the strong and weak sides of a particular topic. Those who are wondering how to write a critical essay may be interested in the following guidelines. Critical Minds MacEwan? First of write essay Burr and Burton, all, it is essential to determine the critical University, position that the author will defend. In order to do so, one should carefully examine the topic and highlight important aspects of it. This way, the author will be able to see the strong and weak sides of the write High, topic and critical University describe them in the essay. It is generally expected that they should be grouped evenly. Obviously, it may happen so that a particular topic will have more traits that can be placed in one particular category. However, it is essential to writing effective essays, achieve objectivity by addressing the issue from different points of view or trying to balance the positive with the negative aspects. Another point that should be mentioned with this regard is the one of the body paragraphs. They should be devoted to examining how the different aspects that were identified above interact with each other.
It rarely happens that a topic has only positive or only negative traits. Therefore, it is critical MacEwan University, expected that the judgment will be supported by examples. The latter is particularly important since it shows that the evaluation is grounded in how to the essay Cologne Business some evidence and the audience will be easily convinced by it. Critical MacEwan? As a result, the author should gather substantial basis that will be later used to prove the point. Consider the following example of a critical essay.
Suppose a person was asked to how to the essay Business, write this type of essay about MacEwan University one of Shakespeare’s sonnets. The introduction, in this case, will feature some information about the poet, though he is writing effective Mercersburg Academy, widely known, the actual text, and feature the following thesis statement: The sonnet that Shakespeare wrote has both positive and negative aspects to it. Critical University? The first body paragraph may be devoted to the examination of the merits of the poem. For example, vivid images, excellent rhymes, and so on. The author should focus on the advantages of the text by providing the examples from it, thus convincing the how to write ks3 Roedean School, audience that there are some merits.
On the other hand, the second body paragraph may deal with the weak sides of the sonnet. For example, some of the minds MacEwan University, images that were clear to Shakespeare are no longer understood by modern people. Another point that should be mentioned is the language: the original is written in old English and it must have been rendered to fit the modern rules of grammar. Therefore, it is obvious that some of the poetry’s charm may have been lost. Writing Effective Essays Mercersburg? The third body paragraph will be devoted to the interplay between the minds, advantages and the disadvantages of the poem, saying that while there are some shortcomings, it is still quite moving. The conclusion will provide a summary of the two points of the essay Cologne School, view on the poem. The last type of minds MacEwan University, essay that will be discussed in how to essay and Burton this paper is the compare and contrast essay.
It is minds MacEwan University, quite obvious that one will be able to identify a lot of other types. However, those which were featured here may be considered the most important ones as they represent different directions of development. Furthermore, one should also note that it is possible to combine several types. Write Ks3 Roedean? Nevertheless, this is rarely required. A good essay often sticks to a single paradigm. The goal of a compare and contrast essay is revealed by its name. This also leads to an important requirement: there must be at least two items since otherwise, it will be impossible to perform the actions required. One should also keep in mind that compare and contrast essays may be deceivingly easy.
That is why people often make mistakes while writing them. For example, they may choose two topics that are incomparable. Some believe that this shows the mastery of the author since one is able to MacEwan University, find a relationship between two seemingly different topics. Writing Analysis School-Salzburg? However, it is generally advised that those phenomena that will be compared have a least something in common. That is why the author should have a clear goal in their mind before starting this type of essay.
The audience should be able to develop a proper understanding of the topic. It may now be beneficial to examine the way how to write a compare and contrast essay. Minds MacEwan University? To begin with, it is essential to mention one important thing. It is crucial to group the writing a literary analysis essay, characteristics of different topics together. This means that the first body paragraph should feature one characteristic that represents each topic and so on. There is another way to write a compare and contrast essay: the first several body paragraphs will focus on the similarities between the two topics, while the following body paragraphs will deal with the differences. However, once again, the minds MacEwan University, differences should be grouped together. What is essay American International School-Salzburg, even more important is that a person should have a clear plan about what one would like to write about. This means that an elegant essay structure will only be achieved if all the characteristics that are being compared and contrasted were selected specifically. MacEwan? It goes without saying that if there are several characteristics that can be identified in writing a literary analysis essay American School-Salzburg two topics. Furthermore, one should not forget that it is critical MacEwan, not only material objects that can be compared, but abstract ideas as well.
The major point to keep in list mind is minds University, that the process of write ks3 Roedean, comparison should be thought through beforehand. It is University, essential to have a plan to write this type of essay. Let’s explain a compare and contrast essay using the following example. Suppose, one has to write a paper about cats and dogs. Here is the best way to structure it: outline three similarities that cats and dogs have. Then, think about three differences that they have and how each difference is about Guertin High, manifested.
The introductory paragraph may focus on some general remarks about pets as well as that people often fall under one of two categories. As a result, the thesis statement may be taken the following form: It may be useful to compare and critical minds University contrast cats and dogs as pets. The first three body paragraphs will be devoted to three characteristics that cats and dogs have in how to write the essay common. For example, they both are pets, they can provide emotional support for their owner, and a person is equally responsible for them. The next three body paragraphs will explore the differences that they have. For example, dogs need to critical minds University, go for writing Mercersburg a walk every day while cats can live at home and never leave. Another body paragraph may be devoted to the differences in cost of keeping each animal. It is essential that the critical University, differences should be examined in pairs. Otherwise, there will be two separate essays in one.
The concluding paragraph will summarize the how to write the essay Cologne Business, comparison of the two animals, pointing out that there are similarities and differences that the owners have to keep in mind. If you are reading this, then you must be interested in writing an academic essay. It is worth pointing out that the latter is different from a conventional essay in many ways. One of the most fundamental ones is that there are several formats that a person should follow while writing academically. MLA is one of several that are widely used in the academic world. Sometimes, there are requirements in the field regarding what format should be used. For example, MLA is MacEwan, primarily used in social sciences. On the other hand, educational facilities may have their own preferences. In order to understand how to write an essay in MLA format, one should develop a proper understanding of what a format is. Article School? Simply put it is a set of rules that guide the way in critical minds which the essay will be presented, namely its layout.
While it is true that one can write an essay on virtually any surface, not even paper, one is not likely to follow a specific format. MLA, which stands for Modern Language Association, developed a set of rules that the authors are expected to how to write essay Burr Academy, follow. One of the minds MacEwan, most important elements of MLA format is the way it handles references. How To Write Article School? On the one hand, it follows the general pattern when the author, the name of the publication, the container, the publication, the date, and the pages are mentioned. Minds? However, there are some very specific rules about it. They will be explained in the section that is devoted to the template. The next important element to be mentioned is MLA format essay heading. It goes without saying that paper written by the authors may have a different length. So, it is possible to write a one-page essay in MLA and a hundred-page essay using the list Kingswood, same format. However, it is generally expected that if the length of the essay is more than several printed pages which equal to appropriately 825 words, the essay should have headings.
The latter are used to divide the content of the critical, text and essays Mercersburg Academy make sure that the critical minds MacEwan University, audience is able to navigate through it easily. One should also keep in mind that there may be headings and subheadings. Given the fact that one can come up with a great number of subheadings, there is literally no limit to them. However, it is generally expected that there will be no more that five levels of headings. The general rule is simple: headings and subheadings must be dramatically different from each other. For example level 1 heading may be centered and bold. Level 2 heading may be flushed-level and italics. Level 3 heading may be underlined and all caps. The main point here is to write Cologne, make sure that the audience is able to distinguish one from another.
The next important point that should be addressed deals with an outline. As you may have read before, writing a plan before writing an actual paper is particularly useful. Nevertheless, when a person has to submit the plan, it should take the form of an critical minds MacEwan outline. The latter is a succinct expression of Kingswood, ideas that are mentioned in the essay that follow a specific pattern. Some find it easier to write an outline and then write a paper, while others believe that the best way is vice versa. MacEwan University? The important point is that the structure of the outline should reflect the structure of the essay. So, MLA format essay outlines should take the following form.
The points in the outline will have a corresponding level that is list Kingswood School, expressed by roman numerals, then capitalized letters, then Arabic numerals, and then lowercase letters. Minds MacEwan? It is possible to include the fifth level that may be expressed by numerals inside the parenthesis. However, it is generally agreed that four levels is more than enough. Click on the image to see a sample. It is also worth pointing out that the author is expected to write the thesis statement before the outline. So, though it will be found only at the end of the first paragraph, it should be featured before the introduction in the outline. If you need to find MLA essay template, the best place to look for effective essays Mercersburg is the website of Purdue university. It is MacEwan, true that one may be willing to access the website of Modern Language Association.
However, it is worth mentioning that Purdue university always has up-to-date information about various essay formats. Write Article Ks3 Roedean School? Moreover, they have the information structured and they also have numerous examples. University? It is generally advised that the author refrains from using samples that they find on other websites, especially those which are not affiliated with any educational facility since it can happen that they will not be correct. Another important point to be mentioned about the template of this format is that title page is rarely needed, althougha professor may ask the how to write article, students to write it. The author is critical minds MacEwan University, expected to put their last and a-g requirements School first name, then the professor’s name, class, and date. All this should be flushed left. The title should be on minds MacEwan, the next line and should be centered.
One should also keep in write School mind that it is critical University, generally expected that each page will have the name of the writing effective Mercersburg Academy, person who wrote the paper in the top right corner and the indication of the page.
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Analyzing Satire and Parody in Blazing Saddles Essay. No one is born a racist bigot. In other words, racial bigotry or racial prejudice is not genetically or. biologically determined. Therefore, if most people spoke out about racism, it would be the first step. towards a revolutionary change. -Dr. Charles Quist-Adade. Mel Brooks’ Blazing Saddles, sheds light to the cultural problems of the Western era through satire with elements of parody within. John Vogel describes Blazing Saddles as “The Ultimate Western Spoof.” The problem of critical MacEwan University, racism is the how to a newspaper article ks3 Roedean, main focus of critical minds, this film. If one takes a closer look at write an essay about High School, the work of Mel Brooks, there is a noticeable trend of his films pointing fingers at racists.
In order to better understand why he takes this approach, a bit of background on critical minds MacEwan University, his life is necessary. Mel Brooks’ birth name was Melvin Kaminsky. He was born in 1926 in Brooklyn, NY. Brooks was the son of Eastern European Jewish immigrants (Funk). Write High! Just that small bit of information begins to unravel a larger story. Many people are familiar with the Holocaust and the hardships that persons of Jewish descent faced. David Thompson describes Brooks in his book A Biographical Dictionary of Film, “Brooks is the critical minds MacEwan, product of live-audience TV, hired to write gags for Sid Caesar’s Your Show of Shows in 1950.
For over a decade, he was a script doctor for the TV, radio, and stage musicals. Write Admission Essay Burr And Burton Academy! … His first two features are his most personal and dangerous works.” (93) Even from a brief summary such as Essay The Satire of Blazing Saddles. the University, railroad is present throughout Blazing Saddles. The sheriff starts the movie as a railroad worker, before becoming the sheriff of Rock Ridge. In addition, the villain is the head of the railroad, which motivates him to destroy the small town. He needs the land to lay more tracks, which is typical of a power hungry villain. The elements of westerns are represented in a zany way during the movie. The villains are also poked fun at during Blazing Saddles. His name is Hedey Lamar, but everyone In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, satire can be found in the actions of one character named Piggy.
Piggy is the boy that is the nerd or intellectual of the group. Piggy represents the intellectuals that created that atomic bomb in WWII. Golding was strongly opposed to the atomic bomb hence the satire in his novel. The first example of satire is found in chapter two .The boys are trying to start a fire and they are all gathering wood except for Piggy. Instead of a newspaper ks3 Roedean School, helping Piggy, “. For this reason, satire offends very few people, but still inspires that important change. Whatever form satire takes is how this will be accomplished. If it is critical University Juvenalian, it is Guertin School done with indignation and harshness. This tone is somewhat dark and makes inspires change though a form of resentment. This is usually more successful than the other because anger causes action. The other form is Horatian, and critical University is the writing American International, amused and witty form of satire.
It is presented as mockery, but never to insult or Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead, A Satirical Piece That Parodies Hamle. The purpose of satire is to point out human flaws in University a humorous way in order to instruct and possibly change humanity. A parody is a literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic styles of an author or a work for comic affect or ridicule. Write Bishop! Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead is a satirical piece of work that parodies Hamlet, especially in terms of death, a common theme in critical minds MacEwan University both. These two plays take different views on how to write the essay Business School, death portrayed by minds, the protagonists of each: either Hamlet or Rosencrantz A Brief History of Parody Advertisements Essay. society parody advertisement is commonly used to draw attention to common issues in society that are normally overlooked. The first type of parody advertisements were caricatures. In history caricatures were used to prove a point in politics. Today most parody advertisements express views on alcohol, drugs, and other common issues that people struggle with to “fit-in” with society. A few examples of parody advertisements are Absolute on Ice, Barcode Escape, and Feed Me Spoof. How To The Essay Cologne School! These parody advertisements South Park as Parody of Society Essay. promotion of University, sexual promiscuity is a dangerous thing: never have the writers mentioned the School, use of condoms by Chef during his encounters.
Finally, because of the recent advances in genetic research and its awakening of new fears in the public, South Park's parody of the geneticist could further play on people's fears. Despite the potentially negative influences of these behaviors and critical MacEwan actions, there could be a positive influence existing in the form of catharsis. American society has suffered from the rules is destroyed and will 'not be there to see' the consumers who 'die of cancer' due to the foe's malpractices. It is straightforwardly identifiable to the reader the weapons that the victorious side has used to how to write admission essay and Burton Academy, massacre the foe. Using a direct satire (A first-person speaker addresses the reader whose conversation helps further the speaker's purpose) in the poem, the victorious side has massacred the foe using the weapons of structural irony (e.g. the farmers judgment/conscience is critical minds University impaired Understanding Satire Worksheet Essays. 1. Locate an example of satire. Copy and paste it here, making sure to note the source where you found it in writing effective essays Mercersburg Academy a proper citation. (Possible sources include television shows, humor magazines, the op/ed section of the newspaper, movies, comic strips, songs, and critical minds MacEwan University internet memes.) 1. Example of satire: “How is it that an ugly ogre could fall in write an essay Bishop Guertin love with the princess? Or how is it that the princess can fall in love with an ogre?
2. Critical Minds MacEwan University! Picture Window Template. Powered by Blogger. Published Tuesday, November Contrastingly, such morally unconventional solutions would not exist in a calmer, straight forward Horatian satire. Swift’s development of the absurd proposal for effective eating young children so that “the poorer tenants will have something valuable” or that there “would be constant customers for infants flesh” is enhanced by numerous examples of biting irony. Such irony exists even in the title: “A Modest Proposal.” Upon reading the text, the audience can agree that Swift’s proposal is far from Dissecting the Ideology of Satire Essay. point he brings up is the ideology of satire. Satire, by critical minds MacEwan, definition, is a technique utilized by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and how to corruption of an individual or a society.
This can be done by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule (Satire - Definition and MacEwan University Examples, para.1). Often times, the humor used opens the writing a literary International School-Salzburg, audiences’ minds to the underlying problem that the writer is trying to critical minds MacEwan University, reveal. By examining the purpose and methods of Bishop Guertin School, satire, dissecting literary works, and displaying
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Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important?
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