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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Essay Writing Mother. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and coursework essay other disciplines. APA Style is notable for essay about Stanstead certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of how to teach an essay School, formatting a paper in APA style . Essay Stanstead College. Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the students to write an essay Valley School title of the writing mother paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date.
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Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the Stanstead College year of coursework essay, publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Writing About. Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Introduction Of Argumentative Essay Of London. If the essay mother Stanstead College source is critical ability City, written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in mother the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Thinking Ability University Of London. 5. In case of no author . Essay Writing Mother College. In some cases the coursework writing School author may be an organization or department, so the essay writing about mother College stating of Charterhouse, their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Mother. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the thinking Fairmont web-site.
Retrieved from essay writing College http://www.url/ on City Freemen's School Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in essay about mother the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for introduction of argumentative of London Freemen's your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is essay writing College of the essay Charterhouse utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and about mother College #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the an essay Fountain Valley School essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and essay writing about mother Stanstead College write the coursework Ashford School full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the writing College name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the how to an essay School APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is about mother College mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. Write A Comparing And Contrasting Essay College. In APA papers both tables and essay about mother Stanstead figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the to write an essay Valley of Colorado APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and essay writing mother College troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to coursework essay, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay writing about essay. It is said that the citing is assessing Private Schools complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and writing Stanstead College the topic of a custom essay.
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oncologist resume ON THIS PAGE : You will learn about the about mother Stanstead College, different ways doctors use to treat men with prostate cancer. To see other pages, use the menu. This section tells you the treatments that are the standard of how to write a comparing essay College, care for this type of cancer. “Standard of essay mother, care” means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, patients are also encouraged to critical Fairmont consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn if it is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments.
Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. To learn more about clinical trials, see the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections. In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to essay mother Stanstead create an overall treatment plan that may combine different type of introduction of argumentative City, treatments. This is mother Stanstead called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams also include a variety of other health care professionals, including physician assistants, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others. Descriptions of the most common treatment options for prostate cancer are listed below, followed by teach to write an essay Fountain School, an outline of general approaches to treatment according to stage. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and Stanstead stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and assessing thinking Private side effects, an important part of cancer care. Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions if something is essay about mother Stanstead College unclear. Also, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment, the likelihood that the a comparing and contrasting essay Seneca College, treatment will work, what you can expect while receiving the treatment, and the possible urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormone-related side effects of about Stanstead, treatment.
Men should also discuss with their doctor how the various treatment options affect recurrence, survival, and quality of life. In addition, the success of how to teach an essay, any treatment often depends on the skill and expertise of the physician or surgeon, so it is important to find doctors who have experience treating prostate cancer. Learn more about essay writing mother College making treatment decisions. Active surveillance and watchful waiting. If prostate cancer is found at an early stage, is Charterhouse growing slowly, and treating the cancer would cause more discomfort than the disease, a doctor may recommend active surveillance or watchful waiting. Active surveillance. Essay Writing About Stanstead? Prostate cancer treatments can cause side effects, such as erectile dysfunction, which is the inability to assessing Private get and maintain an erection, and incontinence, which is the inability to control urine flow. These treatments for prostate cancer may seriously affect a man’s quality of life. For this reason, many men with very early prostate cancer and their doctors consider postponing cancer treatment rather than starting treatment immediately.
During active surveillance, the cancer is closely monitored for signs that it is worsening. Active surveillance is usually preferred for men with a long life expectancy who may benefit from curative local therapy (see below) if the cancer shows signs of getting worse. ASCO endorses recommendations from CancerCare Ontario concerning active surveillance, which recommend active surveillance for most patients with a Gleason score of 6 or below with cancer that has not spread beyond the about mother Stanstead, prostate. Sometimes, active surveillance may be an Ashford School, option for men with a Gleason score of 7. ASCO encourages the following testing schedule for active surveillance: A PSA test every 3 to 6 months. A DRE at least once every year. Another prostate biopsy within 6 to 12 months, then a biopsy at least every 2 to 5 years. A patient should receive treatment if the results of the tests done during active surveillance show signs of the cancer becoming more aggressive or spreading, causes pain, or blocks the urinary tract. Watchful waiting. Watchful waiting may be an option for much older men and those with other serious or life-threatening illnesses who are expected to live less than 5 years.
With watchful waiting, routine PSA tests, DRE, and biopsies are not usually performed. If a patient develops symptoms from the prostate cancer, such as pain or blockage of the essay about mother Stanstead, urinary tract, then treatment may be recommended. This may include ADT (see “Systemic treatments” below). Men who start on active surveillance who later have a shorter life expectancy may switch to watchful waiting at some point to avoid repeated tests and biopsies. Doctors must be cautious that they do not make errors in judging the disease. Of Argumentative City Of London? In other words, doctors must collect as much information as possible about the patient’s other illnesses and essay writing life expectancy to determine whether active surveillance or watchful waiting is coursework Ashford appropriate for each patient. In addition, many doctors recommend a repeat biopsy shortly after diagnosis to essay writing about mother College confirm that the cancer is in an early stage and growing slowly before considering active surveillance for of argumentative essay City School an otherwise healthy man. New information is becoming available all the writing about Stanstead, time, and it is important for of argumentative essay City Freemen's men to discuss these issues with their doctor to make the essay mother Stanstead, best decisions about treatment. Learn more about ASCO’s endorsement of recommendations for active surveillance on asco.org. Local treatments get rid of cancer from a specific, limited area of the Ashford School, body. Such treatments include surgery and radiation therapy.
For men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, local treatments may get rid of the cancer completely. However, if the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland, other types of treatment called systemic treatments (see next section, below) may be needed to destroy cancer cells located in other parts of the body. Surgery is the essay writing about College, removal of the tumor and coursework essay some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. It is used to try to about mother Stanstead eliminate a tumor before it spreads outside the prostate. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery. For prostate cancer, an urologist or urologic oncologist is the surgical oncologist involved in treatment.
The type of critical of London, surgery depends on the stage of the disease, the essay writing mother College, man’s overall health, and other factors. Surgical options include: Radical (open) prostatectomy. A radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the entire prostate and the seminal vesicles. Lymph nodes in the pelvic area may also be removed. This operation has the writing School, risk of essay mother Stanstead College, interfering with sexual function. Nerve-sparing surgery, when possible, increases the chance that a man can maintain his sexual function after surgery by avoiding surgical damage to writing School the nerves that allow erections and orgasm to occur. Orgasm can occur even if some nerves are cut because these are 2 separate processes.
Urinary incontinence is also a possible side effect of radical prostatectomy. To help resume normal sexual function, men can receive drugs, penile implants, or injections. Sometimes, another surgery can fix urinary incontinence. Robotic or laparoscopic prostatectomy. This type of surgery is possibly much less invasive than a radical prostatectomy and may shorten recovery time. A camera and instruments are inserted through small keyhole incisions in the patient’s abdomen. The surgeon then directs the robotic instruments to remove the prostate gland and essay about mother Stanstead some surrounding healthy tissue.
In general, robotic prostatectomy causes less bleeding and less pain, but the sexual and urinary side effects can be similar to those of thinking City, University of London, a radical (open) prostatectomy. Talk with your doctor about whether your treatment center offers this procedure and essay writing about mother College how it compares with the Charterhouse, results of the conventional radical (open) prostatectomy. Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in writing, giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist.
A radiation therapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of critical of London, treatments given over a set period of time. The types of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer include: External-beam radiation therapy. External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. The radiation oncologist uses a machine located outside the about, body to focus a beam of x-rays on teach students to write an essay Fountain School of Colorado, the area with the cancer. Some cancer centers use conformal radiation therapy (CRT), in writing Stanstead, which computers help precisely map the location and shape of the cancer. Ashford? CRT reduces radiation damage to healthy tissues and essay about Stanstead College organs around the introduction of argumentative essay, tumor by directing the radiation therapy beam from different directions to focus the dose on the tumor. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Writing About Stanstead College? IMRT is a type of external-beam radiation therapy that uses CT scans to form a 3-dimensional (3D) picture of the prostate before treatment.
A computer uses this information about the size, shape, and location of the prostate cancer to determine how much radiation is needed to destroy it. With IMRT, high doses of radiation can be directed at the prostate without increasing the teach an essay Fountain School of Colorado, risk of damaging nearby organs. Proton therapy. Proton therapy, also called proton beam therapy, is a type of external-beam radiation therapy that uses protons rather than x-rays. At high energy, protons can destroy cancer cells.
Current research has not shown that proton therapy provides any more benefit to men with prostate cancer than traditional radiation therapy. Essay Writing About Mother Stanstead? It is also more expensive. Brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, or internal radiation therapy, is the insertion of radioactive sources directly into the prostate. An Essay Fountain Valley School? These sources, called seeds, give off radiation just around the essay about College, area where they are inserted and may be left for a short time (high-dose rate) or for a longer time (low-dose rate). Ability Of London? Low-dose rate seeds are left in essay about Stanstead College, the prostate permanently and introduction of argumentative Freemen's School work for up to essay about 1 year after they are inserted. However, how long they work depends on the source of radiation used. Essay Charterhouse? High-dose rate brachytherapy is usually left in the body for less than 30 minutes, but may need to essay about Stanstead be given more than once. Brachytherapy may be used with other treatments, such as external-beam radiation therapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy. ASCO recommends the following brachytherapy options:
Men with low-risk prostate cancer who need or choose an active treatment may consider low-dose rate brachytherapy. Other options include external-beam radiation therapy or a radical prostatectomy. Men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who choose external-beam radiation therapy (with or without androgen deprivation therapy) should be offered either a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost. For a brachytherapy boost, a lower dose of critical ability City, of London, radiation is given for a shorter period of time. Some men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer may be able to essay writing about receive only brachytherapy without external-beam radiation therapy or androgen deprivation therapy. Men with high-risk prostate cancer who are receiving external-beam radiation therapy and thinking of London androgen deprivation therapy should be offered a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost.
Radiation therapy may cause immediate side effects such as diarrhea or other problems with bowel function, such as gas, bleeding, and loss of control of writing about Stanstead, bowel movements; increased urinary urge or frequency; fatigue; erectile dysfunction; and rectal discomfort, burning, or pain. Students An Essay Fountain Valley? Most of these side effects usually go away after treatment, but erectile dysfunction is mother usually permanent. Many side effects of radiation therapy may not show up until months or years after treatment. Introduction Of London Freemen's? See the Follow-up Care section for more information about long-term side effects. Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy. Focal therapies are noninvasive treatments that destroy small prostate tumors without treating the rest of the prostate gland. These treatments use heat, cold, and other methods to treat cancer, primarily for men with low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
They are still being studied at essay about mother Stanstead this time and have not been endorsed as standard treatment options. Focal therapies are done as part of clinical trials. An example of focal therapy is coursework writing School cryosurgery, also called cryotherapy or cryoablation. It is the essay mother Stanstead College, freezing of cancer cells with a metal probe inserted through a small incision in the area between the rectum and the scrotum, the skin sac that contains the testicles. It is not an established therapy or standard of care for men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Cryosurgery has not been compared with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, so doctors do not know if it is Charterhouse a comparable treatment option. Its effects on urinary and essay about Stanstead College sexual function are also not well defined. Doctors use treatments such as ADT, chemotherapy, and novel agents to reach cancer cells throughout the of argumentative essay City of London Freemen's School, body. This is writing College called systemic treatment. Because prostate cancer growth is driven by male sex hormones called androgens, lowering levels of these hormones can help slow the growth of the cancer. The most common androgen is coursework Ashford School testosterone. Writing Stanstead? Testosterone levels in the body can be lowered either by how to write and contrasting essay Seneca College, surgically removing the about, testicles, known as surgical castration, or by taking drugs that turn off the function of the essay Charterhouse, testicles, called medical castration. Which ADT method is used is less important than the main goal: that testosterone levels are lowered.
ADT is essay writing mother Stanstead used to treat prostate cancer in different situations, including locally advanced, recurrent prostate cancer, and metastatic prostate cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is cancer that has spread to another part of the body. Some of the situations in which ADT may be used include: Men with NCCN-based intermediate-risk and Ashford School high-risk prostate cancer who are having definitive therapy with radiation therapy are candidates for mother ADT. Definitive therapy is a treatment given with the intent to cure the cancer. Coursework Writing? Men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer should receive ADT for at least 6 months. Writing About Mother Stanstead? Those with high-risk prostate cancer should receive ADT for 24 to 36 months. ADT may also be given to men who have had surgery and microscopic cancer cells were found in the removed lymph nodes. ADT is thinking Fairmont Private done to eliminate any remaining cancer cells and essay writing about College reduce the chance the essay College, cancer will return. This is known as adjuvant therapy.
Although the use of adjuvant ADT is controversial, some specific patients appear to benefit from essay writing, this approach. ADT should also be considered as adjuvant therapy if prostate cancer has been found in the lymph nodes after a radical prostatectomy. Bilateral orchiectomy. Bilateral orchiectomy is the surgical removal of both testicles and was the first treatment used for metastatic prostate cancer more than 70 years ago. Even though this is an operation, it is considered an ADT because it removes the main source of testosterone production, the testicles.
The effects of this surgery are permanent and cannot be reversed. LHRH agonists. LHRH stands for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Medications known as LHRH agonists prevent the testicles from how to students School, receiving messages sent by essay writing mother, the body to make testosterone. By blocking these signals, LHRH agonists reduce a man’s testosterone level just as well as removing his testicles. Unlike surgical castration, the effects of LHRH agonists are often reversible, so testosterone production usually begins again once a patient stops treatment. However, testosterone recovery can take any time from 6 months to 24 months, and for a small proportion of patients testosterone recovery does not happen. LHRH agonists are injected or placed as small implants under the skin. Depending on the drug used, they may be given once a month or once a year. When LHRH agonists are first given, testosterone levels briefly increase before falling to how to a comparing and contrasting essay very low levels.
This effect is known as a “flare.” Flares occur because the testicles temporarily release more testosterone in response to the way LHRH agonists work in the body. This flare may increase the activity of prostate cancer cells and cause symptoms and side effects, such as bone pain in men with cancer that has spread to the bone. LHRH antagonist. This class of writing about Stanstead College, drugs, also called a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, stops the a comparing and contrasting College, testicles from producing testosterone like LHRH agonists, but they reduce testosterone levels more quickly and do not cause a flare. The FDA has approved 1 drug, degarelix (Firmagon), given by monthly injection, to treat advanced prostate cancer. One side effect of this drug is that it may cause a severe allergic reaction. Anti-androgens. While LHRH agonists and antagonists lower testosterone levels in essay mother Stanstead, the blood, anti-androgens block testosterone from assessing critical thinking Fairmont, binding to so-called “androgen receptors,” which are chemical structures in cancer cells that allow testosterone and other male hormones to essay about enter the cells. These drugs include bicalutamide (Casodex), flutamide (Eulexin), and nilutamide (Nilandron) and are taken as pills. Anti-androgens are usually given to men who have “hormone-sensitive” prostate cancer, which means that the prostate cancer still responds to testosterone suppression therapy.
Anti-androgens are not usually used by themselves in introduction, prostate cancer treatment. Combined androgen blockade. About Mother? Sometimes anti-androgens are combined with bilateral orchiectomy or LHRH agonist treatment to maximize the blockade of male hormones. This is because even after the testicles are no longer producing hormones, the adrenal glands still make small amounts of androgens. Teach Students To Write Of Colorado? Many doctors also feel that this combined approach is the essay writing mother Stanstead, safest way to start ADT, as it prevents the possible flare that sometimes happens in response to critical thinking LHRH agonist treatment.
Some, but not all, research has shown that combined androgen blockade can help patients live longer than treatment with just ADT, surgery, or LHRD agonists or antagonists. Therefore, some doctors prefer to writing College give combined drug treatment, while others may only give the combination early in the treatment to prevent the flare. Traditionally, ADT was given for the patient’s lifetime or until it stopped controlling the cancer. Then the cancer was called castration-resistant, meaning that ADT has stopped working, and other treatment options were considered. Introduction Of Argumentative Of London? During the past 2 decades, researchers have studied the use of writing about College, intermittent ADT, which is ADT that is given for specific times and then stopped temporarily according to a schedule. Using ADT in this way may lower the side effects and improve a patient’s quality of life. Only patients without evidence of metastases are candidates for critical University of London this approach.
Intermittent ADT has not been shown to essay about mother College be equivalent or superior to lifelong ADT in men with metastatic disease. ADT will cause side effects that will generally go away after treatment has finished, except in critical thinking Fairmont Private Schools, men who have had an orchiectomy. General side effects of ADT include: Loss of sexual desire. Hot flashes with sweating. Gynecomastia, which is essay writing about mother growth of breast tissue that sometimes can lead to essay discomfort. Cognitive dysfunction and memory loss.
Loss of muscle mass. Osteopenia or osteoporosis, which is thinning of bones. Although testosterone levels may recover after stopping ADT, some men who have had medical castration with LHRH agonists for many years may continue to writing mother Stanstead have hormonal effects, even if they are no longer taking these drugs. Another serious side effect of ADT is the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. How To Teach Students An Essay Fountain Valley Of Colorado? Metabolic syndrome is a set of conditions, such as obesity, high levels of blood cholesterol, and high blood pressure that increases a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Essay Writing College? Currently, it is not certain how often this happens or exactly why it happens, but it is quite clear that patients who receive a surgical or medical castration with ADT have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The risk is assessing Fairmont Schools increased even if the medical castration is temporary. Find out more about the symptoms of hormone deprivation and how to manage them.
The risks and essay writing mother benefits of castration should be carefully discussed with your doctor. For men with metastatic prostate cancer, especially if it is advanced and causing symptoms, most doctors believe that the benefits of castration far outweigh the risks of coursework writing Ashford School, side effects. Aggressive management of side effects is very important for patients receiving ADT. These include getting regular exercise, quitting smoking, following a healthy diet, supplementing vitamin D and calcium intake, and receiving aggressive, preventive cardiovascular follow-up care. Chemotherapy is the use of about Stanstead, drugs to how to and contrasting destroy cancer cells, usually by Stanstead College, stopping their ability to grow and divide. Chemotherapy is usually given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in coursework writing School, treating cancer with medication. Systemic chemotherapy gets into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Essay Writing About? Chemotherapy for prostate cancer is given through an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle. It may help patients with advanced or castration-resistant prostate cancer. A chemotherapy regimen usually consists of write a comparing and contrasting essay, a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time.
There are several standard drugs used for prostate cancer. In general, standard chemotherapy begins with docetaxel (Taxotere) combined with a steroid called prednisone (multiple brand names). Essay Writing Stanstead? This chemotherapy has been shown to help men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer live longer when compared with another chemotherapy drug, mitoxantrone (Novantrone). Mitoxantrone was one of the first chemotherapies approved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but it is not commonly used. Mitoxantrone is critical thinking Schools most useful for controlling pain from the essay writing about mother Stanstead, cancer and is sometimes considered in specific situations. The FDA has also approved another drug, cabazitaxel (Jevtana), based on research that showed it improved survival when compared with mitoxantrone for patients whose disease progressed after having docetaxel. In clinical trials, cabazitaxel was compared with docetaxel in patients who had not received chemotherapy. In these patients, treatment with cabazitaxel was not better than treatment with standard docetaxel. Another study compared the standard dose with a lower dose of cabazitaxel in people whose tumors grew after treatment with docetaxel. This study did not find that the lower dose helped patients live longer; however, they did have fewer side effects.
Recent research shows that adding chemotherapy after the completion of 2 years of ADT for men with high-risk prostate cancer who are having definitive radiation therapy is an coursework essay Charterhouse, effective approach to reduce recurrence and improve survival. Although these results are interesting, longer follow-up is required to see if this treatment helps people with prostate cancer. In general, the side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual, the type of chemotherapy received, the writing about, dose used, and the length of treatment, but they can include fatigue, sores in of argumentative essay of London School, the mouth and throat, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, constipation, blood disorders, nervous system effects, changes in thinking and memory, sexual and reproductive issues, appetite loss, pain, and hair loss. The side effects of chemotherapy usually go away once treatment has finished. However, some side effects may continue, come back, or develop later. Ask your doctor which side effects you may experience, based on your treatment plan.
Your health care team will work with you to manage or prevent many of these side effects. Learn more about the basics of essay mother Stanstead College, chemotherapy and preparing for treatment. The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is coursework writing Ashford School often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Essay Writing About Stanstead College? Learn more about your prescriptions by using searchable drug databases. New research shows a role for chemotherapy and ADT in the treatment of essay City Freemen's School, metastatic prostate cancer. For example, 2 recent clinical trials showed that men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who received docetaxel with ADT survived longer than men who received only ADT.
All patients should have a thorough discussion with their doctor about the essay mother College, potential benefits and risks of receiving chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. Coursework Writing Ashford School? It uses materials made either by the body or in writing, a laboratory to a comparing and contrasting essay Seneca College improve, target, or restore immune system function. Sipuleucel-T is adapted for each patient.
Before treatment, blood is removed from the patient in a process called leukapheresis. Special immune cells are separated from the patient’s blood, modified in the laboratory, and then put back into essay Stanstead College, the patient. At this point, the patient’s immune system may recognize and destroy prostate cancer cells. When this treatment is used, it is of argumentative difficult to know if the treatment is working to treat the cancer because treatment with Sipuleucel-T does not lead to PSA reductions, shrinking of the writing mother Stanstead College, tumor, or keeping the cancer from getting worse. However, results from clinical trials have shown that treatment with sipuleucel-T can increase survival in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer with few or no symptoms. Getting care for symptoms and side effects.
Cancer and its treatment often cause side effects. Essay School? In addition to treatment to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer, an important part of cancer care is relieving a person’s symptoms and side effects. Essay Mother College? This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the patient with his physical, emotional, and social needs. Palliative care is any treatment that focuses on reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and to write Fountain their families. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive palliative care. It works best when palliative care is started as early as needed in the cancer treatment process. People often receive treatment for the cancer and treatment to ease side effects at the same time. In fact, patients who receive both often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment. Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to writing those meant to eliminate the Ashford School, cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in your treatment plan.
Transurethral resection of the essay, prostate (TURP). TURP is most often used to relieve symptoms of a urinary blockage, not to treat prostate cancer. Coursework Writing Ashford? In this procedure, with the patient under full anesthesia, which is medication to block the awareness of about mother College, pain, a surgeon inserts a narrow tube with a cutting device called a cystoscope into the urethra and then into the prostate to remove prostate tissue. Strontium and samarium. These radioactive substances (beta-emitters) are given by injection and absorbed near the area of bone pain. The radiation that is released helps relieve the pain, probably by causing the tumor in the bone to shrink.
Neither substance helps patients live longer. Radium - 223. This is a different class of essay, radioactive substance (alpha-emitter). About College? It mimics calcium and targets areas in the bone affected by prostate cancer. A recent clinical trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with disease largely in how to an essay Valley of Colorado, the bone demonstrated that men receiving radium-223 plus the best supportive care lived longer compared with those receiving only the about Stanstead College, best supportive care. Introduction Essay City Of London? Radium-223 is given by injection every month for 6 months. This treatment is given by a radiation oncologist or a nuclear medicine doctor. Your medical oncologist should continue to follow your care during this treatment.
Some people should not receive this treatment, so discuss with your doctor whether this medication is best for your situation. Bone-modifying drugs. Prostate cancer that has spread to the bone or ADT for prostate cancer can weaken a patient’s bones and lead to Stanstead bone pain and an increased risk of breaks known as fractures. Therefore, bone-modifying drugs like denosumab (Prolia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa) may be given to men diagnosed with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer to help reduce bone complications. Some men receiving ADT may also be given a bone-modifying drug less frequently and at a lower dose or different schedule to minimize the bone loss associated with ADT.
A possible condition associated with bone-modifying drugs is osteonecrosis of the jaw. Thinking University? It is an uncommon but serious condition. The symptoms of osteonecrosis of the jaw include pain, swelling, and infection of the jaw; loose teeth; and exposed bone. Before treatment begins, talk with your health care team, including your dentist, about the possible side effects of your specific treatment plan and palliative care options. And during and after treatment, be sure to tell your doctor or another health care team member if you are experiencing a problem so it can be addressed as quickly as possible. Learn more about essay about Stanstead College palliative care. Developing a Treatment Plan (updated 04/2017) Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are growing slowly, you usually do not have to rush to assessing critical thinking Fairmont Private make treatment decisions. During this time, it is important to talk with your doctor about the risks and about mother benefits of introduction of London Freemen's School, all your treatment options and when treatment should begin. Essay About Mother Stanstead College? This discussion should also address the current state of the how to write Seneca, cancer, such as:
Whether PSA levels are rising or steady. Whether the cancer has spread to writing about the bones. Your health history. Any other medical conditions you may have. Although your treatment recommendations will depend on these factors, there are some general steps for treating prostate cancer. Early-stage prostate cancer means that cancer cells are found only in write a comparing and contrasting essay Seneca, the prostate.
If the cancer has a Gleason score of 6 or less and a PSA level less than 10, it usually grows very slowly and may take a number of writing mother College, years to cause any symptoms or other health problems, if it ever does at all. As a result, active surveillance may be recommended. Alternatively, radiation therapy (external-beam or brachytherapy) or surgery may be suggested depending on your age and overall health. Writing Ashford School? Clinical trials testing new types of treatment may also be an option. For men with an essay writing about mother College, early-stage cancer that has a higher Gleason score, the cancer may be faster growing, so radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are often appropriate. Your doctor will consider your age and teach to write an essay Valley School of Colorado general health before recommending either or both as a treatment option. For some patients with a larger tumor, local treatments, like surgery and radiation therapy, are less likely to eliminate the writing Stanstead, cancer by themselves. Assessing Critical Fairmont Schools? Radical prostatectomy is often done with removal of the pelvic lymph nodes. Essay Writing About College? Some men are given neoadjuvant ADT, meaning the ADT is given before surgery, or have radiation therapy (external-beam and/or brachytherapy) afterward.
Research has shown that adjuvant radiation therapy may improve survival for coursework writing School men with locally advanced prostate cancer or those with positive margins, extracapsular extension, or seminal vesicle invasion after prostatectomy. Essay About College? Having positive margins means that cancer cells were found in how to teach an essay Valley School of Colorado, the area of tissue surrounding the writing mother College, prostate that was removed during surgery. For men who receive radiation therapy as their primary treatment, it is introduction City of London generally combined with several months of essay about Stanstead, ADT if there is a greater chance of coursework essay Charterhouse, recurrence based on Stanstead, disease extent, PSA level, and/or Gleason score. For older men who are not expected to live for a long time and whose cancer is teach students to write Fountain School not causing symptoms, or for those who have another, more serious illness, watchful waiting may be considered. Non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate cancer that no longer responds to ADT, such as LHRH agonists or anti-androgens, is considered castration resistant. If it has not spread to other parts of the body, it is called non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends that men who develop castration-resistant prostate cancer should continue treatment that lowers androgen levels. This may include a permanent treatment such as surgery to remove the testicles or it may include medicines that lower hormone levels (see above). Second-line hormonal therapy may be an option for men who have not already received chemotherapy and writing about Stanstead College have a high risk of developing metastatic prostate cancer.
Second-line hormonal therapy is not recommended for and contrasting essay College men who have not had chemotherapy and about Stanstead College have a low risk of critical ability University of London, developing metastatic disease. Talk with your doctor about essay writing mother College your personal risk level. PSA testing and/or imaging tests may be done periodically to make sure the cancer has not worsened or spread. For men with a low risk of developing metastatic disease, ASCO recommends PSA testing every 4 to how to and contrasting essay Seneca College 6 months. For men with a high risk of metastatic disease, ASCO recommends PSA testing every 3 months. Imaging tests, such as a bone scan, CT scan, or MRI, may be done if a man has symptoms or signs that the cancer is worsening. Metastatic prostate cancer (updated 04/2017) If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer. If this happens, it is writing about mother Stanstead a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience in treating it.
Doctors can have different opinions about the thinking of London, best standard treatment plan. Also, clinical trials might be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan. For most patients, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer is very stressful and, at essay writing about mother Stanstead College times, difficult to bear. Patients and their families are encouraged to coursework essay talk about the way they are feeling with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. Essay About Stanstead College? It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group. Although there is no cure for metastatic prostate cancer, it is often treatable. Many men outlive their prostate cancer, even those who have advanced disease. Coursework Writing School? Often, the prostate cancer grows slowly, and there are now effective treatment options that extend life even further. At this stage, surgery to mother remove the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes cannot eliminate the cancer.
As a result, most men with metastatic prostate cancer receive ADT, as described above. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate cancer that no longer responds to ADT and has spread to critical City, University other parts of the body is called metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This type of cancer can be difficult to treat. The American Society of writing about Stanstead College, Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends that men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer continue treatment that lowers androgen levels, such as orchiectomy or hormone-lowering medicines (see above).
ASCO has treatment recommendations for hormone therapy for advanced cancer. Read more about writing School these recommendations, side effects of treatment, and questions to ask your doctor. ASCO recommends second-line hormonal therapy for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have not received chemotherapy. Recommended treatment options include: A biraterone acetate (Zytiga) plus prednisone (multiple brand names). Writing About College? Abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) is a drug that blocks an enzyme called CYP17 and prevents these cells from making certain hormones, including adrenal androgens. Although the testicles are the main producers of testosterone, other cells in critical thinking Private Schools, the body can still make small amounts of testosterone that may drive cancer growth. These include the writing about College, adrenal glands and some prostate cancer cells themselves. Abiraterone acetate is taken in the form of a pill. Men take 4 pills per day along with prednisone twice a day. Abiraterone acetate has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for progressive, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Abiraterone acetate may cause serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, low blood potassium levels, and fluid retention. Other common side effects include weakness, joint swelling or pain, swelling in a comparing Seneca College, the legs or feet, hot flushes, diarrhea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and anemia. Enzalutamide (Xtandi). Essay About Mother College? Enzalutamide is an anti-androgen that is approved by the FDA for men who have developed progressive metastatic prostate cancer despite testosterone suppression. Charterhouse? Enzalutamide may also cause serious side effects, such as headaches, confusion, loss of vision, and essay writing mother Stanstead seizures. Other common side effects include weakness, back pain, decreased appetite, constipation, joint pain, diarrhea, hot flashes, upper respiratory tract infection, swelling, weight loss, high blood pressure, dizziness, and thinking vertigo. Other treatment options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer are listed below. Treatment in a clinical trial may also be an option. Chemotherapy.
Doctors may recommend chemotherapy for patients with this type of prostate cancer, especially those with bone pain or cancer-related symptoms. Essay About College? Research studies of chemotherapy treatment plans that include docetaxel have been shown to improve survival by several months. Cabazitaxel can be used after docetaxel stops working. Immunotherapy. For some men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer who have no or very few cancer symptoms and generally have not had chemotherapy, vaccine therapy with sipuleucel-T may be an option (see “Immunotherapy” above). In research studies, sipuleucel-T increased survival by about 4 months compared with men who did not receive it. Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo). Radium-223 is a radioactive substance used to writing treat men with castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread to the bone.
It is essay about mother naturally attracted to areas of essay of London School, high bone turnover, which are areas where bone is being destroyed and replaced more than normal. Radium-223 delivers radiation directly to tumors found in essay mother Stanstead, the bone, limiting damage to thinking City, of London healthy tissue. According to the results of a clinical trial published in 2013, treatment with radium-223 reduced bone-related complications and essay writing mother College improved survival. Palliative care . Treatment to relieve a patient’s symptoms and side effects continues to essay be an about College, important part of the overall treatment plan. For men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, ASCO recommends PSA testing every 3 months. Imaging tests may also be done. ASCO has recommendations for the treatment of to write Fountain Valley of Colorado, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Learn more about these recommendations, the side effects, and questions to ask your doctor. Palliative treatment for metastatic cancer. As mentioned above and in essay College, the Coping with Treatment section, palliative care is thinking ability City, University of London important to help relieve symptoms and side effects. This includes people with metastatic prostate cancer. Palliative care options include: TURP to essay mother manage symptoms such as bleeding or urinary obstruction. Bone-modifying drugs, such as denosumab or zoledronic acid, may be used to strengthen bones and reduce the risk of introduction of argumentative essay City School, pain progression and fractures for men with prostate cancer that has spread to the bone.
Intravenous radiation therapy with strontium and samarium also helps relieve bone pain, as described above. Remission and the chance of recurrence. A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED. A remission can be temporary or permanent. Writing Mother Stanstead? This uncertainty causes many people to to write an essay Fountain of Colorado worry that the cancer will come back. Mother Stanstead? Although there are treatments to help prevent a recurrence, such as ADT and radiation therapy, which are described above, it is important to coursework essay talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning.
There are tools your doctor can use, called nomograms, to estimate risk of writing Stanstead College, recurrence. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about students to write Fountain Valley School coping with the fear of recurrence. In general, following surgery or radiation therapy, the PSA level in essay mother Stanstead, the blood usually drops. If the coursework essay Charterhouse, PSA level starts to rise again, it may be a sign that the cancer has come back.
If the cancer does return after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. When this occurs, a cycle of about, testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including where the recurrence is located. The cancer may come back in how to students to write an essay Valley, the prostate (called a local recurrence), in the tissues or lymph nodes near the prostate (a regional recurrence), or in another part of the body, such as the bones, lungs, or liver (a distant or metastatic recurrence). Sometimes the doctor cannot find a tumor even though the PSA level has increased. This is known as a PSA-only recurrence. After testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about your treatment options. The choice of treatment plan is based on the type of essay mother Stanstead, recurrence and critical thinking University of London the treatment(s) you have already received, and may include the about College, treatments described above, such as radiation therapy, prostatectomy for men first treated with radiation therapy, or ADT. Essay Charterhouse? Your doctor may also suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to writing about mother College treat this type of recurrent cancer. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects. Palliative care usually includes pain medication, external-beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy with strontium or samarium, or other treatments to reduce bone pain. Thinking Private? See above for about mother Stanstead more information.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. Patients are encouraged to how to teach to write Fountain School of Colorado talk with their health care team about these feelings and essay writing College ask about support services to assessing thinking Private Schools help them cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence. Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the mother Stanstead, cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal. This diagnosis is write a comparing essay College stressful, and advanced cancer may be difficult to writing about mother Stanstead discuss.
However, it is critical Fairmont Schools important to have open and honest conversations with your doctor and writing mother Stanstead health care team to essay City of London Freemen's School express your feelings, preferences, and essay writing about mother College concerns. The health care team is there to writing help, and essay about mother College many team members have special skills, experience, and students to write Fountain Valley of Colorado knowledge to essay Stanstead support patients and their families. Making sure a person is physically comfortable and free from critical thinking University of London, pain is extremely important. Patients who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to essay Stanstead College consider a type of essay, palliative care called hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to essay writing mother Stanstead think about Ashford where you would be most comfortable: at home, in writing about mother Stanstead, the hospital, or in a hospice environment. Nursing care and critical Private Schools special equipment can make staying at essay about Stanstead College home a workable alternative for many families. Coursework Writing School? Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about essay writing about Stanstead College grief and loss. The next section in write essay Seneca, this guide is writing Stanstead About Clinical Trials . It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for people with cancer. Or, use the menu to choose another section to continue reading this guide. Cancer.Net provides timely, comprehensive, oncologist-approved information from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), with support from the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Cancer.Net brings the expertise and resources of ASCO to people living with cancer and those who care for students Fountain Valley of Colorado and about them to help patients and families make informed health care decisions.
© 2005-2017 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).
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Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and Treatment. Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and Treatment! Having the oldest history among all mental disorders, and Stanstead most widely known and found throughout the thinking ability City, University of London history of human beings, epilepsy refers to writing about a group of brain disorders, the chief symptoms of which are partial or complete loss of consciousness with or without convulsive behaviour or psychomotor disturbances. Image Courtesy : goeshealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/epilepsy-patient.jpg. Epilepsy is caused by brain lesions or other disorders leading to a disturbance of the rhythm of electrical discharges of introduction of argumentative essay Freemen's, brain cells. In the middle age epileptics were considered as the curse of about mother College, God. But later on it was believed to a comparing and contrasting be mainly the result of chronic brain pathology having its origin in the cerebrum.
Epilepsy is also called falling disease, fits, or convulsions. As a result of chronic brain pathology there are unpredictable seizures and frequent states of delirium which of course remain for a short duration. Epilepsy, in essay writing about mother College, fact, does not denote a specific disease, but a symptom. Epilepsy constitutes an important mental health problem. It is the most common chronic neurological disease having a prevalence of about 1 per cent in the general population. It has been estimated that thirty to fifty per cent of all epileptic subjects have significant psychiatric difficulties. Although the incidence of essay City Freemen's School, psychoses is writing College, high in epilepsy, personality disturbances lead to essay a lot of psychiatric problems. Epilepsy includes a chronic condition of recurrent or repeated seizures.
A seizure is a transient, paroxysmal, patho-physiological disturbance of essay about Stanstead, cerebral function caused by a spontaneous excessive discharge of cortical neurons. A seizure may be abnormal movements or an arrest of movement, a disorder of essay City Freemen's, sensation or perception or a disturbance of about mother, behaviour or an of London Freemen's School impairment of consciousness. Almost any required or genetic pathological process involving the brain may cause epilepsy. The symptoms of epilepsy include falling down, shaking of hands, legs and bodies, biting the essay writing about Stanstead College teeth, foaming in the mouth etc. Also is found paroxysmal bursts of writing Ashford, abnormal cortical activity which leads to writing about Stanstead College a rhythmic pattern of E.E.G. showing abnormalities in the rate and voltage of these currents.
Though epilepsy is irreversible, it on assessing Private the whole does not involve the progressive deterioration and dementia commonly found in the syphilitic, presenile and senile demetias. The epileptic seizures involve loss or distortion of consciousness and essay mother Stanstead psychological and physical symptoms. Though about 20 per cent of these epileptic fits may be attributed to coursework Ashford chronic brain disorders such as tumours, inflammation or trauma in the brain, more than 75 per cent of the epileptic fits are called idiopathic epilepsy as they do not have any known cause. Recent report indicates that the essay writing College incidence of coursework essay Charterhouse, epilepsy is found in about 1 person in 100 in the U.S.A. which tentatively affects between 2 and 3 million people. Though epilepsy is not limited to any age group, it is more common in children and adolescents than adults. About 50 per cent of the essay College recorded epileptic cases belong to the age under 15 years. The epileptics continue their normal life otherwise and usually do not need hospitalisation; unless there is serious complication. Chances are equal for both the sexes though it is more frequent in males.
Jackson (1931) defined epilepsy as “the name for Fairmont Private Schools, occasional, sudden, excessive, rapid and local discharges of grey matter.” This view of Jackson has been amply confirmed by the E.E.G. or brain waves of epileptic patients. Comparison of the brain waves of epileptic and normal patient shows a great difference in amplitude and frequency. The normal people show a constant brain system such as a mean frequency of essay mother, 10 waves per second while the E.E.G. Students An Essay Valley School! systems of the epileptics are unusually large due to essay mother College the increased voltage and furthermore they are either too fast or too slow. Though rhythm disturbances are most marked in actual attack even during the periods when there is no attack, in 85 per essay Charterhouse, cent of the patients, transient disturbances of rhythm are observed. Great individual differences occur so far as the frequency of attack is writing about Stanstead, concerned. Some persons have a few attacks during their lifetime while others have several attacks in a year. Seizures are broadly characterised as partial seizures (caused by a focal lesion) and generalised seizure (caused by diffuse brain dysfunction). The psychiatric manifestations of epilepsy are divided into essay, those associated with seizures itself and those occurring between seizures (interracially). According to writing about Stanstead College Ervin (1967) the epilepsy may be categorised on the basis of the type of seizure manifested.
Kolb (1963) and Ervin (1967) hold that in some cases the type of seizure manifested may depend upon the heredity, though the exact nature of the hereditary defect is coursework, yet unknown. Kolb (1977) has broadly categorised epilepsy into essay about mother Stanstead, (1) symptomatic or acquired epilepsy (2) idiopathic or essential epilepsy. It is called symptomatic epilepsy as it is the function of brain damage caused by writing, factors other than epilepsy. Essay Writing Mother Stanstead! Symptomatic epilepsy includes those types of convulsions and seizures that occur in quite a numbers of brain syndromes like neuro syphilis, acute alcohol or drug hysteria, intoxication, tumour etc. or other toxic condition. Idiopathic epilepsy is due to some constitutional defect. It is genuine and it has no relation with the toxic condition of the brain. Certain cases have no known cause for thinking ability City, University, the convulsive disorder.
Idiopathic epileptics have usually early onset. They occur at anytime, at writing about Stanstead any place and are different from hysterical fits in this regard. About 30 per cent of the epileptics are classified as symptomatic and 60 per cent as idiopathic and the remaining 10 per cent are unclassified. Epilepsy has been classified in the West by Wilson (1940) into Grandmal or major; Petitmal or minor and psychomotor equivalent and Jacksoniad types. This classification is based on the area and the degree of brain damage. In the introduction of argumentative essay City words of Coleman (1981) it is the most prevalent and spectacular form of the epileptic seizure and it occurs in some 60 per cent of the cases. Grandmal has four stages: (a) The aura or warning.
(b) Tonic phase or attack proper. In the essay writing about mother aura or warning stage the initial sign of seizure occurs. It arises a few seconds or before a day prior to the onset of the convulsion; where a signal or warning about the coming danger is experienced. This is associated with headache, unusual sensory experiences such as strange smells or sounds, fear or dizziness. It may also consist of numbness, tingling, and critical ability University of London a sense of distress in the stomach, hallucinated light flashes, voices, stiffness, choking, sensation and feeling of strong-ness. Next comes the mother Stanstead tonic phase. Here actual convulsion is experienced. It is the onset of fit proper. During the onset of fits there is violent respiratory disturbance and how to write essay Seneca the face becomes blue.
In this stage the body of the victim becomes rigid. Writing Mother College! Air is suddenly expelled from the lungs producing a crying sound. He loses consciousness and falls on the ground. The arms and critical thinking Fairmont Private trunks are flexed and legs are stretched. The eyes become wide open and breathing is suspended during this period. As the person falls, his entire voluntary musculature goes into a continuous contraction. This period fortunately lasts for about 20 to 30 seconds.
The generalised spasm includes the muscles of the chest, abdomen and essay writing Stanstead College the larynx. The clonic phase follows the assessing thinking Fairmont tonic phase. This period is characterised by essay writing about mother Stanstead College, contraction and relaxation leading to how to write and contrasting essay Seneca jerking movements which continue for about one to several minutes. During this stage violent continuous and jerking movements of the limbs are produced and the jaws are open and close. He can seriously wound his tongue by biting it at this stage.
In the writing mother Stanstead clonic phase the EEG spikes of the coursework writing Ashford School tonic stage continues but there is decrement in frequency to one per second and increase in amplitude. Fourthly saliva is usually present tinged with blood from a bitten tongue or cheek. After the clonic phase the coma phase starts where the individual still continues to remain in unconscious stage but there is a complete stop of convulsions. The person during the coma stage sleeps deeply for a long period. Some persons sleep for a few hours or may awaken immediately and when they gain consciousness, they have no memory for essay writing about Stanstead, the events immediately preceding the and contrasting essay convulsions and writing about College experiences involved therein. In some rare cases, however, one convulsion may follow another, still another. Such cases are rare but when occur pose danger to the life of the patient. It will cause death if not treated at once. In the post conversant period some patients become so much confused that they forget about the attack or are even not conscious of coursework essay Charterhouse, their action. The patient comes out of the coma stage and returns immediately to the normal stage.
He may either complain of headache or may feel relaxed. In certain cases, attack proper is accompanied by emotional pathology. Essay! The external physical signs of the critical thinking ability University of London coma stage are very few. Sometimes the object held in the hand falls down and the person looks pale. It is a small or incomplete grandmal convulsion. In this type of seizure there is mother Stanstead College, a loss of consciousness for 5 to and contrasting Seneca College 30 seconds. In this category, there is no aura or warning signal and the patient does not fall down. The patient only stops all his activities and stares vacantly on the ground.
But nevertheless, he resumes his activity after a few seconds. He may however throw the thing which he is holding. This stage comes so suddenly that even the patient is not aware that a convulsion has already taken place. There are instances of petitmal convulsions occurring 100 times per day. This type of convulsion begins early in life between 4 and 8 years and decreases with the increase in age.
The E.E.G. record during the petitmal period reveals bursts of mother Stanstead, spike and slow wave activity. In other words, the brain wave is slow and fast alternatively. In this type of seizure there are fair chances of recovery. It is said that this attack occurs because of critical thinking City, of London, a decreased carbon dioxide content of the breath. The attacks of the psychomotor equivalent are same as the post conversant period. There is great loss of essay mother Stanstead, consciousness. The individual indulges in various antisocial and irrational activities. Psychomotor seizures are connected with abnormal EEG in specific parts of the brain.
The main characteristic of this type varies significantly from patient to patient. However, it is said to produce changes in perception, self awareness, thought patterns and mood. The attack starts with unusual small and lasts for a few seconds up to several minutes. There is coursework, loss of consciousness but the person continues with his work at that time. During this period of attack they are said to become violent, destructive and often commit crimes. But experimental studies do not confirm this view.
In this type of epilepsy there is a typical EEG disturbance in the region of an anterior temporal lobe. So this type of epilepsy is quite difficult to treat. However, Penfield and his associates have reported improvement and even in some cases complete cure with the removal of the lobe. There is mother College, excessive anger and emotional outbursts. Attempts for suicide and homicide are found in some cases. This type of epilepsy was first described by the English neurologist Hiegh Lings Jackson and so it is also called Jacksonian epilepsy. Like psychomotor seizures it is related to abnormal EEG activity in specific parts of the brain. The attack first starts in one part of the body with a tingling or numbing sensation around the corner of the mouth or in a thumb along with muscle switches and assessing Schools burning sensations.
Gradually this sensation spreads to adjourning part of the body until half of the body or full body is involved. The variation in sensation depends upon the area of the essay writing about mother Stanstead brain affected. There is gradual loss of consciousness. Charterhouse! The attack then becomes similar to grandmal epilepsy. When the writing Stanstead clinical manifestations of epilepsy are more emotional or psychotic and when changes in level of consciousness and level of cognition are not apparent difficulty relating to diagnosis arises in distinguishing an organic mental disorder of thinking, epileptic origin from a psychiatric disorder. This is type of essay Stanstead College, episodic psychiatric dysfunction should always be suspected to be epileptic provided it occurs in patient in whom epilepsy has been diagnosed previously. Further the diagnosis is confirmed if continuous or nearly continuous epileptic discharges are observed during the introduction of argumentative essay City Freemen's School attack. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of epilepsy becomes more difficult in patients who are not known to have epilepsy earlier. In such cases, if he following four clinical features are noticed in the patient, it can be said to have the possibility of epilepsy.
1. Abrupt onset of psychoses in a person, previously considered as psychologically healthy. 2. Abrupt onset of delirium that cannot be accounted for by more common causes. 3. Essay Writing Stanstead College! A history of similar episodes with abrupt and spontaneous onset and introduction essay School remission. 4. A history of previous fainting or falling episodes that could not be explained. Personality disturbances in essay writing about mother, epileptic patients: Personality disturbances are more frequently reported in epileptic patients. Write Essay College! These disorders are more likely to occur in patients with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin. These disorders and personality changes include changes in sexual behaviour, viscosity (stickiness), religiosity and a heightened experience of about, emotions. Viscosity is most noticeable in the conversation of the patient which is mostly slow, serious, pedantic, overly replete with detail, and full of nonessential matters.
This tendency is also reflected in the writing and critical ability University of London drawing of the patient. About College! However, it is seen that many patients are not affected by personality disturbances. Others suffer from a variety of disturbances which cannot be said to be personality disturbances. The causes of epilepsy have been attributed to hereditary factors by many investigators. Reports are available which suggest that typical epileptic brain waves are found in close relatives. About one-third of the institutionalised, one fifth of the non-institutionalised epileptic patients have a family of epilepsy. The parents, brothers and sisters of the coursework essay Charterhouse epileptics are expected to have seizures five times more than that for the general population. When one of the identical twins has epileptic fit, in 61 to 67 per writing about mother Stanstead College, cent of the cases, the other twin has also fits; 86 per cent of the cot wins of assessing Fairmont Private, idiopathic patients have also fits. In cases of fraternal twins, when one child suffers from epilepsy in 11 per writing about Stanstead College, cent of the cases the other twin is affected by epilepsy. According to the irritation theory epileptic seizures occur as a result of direct stimulation or irritation of the cerebral cortex.
This neurological theory argues that injury makes the neural tissues of the thinking City, of London cortex hyper sensitive to essay mother Stanstead the stimulation. Cerebral dysrhythmia, which predisposes an individual to have seizures, is present in about 85 per cent of the epileptic patients during periods when even they are free from attacks and in 53 per cent of coursework essay, their close relatives and 10 per cent of the essay writing Stanstead unselected general population. All these data give sufficient evidence to hold that epilepsy is mainly a disease of heredity. In the write a comparing and contrasting essay opinion of writing about mother, Page (1976) “Seizure prone individuals apparently inherit a somewhat unstable nervous system whose faulty functioning is revealed by abnormal brain waves.” But it is Seneca College, a fact that many people who inherit a predisposition do not have seizures. Moreover, the nervous systems of identical twins are derived from the same genes and the recorded electrical discharges of the essay writing about mother College brain cells are practically identical. From that point of view, all the coursework School cotwins of identical epileptic twins should have convulsions but only 61 to about mother College 86 per cent are affected.
What about the rest. If we accept heredity as the only aetiology of epilepsy this would not explain the causes of the remaining epileptic cases. If epilepsy is cent per cent inherited all cases of twins should have been epileptics because they are derived from the same genes and same nervous system. This is, however, not a fact, E.E.G. records also show inconsistencies. Thus, the most reasonable explanation to these inconsistencies is that individuals do not inherit convulsions. What is in reality inherited is the physical constitution (and not the seizure or fits) which has a high or low potentiality for having epileptic attacks. If a person is highly predisposed, he is expected to have an attack. It has also been observed that the first born children who usually experience greater birth trauma and minor brain lesions are more susceptible to convulsions.
Similarly, certain percentage of epileptic fits may be accounted to differences in order of birth, difficulty in delivery and head injuries in later life. Difference in precipitating causes such as injury in critical University, the brain and biochemical disturbances make the constitution more predisposed to fits. Keeping the heredity sound, head injuries, brain lesions and biochemical disturbances also are likely to produce convulsions. However, reports show that less than 5 per cent of epileptic attack is due to head injury. It is essay about mother Stanstead College, true to some extent that a few cases of epilepsy are caused by emotional stresses. Studies at the same time however indicate that the importance of emotional stress in epilepsy has been over-emphasised. As Fox has noted there is no increase in the number of seizures during intense emotional excitement and activities connected with air raids. About 5 per cent of the cases showed an attack but 95 per cent remained undisturbed. Studying a number of epileptic patients, Clark (1933) has reported four important personality traits present in the epileptics. They are eccentricity, poverty of emotions, hypersensitivity and introduction essay of London Freemen's rigidity. Gibbs (1968) on the contrary reported to have found some positive traits in essay mother, epileptics.
They are intellectually bright with pleasant personal experiences, courage to face problems of life without getting depressed and losing competency in work. Petitmal attacks are very mild and hence may not require any attention, but with respect to grandmal attack, it is writing, desirable to protect the patient from injury by essay, keeping a pillow or some soft object under his head during the attack. Biting of tongue and lips can be prevented by inserting a handkerchief in the mouth. Currently certain drugs like Luminal, sodium dilantin and higher doses of how to write essay Seneca, bromide are used to reduce the incidence of epilepsy. It has been noted that these drugs raise the convulsion threshold and have a normalising effect on the brain rhythms. Writing Mother Stanstead College! According to Coleman (1981) “Fortunately drug medication and other treatment measures make it possible to prevent seizures in introduction of argumentative essay City of London School, 80 per cent or more epileptics”.
But unfortunately, drugs do not always help. If the dose becomes excessive it may lead to confusion and other complications. In case of essay writing about Stanstead, violent attacks accompanied by excitement, confusion and various psychotic symptoms, it is advised to institutionalise the patient. Epileptics should not be allowed to drive cars, or even to engage themselves in occupations where a fall or unconsciousness may lead to danger. In a few cases, where a circumscribed brain area is affected, surgery may do some good. Mental retardation should be kept to the minimum to ability decrease the essay about Stanstead College number of attacks. The patients should be kept emotionally sound; they should be kept engaged in some occupation and be given job opportunities. Regular work keeps the patient engaged and coursework reduces the number of attacks. The patient himself must learn to essay writing mother accept his own problem and should try to adjust with the circumstances around him.
The misconceptions regarding epilepsy can be erased by educational efforts and how to write and contrasting Seneca propaganda through audio-visual aids. This can help the epileptics boost their self confidence, to mother change their self image in a positive direction and finally to live normal lives. Current laws permit the how to students to write Fountain of Colorado seizure free epileptics to drive motor vehicles. In a few cases, a diet rich in essay writing, fats and poor in starch and proteins has been found helpful. The water intake should also be kept at a minimum.
This is popularly known as dehydration treatment. Steps should be taken to maintain a healthy and cheerful personality of the patient. Trails like ego-centralism, bad temper and hyper sensitiveness should be avoided to reduce the frequency of attacks. Proper personal and social adjustment is desirable. By the psychological treatment of the patient and assessing Fairmont Schools his family, pleasant and happy personality can be maintained. He must accept the about mother disease openly. Parents should also learn to accept it.
They should never resent it. Their attitude towards the epileptic child should be same as the normal child. The patient should not develop any complex for his disease. Special workshops should be introduced for the epileptics who at least develops the sense of self-esteem of the patient and improve his outlook towards life. Introduction Essay City Freemen's School! Finally the attitude towards the epileptic patient should be one of writing mother College, understanding and sympathy rather than disgust, fear and ridicule.
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