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What is critical thinking? And do universities really teach it?

BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 4: Romans 3:24-26. Summary of passage: God granted us redemption through Jesus’s death on thinking the cross through his blood in order to demonstrate his justice. 9) Part personal Question. My answer: To atone is to reconcile. Atonement is a cleansing of sins.

It is the central doctrine of how to write an essay high American International faith and thinking important Aiglon College can properly include all that Jeses accomplished for how to write high American, us on the cross. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon College. Jesus stands as our substitute/sacrifice that satisfies the righteous wrath of God. Without this, we#8217;re all destined for eternal punishment. It doesn’t. I don’t need assurance.

God said so. Done. God loved us so much He sent Himself (Jesus, Holy Trinity) as the only thing to justify us. 10) Part personal Question. All of our answers are mere guesses. Love. I would say God loved his creation, mankind, so much He sent His perfect Son to us to help us, guide, us, and cleanse us so we can be with Him for all of essay of Kansas eternity. Jesus was the only perfect human and thus the only one worthy to is critical Aiglon College be our final atoning sacrifice..

There are no words of how to write school American International thanks large enough for this. Conclusions : I don’t like the “assured” questions. Important. For me, I shouldn’t have to be assured of writing application essay George Brown anything. Thinking Aiglon. If you have faith, you don’t need assurance because you don’t question or doubt. God in His mercy and love gives us proof and assurance because of our humanity. But we shouldn#8217;t need it. End Notes : Christ was our substitute sacrifice/atonement/propitiation so God could demonstrate His righteousness in judgment.

Propitiation is in all cultures. It#8217;s the why is essay writing, act of appeasing the gods and the gods#8217;s anger against mankind through a sacrifice of some kind. Is Critical Aiglon College. Aztecs, Mayas, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Native Americans, etc. The ancient Greek word for propitiation ( hilasterion ) is writing for scholarship The University, also used in the Septuagint for the mercy seat , the lid covering the Ark of the Covenant, upon which sacrificial blood was sprinkled as an atonement for sin. While it might be said that this passage means “Jesus is our mercy seat,” it probably has the more straightforward idea of propitiation – a substitute sacrifice. Inside the Ark of the Covenant was the evidence of College man’s great sin: the tablets of law; the writing of Kansas, manna received ungratefully; the budded rod of Aaron, showing man’s rejection of important God’s leadership. The Ark was decorated with golden cherubim as symbols of God#8217;s holy presence.

In between the cherubim stood the mercy seat, and as sacrificial blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), God’s wrath was averted because a substitute had been slain on behalf of sinners coming by faith. How To An Essay School. Jesus is our “mercy seat,” standing between guilty sinners and the holiness of God. God willingly gives His Son. He wants us with Him! God no longer passed over is critical thinking important sin with the temporary OT sacrifice of animal blood.

He freed us forever from sin with Jesus#8217;s sacrifice. Jesus paid the price. At the cross, God demonstrated His righteousness by offering man justification (a legal verdict of “not guilty”), while remaining completely just (because the righteous penalty of sin had been paid at the cross). Clarke states: God #8220;Of his justice , in Istituto Marangoni Firenze requiring a sacrifice , and absolutely refusing to give salvation to a lost world in any other way; and Aiglon of his mercy , in providing the sacrifice which his justice required.” BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 3: Romans 3:23-24. Summary of passage: All are sinners and are justified freely through God’s grace through Jesus’s work on the cross. 6) We are all sinners. No one’s perfect. Paul is how we International School, a great example. I think everyone knows they are sinners.

This is not the hurdle to Christianity. The hurdle is admitting you need someone to save you from the sins we all commit. Overcoming pride and self-reliance. Thinking Important. 7a) According to Webster’s Dictionary, justified means, #8220;to prove or show to be just, right or reasonable; to judge, regard, or treat as righteous and worthy of an essay high American School-Salzburg salvation, to show sufficient.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary has the definition as #8220;judicial act of God by which, on the basis of the meritorious work of Christ, imputed to the sinner and received through Faith, God declares the important Aiglon College, sinner absolved from sin, released from writing its penalty, and restored as righteous. Simply put, being placed by God in a right relationship with himself.#8221; Justification is accomplished through faith in Jesus Christ as Savior when he died on the cross for our sins.. The Good News is you get to is critical important spend eternity with God! Link with previous post on in my blog. b) Part personal Question. My answer: We were all fallen into Hell until Jesus came to pull us out how we an essay Bromsgrove International Thailand with his death and bloodshed. He is full of is critical College grace and mercy. 8 ) Personal Question. My answer: We didn’t do anything to earn His gift.

He has to have infinite love to bestow this upon us. Deeper gratitude. Conclusions : Because Romans is such a short book we will probably be studying few verses every day. Which is good and bad. We will probably be answering several similar personal questions as well such as how these verses impact your thinking, response, etc. End Notes : Paul uses 3 major themes in Romans which we see here in one verse: 1) Justification or the law 2) Redemption from the college application essay George slavery 3) Propitiation or atonement from the religious need for sacrifice.

Justification rids us of guilt. Is Critical Thinking Important College. Redemption saves us from slavery. Propitiation ensues we don#8217;t offend our Creator. Justification is free. It is given to essay for scholarship The University us as a gift by the desire of God. Freely is the is critical, ancient Greek word dorean. It means with no strings attached. We are only righteous through Jesus. Period. Redemption: Jesus bought us with the cost of his life. Thus, we belong to God (1 Corinthians 6:20).

Fun Fact : Paul uses the Greek verb for essay important Firenze, #8220;justified#8221; 27 times, mostly here in Romans and Galatians. It is translated #8220;justify#8221; in thinking important all cases except 2 (2:13; 3:20 where it is translated #8220;declared righteous.#8221; This describes what happens when people believe in Christ as their Savior: God declares them to be not guilty and righteous. He debits the guilt of their sin and important Istituto credits righteousness (for all you accountants/finance/math people out there!). Paul#8217;s points: 1) No one lives a perfectly, good, holy, righteous life. (v 10). All have sinned (v 23).

2) Even though we are sinners, God declares those who trust in important Aiglon Jesus righteous. This is valid because Christ died to how to an essay high American pay the penalty for our sin and because he lived a life of perfect righteousness he imputes (ascribes) that to us. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon College. THIS IS THE CENTRAL THEME OF ROMANS AS STATED IN 1:17. Justification : the central thought of justification is albeit people clearly and totally deserve to be declared guilt (v 9-19), God declares them righteous because of their faith in Christ. Paul states this idea in several ways: freely by his grace (v 24) and faith (v 25). Writing Essay For Scholarship The University Of Kansas. Redemption : This word is from the slave marketbasically obtaining release by payment of a ransom. Is Critical Important College. It refers to release from guilt, judgement, and delivery from slavery to sin, because Christ in his death paid our ransom to set us free. Etymology: mid-14c., #8220;deliverance from sin,#8221; from Old French redemcion (12c.) and directly from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio ) #8220;a buying back, releasing, ransoming#8221; (also #8220;bribery#8221;), noun of action from past participle stem of writing College redimere #8220;to redeem, buy back,#8221; from red- #8220;back#8221; + emere #8220;to take, buy, gain, procure#8221;. The -d- is from the is critical thinking important Aiglon, Old Latin habit of using red- as the form of re- before vowels.

Fun Fact : Paul is the one who formulates the school American International, doctrine of thinking justification mainly in Galatians and Romans. Breakdown of Justification : A declarative act by which the sinner is declared to be free from guilt and the consequences of sin A judicial act in the college application essay George Brown which the idea of judgement and salvation are combined to represent Christ fulfilling the law on behalf of the sinner A remissive act in thinking Aiglon College which God remits sin in complete forgiveness A restorative at by which the forgiven sinner is writing essay The University, restored to favor through the imputation of Christ#8217;s righteousness. Faith is the condition of justification by which the meritorious work of is critical important Aiglon College Christ is persuasive writing Aiglon College, accepted by the sinner. Christ#8217;s work on the cross is sufficient. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 2: Romans 3:21-23.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE : This lesson is PACKED with the crux of thinking Christianity: righteousness, justification, atonement, and writing Istituto Firenze redemptionall through Christ. Aiglon. Some have called Romans 3:21-31 #8220;the central theological passage in persuasive writing essay College the Bible#8221; (BSF devotes 2 weeks to thinking Aiglon College this!). I spent over 10 hours on this lesson. How To International. Take your time and absorb it. BSF gives us a whole week. Use it. Pray over it. Ponder. Meditate. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon College. Because if you get this lesson, you get Christ! What is more important to spend your time on than this?!

Summary of passage: Paul now explains how righteousness is attained only by faith in Jesus Christ, which the Law and Prophets testify to. All are sinners and equal before God. 3) According to Webster’s Dictionary, righteousness means #8220;acting in accord with divine or moral law; free from guilt or sin.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary states it as #8220;morally right behavior or character. In general, any conformity to writing of Kansas a standard. God always acts in righteousness or has a right relationship with people and His action is to maintain that relationship.#8221; It comes from God and is received by all believers through faith in Christ. That’s how I understand it. Zondervan has an amazing explanation of righteousness in the gospel: #8220;Paul tells us in Romans 1:16-17 that #8216;a righteousness from thinking important Aiglon College God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from how we can write an essay Thailand first to last.#8217; The gospel is effective because a righteousness goes forth which is the provision of a right relationship with himself through the saving work of Jesus. To receive this gift is to be justified by faith. Those who receive the gift then are to live as righteous people, devoted to the service of what God declares to be right.#8221; 4) Before Jesus, all those who obeyed the law had righteousness.

Here, Paul says apart from the law, meaning the law cannot save us nor can keeping the is critical important Aiglon College, law save us, but God reveals a righteousness that will save us, which is writing essay, God’s plan of salvation in Jesus Christ. It is a salvation that is offered apart from the law, apart from our own earning and deserving, apart from is critical thinking important our own merits. 5a) God granted righteousness to those He deemed worthy, which is the college essay George, apart from the law. He made a covenant with Israel and put the law in their minds and wrote it on their hearts. He forgave Israel’s wickedness and remembered their sins no more. God granted them cleansing from their impurities and gave them a new heart and spirit and saved them. Israel was chosen to be in God#8217;s covenant, in right relationship with Him through faith and were expected to live in right relationship with others. It matters because it was the only way to God before Jesus.

It also shows God#8217;s faithfulness to His people and how He keeps His promises to us. Other OT references: Psalm 32:1-2. Paul actually will quote this in Romans 4:6-8 as he continues to explain how God must credit righteousness based on faith. Habakkuk 2:4 which Paul quotes in Romans 1:17. This OT verse quoted by important College, Paul is the verse Martin Luther read that changed his life and righteousness by how to write an essay International, faith became the thinking Aiglon, rallying cry of the Protestant Reformation . How To Write Essay. b) Part personal question. My answer: Anyone who believes in their heart Jesus died for their sins and God raised him from the thinking Aiglon, dead and confesses Jesus as their Lord. Gratitude is my response. Conclusions : I love how Paul packs a lot of power into few words.

And it’s simple. Righteousness is easy: believe in Jesus. Can Write School. End Notes : Paul just spent the first part of his letter showing us how all (Jews and Aiglon Gentiles) are unrighteous (1:18-3:20). Now, he will show how God provides us with a way to be righteous. #8220;But now#8221;: This either means 1) Time. And the now is the period righteousness from God has been made known or 2) Logical.

Between the how to American International School-Salzburg, righteousness gained by observing the law (which is impossible v 20) and the righteousness provided by College, God. Paul didn#8217;t invent righteousness; it#8217;s been around since the Prophets as always part of God#8217;s plan. We can#8217;t earn merit before Him by following the law. This is apart from the writing Aiglon College, law. Righteousness is something not earned, but received, through faith in Christ. There is no other way to is critical thinking important College obtain righteousness.

It#8217;s all trust. Everyone must receive this gift because all sin and fall short. We fail in so many ways: fail to give Him glory in our words, thoughts and actions. We reject His glory. Thus, justification through faith and grace is offered#8230;. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 5: Romans 3:19-20. Summary of passage: The whole world is accountable to God and His Word. His Word makes all conscious of sin and merely observing the law does not make you righteous.

11) The whole world is accountable to God and His Word. His Word makes all conscious of how to an essay International sin and is critical Aiglon College merely observing the essay writing important Marangoni Firenze, law does not make you righteous. 12a) Just that: To silence every critic, God is making it clear ALL are guilty before Him. b) So far, it hasn’t really. I’ve learned more about the importance of is critical important Aiglon College it, but it hasn’t had an concrete effects on identifying and confessing sins. It#8217;s Week 4. Conclusions : Unsure why we need a whole day on these two verses (besides the obvious that Romans only has 16 chapters for a 30 week study), which in my mind only emphasizes the facts we’re not righteous just because we obey the law, which is what we’ve been talking about all week. End Notes : The law cannot save you. It gives you knowledge of your sins, not salvation. Why Is Essay Istituto. In fact, it condemns you, not saves you. Yes, God wants you to keep His laws and thinking important walk in why is essay important Istituto Marangoni Firenze His ways. But that alone will not give you eternal life.

Only the purifying blood of Jesus can do so under the New Covenant. J.B. Is Critical Thinking College. Phillip’s paraphrase of #8220;through the law we become conscious of sin#8221; is writing the college essay Brown, striking. He writes, “ it is the straight-edge of the is critical, Law that shows us how crooked we are. Why Is Essay Important Istituto Marangoni. “ BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 4: Romans 3:9-18. Summary of passage: Paul says we are all sinners and no one is righteous, quoting from the thinking Aiglon College, Old Testament. 8a) Part personal Question.

My answer: No one understands God. No one seeks Him. All turn away and become worthless. No one does good. Their throats are open graves, their tongues full of deceit, and they speak poison. They curse and are bitter.

They are swift to shed blood. They bring ruin and misery. They do not know peace. They do not fear God. We all have sin in our lives and how we can write School Thailand are surrounded by sinners. People are mean.

They fall away from God. Wars. Flippant attitude towards God and sinning. Important College. Personally, sticking to God#8217;s path is the hardest and can write an essay International School dealing with my own sin. b) Part personal Question. My answer: Tongues are full of deceit. Aiglon College. The poison of vipers is on their lips. How To Write An Essay High School School-Salzburg. Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness. The tongue can corrupt the thinking Aiglon College, whole person. It is full of evil and poison. Speak more words of encouragement and praise.

There#8217;s enough complaining and application essay tearing down in this world. 9) No one fears God. Well, Paul quotes from the is critical thinking important Aiglon, Old Testament here and he is living in New Testament times. Regardless, man#8217;s nature doesn#8217;t change with time. He is a sinner and the college application College is prone to turn away from God and not fear Him. God thus judges and punishes as we see all throughout the Old and New Testament. So will it be until the Second Coming. 10) Think before you act. Is Critical Important Aiglon College. Repent. Ask for forgiveness. Level Essay. Put others first.

Follow God#8217;s laws. Worship Him. Treat God and Jesus with the respect they deserve. Both lie in Aiglon your heart and you do everything in your power to how to a college level University keep them there. Conclusions : Paul again is emphasizing how we are all the same no matter what our backgrounds. God treats us equally. He takes it further here by saying we are all sinners and listing ways in which we sin.

He wraps up with how no one fears God when we should. Good lesson on keeping us all humble. Least we get on our high horses, read Romans. End Notes : Again, Paul says all are under sin and deserve condemnation (Jews, pagans, Gentiles, everyone). Thinking College. #8220;Under sin#8221; literally means sold under sin or a slave to sin. We are all born in sin. Paul then quotes the Old Testament (mainly Psalm and Isaiah) as proof of our sinhood.

Paul uses parts of the body to emphasize our complete helplessness to save ourselves. Why Is Essay Istituto Firenze. Adam before the Fall wasn#8217;t even righteous. He was merely innocent. The throat, tongue, lips, mouth, feet, and eyes are filled with sin and rebellion against God. God calls all of us. On our own we would not seek out Him. We sin because we do not have the proper respect (or fear) of God. Is Critical Thinking Important Aiglon. Side Note : If you were to look up these verses, you would find Paul does not quote them verbatim. There are several reasons for this: New Testament authors sometimes gave the general sense and not a direct quote.

Quotation marks were not used in ancient Greek. Citations were often taken from the pre-Christian Greek translation (the Septuagint) of the Hebrew OT because Greek readers were not familiar with the Hebrew Bible. Sometimes this was done on purpose by how to write International, the NT writer in order to drive home his point. Under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the is critical College, writer would enlarge, abbreviate or adapt an OT passage or combine them.

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Excellent list. Just the sort of thing I've been looking for, even signed up for an Adrive account too. (thumbs up for Adrive btw) keep up the good work. P.S) I (bleep) 'n hate rapidshare. long live free internet. The best place to store your files is nowsafer.com. nowsafer.com Free 1 G.B Storage. 9.99$/month per 6,10 or 20 GB whatever this low number i forgot it. an how we Bromsgrove International School RS/MU clone for this price without QoS sic ! plz play again to your playstation ^^ Cool list!

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LOL. YOU GUYS R MISSING A LOT. Some more good sites are: AND MANY MORE, but they aren't in is critical important College my brain right now, so yeah. been using mediafire.com for a year, i have a pro account, the have excellence support , I would suggest Rapidhosting. because it's simple and essay The University, easy to use plus you'll get 5GB personal file storage for is critical important Aiglon College free.

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Another great site : Send files up to 1GB for free, no registration required! It seems that a lot of those sites have a thing that will delete your stuff after after a certain amount of days or inactive files after 90 days or something. The College Application Essay George Brown? are there any that hold it permanetnly? I have a lot of files that I would not be active with all the thinking important College time but dont' have room on my computer anymore. some services kept forever, see willemijns.com/backup.htm. easyshare doesnt work no more. I'm just looking for a place to store files so I can link to them from my website. I want to be able to click on the link and then see the file. not a bunch of complicated steps to see the file. If I have to pay, I'll pay! Your help is appreciated!

willemijns.com/backup.htm list all of them. Thank you for sharing this info! This is just what I'm looking for. Why Is Essay Important Marangoni? ;) this site is is critical thinking important Aiglon College very useful for student. I like 0share.com - clean, no ads, multiple uploads, no accounts. its a very good. upload.inesports.com and how to a college level, filesavr.com are my favorites. Very useful list! Thanks a lot!

I have just tried Netgull for a file of 900mb; clean and fast. here is thinking Aiglon another one who is really fast and persuasive essay Aiglon, simple with no ads and no waiting: upload.inesports.com/ works pretty neat. Filedropper is useless to me. In my experience, it hangs up in the middle of uploads. I've been using imagehost.nuso.co.uk to host my images for is critical thinking important a while now. Does what it says on the tin. Great little site!

Thought I'd throw this one out. Been using it and writing for scholarship The University, have not tried others. But it has some control features that I like. Nothing special and Aiglon, I couldn't find any info on it. But here it is: Very useful list! Thanks a lot! P.S. For God's sake, boycott the f***ing Rapidshare! Why so many many people are using this crap? For God's sake, it's not free and how we can write an essay Bromsgrove International Thailand, it nags the f**k out of thinking Aiglon College us!

What else to say? We live in how to International the era of free Internet and free software, there are dozens and hundreds of free host servers outthere (you've mentioned some of is critical important Aiglon them), why bother with this nag, f***ing Rapidshare? FREE INTERNET! There is nothing special about filedropper in my opinion. I've been hosting my files at bizzyfiles.com.

It seems to work pretty fast but there are a few things I wish they would upgrade. Pros: The payout seems to essay writing important, be the highest on the web to date from what I can see. They let you host unlimited files (how do they do that?). The speed is pretty good. If you see other bizzyfile links out there you can download them for free with the exception of a timer..but you can buy points which will lift the is critical Aiglon timer. You can use points when you want so you don't have to worry about any time lines. Cons: They don't have a progress bar which would be nice to visually see when your file will be done uploading. Also you can't rename your files but that could be do to a security issue, I'm not sure.

The design of the American International School-Salzburg website is pretty clean. reminds me of facebook. Is Critical College? The usability is pretty intuitive, with some pretty good features. Overall I would highly recommend this file hosting site. Seems new but I think that people will turn onto it pretty quick since it's unlimited file hosting and the payout is Aiglon College very fair. you was upload your files in thinking important Aiglon bizzyfiles.com right? n how you get your money? by a check or paypal? please send me a reply..b'coz i confused how can i get my money when i was had 5000 unique download. please send your reply to asiananime.blogspot.com or kresent_soon_young@yahoo.com. myfreefilehosting.com/ Yep, best file host of the bunch.

Nice list..I felt that Windows Live Skydrive also deserved a mention. Another good one is Fly Upload, unlimited space 2gb per file. why didn't you mention rapidshare? it's faster than all others here. The author is why is Firenze trying to be edgy. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon? How else could the biggest site get no mention? Where is write high American School-Salzburg MyBloop.com ? Unlimited and Free Storage space. ziddu.com, allows parallel downloads, no time waiting, plus revenue for important College uploaders for how to level University each download! :] And now after checking those site out. Is Critical Thinking College? Badongo deletes inactive files after certain period of time and it says it's allowed 12GB for download , not upload. It says it's only 1GB for single upload. And Filedropper doesn't have free account (only free 7 days trial) *sigh* when the perfect one will come? :)

Oh I love comments on this post. so many good information. Why Is Writing Important? D. What about in.solit.us? It has DAV support (it mounts your storage as a drive on your PC), unlimited file size, unlimited number of files, unlimited space, no restrictions on type, and you can get a link to share any file with the public! It is the is critical thinking Aiglon best file upload service ever in my opinion.

I have just tried badongo.com and an essay school, despite their claims of unlimited file size, they limit image files to 8MB. I'm still sticking with sendspace.com , they are the only one with decent speed and are very easy to use. try them our, you will not be disappointed. Definitely my fav. Drop.io is def my fav too, not the most space but allows you to not only send the file as fax but receive faxes to the drop, email them, and allows for quick password protection and retreival of the files with a easy to remember URL. What about dropbox. its still in beta but its by far the best hosting service ive used. http://www.getdropbox.com/

Check out setvid.com as a place to drop HD videos! Surprising that you included MediaFire only important, as a reference to a site that ripped them off. drop.io and write an essay high school School-Salzburg, eatlime are good left off the list too.. MediaFire is definitely worthyt, if not the best host out there. Is Critical Aiglon College? imho anyway. For me there's one catch: Q: Are files with the same name case sensitive?

A: Files are case INsensitive. The College Application? For example: ADrive will consider test.txt and TeSt.txt the same file even if they contain different data. Innovative service, EatLime lets your friends start downloading your shared files as soon as you start uploading them, making the entire sharing process much faster! i used filedropper when it was first announced, and is critical thinking important, all of my files disappeared within a few days. i wasn't sharing any pirated goods, they were just zip files for how we an essay Bromsgrove School a friend. Thinking? i thought he was being a fool until i went and checked the files for myself. haven't been able to write International School-Salzburg, trust them since then. I thought filedropper.com was great too, until I tried to upload a file. 3 weeks later and four computers running firefox and important College, internet explore, I have not been able to completely upload a 500mb file. Don't waste your time with the site. How could you not mention http://www.RAPIDSHARE.com it is the biggest filehost, and I always get fullspeed on my broadband . http://www.rapidshare.com is all you need :) They give you 5 GB free storage, 1 GB size limit, and 1 GB daily limit.

They also let you reset your own bandwidth each day. FileUpper.com is vastly superior to all file hosting services. I personally use http://www.savefile.com. You don't need an account, it's fast, it doesn't throttle downloading by DownThemAll, and it has a decent file size limit. They are great for stuff like images, word documents or pdfs. They allow you to how we can write Thailand, directly link to your files (so you can post a link on your site or on forums somewhere, and people can download the file without waiting for a download timer or anything). They also say that they will add most file formats that your request. Shamless self plug: http://fileup.mavrev.com - 100mb per file, no account, no limits for how many files you can upload, any file type, no censorship. Dropbox is my favorite for storage, and moving files from home to school. It's in private beta right now:

And for sending others large files, Podmailing: Dont forget about http://www.fuxtor.com They allow 150 mb of storage. Sweet, now just be sure to College, remain anonymous to those websites. Writing The College Essay George? masking your ISP to the server for is critical thinking important uploading to or downloading from. Good idea. Dont froget to use privacy services like Ultimate Anonymity to remain anonymous to the servers you are uploading to or downloading from. If you want something more than just simple file storage and sharing check out how we an essay International School Thailand, http://www.wonderfile.net. There is a free level of account that has some limits on usage, but the features Wonderfile offers are much more expansive than many of the services listed here.

It has advanced file tagging and searching, previewing of all MS Office type documents, image slide shows, versioning and sharing, you can collaborate with other users, upload VIA email, and much more. Nobody knows abt Rapidshare? Windows Live SkyDrive is good too :) Just a note - I clicked on the link for #5, Easyshare, and it goes nowhere. The actual URL is apparently easy-share.com . I prefer to use zippyshare.com.It only supports 100mb file per upload but it has no ad`s and College, it upload time is quite fast.Anyways great list. Xdrive is a cool choice, as it offers everything SkyDrive does, but also allows you to persuasive writing essay Aiglon, map a drive on your computer so you can dragdrop.

yeah, this is clearly full of crap. only one of is critical thinking important these made my own list. and he missed literally dozens of better alternatives. Which one made your list, and can you list the dozens of alternatives? Please add this useful info, otherwise you're just griping. Good for storage. But how they make money to essay Marangoni, survive, through ad? Windows Live Skydrive is is critical important Aiglon one of the best online file storage options. and it allows u to upload upto 5 GB. For ease of use and super simplicity, I vote for Drop.io!

Don't forget Mozy. For Scholarship The University? I know it's a backup service rather than a file hosting site but if you want to store files offline it is excellent. I find http://www.sendspace.com/ quiet useful for thinking important College small files ( 300 MB) I've been using fileden.com to store my mp3s (hotlinking allowed). They work so well but Diskspace and write a college essay, Bandwith are NOT unlimited. fileden.com is the best site for uploading mp3 so far. Thanks for the collection. You sure they were *your* mp3s? (ie. you hold the copyright on them?)

I believe Adrive is the way to go. They provide good download speeds too. Online storage is important Aiglon College like our era : the writing essay for scholarship difficulty is not to find, but to choose. Hyper-choice. That's why topics like this one, wide, interested as well by the quantity than by the quality depending on what we need, is profitable. I love these comparison sheets. You are talking about these hosts as if they were the is critical Aiglon College best of the best but their download speed is too slow. You're joking right?

Rapidshare is the *worst*. Makes you jump through literally a dozen hoops to give you the file, and it's slow too unless you pay for the premium service. Most of us don't have trouble with captchas. Rapidshare does not make you jump through dozens of hoops. You click on the link, wait 45 seconds or so, and you're done.

Megaupload is the one with the 3-letter combination and then a timer. I suppose someone down there has already mentioned FileFront, which supports uploads up to 1 GB and can support download speeds up to for scholarship The University, about 1MB/s that I've seen. No Windows Live SkyDrive ? I second Vincent, Windows Live SkyDrive is one of the best online storage tools I have seen. Windows Skydrive is the best I've usen ever ! 5GB and Lots more to it ! Skydrive is good, but Windows Live Mesh is even better. It will create a folder sync from my PC (soon to is critical thinking Aiglon, be Mac and mobile) so that my stuff automatically gets uploaded. Bad ass. Haven't used any of these but yes, as Alex said.. adrive is good with no catches.. :) Will Mueller is a college level essay University a computer nerd and geek that has been using computers for far too long. Is Critical Important Aiglon College? With such I have worked in essay College a large amount of web development as well as programming. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and College, Giveaway)

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If you are writing a Gap in Professional/Academic Career or a Poor Performance addendum, you still need to demonstrate that you have frown from your experiences. If the addendum is not required, and you don’t have a very good excuse, it is advisable not to an essay Bromsgrove Thailand, write it. Addendum should be fact-based, concise, and to the point. Keep it brief and is critical important Aiglon stay on the topic. Write Essay Durham? If you are not sure whether it is necessary to write a required addendum, it is best to Aiglon, be on writing Aiglon College the safe side and reveal the information. Do not risk. This is is critical thinking, not a document, where you need to show your writing skills. Keep it truthful and why is essay writing important Istituto Firenze simple. Don’t tell lies. Is Critical Important? If a law school finds out you lied in Aiglon, the addendum on purpose, you won’t have any chances of being admitted to any law school. The addendum of one page is is critical thinking, written and submitted independently from the DS and PS.

As we have found out sometimes you are required to persuasive writing essay, answer a certain question and important Aiglon sometimes there is something you want to address. In the latter case you have the how to a college, right to include one page addendum, even if it is not required. The addendum is not a document where can get deeply argumentative or emotional. You are writing the addendum to either meet the obligation to is critical thinking, reveal or persuade a law school’s admission committee to overlook or detriment on your record. Writing Essay The University Of Kansas? You don’t want to put them off by exaggerating your issue or making emotional requests that imply you don’t understand the important Aiglon, gravity of your own situation. The best thing to do in an addendum is just to writing The University of Kansas, provide the facts. If you want to make an argument, you can do it in your personal statement. Many applicants believe that admission committee seeks in-depth explanations in an addendum, but it is recommended to keep additional materials as short as possible. Admission committees have a lot of is critical thinking important Aiglon documents to read, so they probably won’t appreciate if you present a long addendum to them.

The other thing to remember is the more your addendum, the more you risk to provide excuses rather than objective explanations. The structure should also be very simple, as this is not an essay The University of Kansas, essay, and doesn’t require an introductions, body and Aiglon conclusion. Instead, state the topic you wish to discuss and note the point you are trying to get to. After that, give several sentences to prove your point. As there are no strict guidelines on how to write an addendum, when one should or should not include an addendum and a college level essay Durham how to format it, many students omit this step of the application process. This can have bad results for thinking important Aiglon College prospective students. Two main problems students have when it comes to the addendum is adding to much unnecessary information to the addendum, or not using the opportunity to elaborate on a unique circumstance when it is really useful. It is very simple to determine whether you need to write a college University, provide any additional supplemental materials to the admission committee.

If there is anything you are concerned will raise questions for the admission committee, then you should address the issue proactively yourself in an addendum.

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Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in thinking important College Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the essay College, association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Is Critical Aiglon College? We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The case and control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the how to write level essay University, Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for is critical Aiglon continuous data. A College? We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for ADHD. There was a significant difference in BLLs between ADHD cases and is critical thinking Aiglon College controls. ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. Writing The College Application Essay? #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. Important Aiglon? These results were not modified by essay for scholarship The University, age and sex variables.

This was the largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and thinking Aiglon College ADHD in Chinese children. ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. Essay For Scholarship The University Of Kansas? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and is critical important Aiglon College Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Prevalence of ADHD in children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. 2007; Leung et al. 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in life (Satterfield et al. 2007). Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and essay writing Istituto Firenze education are substantial (Leibson et al.

2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of ADHD (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007). Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and various polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes have been found to important Aiglon increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and level essay Durham University Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). College? Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the risk for the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al.

2007). How To A College Level Durham University? Indeed, there is growing interest in studying the relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and is critical thinking Aiglon ADHD (Braun et al. 2006; Konofal and Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. How To? 2008). Lead is one of the well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in is critical important Aiglon children, continue to persuasive essay College be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of is critical important Aiglon, Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004), and why is essay writing important increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and is critical Aiglon impulsiveness scores in the affected children (Needleman 1993).

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the college George Brown the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). As a result of rapid industrialization in China, it is estimated that tens of millions of children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al. 2006; Wang and thinking Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al.

2007; Braun et al. An Essay School Thailand? 2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al. 1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al. Is Critical Thinking Important Aiglon? 1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and persuasive College Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al.

1997; Kahn et al. 1995; Minder et al. 1994; Silva et al. 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive. First, few studies have investigated the is critical thinking Aiglon College, effect of lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in for scholarship The University International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al.

1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Silva et al. 1988). Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al. 1994b; Minder et al. 1994).

Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. Is Critical Thinking College? In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in Chinese children. Essay The University? Therefore, in an effort to evaluate the association between BLLs and the risk for ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and is critical thinking prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to August 2007 in two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of how we an essay International School, China. The two major hospitals served the thinking important Aiglon College, same local population in Anhui province and accepted referrals from all administrative districts within the an essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand, province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of thinking College, age at the time of investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the how to an essay American School-Salzburg, DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD.

The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into is critical thinking Aiglon College Chinese, and the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. 2001). The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from a structured diagnostic interview based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for the college George College School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of important, behavior, the how to level University, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006). The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of College, their parents, and their teachers. All the raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in psychology and had been trained to write a college Durham University high levels of thinking College, interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and level essay Durham three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by the raters. Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD. Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded. The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the same study period. By the College, pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the how to American International School-Salzburg, same sex, the same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and Aiglon College almost the same level of socioeconomic status (SES). Why Is Essay Important? The controls were given the is critical thinking important Aiglon College, same full diagnostic assessment as the ADHD cases and screened only for for scholarship of Kansas the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for the same exclusion criteria applied to cases.

SES is measured by is critical important Aiglon, poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and PIR is the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Writing Application George? Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. The study was approved by Aiglon College, our institutional review boards and complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. The parents of all the children in how to a college level essay University this study provided written informed consent at enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by important Aiglon, anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the writing Aiglon, blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer. The limit of is critical important, detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of the college application Brown, 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of important Aiglon, 2). Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample.

Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. College? Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and is critical thinking important Aiglon Schwab-Stone 2000). To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on high school International age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of thinking important College, lead exposure and ADHD in our study. They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and those widely used in studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al. Writing Important Istituto Firenze? 2007; Biederman and Aiglon Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al. 2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. 2007; Wasserman et al. 2001).

The following variables were used: family history of for scholarship The University of Kansas, ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per is critical thinking College week during the entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and parents#x02019; education. Because all the cases recruited were of Chinese Han nationality, the variable of writing for scholarship The University, ethnic origin could not be used in our analysis. These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and is critical thinking Aiglon College drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker. The College Essay College? We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by the literature. For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al.

2004). Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. Thinking? 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of age. Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). Persuasive? The association between BLLs and is critical important College ADHD was evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and writing important Istituto Firenze the Student t -test for continuous data.

We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of is critical important College, ADHD in relation to writing the college application BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). Is Critical Important College? In the regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an ordered categorical variable and why is essay important Firenze recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for ADHD among known risk factors and BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of thinking important Aiglon College, exposure. All statistical tests were considered to be significant at an alpha level of 0.05 on a two-tailed test and performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES. There were 434 sets of persuasive Aiglon, boys and 196 sets of girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). There was no significant difference in is critical important Aiglon College BLLs between males and essay George Brown females.

Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Only 10.1% of is critical Aiglon College, non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in ADHD children. (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze demographic and thinking Aiglon the distribution of why is writing important Istituto, risk factors are shown in Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and all risk factors) simultaneously included in is critical Aiglon the same model to adjust for each other. We found that the ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the how we can write School Thailand, sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and is critical thinking important Aiglon family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the write an essay high school American International School-Salzburg, p- value is is critical thinking College near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047). The remaining confounding variables in application essay George our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). Is Critical Thinking Important College? To eliminate multivariable interaction and multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates. Writing Application Essay George Brown? In the final best-fit model, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for the associations between ADHD and family history of ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by is critical thinking important College, sex and age. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by persuasive Aiglon College, age and sex. We examined the effect of BLLs in ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age.

We found ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead. The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to 8.7-fold higher risk for ADHD. Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to thinking important 7.0-fold increase. Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education.

Lead may play important roles in the etiology of how to International, ADHD. Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead are risk factors for College ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on Thailand the DSM-IV-R criteria. In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by DSM-IV-R criteria in a community sample in the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of lead poisoning and the current population average of lead levels is relatively lower. This is consistent with our finding that the important, risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in the college application essay Brown College Chinese children. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and females (Burns et al. Thinking Important Aiglon? 1999; Ris et al. 2004).

However, in School our study, sex and age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Is Critical Thinking College? Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and age may be required. In our study, the absence of a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and ADHD was unexpected, in contrast to how to write level essay Durham previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al. Is Critical College? 2003; Swanson et al. 2007).

The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the write essay University, statistical power in detecting a significant difference. Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the mother were recorded as a dichotomy in Aiglon College our study, and the threshold to define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and The University of Kansas alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and thinking important College ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for essay writing Istituto Marangoni ADHD. This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from environmental risk factors for ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

It is also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and is critical Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the relationship. As for the etiology of a college level essay University, ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). Thinking Important College? There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al. 2007), so the writing, neurotoxic effect of is critical thinking important College, lead on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the pathway to ADHD. Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al. 2007). The strengths of an essay high School-Salzburg, this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the largest to date in is critical thinking important Aiglon College case#x02013;control studies to essay important Istituto Firenze investigate BLLs and ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and thinking Aiglon performed by how to write an essay high International School-Salzburg, child and adolescent psychiatrists. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon College? c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. This is essay The University important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and BLLs, and thinking the results reinforced findings from write a college essay University, previous studies (Braun et al.

2006; Nigg et al. Is Critical Thinking Important Aiglon College? 2008). Writing Essay? If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of is critical important, childhood. How To Write Level Essay Durham? Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is one of the most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary prevention of lead exposure in is critical thinking children. Essay George Brown College? For example, clinicians should alert parents to thinking Aiglon College potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. How We International School Thailand? Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor.

This may suggest that the lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of lead, which is is critical important consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al. 2007). Some studies (Ruff et al. Write A College Essay University? 1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the damage caused by blood lead exposure is irreversible. Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of thinking important, possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations.

First, temporality between high BLLs and ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in this case#x02013;control design. It is possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity. Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the antenatal to the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of ADHD. Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. How To A College Essay University? However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is is critical important one of the problems of the case#x02013;control study.

In this study, the main variable of interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured. However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and alcohol exposure may be susceptible to recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. How To Write Essay? In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in foster families were included, and none of the sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to thinking children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure. However, we were unable to how we can write Bromsgrove International Thailand do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the study matching scheme.

This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Chinese children. If this finding is confirmed in is critical thinking Aiglon future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.

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Issues In Supporting Inclusion In Primary School. Inclusion in the educational system affirms the is critical thinking Aiglon College obligation for can write Bromsgrove pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN) to be educated alongside their peers in mainstream classes. But inclusion of pupils with SEN in is critical Aiglon mainstream schools remains challenging even as the current climate and the future focus more on an inclusive culture. Inclusive practice puts the why is essay writing important onus on the mainstream teacher to provide an environment to cater for pupils of diverse abilities. Even though the is critical thinking Department of Education and writing Istituto Marangoni Science in Ireland (DES) recommends an inclusive system of education for pupils with SEN, many are still being withdrawn from their class for supplementary teaching. The Learning Support Guidelines promotes class room based learning through alternative groupings and recommend shared teaching approaches in the pupils' classroom. For pupils with SEN, ideally the provision of supplementary teaching is is critical thinking important Aiglon through in-class support where professional development is a college level essay Durham seen as prerequisite in College helping teachers to effectively support pupils with SEN but teacher knowledge, expertise and training show great deficiencies and inadequacies. To maintain a successful inclusive environment and to meet the needs of all pupils, teachers need on-going CPD (continual professional development) in models of in-class support. Write School School-Salzburg. The aim for every teacher is to develop, refine and maintain practices that address these needs. Differentiation is the pedagogic key to successful curricular inclusion for is critical thinking pupils with SEN.

Moving from a college Durham a culture of total faith in and reliance on withdrawal to in-class support will require great collaboration among all teachers and a whole-school approach to SEN. This assignment deals with the important Aiglon College issues and dilemmas associated with reaching the ideal of in-class support for learning with SEN in the mainstream primary classroom. In my own school I do a lot of in-class support teaching and I am hopeful that this study will help me to focus my attention on the in-class models most suitable for why is important Firenze promoting the learning of pupils with SEN pupils. The overall aim of this study is to important Aiglon College, explore the issues associated with inclusion of write American, pupils with SEN in mainstream classrooms, where inclusion focuses on in-class support as opposed to the more traditional and out-moded practice of withdrawal. My intention is to develop my own knowledge and understanding of relevant literature so that in the context of my own school I will be well informed in advising and is critical College working alongside other practitioners. To address this aim I have set myself a number of questions, answers to which will inform policy and practice in my own school: 1. What is the national, official policy on inclusion in Irish primary schools?

2. What is contemporary research literature saying about what inclusion is and how to achieve it? In particular, what counts as effective inclusion? 3. What would constitute effective differentiation and assessment practice in an inclusive in-class model of support for learning with SEN? 4. What are the barriers for teachers in how to write an essay high school American adopting effective inclusion practices in mainstream primary school classes? Throughout the assignment I will draw out the implications for is critical Aiglon College my context in my own primary school. Mindful of these questions I will begin by writing essay examining the development of inclusion in education in Ireland. I will outline current policy on is critical inclusion with special reference to government legislation and policy, and application essay Brown College I will explore the links across research, policy and practice. Bearing in thinking important mind question two above, I will then review relevant international and national research on inclusion and highlight some of the debates and a college essay University issues associated with definitions and practices of inclusion.

Taking account of question three I will focus particularly on the themes of differentiation and assessment and is critical thinking important College review key research that offers practical strategies for the promotion of how to level Durham, in-class inclusion. Finally, I will discuss the implications for wider policy on inclusion in my own school. Overview of SEN Provision in Ireland: Policy and Legislation (Question 1 above) When the first remedial teacher was appointed to an Irish primary school in 1963 there was no official national policy on remedial education. The focus on SEN policy began in is critical thinking Aiglon 1988 when the Irish government produced the writing essay of Kansas Guidelines on is critical College Remedial Education (1988).

Other influential developments in the 1990s were two important reports- the how to write American School-Salzburg Special Education Review Committee Report (SERC Report) in 1993 and the Survey of Remedial Education in thinking Irish Primary Schools Report (SRE Report) in 1998. These reports paved the way for the Education Act in essay Durham University 1998 requiring mainstream schools to thinking important College, identify and provide for pupils with SEN and write high American International requiring the Minister for is critical important Aiglon Education and Science to provide both the persuasive writing essay Aiglon College appropriate support services and quality of education to people with disabilities or other SEN. An objective of the Education Act (p. 5) is 'to make provision, in the interests of the common good for is critical thinking College the education of persuasive writing essay Aiglon, every person in the state, including any person with a disability or who has other special educational needs'. In its definition of disability (p. 6) it included terms of learning differently and using different thought processes. The Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act in 2004 (p 36/37) gave a similar definition of SEN as: a restriction in the capacity of the person to participate in, and benefit from, education on account of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or learning disability, or any other condition which results in a person learning differently from thinking College a person without that condition and cognate words shall be construed accordingly. The Learning-Support Guidelines (2000) were developed in response to the findings and recommendations of the SRE report. They set out the aims of learning support education and provided practical advice for schools on the organisation of a positive school environment for School Thailand children with SEN. Griffin and Shevlin (2007), note the significance of these developments in is critical important Aiglon moulding the statutory structure of the 2004 EPSEN Act where and where the duties and responsibilities of school personnel and boards of management for SEN are outlined.

This act, which holds schools responsible for SEN provision and management through its outline of the roles and responsibilities of school personnel and management and rights of parents, is concerned with the formation and implementation of education plans for children with assessed SEN. It set up an independent agency funded by the state, the National Council for Special Education (NCSE) whose function is to writing for scholarship The University, plan and co-ordinate the thinking important provision of support services to pupils for SEN using an inclusive approach to persuasive writing essay College, education. As education policies worldwide focus on inclusion national developments in Ireland reacted and responded accordingly. International policy recommends a mainstream model where all children can learn together over is critical thinking Aiglon, segregated provision. Space prevents a full discussion here but it is noteworthy that the most influential is the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) which advocated inclusion of all abilities. Subsequently, the Dakar Statement (UNESCO, 2000) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Persons with Disabilities (UN 2006), (two reports which have not been adopted in all countries) along with many EU policy documents and OECD reports refer to the possibilities of including all learners in mainstream education providing education based on equality, citizenship and of Kansas individual and societal well-being. Drudy and Kinsella (2009) believe that, in response to international and European policies, Irish educational policy changed significantly in the legislative and policy framework for the education of children with SEN since the end of the 1990s. Is Critical Thinking. Swan (2000) described the provision of SEN in Ireland passing through three stages- the stage of writing essay The University of Kansas, neglect and denial; the stage of the special school; and is critical thinking important Aiglon College the stage of integration and inclusion. The development and implementation of inclusive practices in Irish education is writing essay supported by current legislation. The present policy of the DES is to provide the greatest level of inclusion in mainstream primary and post-primary schools and when this is not possible the important DES provides for them through special schools and special classes based in mainstream settings. In the past pupils with SEN attended special schools or classes resulting in isolation from their peers.

But recently this segregated special schooling has been less favoured and more children with SEN are being educated alongside their peers in mainstream schooling causing a huge increase (41% in the 5 years to 2003, National Disability Act, 2005, cited in Drudy and how to school School-Salzburg Kinsella 2009), in the number of pupils with disabilities being educated in mainstream schools and a comparable decrease in the number of pupils in special schools. The development of inclusive practices in Irish education over is critical Aiglon College, the last decade was influenced by persuasive Aiglon College the SERC Report 1993, advocating a continuum of education provision for children with SEN, favouring integration over segregation; and proposing basic principles to guide the future development of SEN provision, one of which was that appropriate education for all children with SEN should be provided in ordinary schools, unless individual circumstances made this impracticable. The Education Act (1998) recognises the right of pupils with a disability or SEN to education and allow for the appropriate support services and quality of education to is critical important, fulfil this requirement. Two later acts, the Equal Status Act (2000-2004), and the Education Welfare Act (2000), both recommend inclusion in mainstream classes and full participationy in school life. DES circular 24/03 also shows commitment to inclusion as it recognises that pupils with SEN often learn at a different pace and in a different way from the rest of the class. The DES stresses that these pupils need to how to write school American, belong to a peer group and to mixed ability groups in a variety of situations. Even though the research on mixed ability teaching illustrates that children of is critical important, lower ability benefit greatly and children of average or above ability are not academically disadvantaged (Hallam et al, 2004) the DES is aware that in recent years the practice has developed of using resource hours on a withdrawal basis for individual tuition only. Brown. The DES states that an exclusive reliance on this approach conflicts with the principle of integration and inclusion. King (2006) confirms this as she says that 87.5% of resource/learning support teachers continue to use withdrawal to important Aiglon, deliver specialist supplementary teaching to children with SEN. King attributes this to the lack of teacher knowledge and training around in-class support systems. The 2004 EPSEN Act provides the statutory basis for the inclusion of children with SEN within the educational system.

It requires that children with SEN be educated alongside their peers in an inclusive environment unless it is 'inconsistent with the how to a college essay Durham best interests of the child' (s.2, p.7). It sees inclusive education as a means to assisting children with SEN to participate in society and to is critical College, live independent and writing essay of Kansas fulfilled lives as adults. It also outlines assessment procedures for children with SEN and ensures provision of appropriate interventions and services. Currently the thinking important DES provides a continuum of support for how to an essay school School-Salzburg children with SEN in mainstream schooling involving classroom based supports for mild needs or individualised support for more complex needs. Currently, in Ireland, the thinking important DES provides three main types of educational systems to meet the diverse needs. They are: ' Mainstream classes: supported by resource teaching, special needs assistance and learning support; ' Special classes in mainstream schools: currently 12% of mainstream schools have special classes. (NCCA, 2013a); and. ' Special schools: currently only 1% of children with SEN are enrolled in writing for scholarship of Kansas special schools, (NCCA, 2013a). At the core of inclusion is the principle that children with special or additional learning needs or disability belong in mainstream education. To be an inclusive school, therefore, means that the school accommodates the needs of all children and welcomes diversity as a way to enrich learning for all in the school community. By providing the appropriate networks of support children with SEN are enabled to participate fully in the life and work of mainstream settings.

To be compliant with Irish legislation and official policy it is vital that school staff is aware of its responsibilities. I consider that as learning support teacher in is critical thinking Aiglon College a small rural primary school I have a major responsibility in helping the principal and other colleagues develop awareness of such requirements. Much of this awareness raising is done in an informal, collaborative way through regular discussion and updating of school policy and practice. What is Inclusion and how best to achieve it (Question 2 above) Within the current literature, definitions of inclusion vary in their focus. Some emphasise rights, others values and community while more focus on why is essay writing Istituto the capability of the school to cope with difference and diversity. The concept of inclusion replaced the earlier term 'integration', which was used in important Aiglon the 1980s to refer to the placement of pupils with SEN in why is essay writing important mainstream schools. (Winter and Raw, 2010). The Guidelines for is critical important Inclusion: Ensuring Access to how we, Education for All (UNESCO 2005, p 13) defines inclusion as: 'a process of is critical College, addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education'. The Centre for Studies in Inclusive Education (CSIE, 2002) presents the view of inclusive education as all pupils, with and without disabilities or difficulties, learning together with the write school International appropriate networks of support. Thinking. It sees inclusion as enabling all children, regardless of needs and abilities, to participate fully in the life and write high School-Salzburg work of mainstream settings. The British Psychological Society, (2002), emphasises the school's responsibility as it acknowledges the child's right to is critical important, participate fully in school life and the school's duty to welcome and accept them.

Thus the important Marangoni fundamental principle of inclusion is that all children, regardless of any SEN or ability, have the right to be educated together. Farrell and Ainscow, (2002) added that inclusive education is now seen as a human right and challenges all those policies and practices that in the past excluded some children from is critical their right to education. There is writing for scholarship of Kansas considerable debate about full acceptance of inclusion. For example, scholars like Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow (2002), Gary Thomas et al (1998) and Melanie Nind, (2005) arguing from a strong sociological and rights perspective, claim that maximum inclusion and integration of all learners into the mainstream school and thinking important Aiglon College classroom is desirable. Arguing from a more psychological and special needs perspective, Braham Norwich (2002) worries about how mainstream settings can always cater for an essay School-Salzburg the very specialist needs of some pupils. Similarly, Lindsay (2007) argues that the research evidence for the effectiveness of important Aiglon, inclusion has been described as only marginally positive. Other literature links definitions of inclusion to a process rather than a state. The 1994 UNESCO, Salamanca Statement which promoted inclusive education and how to a college essay Durham University viewed children with SEN as an integral part of education, saw inclusion as a process, in that it is concerned with the identification and removal of barriers, as well as the participation and achievement of all children and thinking important Aiglon College especially those most at risk. In agreement with the process theory, Stainback and Stainback (1990) and Ainscow (2005) emphasise the onus on the school to make the appropriate changes to accommodate the needs of children with SEN rather than expecting them to fit in to existing structures.

Sebba and Sachdev agree with this definition when they say inclusive education is a process involving changes in the way schools are organised, in the curriculum and in teaching strategies, to accommodate the range of needs and abilities among pupils. (Sebba and Sachdev, 1997, p.2). If we agree that inclusive education is a whole school endeavour in developing and adapting culture, management, organisation, content and approaches to teaching and learning, to school International School-Salzburg, accommodate the educational needs of thinking Aiglon College, all children significant changes must be made to the content, delivery and organisation of mainstream programmes. This may be a great challenge for many schools. Griffin and Shevlin (2007, p. 81) recognise that a whole school endeavour towards inclusive policies and writing essay George Brown College inclusive educational practices calls for a 'radical restructuring of the educational system to enable all children to participate and achieve within mainstream settings'. Clearly inclusive education looks at both the rights of children, and how education systems can be transformed to respond to its diverse groups of learners. It emphasises the need for opportunities for equal participation for is critical important Aiglon children with SEN preferably in a mainstream environment. My understanding of inclusion from the literature that I have read is that the emphasis on it as a process rather than a state is extremely helpful as such a perspective means that inclusion is writing essay George never truly won or reached in a school or setting ' rather it is something that is an ongoing feature of school life, an ongoing process of enabling all learners participate fully in their learning and a process of recognising the barriers that hinder such participation. Later in this assignment I focus on College some key pedagogic strategies that facilitate the process of inclusion.

Pedagogic Practices for successful Inclusion: Differentiation and why is writing important Marangoni Firenze Formative Assessment (Question 3 above) If inclusive education is based on processes, values, rights and principles, then the question is not if inclusion works, but rather how to make it work effectively. If inclusion is a right (and I believe so) then the key question becomes how to make if effective in every classroom and school. This process is concerned with building a supportive learning community and fostering high achievement for all pupils and staff. From the literature reviewed, I draw the following implications for teachers in my school: ' understand and acknowledge inclusion as a continuing and evolving process; ' create differentiated learning environments responding to social, emotional, physical and cognitive development; ' provide a broad, relevant, appropriate and stimulating curriculum and adapt it to meet the needs of children with SEN and reduce barriers to learning and participation; ' welcome the participation of all school personnel and engage in appropriate training and professional development; ' restructure cultures, policies and practices to respond to the diversity of needs resulting in transparent inclusive policies and practices within the school. In this section of the assignment I focus on pedagogic practices that have been identified in the literature as key to the ongoing process of inclusion.

Two major inter-related ones are differentiation and formative assessment. Differentiation in the mainstream classroom may take many forms depending on the individual learning needs and experiences of children. Commonly used methods of is critical thinking important, differentiation are by: ' level and pace- children work on a similar topic but at a level and pace dependent on their previous achievements; ' interest- tapping into the children's interests so as to motivate and enhance learning experiences; ' access and response- children access and respond to the same curricular content but through a modified means dependent on needs; ' structure- teacher plans small steps of learning for some children, while others are learning blocks of integrated curricular content; ' sequence- accessing different parts of subject content at different times throughout the year; and, ' teaching style- using various approaches and different styles of teaching as well as different forms of high school American School-Salzburg, response. The DES (2007) recognises that teaching all children together in the same classroom doesn't give all children the same opportunities to learn and to enhance opportunities to learn in an inclusive environment recommends mainstream teachers adopt strategies such as the following: ' use a variety of teaching strategies and approaches; ' explain, refer to College, and review the learning objective throughout lessons; ' use formative assessment strategies (assessment for persuasive writing essay Aiglon learning) to identify progress and use this evidence to inform teaching approaches; ' match the is critical content of lesson to the diverse learning needs and to levels of ability; ' use multi-sensory approaches to why is essay writing, learning and teaching; ' provide materials, appropriate to the needs, ages, interests, and aptitudes of the children; ' utilise unexpected learning opportunities even if they vary from the objectives of the important College lesson; ' allow appropriate time is for practice, reinforcement, and application of new knowledge and skills in practical situations; ' affirm all steps of achievement no matter how small; ' promote opportunities throughout the curriculum for language development and communication skills (e.g. listening, speaking, reading, writing); ' provide opportunities throughout the curriculum to develop personal and social skills; ' use homework to consolidate and extend, to how we can write Thailand, promote independent learning, to monitor individual and class progress, and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning. Research from the thinking College RA4AL (2012) found evidence that pedagogical approaches to benefit all learners might include team teaching, and peer assisted learning ' both strategies have potential for differentiation and formative assessment. Can Write International. Ainscow (1999) believes that successful inclusion implies adapting the curriculum, teaching methods, materials and procedures and being responsive to the learning needs of the children with SEN ' this is essentially what differentiation is and is critical Aiglon College what formative assessment affords. Rix et al (2006 and 2009) found in their research that the most common teaching approach used was the adaptation of instruction, followed by peer-group interaction and the adaptation of can write an essay Bromsgrove School, materials. The key findings from a three year systematic review from Rix et al (2009) shows that generic teaching approaches are not always suitable for children with SEN.

This research showed the effectiveness of peer interactive approaches adopted by teachers such as co-operative learning (particularly in relation to the curriculum area of literacy), encompassing elements of Aiglon College, social grouping/teamwork, revising and adapting the curriculum and working with a co-operative learning school ethos. Peer-group interactive approaches were effective in academic terms and were often effective in terms of social participation and children's attitudes to their learning and their views of their own competence, acceptance and for scholarship The University self worth. Teachers are more likely to be effective with all pupils if they use language to deepen understanding, encourage further questioning and link new and prior knowledge. Positive teacher attitudes to inclusion of children with SEN are reflected in the quality of their interaction with the children. Teachers who see themselves as responsible for the learning of all promote higher-order interaction, and use questions and statements involving higher-order thinking and reasoning. They offer children the opportunity to problem-solve, to discuss and is critical describe as well as time to make connections with their own prior experiences and understandings. These strategies deriving from the research evidence affirm the importance of differentiation and formative assessment ' they position the learner has having intentions, having points of view and thoughts about their own learning which are pertinent to incorporation into the curriculum and the pedagogic interactions in the classroom. Such approaches position the learner as influencing their own learning and the college application George having some control over what and thinking important College how they learn- themes that are hugely empowering for all learners especially those who may struggle to participate and find meaning in what is on write an essay school American School-Salzburg offer to them in the day to day lessons in the classroom. Differentiation and Formative Assessment as vehicles for inclusion. If all children are to learn together successfully class teachers must make provision and thinking Aiglon allowances for the varied learning styles and needs of the children.

Effective use of differentiation and how to write a college essay assessment will support this provision. The National Council for Curriculum and is critical thinking important College Assessment (NCCA, 2007, p. 8) defines differentiation as the 'process of varying content, activities, teaching, learning, methods and resources to take into account the range of interests, needs and experiences of individual student'. Differentiation applies to all effective teaching but is particularly important for children with SEN. Within any group there will be a wide range of ability and experience. How To High American International School-Salzburg. Because children vary in their intellectual and Aiglon physical capabilities as well as in their motivation, interest, health, and backgrounds teaching practices require flexible approaches, allowing differentiation to how to Durham, provide challenges and thinking important Aiglon successes for all abilities, while accommodating those who are experiencing difficulties as well as those who are in need of further challenge. Thus the school mainstream teacher differentiates the curriculum to suit the diverse learning needs of the class and adapts and tailors the curriculum to suit individual needs.

In this way the learning is structured to meet the learning needs of children who need support and challenges those who are exceptionally able. In planning for differentiation and formative assessment teachers are guided by is critical Aiglon three key factors: ' what the child knows and can do; ' what the child needs to know and needs to do; and, ' how the child can use assessment feedback to bridge the gap between the above two aspects (this is a definition of formative assessment or assessment for learning) The formulation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) is an how to write an essay high school School-Salzburg, effective way of supporting differentiation on the one hand and thinking Aiglon College using formative assessment on the other. The IEP is essay writing important Istituto Marangoni developed within the context of the school plan and provides a comprehensive record of the child's learning needs, goals and progress based on formative assessment. It is a working document that is useful, available and comprehensible to thinking important Aiglon, all those working directly with the for scholarship The University child.

Essential elements of planning for individual educational needs include: current level of performance; child's strengths and needs; priority needs and long-term learning goals; short-term learning objectives. Implementation of the IEP maximises access to a broad and balanced curriculum while still catering for the priority need. It also facilitates integration and Aiglon inclusion of the child in group work within the class. Why Is Writing Important Marangoni Firenze. In my school there is a well established practice of IEP formulation and review by teachers and this is led by the learning the is critical College support teacher (myself). This practice works well for children with SEN but its success depends on appropriate collaboration and dialogue among teachers about the essay Aiglon progress and thinking important Aiglon difficulties of individual learners. Bearing in writing mind the notion of is critical important, inclusion as a journey and not a destination there remains scope to continually improve the implementation of the IEPs in persuasive essay College our school. In particular, what I believe requires yet more work and reflection is the extent to which the plans are executed faithfully with detailed recording of progress. Effective planning for future teaching and for differentiation requires accurate assessment of the child's level of is critical thinking, achievement. Effective assessment recognises the positive achievements of children and informs planning. When used as a part of the teaching and how to an essay high school American School-Salzburg learning process, assessment not only allows teachers to make decisions about differentiation but acknowledges potential, progress and achievement.

Formative assessment involves giving feedback so as to learn more effectively in the future (NCCA, 2007 and helps the teacher identify where the children are in their learning, where they need to go next and how best to get there. So it can be a powerful tool in supporting the learning of children with SEN and assesses the effectiveness of planned interventions. Repeated regularly it shows whether or not the strategies and interventions are working. Involving the thinking College child with SEN in assessment helps to promote further learning. Writing Essay The University. Discussion with children regarding their individual goals and their progress enables them to is critical Aiglon College, be actively involved in persuasive writing Aiglon the learning process. The Primary National Strategy (2010) claims that when the children with SEN are involved in assessment they show improvements in aspects such as task application, willingness to participate in lessons and self esteem; communication skills; pupil-teacher relationships as well as reduced dependency and behaviour problems. Listening to their responses helps to identify the barriers to learning, learning strengths, gaps in learning, what is is critical thinking important College valued as valid and persuasive writing essay College important learning and the targets that they want to achieve and set for is critical thinking important themselves. Daily informal assessment suitable for SEN children could comprise of asking questions and sharing comments; observing their engagement and participation as they work; having discussions and why is essay Istituto conversations with them, analysing their work and engaging the child to self reflect on the assessment process. Other methods of assessment, recommended by thinking important College the NCCA (2007), suitable for children with SEN include: ' Teacher-designed tasks and tests; Primary National Strategy (2010) also recommends mixed ability grouping so that a child with SEN has the opportunity to express themselves and learn through listening and observing. Further options that need to be considered by the teacher include grouping by friendship, random and personal interest groups to allow children to form different relationships or build on different strengths or shared goals.

Paired work helps develop a shared ownership of learning and provides an opportunity to take risks. It is also suitable for think/pair/share, snowballing and brainstorming activities. The point here in relation to differentiation and assessment is that the teacher needs to how to write, consider not just the content and skills to be taught, learned and is critical thinking important College assessed but needs to think about the emotional, social personal and inter-personal dimension of what is being learned and how it is being learned. This is key for all learners and is often a dimension that is marginalised for children with special educational needs as teachers sometimes draw to heavily on drill methods and deny the importance of the more holistic, applied and writing for scholarship The University of Kansas relational aspects of thinking Aiglon College, learning, that above all learners need to experience their learning as meaningful to them in the here and now of their lives. Barriers to Effective Pedagogic Inclusion Practices for in-class support (Question 4) While the inclusion debate has gathered momentum and there has been great progress regarding inclusion of children with SEN in mainstream schooling in how we an essay Bromsgrove School a short space of is critical thinking important College, time this has resulted in essay major changes in the roles and responsibilities of teachers and the adaptation of approaches to the curriculum and thinking Aiglon College assessment.

Many issues and barriers in the inclusive learning environment have become evident and according to Shevlin, Kenny and Loxley (2008) remain unresolved. They attribute this partly to the fact that research on inclusion in Ireland is extremely limited. Changes include the development of new understandings of the interactive nature of children's needs and the focus in teaching has moved from asking what is wrong with the how to Durham University child to what the child needs to support learning ' as befits a rights based perspective as outlined already in this assignment. This brings great implications for how teachers are trained and supported in their professional development. Effective inclusive practices are constrained by barriers and challenges such as inadequate time, training, funding, professional support services, curriculum issues and maintaining standards in the basic subjects. Shevlin et al, (cited in is critical thinking College NCSE 2009) identified inadequacies in writing training at under-graduate, post-graduate and in-service training as the most cited constraints causing the later lack of is critical thinking Aiglon, progress in the implementation of IEPs. At whole school level, time constraints impeded administration, paperwork and correction of homework, developing policy, staff liaison and collaboration, collaborative planning, liaising with parents and the development of the IEPs as well as development of inclusive practices through training days, staff meetings and how to write an essay school International School-Salzburg in-service. At classroom level, while struggling to important, deliver the curriculum teachers lacked time to focus on differentiation as an approach to successful and effective inclusion. In inclusion of SEN children in mainstream schooling teachers play a central role in promoting participation and reducing underachievement. However according to Flatman-Watson's 2009 research/survey 34% of Dublin primary schools blamed lack of teacher expertise and appropriately trained staff for denying or deferring placements for children with intellectual and/or pervasive developmental disability.

Ring and Travers (2005) support these findings and how to International School-Salzburg show that teachers also feel specialist pedagogy and teaching approaches are required. Is Critical Aiglon. Research from Coffey (2004) found teacher expertise is vital for matching the teaching approaches closely to the individual learning needs of the child with SEN so they can engage meaningfully in how to write an essay high School-Salzburg the same curriculum as their peers. Shevlin, Kenny and Loxley (2008) show that the policy documents call for appropriate training and professional development for is critical thinking important Aiglon College teachers. Essay The University Of Kansas. Even though great financial resources have been allocated to the inclusion of important College, children with SEN, and the DES established the Special Education Support Service (SESS) in 2003 with the remit of delivering professional development initiatives and support structures for teachers this aspect seems to have been neglected. Drudy and Kinsella's (2009) study showed evidence of the perception of a lack of write high school International School-Salzburg, initial teacher training for SEN as well as a lack of effective continual professional development (CPD) for practising teachers. This confirms the NCSE (2009) report that acknowledges that teachers are more resistant to adopting inclusive practices when they experience a lack of thinking Aiglon College, confidence in personal instruction, skills and availability of resources and inadequate professional development. A project, RA4AL (2012) highlighted the persuasive College same issues suggesting that teachers should be equipped with the necessary skills, knowledge and understanding to be able to help all children learn.

Gash (2006) reports positively that the is critical thinking important Aiglon College introduction of differentiated learning and curriculum management and delivery are likely to benefit the skills of new teachers. Shevlin, Kenny and Loxley (2008) see no substitute for well-informed teachers and a knowledgeable school and view this oversight as contributing to the negative attitudes among teachers to inclusion and perhaps to the school's unwillingness to enrol children with SEN. Shevlin, Kenny and Loxley show that teachers were generally supportive of inclusive education and an essay high that they see positive teacher attitudes as being beneficial for all learners especially in the area of important Aiglon, socialisation skills. Drudy and Kinsella's (2009) discovered that in the majority of Irish schools changes in the school ethos, culture and practices have still to be realised. They also identified other barriers such as: the physical limitations of school buildings and how to an essay high American International School-Salzburg classrooms, the attitudes of all personnel within and associated with the school and the lack of is critical thinking important Aiglon College, opportunities for collaborative problem solving in relation to effective inclusion of children with SEN. Research from Ainscow (1999) in distinguishing between integration and inclusion shows that the main problem area within inclusion of SEN in education is the equality of access to resources, particular schools, particular classes or particular subjects.

Coffey, (2004) and Ring and Travers (2005) identify time to adapt the why is essay writing Istituto Firenze curriculum and engage in collaborative planning between teachers to thinking important, be another barrier. Over reliance on withdrawal methods of how to a college level Durham University, tuition rather than in-class support and team teaching reduces opportunities to collaborate. Class size is also in Aiglon evidence as a contributory barrier to successful collaboration. The challenge therefore is to help schools progress on the college the inclusion journey for the benefit of the child with SEN as well as for the whole school community. Conclusion and is critical College Final Reflection on Own School Context. A number of messages emerge from my reading of the relevant literature all of which point to the need to carefully consider themes of pedagogy and assessment: 1. Why Is Writing Istituto Marangoni. The importance to maximise the learning of all children on Aiglon the grounds of societal well being and the promotion of a cohesive society; 2. The importance to writing important Marangoni Firenze, maximise the learning of all children on the grounds that individuals have rights to education on an equal basis to their peers. 3. Is Critical Thinking Aiglon College. Inclusion is not a state or a destination, it is more a process and a journey. The third point above has major implications for practice in my school. It highlights the issue of recognising and addressing barriers to inclusion and for me it highlights the issue of the particular pedagogic strategies that should feature on the inclusion journey.

Two of these as described above are differentiation and assessment (especially formative assessment). In summary, to promote effective teaching and learning for children with SEN in inclusive settings teachers need to hone their professional skills in relation to differentiation and formative assessment. Of Kansas. Fundamental to this is the need to: ' recognise their responsibility for all abilities in their class; ' recognise social interaction as an effective approach to learning; ' plan to scaffold both cognitive and social learning and content; ' carefully plan group work with clearly defined roles; ' explore children's understanding, encourage questioning and make constant links between new and prior knowledge; ' work on thinking important College (basic) skills in a holistic way, embedded in classroom activity and subject knowledge; ' utilise pupils as resources for learning e.g. peer group assessment, self assessment, target setting together for IEPs; ' use activities which the learner finds meaningful; ' use a range of different modalities, visual, auditory, verbal and kinaesthetic, practical and 'hands-on' approaches (modified from the NCSE 2009). One of the more recent positive policy initiatives is the extension of the persuasive writing Aiglon College period of training at initial teacher education stage so that now trainee teachers have more time to engage with the challenges and issues associated with inclusion practices. There is also a move on the part of the Teaching Council to require teachers to engage in CPD on an ongoing basis. Thinking Important Aiglon. Such changes in policy will surely mitigate some of the challenges and barriers noted above in the research literature and can only enhance inclusive practice in schools.

With more particular reference to an essay school American International School-Salzburg, my own school currently and bearing in thinking Aiglon College mind the literature just discussed, especially the evidence of the need for greater CPD and challenging of writing essay Aiglon, professional mindsets in relation to in-class inclusion, there are a number of implications and recommendations worth emphasising. Much depends on the skill of the thinking learning resource teacher to work with and alongside colleagues to writing essay for scholarship, enable all learners participate fully in their learning. By working alongside other teachers to support differentiation and to thinking important Aiglon, lead and support formative assessment of individual learners and groups of learners, teamwork and shared responsibility for all learners can be gradually become part of the taken for granted culture of the school. By demonstrating and enacting differentiation practices in the public arena of the classroom practitioners can learn to share their own practices and 'deprivatize' their own practices thus putting practice on why is writing Firenze the table for discussion and review in a secure and collaborative climate of professional dialogue and sharing. The kind of staff conversations about inclusion have implications for practice. Thinking can be challenged and shared through professional conversations and by such conversations and reflection a new language for thinking important Aiglon College inclusion can be evolved and made common place. From new thinking stems new practices and evaluation of practices.

Full participation of learners in their learning is also related to full participation of teachers in their learning ' both go hand in hand in enabling an inclusive culture at any school level. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Persuasive Writing. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and important College we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of write a college level, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Issues In Supporting Inclusion In Primary School . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/education/issues-supporting-inclusion-primary-school.php [06-10-17].

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fig sample thesis Reconstruction of ancient documents such as the Cuneiform tablets and stilus tablets provide scientists and scholars with the important Aiglon College challenge of transforming their three dimensional characteristics to a two dimensional plane. In the past artists were hired to carefully draw the features of these artifacts by using a magnifying glass or a binocular microscope. This was not only time consuming, but arguably, very subjective. Essay For Scholarship The University! Another method of rendering the surface information was through conventional raking light photography. However, because the surface of the Cuneiform tablet subsists of uneven curves and thinking important College, features of various degrees of how to a college level essay Durham depth they present many problems to photographers as well as epistolary scholars who try to read and represent these images.

One way to construct this relief map is through the use of confocal scanning optical microscopy or near-field microscopy. Although this approach is possible, these microscopes are incredibly expensive and they provide a little more power than it is actually needed. (3) Another recent attempt in rendering the three dimensional topography on a two dimensional plane was through the use of stereovision. (4) Although the idea seems promising, since it has been used in astronomical imagery, it does not seem to be applicable in the cases analogous to that of the Cuneiform tablet. The surfaces of the tablet include small disparities corresponding to text and depth variations of thinking important Aiglon regions surrounding the text. These differences and International, subtle variations require extreme care in choosing correct lenses, baseline separation between the two cameras, as well as the appropriate camera mounting apparatus.

It is evident, that calculating the topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is a great deal more simple and more affordable. Calculating the topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is important Aiglon College a distinct way to extract contour measurements of the wedge shaped characters and cylinder seal impressions found in their surfaces. Using surface topography techniques previously applied to intaglio prints and lithic artifacts as well as implementation of modern digital image processing techniques, images of the Cuneiform text are displayed in their highest potential of detail and clarity. These techniques not only provide a qualitative result of the surface topography, but more importantly, they present a quantitative analysis of the writing George surface of the tablet. Figure 1 . Image capture of is critical thinking important Aiglon surface topography. As a result the how we an essay School Thailand light reaching the detector as illustrated in Fig. 1 is controlled by is critical thinking Aiglon College, I o , the writing the college George irradiance of the light incident on the surface of the object, the reflectance factor of the object, R, and the angle of is critical important Aiglon illumination. As a result of these assumptions, one can generate Eq.

1, which provides the relationship between surface topography and measured irradiance. (Eq. The College Brown College! 1) Topography can be described in is critical thinking important point by point variation in the angle, a (x), between the object and the mean surface of the object. The height variation at how to write a college level essay, a certain location is related to the surface angle through the derivative. Figure 2. Illustrates the is critical important Aiglon College relationship between a horizontal slice of an object and the variation in angle, a (x). Furthermore, because of the how to write high school Lambertian assumption, the variation in the angle, a acts as a variation only in the illumination angle q . Therefore, topographic information can be related to the irradiance of the camera as follows: (Eq. 3) The angle q (x) in the equation above is the sum of the angle of illumination, q o , and thinking College, the mean surface angle, a (x). Writing Essay For Scholarship The University! As a result from the analysis above a quantitative relationship between the observed irradiance, I(x) and the topography of an is critical thinking important College, object, h(x) can be derived. The term R(x) in Eq. 3 can be separated from the an essay International topographic information, sin[ q (x)], by taking the ration of important two images captured at two different angle of illumination.

The characteristics of the two images in one dimension would be the following: In Eq. 4 and Eq. 5 the I 1 (x) and I 2 (x) represent the amount of irradiance incident on the CCD array with the light source at two different locations. I o is the irradiance of the how to write University light source. R(x) is the reflectance factor at a certain location. q 01 and q 02 are the angles of illumination. a (x) contains the topographical information. As a result of taking the ratio between Eq.

4 and Eq. Important College! 5, the reflectance factor, R 1 (x) is removed so that only the topographical information is extracted from the two images. (Eq. 6) Solving Eq. How We Bromsgrove School! 6 for the topographic features in terms of tan[ a (x) by using appropriate trigonometric identities the following expression is derived. The values of tan[ a (x)] are pixel by pixel topographic information of the thinking Aiglon College object under investigation. These values are not integer values; therefore, they must be quantized to 256 gray levels in order to be viewed as images. Taking Eq. 7 along with Eq. 2 the topographic height function can be obtained. Finding topographic information through the proceeding derivation works as long as the source of illumination used for the two images is the same.

A novel device was build to how to write essay Durham University, help solve this problem. Is Critical Thinking Important! Furthermore, one has to keep in writing for scholarship of Kansas mind the pixel sensitivity in the CCD array has a small variation associated with it. As a result, each image used in is critical thinking College the experiment was corrected for this inconsistency by using flat fielding. Flat fielding removes the variation in brightness, which can be caused by the non-uniform illumination and small dark currents in the array. To make this project possible the use of the Kodak professional camera system along with an how to an essay high school American, Apple PowerBook 540c computer were used.

The camera is equipped with a Nikon Nikkor 60mm lens. The Kodak camera collects light on a 1280 by 1024 pixel CCD array, each 16-micrometers. Each image is College 8-bit and therefore is 1.3MB large. Additionally, the image analysis and image processing were performed in IDL (Interactive Data Language, Research Systems Boulder, CO) on a Power Macintosh 8600/200 system in writing application essay George Brown College the Digital Image Restoration Technology Lab at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science. In order for this experiment to work, the images captured are required to thinking Aiglon, have the same source of illumination. How To Essay University! As a result a new device was designed and built that consists of a single light source adjustable to any degree from the surface of the object under investigation. Thinking Important Aiglon College! Fig. 3 illustrates the unique light source apparatus. Figure 3. Illustration of can write International School lab setup. Is Critical Aiglon! As is depicted in Fig.

3, the light source is attached to a graded arc. The light source has the ability to move anywhere along the arc. At the writing essay same time, the arc is mobilized so it can be positioned at any desired degree from the base of the mechanism, as well as 360* around the object. The object under investigation is placed in the center of a circular platform that holds the arc. Aiglon! In order to take as many images as desired in can write Bromsgrove International School where the only variable is the position of the source of illumination, the object is stable in the center of this circular platform. In order to use the digital camera as a primary instrument for measuring light it is essential to calibrate or linearize it.

As a result, of this calibration every pixel value will be proportional to the illuminance of the College object. This type of calibration is better known as a Flat Fielding procedure. The primary step in flat fielding an image is capturing the reference image. To achieve this, the camera's field of view was adjusted to how to a college, about 25mm, while the light source was located 30* from the important Aiglon College horizontal and how to write school School-Salzburg, about 6cm from the focal point of the thinking College camera. The sample object used in this case was a piece of how we can write Bromsgrove International Thailand paper with a smooth surface.

Before converting the pixel values into information characteristic to the object, it was necessary to calculate the Tone Transfer Function of the Kodak camera. Is Critical Thinking Important College! Fig. Why Is Writing Important Marangoni Firenze! 4 represents the relationship of reflectance and pixel value. From these values a third degree polynomial regression function was derived. This function converts measured pixels into linear pixels through a procedure written in IDL. Figure 4. Tone Transfer Function for Kodak camera.

Pixel value versus Reflectance. By measuring the mean pixel value for the reference image, and assuming that the reflectance of the reference object is equal to 1.0 the following equation for individual pixels in the image was derived: In the preceding equation R (x,y) refers to the reflectance at each location in the image. Aiglon! Furthermore, P(x,y) and Pref(x,y) are the pixel values in the image and in the reference image respectably. Pref represents the mean pixel value of all the values of writing Pref(x,y). When Eq. Aiglon! 9 is applied to each pixel values in the image, the image is converted into reflectance ranging between 0 and 1. In order to how to level Durham, keep the image in integer units from 0 to College, 255, the expression below in an essay school International School-Salzburg applied. Eq.

10 is the Flat Fielding equation, where Pref(x,y) represents the is critical thinking College individual pixel values in the image, while Pref is the mean value from the histogram of the image. As a result of this procedure the flat-fielded image does not contain the variation in image brightness caused by non-uniform illumination. In other words, the flat field calibration removes experimental artifacts and produces data about the object itself only. This is notable because pixel values are a characteristic of the CCD camera system and the source of illumination, while the how to write Durham reflectance, R, is a characteristic solely of the object under examination.(6) Once the procedure for flat fielding was established, the next step in the experiment was to capture images of an is critical thinking important Aiglon, object with known topographical characteristics. Because the essay The University of Kansas surface of the Cuneiform table consists of is critical thinking important notoriously variable features, which are virtually impossible to writing essay for scholarship of Kansas, measure, it would be difficult to test the validity of the thinking Aiglon experiment with them. As a result, the object with known topographical features picked was a sphere. The surface geometry of the sphere was calculated and than compared to the experimental results. Two images of the sphere were captured with the light source located to the left and right at 45* from the base of the object.

Moreover, two reference images were captured with the light source at the same locations. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 represent examples of writing these images. After flat fielding the images were used to create an image representing topographic information of the is critical important Aiglon object. Fig. 7 represents angle, a (x), scaled and quantized to 256 gray levels. From this image a one-dimensional array across the center of the sphere was extracted for further analysis.

Figure 5, 6, and 7: Fig. 5 represents an image of the wooden sphere with light source at 45 degrees to the left of the object. Fig. Application Essay George Brown! 6 is the is critical important Aiglon reference image with light source at the same location. Fig.

7 represents the matrix of topographic angle values for the wooden sphere. The scan line of topographic values was compared with angle calculated surface angle. Using geometric relationships the calculated surface angle of the sphere was derived. Refer to Fig. 8 for these relationships. Figure 8 : Schematic illustration of the geometry of the sphere (Eq. 11) (Eq. 12) (Eq.

13) The calculated angle of the sphere can be determined by using Eq. 13, where ix is the Aiglon College position in the image while i 2 is the position at the edge of the edge of the sphere in the image. The primary objective of important College this experiment was to generate an image consisting only of topographic information of the surface of the wooden sphere and more importantly of the Cuneiform tablet. The image of the topographic angle, a (x) represents the Cuneiform writing as well as the seal impressions qualitatively and quantitatively. By having this image available, scholars have the opportunity to read the contents of the tablet with greater ease as well as extract information about the impressions in the tablet which can offer a clue on the tools used to create this document. This method of extracting topographical information becomes erroneous when the topography of the object is greater than the angle of illumination. If the angle of how we School Thailand illumination exceeds the surface angle than shadows are introduced. Although shadows might enhance qualitatively the appearance of topographical features, they will actually hide surface information. (7) As the angle of illumination is increased more topographical information becomes available. This is evident in Fig.

9 and 10. When this procedure was applied to the wooden sphere the radius of the object was calculated to be 6.44mm. The measured radius of the sphere was approximately 6.5mm. Is Critical Thinking Important College! These two results are satisfactory, considering that small random error in the angle a (x), results in large error in the height, h(x). The height characteristic of the wooden sphere is illustrated in Fig. 11.

Figure 11 : Topographic height across the scan line of the wooden sphere. A similar approach was applied to the surface of the cuneiform tablet. Because the Cuneiform tablet has such random variations in essay Aiglon College its surface, certain features were analyzed independently. Thinking Important Aiglon! One particular region under investigation was the cylinder seal impression, which measures 15mm in essay College length and 6mm in width. The seal impressions are of great importance not only because they secured the integrity of the document at the time, but more importantly because they are terribly degraded as a result of disintegration of the clay. An array of alpha angles was extracted from the topographical matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. The array of angles was plotted against the length of the feature. Fig. 14 illustrates this plot. Figure 14 : Topography information versus the position across the set of alpha values extracted from the Cuneiform tablet matrix. The angle versus the length figure suggests a cross section of the important Aiglon feature, which appears to possess edge enhancement characteristics.

This plot illustrates an obvious increase of the writing the college application essay George Brown College transition at the edge as well as an overshoot on either side of the edge. The edge enhancement attribute is a significant find considering that this form of writing is pre-hieroglyphic and edge enhancement is a tool used only in is critical important Aiglon College recent years. One of the primary goals in how to write a college essay Durham University analyzing artifacts is to get an idea of how people in the past lived and worked. Is Critical Aiglon! This find suggests that scribes, thousands of years ago, possessed the knowledge of using techniques that enhance small, delicate impressions in the soft clay surface to the highest potential. Furthermore, the same set of alpha values was integrated over the particular region and the actual height of the feature was derived. Fig. 15 illustrates the height of the edge of the cylinder seal in millimeters. Figure 15 : Topographic height across the how to high American International School-Salzburg scan line extracted from the matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. Conclusion Future projects applying surface topography analysis would be in surfaces of paintings, Indian rock-art, as well as forensic investigations, such as firearm serial numbers. This process is an invaluable technique for detecting changes in height of the features of an object. Because surface topography characterizes the height of an Aiglon College, object, this technique would be beneficial in analyzing its characteristics over how to a college University a period of time.

It would be useful to get angle or height information in the surface of the Cuneiform tablets ten or twenty years from now and compares the results in degradation. Is Critical Thinking! Since surface topography offers a way of measuring changes in the surface evolution of an artifact or a piece of artwork, conservators and archaeologists are presented with a clue in these changes. Hopefully, these clues will present a better understanding of the techniques used to appropriately conserve these objects.