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Research articles Adelphi University

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bacon essays themes Teaching, Sharing Learning: English Literature and Language. Primary focus is on the Exam Pattern and Quick Understanding of the Topic. Of Studies by Francis Bacon -- the Theme and University, Style of the Essay. Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps. Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps.

An English Teacher; M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature. I write this blog to short article instill that passion in you . Analysis of Mulk Raj Anand#8217;s Story, The Lost Child: Accepted Part of Our Multicultural Neighborhood in Adelphi the World. Dr. West#8217;s New Method of article writing, Teaching English :Its Merits and Demerits.

Dr. West approached the problem of teaching English not from the standpoint of pedagogy, but from the standpoint of social needs of the Indian people. He holds that, #8220;Indian boys need most of all to be able to read English, than to write it, and articles Adelphi, lastly to list Lancing College speak it and articles Adelphi University, understood it when spoken#8221;. Read More Teaching English Moreover, he maintains that #8220;learning to read a language is by far the shortest road to ICS — International School learning to speak and write it. #8220;According to him it is easier to acquire a reading knowledge of a language than to acquire a speaking. So the articles University, teacher#8217;s chief concern should be to short College develop the habit of purposeful silent reading in the children and not the habit of research Adelphi University, oral reading. G.B. Shaw#8217;s Radio Talk, #8216;Spoken English and Broken English#8217;:Broken English#8217;s Relevance in Today#8217;s English Spoken World. What are the specific objectives of teaching English as a second language at the secondary stage?

How far is the current high school curriculum helpful in realizing the objectives? In order to article Fryeburg make the programme of Teaching English effective, we should first of all identify our objectives we want to research University achieve. It will help the teacher to short apply the correct methods and devices to achieve the particular object at any particular stage. So it is extremely necessary to fix up the objectives of teaching English in Adelphi University the beginning. Literary Griffith (Navitas)? Read More Teaching English ( TEFL ) With the change of the Adelphi University, position of English in the new set up of India, the aims and objectives of teaching English has naturally undergone a change. We have accepted English as a second language. English is , therefore, taught now as a skill subject as opposed to literary subject. So the objectives of teaching English in schools will be the acquisition of uc a-g Lancing, linguistic or communicative skills. Analysis of Nissim Ezekiel#8217;s Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher Critical Appreciation of William Wordsworth's The Solitary Reaper. He laid us as we lay at birth.

On the cool flowery lap of earth. Britishpoet and critic.Referring to William Wordsworth. In Wordsworthian poetry the temple of Mother Nature is articles Adelphi University a constitution of short Bishopstrow College, three guiding principles: Solitude, Silence and Loneliness, and research articles Adelphi, his The Solitary Reaper is typically characterized by them which results in a perfect ballad with its simplicity, suggestiveness, pathos and verbal music. Inspired by Wilkinson#8217;s Tour in Scotland the poem is uc a-g Lancing College a sweet -melancholic memoirs of articles, tour de Scotland. While poet Wordsworth was touring Scottish highland along with his dear sister Dorothy, he met a reaper girl in her spontaneous moods. Such of this sweet piece of memory of the highland reaper girl is beautifully exhibited through this poem.

Critical Analysis of George Herbert#8217;s Virtue as a Lyrical Poem due to how to literary essay Griffith University (Navitas) its Music and Melody ; Simplicity of Language, Spontaneity and Intensity Religious Fevour. Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright, The bridal of the earth and sky, The dew shall weep thy fall tonight; For thou must die. Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye, Thy root is ever in its grave, And thou must die. A box where sweets compacted lie, My music shows ye have your closes, And all must die. Only a sweet and virtuous soul, Like seasoned timber, never gives; But though the whole world turn to coal, Then chiefly lives. Virtue ( The Temple: Sacred Poems and Adelphi University, Private Ejaculations) is a didactic poem.

It teaches us that virtue is supreme and super lasting. In this world of impermanence, beautiful thing and beauty itself are subject to decay but a truly virtuous soul remains unchanged through all eternally. Read More about Elizabethan Literature The poem is finest specimens of essays of Kansas, met#8230; Critical Analysis of Rabindranath Tagore#8217;s Story 'Kabuliwala': Love and Waiting. Analysis of Virginia Woolf's Essay Modern Fiction AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. An English Teacher; M. Research University? A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature.

I write this blog to The University instill that passion in you . AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. Content posted on my web pages are for educational purpose only. No part of research Adelphi, this blog publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and requirements, retrieval system for commercial purpose, without permission in writing from the publisher. Research Adelphi? If there is any copyright infringement, be kind enough to report the author. Banking: State Bank of India, Branch- Sonamukhi, Beneficiary Name- Ardhendu De, Account No.

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Musikkens materialitet eller musikk som representasjon? 1 Musikkens materialitet eller musikk som representasjon? et essay om vokal sensitivitet og meningsnivåer i musikk Mattias Henden Knutzen Masteroppgave Institutt for research articles Adelphi Musikkvitenskap Universitetet i Oslo Mai 2010. 2 1 Forord Jeg vil først og fremst takke min veileder Anne Danielsen for write Bishopstrow god, og for research articles Adelphi University meg helt avgjørende veiledning underveis. Write Short? Da jeg startet arbeidet med masteroppgaven hadde jeg først Odd Skårberg som veileder. Research Articles University? Han skal også ha takk for list nyttige tips om mulige problemstillinger og forslag til litteratur. Research Articles University? Jeg vil takke mine venner Ida Roggen, Ane Roggen, Kjetil Klette Bøhler, Kristoffer Carlsen og André Viervoll både for article writing Academy oppmuntring og støtte underveis i prosessen og for research articles Adelphi mange stimulerende samtaler om musikk. How To Write Literary? Og til slutt vil jeg takke Mikkel Broch Ålvik for research articles Adelphi korrekturlesning og professor Stephen von Tetzchner for essay International School teknisk assistanse i avslutningen av arbeidet. Oslo, mai 2010 Mattias Henden Knutzen. 3 2 Innhold 1. Adelphi? Introduksjon Stemme og uttrykk. How To Literary Essay Griffith (Navitas)? 6 Stemme, identitet og personlighet. Research Adelphi? 6 Stemme og kropp Persepsjonshierarkiet snudd opp ned om betydningen av sansning og perseptuell læring Lauryn Hill og the how to literary essay Griffith (Navitas), Grain of the Voice To Zion og The Grain of the Adelphi, Voice Om forholdet mellom formidling av lyden av språket og formidling av tekstens innhold Kate Bush og the Grain of the write article Bishopstrow College, Voice Mitt møte med Kate Bush Om aksent og The Grain Om forholdet mellom formidling av lyden av språket og formidling av tekstens innhold Om Barthes teori, sanselighet og nivåer av musikalsk mening Om Barthes teori 51 Om referensiell mening i Christopher Smalls Musicking Om følelser, iboende mening og referensiell mening i Leonard B. Research? Meyers Emotion and writing Academy, Meaning in articles University, Music Avsluttende betraktinger Referanser Diskografi Vedlegg Sangtekster Lytteeksempler på CD.

82. 4 3 1. Introduksjon Stemmen som musikalsk instrument er spesiell på flere måter. Et svært viktig moment er at essays of Kansas, de fleste vokaluttrykk langt på vei formidler et utenommusikalsk budskap eller innhold gjennom tekst. Adelphi? Forholdet mellom tekst og stemme utgjør en tilleggsfaktor som har avgjørende betydning for Academy hvordan vi forholder oss til det musikalske uttrykket. Articles University? Dessuten er stemmen en lyd vi lager med menneskekroppen, så alle eller så godt som alle mennesker kan synge i større eller mindre grad. Writing Analytical Of Kansas? Det gjør at research Adelphi University, folk flest, både de som driver mye med musikk og de som ikke gjør det, oppfatter synging svært forskjellig fra andre instrumenter de ikke behersker selv.

Sangen oppfattes nok som nærmere og mindre fremmed enn andre instrumenter, og som sterkere knyttet til personen som uttrykker seg. Bishopstrow College? Både tekstformidlingsaspektet og følelsen av denne nærheten mellom stemme og person legger til rette for articles Adelphi antakelser om tilstedeværelse av personlighet og følelser i det vokale uttrykket. Writing Fryeburg? Men hva er det egentlig som gjør at research, vi liker ett vokaluttrykk bedre enn et annet? Hvilke forskjellige typer av kvaliteter kan vi si at help essay ICS — International School, et vokaluttrykk innehar? Hvilke av disse kvalitetene ved uttrykket er det som gjør at articles Adelphi, det virkelig treffer oss? Hva er så mitt utgangspunkt for writing The University å stille disse spørsmålene?

Underveis i mine musikkvitenskapelige studier har jeg først og fremst vært orientert mot det jeg vil kalle performative kvaliteter ved musikk særlig mot detaljer i rytmisk frasering og klanglig utforming. Det har nok å gjøre med min bakgrunn som utøver, nærmere bestemt sanger. Research Articles Adelphi University? Jeg har sånn sett vært orientert mot musikkvitenskapelige problemstillinger som har hatt en nytteverdi for can t my essay meg i min utvikling som sanger. Research Articles Adelphi University? Nytteverdien for help International Community meg som sanger har også betydning for Adelphi University meg som lytter. Write Essay Griffith (Navitas)? Jeg har også i min lytting til musikk, uavhengig av studiene, i de senere år vært vesentlig mer orientert mot performative kvaliteter og ofte lyttet med stor glede til musikk som jeg opplever at. 5 4 har kjedelig melodikk og harmonikk. Det betyr ikke at Adelphi University, jeg ikke foretrekker en fin melodi fremfor en jeg opplever som kjedelig, men bare at help essay ICS — Community School, mitt hovedfokus de siste årene nesten alltid har vært på små detaljer ikke bare i sangernes, men også de andre musikernes fremføring av musikken. Research Adelphi? I denne oppgaven er det jeg er mest opptatt av i utgangspunktet sensitivitet i utformingen av munn- og språklyder i det vokale uttrykket. Writing Academy? Jeg ble for articles alvor bevisst på dette aspektet ved synging da jeg for Academy noen år siden leste The Grain of the Voice av Roland Barthes, men jeg har nok alltid vært litt opptatt av det uten helt å vite om det. Et viktig utgangspunkt for research Adelphi å stille spørsmålene ovenfor har i forlengelsen av dette hatt å gjøre med forholdet mellom min måte å nyte musikk på og en følelse av at how to literary essay Griffith University (Navitas), det er vanskelig å skrive om denne, de aspektene ved musikken som jeg er mest opptatt av og nytelsen de fremkaller hos meg på en tilfredsstillende måte. Research Adelphi? Jeg opplever nok at short College, et generelt fokus, både hos musikkanmeldere og i dagligdagse samtaler om musikk, på sangens evne til tekstformidling og dens antatte nærhet til sangerens personlighet og følelsesliv har en tendens til å skygge for et fokus på detaljer i uttrykkets materielle utforming som jeg mener er vel så viktige for articles University helhetsinntrykket, og som jeg mener også har en stor egenverdi.

Med mitt detaljorienterte forhold til musikk opplever jeg, både i møte med musikken og i møte med andres ideer om musikk, ofte en trang til å skille mellom en erfaring av en fysisk vellyd på den ene siden, og elementer som språklig mening eller budskap, kulturog sjangerkonvensjoner, personlig ekspressivitet og følelser på den andre. Jeg vil i denne oppgaven forsøke å se nærmere på disse forholdene. Lancing? Jeg vil kort beskrive min fremgangsmåte som følger: Jeg begynner med å diskutere noen vanlige problemstillinger knyttet til hvordan vi forstår et vokalt uttrykk i populærmusikk, med utgangspunkt i kapitlet om stemme i Performing Rites av Simon Frith. Research Adelphi? Momenter som dukker opp underveis i denne diskusjonen reiser spørsmål om hva som foregår ved. 6 5 persepsjon av musikk. Short Article College? Jeg bringer dermed teorier om persepsjon av musikk formulert av Eric Clarke i hans bok Ways of research articles Adelphi University, Listening inn i denne diskusjonen. Write My Essay? Deretter analyserer jeg vokalt uttrykk hos Lauryn Hill og Kate Bush med fokus særlig på sensitivitet i deres munn- og språklyder.

Roland Barthes essay The Grain of the research, Voice står sentralt i denne analysen. Requirements Lancing College? Ut fra denne analysen reiser det seg en del spørsmål, blant annet om forholdet mellom forskjellige meningsnivåer i musikk og om forholdet mellom musikk som representasjon og om musikkens materialitet. Adelphi? I drøftingen av disse spørsmålene gjør jeg først og fremst bruk av teoriene om musikk og persepsjon fremsatt av Clarke i Ways of article writing Academy, Listening og teorier om musikk og mening formulert av Leonard B. Research Articles University? Meyer i Emotion and can t St. John's-Ravenscourt School, Meaning in research articles Adelphi University, Music, og av Christopher Small i Musicking The Meanings of writing Academy, Performing and articles Adelphi University, Listening. Help ICS — International School? Muligens er det jeg til slutt forsøker å oppnå, en dypere forståelse av hva en musikalsk erfaring egentlig er eller kanskje heller hvilke trekk ved totalopplevelsen av et musikalsk uttrykk som ikke kan sies å være en musikalsk erfaring. Adelphi University? Når jeg i min analyse av musikk har valgt å studere nettopp Lauryn Hill og Kate Bush, er det flere grunner til det. Requirements? For det første var disse to articles Adelphi sangerne blant de jeg først kom til å tenke på da jeg leste The Grain of the The University, Voice av Barthes. I tillegg til disse tenkte jeg også på artister som Stevie Wonder, Jarle Bernhoft, Eddie Vedder fra Pearl Jam, Annie Lennox og Lisa Nilsson. Og når jeg tenker etter nå, kunne jeg nevnt ganske mange til, innenfor flere sjangere, både kjente og ukjente. Articles Adelphi? For det andre er dette to sangere jeg liker svært godt å høre på. Analytical The University? Men jeg liker også de andre sangerne jeg nevnte, så når jeg velger akkurat disse to, er det fordi de er svært ulike på mange måter. Research Articles? I de årene jeg har studert musikk ved universitetet har jeg, både som lytter på fritiden og som student, vært aller mest opptatt av musikk innen sjangrene soul, RB og funk, fordi det er det jeg stort sett har hatt mest lyst til å høre på.

Sånn sett ville det vært mer opplagt for short article meg å velge for research Adelphi University eksempel Stevie Wonder i tillegg til Lauryn Hill, i stedet for list Lancing Kate Bush. Men når jeg likevel har valgt Bush, som er så forskjellig fra Hill, og som opererer innenfor en sjanger jeg ikke er spesielt opptatt av, er det fordi jeg håper å kunne beskrive noe jeg oppfatter som allmenne kvaliteter ved synging. 7 6 2. Research Articles? Stemme og uttrykk Stemme, identitet og personlighet I sin bok Performing Rites diskuterer Simon Frith spørsmålet om hva som har størst betydning for om vi liker et bestemt vokaluttrykk eller ikke. Write Bishopstrow? Frith selv skriver nokså nyansert om dette, og problematiserer alle posisjoner han inntar underveis. Sentralt i hans diskusjon står forholdet mellom stemme og personlighet og identitet, og stemme og kropp og kjønn. Jeg vil i det følgende diskutere disse problemstillingene i lys av Friths tekst, og samtidig nyansere og imøtegå noen av hans antakelser. Frith stiller flere interessante spørsmål, og det første jeg vil kommentere nærmere er det som dreier seg om forholdet mellom vokalt uttrykk på den ene siden og personlighet og livshistorie på den andre.

Jeg vil ta utgangspunkt i et sted der Frith siterer Gregory Sandow, som skriver om hvordan han mener trekk ved Frank Sinatras personlighet og livshistorie skinner igjennom i hans vokale uttrykk. Articles Adelphi? Sandow tar utgangspunkt i at short article, det ikke er noen hemmelighet at articles Adelphi University, Sinatra ikke alltid har vært the article Bishopstrow, nicest of research articles University, guys (Frith 2002: 186). How To Write Essay Griffith (Navitas)? Derfor har det ifølge Sandow vært vanlig blant de som har skrevet om Sinatra å skille klart mellom artisten Sinatra og mannen Sinatra. Research Articles University? Sandow holder Sinatra for essay University (Navitas) å være en stor sangkunstner, og han hevder at articles Adelphi University, det er nettopp fordi han er en stor kunstner at write short, hans personlighet skinner igjennom. Research Articles? Fordi han er en kunstner, kan han ikke unngå å formidle en form for writing Fryeburg Academy sannhet og [reach] towards the Adelphi, root of how to, everything he s felt. Research University? Han skriver videre at School, selv om Sinatra lever av å synge kjærlighetssanger, har han også sin egen historie å fortelle: a story a little bit about articles University, triumph, partly about help essay Community, lust for research articles Adelphi University power, often about write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, loss, and research articles Adelphi, very much about how to write literary essay University (Navitas), humiliation and articles University, rage. (ibid.) Når det gjelder Friths sitat av Gregory Sandow, vil jeg kommentere det slik: Jeg vil ikke benekte at write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, Sinatra var en stor sangkunstner. Articles? Det kan også godt være at Sinatra bruker sine opplevelser og følelser som en slags kilde med hensyn til å uttrykke seg. Can T My Essay? Spørsmålet er imidlertid om man uten videre kan oversette et eller annet som man hører i Sinatras sang til uttrykk for mer spesifikke følelser eller lidenskaper. Research Adelphi University? Jeg er også skeptisk til antakelsen om at short article College, store kunstnere nødvendigvis uttrykker noen form for articles sannhet.

At man setter. 8 7 merkelappen sannhet på et sterkt kunstnerisk uttrykk, kan kanskje heller være et resultat av at article Academy, man på en eller annen måte føler seg overveldet og derfor ønsker å ære og opphøye det kunstneriske uttrykket. Adelphi University? Sistnevnte kan trolig også knyttes til et romantisk kunstsyn der en genierklært kunstner fungerer som et slags medium som formidler universelle sannheter. Analytical Essays The University Of Kansas? Personlig vil jeg si at research Adelphi, jeg i motsetning til Sandow hører svært lite ydmykelse og raseri i Sinatras sang. Article Bishopstrow? Derimot hører jeg ofte en god del savn. Adelphi? Men når jeg hører savn hos Sinatra, er det alltid knyttet til det tekstlige innholdet. Jeg har en følelse av at Sinatra ved sin måte å synge på ofte forsterker og kanskje raffinerer eller nyanserer det tekstlige innholdet. Writing Academy? Som antydet kan det være at articles, han benytter sine opplevelser og følelser som en slags klangbunn for can t write School å gi ekstra tyngde og intensitet i denne sammenhengen; men på den annen side er det ingen nødvendighet at articles University, han gjør det. Writing Fryeburg Academy? Her kan det også dreie seg om iscenesettelse og skuespill.

Dette vil jeg komme tilbake til nedenfor. Research Articles? Frith skriver videre om popstemmen at essay Community, vi hører sangere som personlig ekspressive paradoksalt nok kanskje særlig når de synger sanger de ikke har laget selv på en måte en klassisk sanger ikke gjør, og setter det i sammenheng med at Adelphi, i klassisk musikk blir lyden av stemmen, ifølge Frith, i større grad bestemt av notene/partituret (ibid.). Requirements List Lancing? Men man kan også tolke popsangere på den måten. De opererer innenfor svært forskjellige sjangere. Research Adelphi University? Forskjellige sjangere gir rom for forskjellige typer av uttrykk. Requirements List? Dessuten inntar popsangere også roller oppbygging av image og iscenesettelse av en person kan være en vesentlig del av det kunstneriske uttrykket, jamfør for eksempel David Bowies vekslende artistpersonaer på 1970-tallet. Research Articles Adelphi? Kjernen i Friths argumentasjon er imidlertid at vi hører popsangere som personlig uttrykksfulle.

Han trekker riktignok inn spørsmålet om konvensjon, men legger betydelig større vekt på det personlige uttrykket. Essay ICS —? Her kan man innvende at Adelphi, konvensjoner innenfor sjangeren og konstruksjon av en mulig kunstig identitet hos sangeren ofte vil hindre tilgangen til personen bak fremførelsen. 9 8 Frith kommer senere inn på denne problematikken når han skriver om hvordan fremføring er skuespill/spill/ act i kapitlet om fremføring. Article Writing Fryeburg? Sangeren uttrykker og spiller sangen som en skuespiller, men iscenesetter også seg selv som artist (ibid: 211). Research Articles University? For a star is Fryeburg Academy, also (to use the articles Adelphi, industry s own language) an Bishopstrow College act ; performance is research articles Adelphi University, not as selfrevealing as it may seem (ibid.: ). ICS — International School? they are involved in research University, a process of Fryeburg Academy, double enactment: they enact both a star personality (their image) and research Adelphi, a song personality, the College, role that each lyric requires, and Adelphi University, the pop star s art is to article writing Fryeburg keep both acts in research articles, play at requirements Lancing, once (ibid.: 212).

Fremføringen er slik sett iscenesettelse på to articles Adelphi nivåer. Writing The University? Det er for Adelphi det første en iscenesettelse av sangens personlighet, og for analytical The University det andre av artistpersonligheten eller popstjernepersonligheten bak sangen. Research University? Ytterligere komplisert blir det når Frith skriver om hvordan teksten allerede utgjør en double act : denne rommer på den ene siden kommunikasjonen mellom et jeg og et du i selve teksten, og på den andre kommunikasjonen mellom tekstforfatteren og leseren. Det kan være et eksplisitt eller et implisitt jeg i teksten, og leseren kan forholde seg på flere forskjellige måter til tekstens jeg eller du (ibid.: 183). Når teksten synges av noens stemme, legges enda en dimensjon til. I tillegg til dette har vi også komponistens stemme, som man ofte er mest opptatt av i analyse av klassisk musikk (vestlig kunstmusikk). St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Frith reflekterer også rundt forholdet mellom verk og komponist, og mener at Adelphi University, man innen populærmusikk har en tendens til å hevde at uc a-g list Lancing, det personlige uttrykket ligger i fremførelsen eller sangen og ikke så mye i komposisjonen (ibid.: 185). Ifølge Frith kan vi, ved å lytte til en stemme, forsøke å avgjøre om den som snakker/synger er oppriktig eller ærlig. Research Articles Adelphi University? Frith gjør oppmerksom på at how to write literary Griffith (Navitas), i musikk er sannhet eller oppriktighet et spørsmål om konvensjoner som varierer fra sjanger til sjanger.

I denne sammenhengen henviser han til David Bracketts sammenlignende analyse av Billie Holliday og Bing Crosbys versjoner av I ll Be Seeing You, og skriver at det i dette. 10 9 tilfellet er nesten umulig å oppfatte dem begge som oppriktige på bakgrunn av hvor forskjellige de er (ibid.: 197). Research Articles University? Når jeg lytter til de to write Griffith (Navitas) versjonene av denne låta, er det mange ting som gjør at research University, jeg opplever dem som svært forskjellige. Essays? Men noe som raskt slår meg er også at research, jeg har et slags hermeneutisk problem knyttet til hva jeg allerede vet eller tror jeg vet om de to artistene fra før. Write School? Bing Crosby har jeg ikke egentlig et så nært forhold til, men jeg har en slags oppfatning av ham som en kommersielt vellykket sanger i sin tid, som nådde et stort publikum da, men som nå først og fremst blir lyttet til som et slags historisk dokument for research Adelphi University eksempel som en tidsangivende lydkulisse i en film med handling lagt til 1940-tallets USA. Uc A-g? Jeg opplever ham som sanger ikke så mye som en tydelig person, men rett og slett som uttrykk for University sin kultur i sin tid. Writing Analytical Essays? Mitt kjennskap til Billie Holiday er imidlertid helt annerledes. Fra mange forskjellige kilder (som i TV-programmer, i radio og artikler og i samtaler om henne med folk jeg kjenner) har jeg over articles Adelphi, lengre tid fått høre om hennes traumatiske liv og om hvordan man kan høre hennes private tristesse i sangen hennes.

Hun er også en som musikkinteresserte mennesker jeg kjenner, i alle aldre, hører på til stadighet ikke som en kuriositet fra en svunnen tid, men fordi de liker det og kanskje føler at hun formidler noe til dem. Med dette som utgangspunkt er det vanskelig ikke bare å få forsterket disse forestillingene eller oppfatningene når jeg hører de to help School versjonene. Articles University? Det kan være gode grunner til at write College, jeg har de oppfatningene jeg har. Samtidig har det foregått en slags mytologisering av Billie Holiday som det er vanskelig å frigjøre seg fra. Research Adelphi? Det er lett å anta at help ICS — International School, det er en større grad av oppriktighet i hennes sang på bakgrunn av hva slags liv hun levde, og den etablerte oppfatningen om at articles, hun la sin personlige sorg og tristesse i sitt vokale uttrykk. Write Literary Essay? Spørsmålet er imidlertid om ikke Crosby kan ha vært like oppriktig, til tross for at articles Adelphi University, vi ikke mener å høre like mye sorg og tristesse i hans sang. For slik jeg leser teksten, er det mulig å legge mange forskjellige slags følelser i den. Help Essay Community School? For å vende tilbake til kompleksiteten knyttet til iscenesettelse på mange nivåer: Ifølge Frith hører vi ikke bare én stemme når vi hører en popsanger fremføre en låt.

Vi hører gjerne stemmen til en protagonist i sangteksten, sangeren som forteller, og det kan også være en eller flere som siteres i sangteksten. I tillegg har vi sangeren som stjerne, 11 10 slik hun eller han fremstår som kommersielt og kunstnerisk produkt, og kanskje også det man oppfatter som den ekte personen bak artistpersonligheten (ibid.: ). Research Articles Adelphi? Han beskriver en rekke eksempler på dette, blant annet Anchorage av Michelle Shocked: Or take Michelle Shocked s Anchorage, the meaning of which, as Dai Griffiths argues, depends on whether you hear in Anchorage, a place in writing of Kansas, Alaska, the research articles University, natural voice of the article, letter writer, or in Anchorage, a song by Adelphi, Michelle Shocked, the short Bishopstrow College, crafted voice of the research articles, songwriter. And the list College, pleasure of articles, this lies in help essay School, the fact we actually hear both Anchorage and Adelphi, Anchorage at Fryeburg Academy, once. Articles University? (ibid.: 199) I sin omtale av Anchorage beskriver Frith en nytelse ved å oppleve flere mulige lag av fortolkning samtidig. Frith gjør ikke noe stort poeng ut av nytelsen i denne sammenhengen, men jeg synes det er interessant å undersøke den litt nærmere. Writing Fryeburg? Den nytelsen han beskriver er, slik jeg ser det, mer litterær enn musikalsk, uten at research articles Adelphi, det nødvendigvis gjør det til en mindreverdig nytelse. Men la meg, før jeg går nærmere inn på spørsmålet om denne nytelsens karakter, ta utgangspunkt i min lytting til Breathing av Kate Bush. Help Essay ICS — International Community School? Da jeg først begynte å høre på Breathing hadde jeg ingen anelse om hva den handlet om. Research? Jeg fikk vel, uten at jeg på noe tidspunkt tenkte over article Bishopstrow College, det, en fornemmelse av at det var et visst alvor i den. Både akkordene og melodikken og Kate Bush sin sang kan sies å peke i retning av noe trist.

Som lytter til sang er jeg normalt ikke spesielt opptatt av tekst. Articles Adelphi? Jeg oppfattet ikke hva denne sangen handlet om før jeg fant teksten på internett og i tillegg leste hva som stod om låta på Wikipedia. Uc A-g Requirements List Lancing? Da hadde jeg allerede hørt låta nokså mange ganger og opplevd nytelse. Articles Adelphi University? Jeg nøt Kate Bushs stemme, den vakre melodien mot akkordene og helheten med produksjon og alt. Article Writing Academy? Når jeg kjenner teksten, får nytelsen en litterær side i tillegg. Research Adelphi University? For meg kan det tydeligvis være et nokså klart skille mellom ren musikalsk nytelse og en litterær nytelse når jeg lytter til en sang i alle fall av og til. How To Literary? I tilfellet To Zion av Lauryn Hill tror jeg teksten kom til meg mye fortere. Research Adelphi? Jeg kan ikke huske plutselig å ha fått med meg hva den handlet om. Her føles det som den litterære og musikalske nytelsen for article Bishopstrow meg henger tettere sammen.

Denne forskjellen mellom forskjellige former for research articles Adelphi nytelse ved lytting til musikk vil jeg komme nærmere inn på i min analyse av To Zion og blant annet Breathing med utgangspunkt i The Grain of the help Community School, Voice av Roland Barthes. 12 11 I denne diskusjonen kunne jeg også trekke inn Tom Wolfes lange essay om utviklingen i amerikansk billedkunst i de første tiårene etter andre verdenskrig, The Painted Word. Research Articles Adelphi? Her kommer han med en grundig kritikk av samspillet mellom kunstkritikere, kuratorer og kunstnere, og hevder kort oppsummert at uc a-g requirements list, kunstnerne ender opp med å male ord eller ideer og ikke egentlig skape et visuelt kunstuttrykk. Research Articles Adelphi? Et kostelig eksempel er hvordan maleren Louis Morris går over fra oljemaling til svært uttynnet oljemaling for can t my essay School å oppnå idealet om flathet som kunstkritikere som Clement Greenberg var opptatt av. Articles University? (Og i bildet Third Element fra 1962, for can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School eksempel, kan det vel ikke sies å foregå så veldig mye mer enn denne flatheten.) (Wolfe 1975: 47) Denne kritikken kan trolig appliseres på musikken som kunstform, 1 og i alle fall på kritikere og andre som skriver om musikken, som av og til har en tendens til å glemme musikken i seg selv, og heller være opptatt av kulturelle og litterære kvaliteter og budskap. Articles Adelphi University? Nå mener jeg selvfølgelig ikke at alle de utenommusikalske elementene totalt kan frakobles den estetiske opplevelsen av en fremføring av musikk eller lytting til innspilt musikk. Write Literary University? Jeg mener vel bare at University, de musikalske elementene får for writing The University lite oppmerksomhet, og at research, de ofte ikke blir tillagt en egenverdi, men snarere blir sett på som virkemidler for å få sendt et overliggende budskap.

I sitt kapittel om stemmen kommer Frith også med en lengre drøftelse av stemme og identitet. Article Writing? Han skriver at Adelphi, når vi hører en stemme (og ikke ser den som snakker eller synger), tenker vi alltid at det er en person som uttrykker seg. Write Short Article Bishopstrow? Den henviser på en måte til en person. Research University? Og vi tenker gjerne at uc a-g Lancing College, stemmen er uttrykk for Adelphi University en personlighet. Uc A-g? Vi knytter også ofte sammen følelsen av å kjenne en stemme med det å like en stemme også når det gjelder stemmen til kjente sangere vi gjerne ikke kjenner personlig. Adelphi? Men en stemme er også lett å endre, og det er også slik at write short Bishopstrow College, stemmen til et menneske forandrer seg både gjennom livet og etter hvem vi snakker til og i hvilke sammenhenger vi snakker, og så videre. Research Articles? Så det er ikke så enkelt å si at St. John's-Ravenscourt School, stemmen er et direkte uttrykk for research articles vår personlighet (Frith 1996: 197).

1 John Cage sitt verk 4 33 kunne kanskje nevnes i denne forbindelse? 13 12 Jeg vil selvfølgelig ikke nekte for at article, følelser og personlighet spiller en rolle (og ofte en veldig stor rolle) i utformingen av et vokalt uttrykk. Articles? Men jeg vil nekte for at uc a-g requirements list College, det finnes et slags én-til-én-forhold mellom uttrykket og personligheten og følelsene til den som uttrykker. Vi kan skape historier om forholdet mellom liv og personlighet på den ene siden og musikalsk uttrykk på den andre som gir mening og kanskje til og med har noe sant ved seg som i tilfellene Billie Holiday, Nick Drake eller Edith Piaf men jeg opplever også at research University, fortellinger om sammenheng mellom følelser og musikalsk uttrykk blir en form for help selvforsterkende myter. Articles University? På den annen side kan det jo hende at writing The University of Kansas, personligheten, slik den kommer til uttrykk i sang, ikke har med et indre følelsesliv og livserfaringer å gjøre, men med noe kroppslig. Articles Adelphi University? Stemme og kropp Frith skriver også om the can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, voice as body. Adelphi? Jeg vil aller først bemerke at article writing Fryeburg Academy, når Frith tar opp stemmen som kroppslig uttrykk såpass adskilt fra stemme som personlig uttrykk som han gjør, opplever jeg i noen grad at research, han skaper et slags skille som er litt misvisende. How To Write (Navitas)? Det kan være et utrykk for research articles Adelphi University en form for dualisme av platonsk avstamning (mind/body-split). Writing Analytical The University Of Kansas? Jeg får nærmest en følelse av at Adelphi, kroppen ikke er knyttet til personligheten.

Jeg mener imidlertid at can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, dersom vi kan si med sikkerhet at Adelphi University, vi har tilgang til noe personlig i det vokale uttrykket, så er det nettopp det kroppslige uttrykket sangerens egen stemmeklang, og muligheter og ferdigheter med hensyn til å forme den på forskjellige måter. Write Griffith University? Uttrykking av følelser som sorg, glede og så videre kan, som tidligere nevnt, bare være godt skuespill, og trenger ikke ha noe med følelseslivet til sangeren å gjøre. Ifølge Frith er stemmen som instrument helt spesiell fordi vi har lettere for å sette oss selv i sangerens sted og identifisere oss med dem enn med instrumentalistene. Adelphi? Vi har stort sett alle lunger, hals, stemmebånd tunger og lepper og så videre, og de fleste av oss kan i noen grad synge. Fryeburg? Vi kan synge med, om enn helt stille.

Stemmen er således et mer direkte kroppslig uttrykk (ibid.: 191). Adelphi? (Her kan det for write literary essay (Navitas) så vidt bemerkes at research Adelphi, det etter hvert er en. 14 13 god del av oss som har lært å spille et eller flere instrumenter. St. John's-Ravenscourt? Om man har det, er det kanskje ikke så vanskelig å identifisere seg med en instrumentalist heller.) Frith tar også opp The Grain of the research Adelphi University, Voice av Roland Barthes, men går ikke inn i en grundig diskusjon av teoriene Barthes presenterer. Jeg vil komme tilbake til hva han skriver om dette senere, da jeg i min analyse av To Zion med utgangspunkt i The Grain of the writing analytical, Voice vil diskutere teoriene nokså grundig. Research Adelphi? Frith skriver videre om hvordan noen fysiske erfaringer, særlig ekstreme følelser, are given vocal sounds beyond our conscious control the article Fryeburg Academy, sounds of Adelphi, pain, lust, ecstasy, fear, what one might call inarticulate articulacy: the article Fryeburg, sounds, for research articles Adelphi example, of help ICS — Community School, tears and articles, laughter (ibid.: 192). Når det gjelder følelser som smerte, lyst, frykt og ekstase, kan det nok hende at can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, det er vanskelig å klassifisere dem som rent fysiske. University? De er også godt knyttet til det mentale. Essay School? Men jeg er absolutt enig i at articles, noen følelser kan komme til uttrykk som vokallyder vi ikke har bevisst kontroll over. Analytical? Det hender når vi gråter og er sinte, for research articles Adelphi University eksempel. Article Writing? Frith trekker i denne sammenheng inn lydene soulsangere lager rundt og mellom sine noter vokallyder som høres ut som om de gir uttrykk for sangerens innerste følelser fordi vi hører dem som kroppslige utbrudd som utenfor bevissthetens og språkets kontroll (ibid.). Research Adelphi? Men slik jeg ser det, er det nok ofte slik at writing Fryeburg, disse lydene bare høres ut som om de uttrykker sangerens følelser.

Det kan for research Adelphi University eksempel godt være at can t write, man etteraper de mer spontane lydene som uttrykkes i gråting når man synger sorgfullt. Som nevnt kan dette settes i sammenheng med konvensjoner eller koder for articles University hvordan man uttrykker følelser innenfor forskjellige sjangere og musikkulturer. Requirements? Men det kan som sagt også være noe i tanken om at research articles Adelphi, man som sanger kan sette seg selv i en form for essay ICS — International Community stemning eller sinnstilstand og komme i kontakt med noen følelsesregistre som gjør at articles University, man lettere får gitt uttrykk for write short article Bishopstrow College noen bestemte følelser. Research? Man kan med andre ord lure på hvor konvensjonene slutter og hvor følelsene tar over, eller omvendt. Frith går videre til å skrive om sangerens egen nytelse ved å synge, og nytelsen ved å synge bestemte ord. Article Academy? Men han skriver ikke så mye om det før han går inn i en diskusjon av hva som gjør en stemme sexy, og av stemme og kjønn.

Han skriver en del om forskjellige. 15 14 idealer innenfor forskjellige sjangere med hensyn til hvilket register av den mannlige stemme som er det foretrukne. Og han diskuterer hvorvidt hva som er naturlige maskuline og feminine stemmer er kulturelt definert eller ikke og så videre. Articles University? Jeg er imidlertid ikke så veldig opptatt av kjønn og seksualitet i forhold til det vokale uttrykket i denne sammenhengen. Men Frith stiller et interessant spørsmål når han diskuterer forholdet mellom stemme, kropp, kjønn og seksualitet i forhold til Elvis Presleys sang: as a man-fan, what am I being seduced by? What am I being seduced for? (ibid.: 195). Write St. John's-Ravenscourt School? I tilfellet Frith som forføres av Elvis kan det muligens være noen grad av seksuell forførelse gjennom en form for research identifikasjon, ved at Frith opplever en form for how to literary essay (Navitas) glede (om ikke akkurat opphisselse) ved å identifisere seg selv med Elvis som en maskulin rollemodell. Adelphi? Men min opplevelse omkring dette er nok at uc a-g Lancing College, det heller er snakk om en form for research Adelphi University ikke-seksuell forførelse. Help Essay International Community School? Jeg opplever absolutt en nytelse ved lytting til Lauryn Hill og Kate Bush.

Men den nytelsen jeg opplever i møte med de to stemmene er temmelig lik den nytelsen jeg opplever når jeg hører stemmen til for eksempel Stevie Wonder eller Bjørn Eidsvåg, så jeg har ikke følelsen av at research articles Adelphi University, kjønn og seksualitet er det mest avgjørende her. St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Jeg tror det dreier seg om en type følsomhet, noe jeg straks vil komme tilbake til. Adelphi University? Dessverre går ikke Frith langt i å svare på spørsmålene han stilte seg om hva han blir forført av, og hva han blir forført til eller for, i sitt møte med Elvis synging. Article Bishopstrow? I stedet går han inn i spørsmål omkring konvensjonelle og ukonvensjonelle kvinnestemmer og mannsstemmer og hvordan de forholder seg til tekster med mannlig eller kvinnelig perspektiv for research eksempel om homofile og lesbiske sangere som synger tekster som opprinnelig er skrevet for College sangere av det motsatte kjønn. Dette er interessante temaer, men ikke noe jeg vil drøfte videre her. I stedet vil jeg vende litt tilbake til spørsmålet om personlighet. Articles Adelphi University? Etter å ha tatt tak i en del av spørsmålene Frith tar opp i sitt kapittel om stemme, vil jeg oppsummere min holding til dette slik: Vokaluttrykket behøver ikke å avsløre personligheten til sangeren. The University Of Kansas? Stor sangkunst eller kunst som sådan behøver ikke si noe sant om noe som helst. Articles University? Et dramatisk og trist liv behøver ikke ha noe å si for uttrykket.

Vissheten om at noen har levd et dramatisk og/eller trist liv kan saktens påvirke oss til å 16 15 oppfatte musikkformidlingen som mer ektefølt og dramatisk. Requirements List College? Et dramatisk og intenst uttrykk for University sorg og lengsel er imidlertid ikke nødvendigvis mer sant enn et lettere og mindre intenst uttrykk for of Kansas de samme følelsene, for eksempel. University? Vokaluttrykket formidler stort sett kvaliteter, både på et kulturelt og idémessig plan, som man forholdsvis lett kan redegjøre for essays of Kansas ved hjelp av språket, og mer eller mindre rene lydkvaliteter som er vanskeligere å redegjøre for research Adelphi ved hjelp av språket. ICS — International? Man kan nyte vokaluttrykket uten å vektlegge eller kanskje engang oppfatte noen form for research Adelphi University mening som kan uttrykkes språklig. Requirements List Lancing College? I forlengelsen av dette er det nærliggende å spørre seg om det kroppslige uttrykket kanskje i større grad er personlig enn det som måtte uttrykkes av følelser som gjerne er knyttet til teksten. Research Articles Adelphi University? Det siste spørsmålet får meg til å tenke på scat-syngingen til for write eksempel Al Jarreau eller Bobby McFerrin. Research? Når de scat-synger lager de munnlyder, gjerne med språklignende stavelser. Help Essay Community? Ifølge Frith kan en stemme egentlig aldri høres som et ordløst instrument, og han mener vi hører slike lyder som ord vi ikke forstår eller som lyder fra noen som har valgt å uttrykke seg usammenhengende eller uforståelig (ibid.: 190).

Jeg er grunnleggende uenig med Frith i dette. Research University? Selv om disse lydene ikke formidler meninger eller følelser man kan uttrykke språklig, tror jeg ikke det ligger noe eksplisitt ønske om ikke å bli forstått til grunn. ICS — International? Hvorvidt man blir forstått eller ikke er irrelevant, fordi det man holder på med er en form for Adelphi utforsking og dyrking av vokale lyder og forholdet mellom melodi og akkorder akkurat som en hvilket som helst annen solist med et eksternt instrument gjør. Requirements List Lancing College? Men det som uansett er helt klart (i alle fall i tilfellet Al Jarreau og Bobby McFerrin) er at research Adelphi University, man veldig tydelig kan høre hvilke personer som synger. How To Griffith (Navitas)? Det kommer til dels av deres stemmeklang, men svært mye av det personlige uttrykket ligger etter min mening i hvordan de utforsker og dyrker sine vokale lyder hvordan de former klangen til sine vokaler og konsonanter. Research? Så man kan kanskje høre personlighet i vokaluttrykket. 17 16 Jeg har ofte hørt folk si om sangere de ikke liker så godt at writing of Kansas, de synger uten et tydelig personlig preg, og jeg kan nok ha tenkt det samme enkelte ganger når jeg har syntes noe jeg har hørt har vært riktig kjedelig. Articles? Jeg tenkte først at det blant noen av de mest kommersielt vellykkede, verdenskjente artistene måtte finnes noen som låt litt pregløst og upersonlig. Mine tanker gikk først i retning av artister som Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Kylie Minogue eller Usher, Celine Dion eller Jessica Simpson.

Men jeg tror ikke det stemmer helt. (Navitas)? Det jeg opplever om spesielt pregløst hos disse ligger først og fremst i komposisjonene, og i produksjonene av låtene. Articles? (Men det er mulig at article Fryeburg, det kan forekomme oftere blant vokalister i band. De behøver ofte ikke å ha fått rollen som vokalist fordi de er så opptatt av å synge. De kan ofte i utgangspunktet være bassister, gitarister og/eller låtskrivere som tar på seg oppdraget fordi ingen andre gidder. Articles Adelphi? Det er også trolig en vanlig oppfatning at writing analytical essays The University of Kansas, kvaliteten i uttrykket til et pop- eller rockeband, ut over University, det som finnes i komposisjon og tekst, i stor grad ligger i sammensmeltingen av det personlige utrykket i spillingen til de enkelte bandmedlemmene.) De mest åpenbare eksemplene på sangere uten tydelig personlig preg kjenner eller husker vi nok stort sett ikke navnet på. Essay International Community School? Når jeg hører vokalister som åpenbart har gode stemmer og god teknikk, men som likevel er kjedelige å høre på, er det ofte at hunden ligger begravet i munnen.. Research Adelphi? Det vokale uttrykket er jo et svært sammensatt fenomen. Uc A-g Requirements? Hvis jeg skulle gå skjematisk til verks og forsøke å dele opp eller skille ut de viktigste parametrene for Adelphi det vokale uttrykket, ville det kanskje se slik ut: 1. Essay School? Instrumentets beskaffenhet Lengde og tykkelse på luftrøret/halsen, munnhulens utforming, stemmebåndenes størrelse og fleksibilitet, styrke og fleksibilitet i musklene som brukes for research University å trykke ut luften, musklene i munnhulen halsen og så videre. 2. How To Write Literary Griffith (Navitas)? Ferdigheter/sensitivitet Sensitivitet og ferdigheter henger gjerne tett sammen, men det finnes tilfeller av at research, noen har tilegnet seg nokså ekstreme ferdigheter uten å være i stand til å være sensitiv i utøvelsen av ferdighetene.

Da vil utøveren ofte i mindre grad være i stand til å 18 17 kommunisere med de hun synger sammen med og tilpasse seg uventede forandringer i musikken eller annen ytre påvirkning. Writing The University Of Kansas? 3. Konvensjoner/smak/personlig bakgrunn Dette er faktorer som i utgangspunktet ikke er fysiske, og som i høy grad henger sammen. Hvilken smak man har avhenger blant annet av kulturell og sosial bakgrunn, og er også avgjørende for articles Adelphi University hvilken sjanger man opererer innenfor og hvordan man forholder seg til konvensjonene innenfor sjangeren og så videre. Fryeburg Academy? 4. Adelphi University? Følelser Mer spesifikke følelsestilstander formidlet av teksten hører kanskje hjemme i punktet over. Can T My Essay School? Det samme kan gjelde sangerens evne til å formidle disse følelsene. Men som jeg allerede har vært inne på, er det med å uttrykke følelser i musikken et vanskelig tema. Articles University? Det personlige ligger (selvsagt) i den spesielle sammensetningen av de nevnte faktorene (og muligens flere som jeg ikke har nevnt). Can T Write My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Følelser blir ofte sammenkoblet med personlighet, og det er jo rimelig fordi de er en avgjørende drivkraft for research Adelphi handling og er med på å danne grunnlaget for opplevelsen av et jeg eller et selv. How To Essay Griffith? Men hvilke følelser en sanger egentlig innehar idet hun synger en sang, kan som nevnt være helt skjult for research Adelphi de som hører på.

Sånn sett kan følelser etter min mening ofte være den minst avgjørende faktoren for article Fryeburg Academy personlighet i uttrykket. På den annen side kan man i varierende grad styre følelsene sine og leve seg inn i stemninger i musikken eller en stemning man ønsker å legge i musikken og derigjennom skape et følelsesuttrykk i musikken. Men er det da personlige følelser? Dette er som sagt et vanskelig spørsmål. Articles Adelphi? Uansett er måten(e) vi uttrykker og opplever følelser i musikk på, også et spørsmål om konvensjoner. Of Kansas? I forhold til punkt 3 og spørsmålene omkring konvensjoner innenfor en sjanger er lytterens ferdigheter også av avgjørende betydning. Articles University? I sjangere jeg har dårlig kjennskap til høres mye av musikken lik ut, og det er vanskeligere å gjengi enten ved etterligning eller ved å bruke språk hva jeg hører. Sånn sett er det rimelig å anta at writing, dette er ferdigheter det er mulig å trene opp.

19 18 Jeg tenker at dette har med persepsjon å gjøre og lurer på om det går an articles University å snakke om hvor finmasket vårt persepsjonsnett er og hvor finmasket eller detaljert vårt uttrykksregister er. For å forsøke å finne ut mer om dette vil jeg se hva Eric F. Clarke skriver om persepsjon av musikk i sin bok Ways of requirements Lancing, Listening (2005). Research University? Persepsjonshierarkiet snudd opp ned om betydningen av sansning og perseptuell læring Innledningsvis beskriver Clarke den mest vanlige forståelsen av hvordan vår persepsjon av musikk foregår, som er basert på den mer generelle teorien om persepsjon kalt the help ICS —, information-processing approach. Research Adelphi University? Den går enkelt forklart ut på at uc a-g requirements College, miljøet en gitt organisme lever i er en slags blooming buzzing confusion og sånn sett gir organismen en malstrøm av sansestimuli som den tar imot og organiserer og fortolker med sitt sanseapparat. Research University? Strukturene en organisme opplever, ligger altså ikke i miljøet det er heller organismen som tillegger en uorganisert og svært komplisert verden strukturer ved hjelp av sanseapparatet. Write School? (Clarke 2005: 12) Denne tradisjonelle forståelsen av persepsjon har hatt stor betydning for hvordan man oftest har betraktet persepsjon av musikk som en prosess med flere nivåer. Adelphi University? Prosessen starter med inntak av enklere sansestimuli som så blir fortolket og satt sammen til mer og mer kompliserte helheter (for eksempel fra lyder til timbre og pitch til melodiske strukturer og form og så videre), der det øverste nivået er en mental, sosial og kulturell opplevelse med estetisk verdi, mening og referanse. Analytical The University? Dette er en prosess som primært går fra det nederste nivået med en slags rå sansedata til den kulturelle, estetiske opplevelsen, men der helhetsforståelsen på et høyere nivå også virker tilbake på fortolkningen av bestanddelene på de lavere nivåene (ibid.: 14). Lytterens tidligere erfaringer er også avgjørende helt fra begynnelsen av fortolkningsprosessen, og gir sånn sett en god forklaring på hvorfor enkeltindivider ofte opplever den samme musikken helt forskjellig. Research Adelphi? Men selv om denne forklaringsmodellen har den del positive trekk, mener Clarke å se flere avgjørende problemer ved den.

For det første baserer den seg på ideen om mental. 20 19 representasjon både på de høyere og lavere nivåene i prosessen. Det er problematisk fordi en representasjon bare har verdi eller betydning om det er noen eller noe som oppfatter dem eller benytter seg av dem. Fryeburg Academy? Det medfører ifølge Clarke en uendelig regress av homunculi (miniatyrmennesker) i lytterens hjerne som oppfatter og igjen representerer det som blir oppfattet. Articles Adelphi University? Jeg vil bemerke at can t write School, selv om denne rekken av representasjoner kanskje ikke må være like uendelig som Clarke gir uttrykk for, så gir den kanskje en misvisende og ufullstendig beskrivelse av persepsjonsprosessen. For det andre virker denne modellen ikke-legemlig og abstrakt, som om persepsjon var en slags resonneringseller problemløsingsprosess, som er frakoblet den utforskende og orienterende funksjonen persepsjon har for en levende organisme. Videre tar Clarke for seg problemer ved at University, persepsjonsprosessen er tenkt å gå hovedsakelig nedenfra og opp gjennom de forskjellige nivåene. Han mener at Fryeburg Academy, vår direkte erfaring tilsier at dette er feil. Adelphi University? Det er for analytical eksempel slik at articles University, når vi hører et kort utdrag musikk, kanskje idet vi zapper med en fjernkontroll eller når noen åpner og lukker døren til et rom med musikk, er det mer sannsynlig at article College, vi er i stand til å si noe om hva slags type musikk det er (om det for University eksempel er hiphop eller opera) enn om forskjellige grunnleggende bestanddeler i musikken, som intervaller eller rytmiske strukturer.

Folk ser ut til å bli oppmerksomme på kjennetegn/særtrekk eller egenskaper på de høyere nivåene mer umiddelbart og direkte enn på de lavere nivåene (ibid.: 15). Article Academy? Når Clarke omtaler det øverste nivået i persepsjonsprosessen slik den er tenkt i henhold til informasjonsbearbeidingsteorien, legger han til i en bisetning i parentes: (which is University, arguably the uc a-g list Lancing, goal of the research Adelphi University, whole sequence of processes). Writing Fryeburg Academy? Denne antagelsen som i noen grad ligger i teorien om at research articles Adelphi University, det øverste nivået skulle være målet i persepsjonsprosessen er, som Clarke så vidt er inne på, mulig å problematisere. Fryeburg Academy? Det er grunn til å tro at research articles Adelphi, vi mennesker omgir oss med musikk fordi vi liker det. Write My Essay? Og da kan vi spørre oss selv om hva det egentlig er vi liker ved musikken. Research Articles Adelphi? Dette spørsmålet vil jo ha mange svar, kanskje like mange som det finnes lyttere og utøvere i verden, men det går likevel an how to write literary essay Griffith University å si noe generelt om det om vi undersøker blant lyttere innenfor en bestemt sjanger eller musikkultur. Research Adelphi? Ofte vil det være svært sammensatt på den ene siden av elementer vi kanskje kan regne som knyttet til rent musikalske lyder, for uc a-g requirements College eksempel en stemmeklang man liker eller en rytmisk.

21 20 struktur, og på den andre elementer som er knyttet til budskap og sosial og kulturell tilhørighet innenfor en gruppe, som er svært tett vevd inn i det musikalske uttrykket, men som kunne ha eksistert uten en eneste lyd, kanskje i en annen kunstform. Research? Hvor kommer nytelsen inn? Er det etter det øverste nivået med mening og estetisk verdi? Opplevelsen av mening eller betydning eller budskap kan være forbundet med nytelse, men vi opplever gjerne også nytelse når vi hører enkeltbestanddelene på de lavere nivåene i denne modellen, som for essay Community School eksempel kontrasten mellom to articles University forskjellige klanger eller bare en enkelt klang i seg selv. Help ICS — International Community School? I et eksempel på en slik tradisjonell forståelse av musikkpersepsjon som Clarke refererer til, beskriver Diana Deutsch hvordan pitch-kombinasjoner blir abstrahert av sanseapparatet og muliggjør persepsjon av fenomener som intervaller og akkorder (ibid.: 12). Adelphi? At Deutsch bruker ordet abstrahert når hun beskriver prosessen, kan ses som et uttrykk for en idé om persepsjonen som en tankeprosess. Analytical Essays The University Of Kansas? Det er for research University det første trolig en misvisende beskrivelse av prosessen.

I tillegg forsterker også tendensen til å gi de høyereliggende nivåene i denne prosessen en høyere verdi som om det er en teleologisk prosess. Dette fordi vi vanligvis forstår abstraksjon som en målrettet prosess der et høyere nivå av abstraksjon gis en høyere verdi enn et lavere. Dette ligger dypt forankret i den indoeuropeiske kulturen og har røtter tilbake til dualismen hos den iranske profeten Zoroaster i avestisk religion, og er senere sterkt til stede hos filosofen Platon (for eksempel i abstraksjonen av Eros-skikkelsen i Drikkegildet og hulelignelsen), og i kristendommen gjennom nyplatonske kristne tenkere som Augustin og videre i filosofien til Descartes, som tok det med inn i den vitenskapelige revolusjon og det man i idéhistorien gjerne kaller moderniteten. Writing Fryeburg Academy? Som utgangspunkt for research Adelphi en alternativ persepsjonsmodell bruker Clarke James Gibsons økologiske teori om persepsjon, slik den er formulert i blant annet The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (1966). 22 21 Et viktig element i Clarkes alternativ til informasjonsbearbeidingstilnærmingen til persepsjon av musikk er i forlengelsen av dette at uc a-g requirements Lancing, en organisme tar inn strukturer som faktisk eksisterer i miljøet den lever i, heller enn å bygge opp strukturer i en indre modell av verden. Verden er altså ikke a blooming buzzing confusion, slik tilhengerne av informasjonsbearbeidingstilnærmingen gjerne legger til grunn, men et høyst strukturert miljø som både er underlagt (subject to) naturkrefter og gjennomgripende påvirkning fra menneskene og deres kulturer.

I dette miljøet lever høyst strukturerte og godt tilpassede organismer som orienterer seg gjennom persepsjon (ibid.: 17). Research University? Et inntrykk av et fenomen i miljøet som blir tatt opp av sanseapparatet til en organisme er en direkte konsekvens av de fysiske egenskapene til fenomenet. My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt? I stedet for research articles Adelphi å måtte gjennomgå en komplisert prosessering av informasjonen utenfra for College å avkode/dekryptere den, har en organisme et perseptuelt system som resonnerer med eller fungerer som klangbunn for articles University informasjonen. List College? Gibson skriver at research articles, det er A system [that] haunts until it achieves clarity (ibid.:19). Uc A-g Requirements List College? Clarke bruker også begrepet tuning om denne prosessen, og sammenligner den med hvordan en moderne digital tuner fungerer. Articles Adelphi University? I tillegg til å hevde at requirements Lancing, det er en slik direkte forbindelse mellom en organismes sanseinntrykk og objekter/fenomener i dens livsmiljø, går den økologiske teorien om persepsjon også inn på forholdet mellom persepsjon og handling, tilpasning, og perseptuell læring. Research Articles Adelphi University? For det første er det slik at Fryeburg Academy, persepsjon i sin essens er utforskende og aktiv. En organismes sanseapparat søker etter sansestimuli i miljøet for research articles å bli kjent med det. Academy? Det foregår en stadig vekselvirkning mellom handling og persepsjon, etter som organismens handlinger som respons på persepsjon igjen fører til forandringer i miljøet, som igjen opptas av sanseapparatet og igjen fører til nye handlinger og så videre (ibid.).

Ved persepsjon av forskjellige underholdnings- og kunstuttrykk foregår ifølge Clarke en avbrytning eller suspensjon av denne vekselvirkningen mellom persepsjon og handling. Articles Adelphi University? De mest ekstreme tilfeller av denne typen avbrytning foregår gjerne ved persepsjon av enkelte typer finkulturelle vestlige kunstuttrykk, som for eksempel stillesittende lytting til klassisk musikk eller distansert beskuing av kunstobjekter på et galleri (ibid.: 20). 23 22 Denne resonansen av informasjon utenfra er altså ikke resultat av en passiv prosess. Can T My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt? Når Clarke skriver videre om tilpasning, tar han utgangspunkt i at organismer og deres livsmiljø er i stadig forandring og at research Adelphi, det foregår en gjensidig tilpasning over uc a-g requirements Lancing College, lang tid gjennom en evolusjonsprosess. Articles Adelphi University? Tilpasning av organismers persepsjonssystem til livsmiljøet er også en del av denne prosessen. Write My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt? Clarke mener det har foregått lignende prosesser i forholdet mellom mennesker og musikk gjennom vår historie. Research Articles University? Han skriver: Human beings have exploited natural opportunities for uc a-g requirements College music making (the acoustical characteristics of articles, materials and College, the action-possibilities of the articles Adelphi University, human body) and uc a-g list College, have also adapted themselves to research articles University those opportunities, and enhanced those opportunities, through tool-making of uc a-g list College, one sort or another (ibid.: 21). Den gjensidige tilpasningen mellom mennesker og deres (musikalske) livsmiljø kan ikke reduseres til/forklares reduktivt med konvensjonelle evolusjonsprinsipper, men er heller ikke uavhengig av disse: Kultur og biologi er floket sammen på komplisert vis, men utgjør totalt sett ett sammenknyttet system (ibid.: 22). Research Articles University? I tillegg til en tilpasning mellom organismer og deres livsmiljø gjennom evolusjon over writing Fryeburg, svært lang tid kan organismer også individuelt tilpasse seg sine omgivelser i løpet av sin levetid gjennom det Clarke kaller perseptuell læring. Articles Adelphi? Ifølge Clarke er den generelle holdningen innen kognitiv psykologi at analytical essays, perseptuelle ferdigheter utvikles gjennom akkumulasjon av kunnskap som veileder og informerer, og som fyller inn den manglende informasjonen i et kaotisk livsmiljø (ibid.: 22). Articles Adelphi? I henhold til den økologiske teorien om persepsjon utvikles perseptuelle ferdigheter derimot gjennom progressiv differensiering en organisme blir mer og mer sensitiv overfor distinksjoner som allerede ligger som et potensial i omgivelsene.

Et spedbarn som i utgangspunktet kan gjøre få distinksjoner utforsker oppdagelser av nye distinksjoner eller nyanser, som igjen fører til stadig nye oppdagelser. Jeg var tidligere inne på at det i informasjonsbearbeidningstilnærmingen ligger en antakelse om en form for teleologi i persepsjonsprosessen der det siste nivået er en mental, sosial og kulturell opplevelse med estetisk verdi, mening og referanse. List? Men dersom vi legger til grunn at research articles, vi utvikler perseptuelle ferdigheter gjennom progressiv. 24 23 differensiering, kan det heller se ut som om detaljrikdommen i det vi sanser øker etter hvert. Essay International Community School? Hvis persepsjonsprosessen beskrives som teleologisk, kunne det heller se ut som om detaljene var målet. Research University? Men det er noe mer komplisert enn som så, for requirements list College Clarke introduserer også begrepet invariants: vi blir kjent med såkalte invarianter eller konstante forhold og objekter i livsmiljøet gjennom perseptuell læring. University? Slik gjenkjenner vi noen lyder som musikk, og noe musikk som opera og annet som punk og så videre. Write Essay University (Navitas)? Før man greier å oppfatte invarianter, det være seg i musikk eller andre sanseinntrykk, er man svært oppmerksom på alle mulige detaljer i inntrykket. Research University? Et eksempel på dette er hvordan vi oppfatter alle de fremmedartede lydene i et språk vi aldri har hørt før veldig tydelig før vi oppfatter strukturer i det (eller kanskje til og med begynner å forstå det) (ibid.: 34).

I Clarkes bok kan man også se et nokså utydelig illustrasjonsbilde, der man først ser en masse forskjellige større og mindre sorte flekker mot en hvit bakgrunn (ibid.: 33). Writing Analytical The University? Når man har sett på det i noen sekunder trer imidlertid noen strukturer frem, og man kan få øye på noe som ser ut som en dalmatinerhund. Research Adelphi? Litt etter oppfatter man at write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, den befinner seg i noe som kan se ut som et parkmiljø. Det som skjer er at research articles Adelphi, straks man oppfatter noen slike invarianter, vil disse første slike ofte være så tydelige og gjennomgående at of Kansas, de dominerer sanseopplevelsen en god stund før man oppfatter andre kjennetegn. Articles Adelphi University? Så da kan man kanskje konkludere med at can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, etter at articles, man har begynt å oppfatte de mest tydelige invariantene og en følelse av helhet, begynner man igjen å orientere seg mer mot detaljene. Help Essay International School? Det må også poengteres at Adelphi University, jakten på detaljer i sanseinntrykk der vi orienterer oss i forhold til en helhetsforståelse oppleves ganske annerledes enn det å være oppmerksom på en masse detaljer vi ikke forstår noe av fordi vi ennå ikke har oppfattet noen invarianter. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy? Når det gjelder målet for persepsjonen, kan man vel si at research University, det må være å få størst mulig kjennskap til det man er orientert mot i persepsjonsprosessen både helhet og detaljer, og ikke minst forholdet mellom helhet og detaljer. Før jeg tok for article Bishopstrow College meg Clarkes teori om persepsjon av musikk stilte jeg spørsmål om hvorvidt det går an articles å snakke om hvor finmasket vårt persepsjonsnett er, og hvor finmasket eller detaljert vårt uttrykksregister er.

Dette innblikket i og diskusjonen rundt. 25 24 Clarkes teori tyder på at write School, persepsjon er en svært viktig del av bildet om man forsøker å forstå noe både om hvordan musikkopplevelsen foregår og om hvorfor vi har forskjellig smak og vektlegger forskjellige kvaliteter ved det musikalske uttrykket. Articles University? Den stadig pågående perseptuelle læringsprosessen kan forklare hvorfor musikkeksempler innenfor en sjanger man ikke har hørt så mye på, ofte høres svært like ut. Jeg kan ofte oppleve dette i møte med for eksempel modernistisk atonal kunstmusikk eller indisk ragamusikk. Essay Community School? Videre kan det kanskje forklare hvorfor noen sangere taler sterkere til en enn andre. Man kan for research articles Adelphi University eksempel spørre seg om det er slik at noen avsendere treffer mottakeren ekstra sterkt fordi uttrykksregisteret matcher persepsjonsnettet til mottakeren.

Eller omvendt: at Academy, man som mottaker er ekstra mottakelig for Adelphi University impulser som resonnerer med den typen særtrekk man er peilet inn mot i en perseptuell læringsprosess. Help School? En ganske annen innfallsvinkel til hvorfor noe sang treffer lytteren på en helt spesiell måte, kan vi få om vi leser The Grain of the Adelphi, Voice av Roland Barthes. Uc A-g Requirements College? Dette kan også bidra til å belyse det kompliserte forholdet mellom sangens formidling av tekst og andre, mer kulturelle meningsbærende elementer på den ene siden og sangens materielle eller fysiske kvaliteter på den andre. Research University? Jeg vil nå ta for how to meg de to sangerne Lauryn Hill og Kate Bush, og diskutere hvorvidt disse kan sies å ha den kvaliteten Barthes beskriver i sitt essay. Undervisningsopplegg til txt 2015 Tidsinnstilt. Undervisningsopplegg til txt 2015 Tidsinnstilt A. Research Articles Adelphi? Innledende opplegg om litter?r smak og kvalitet Dette opplegget kan med fordel gjennomfores som en forberedelse til arbeidet med arets txt-aksjon. Literary? Hvis. Innholdsfortegnelse KOMPETANSEMAL/ L?RINGSMAL - Etter 2.arstrinn. 3 MUSIKK.

3 Lytte. Articles? 3 Musisere. Write St. John's-Ravenscourt? 3 NATURFAG. 3 NORSK. University? 3 SAMFUNNSFAG. Can T St. John's-Ravenscourt School? 3 Kompetansemal etter 4. Articles Adelphi University? arstrinn. 4 MUSIKK. Can T Write My Essay? 4 Lytte. Lokal l?replan i muntlige ferdigheter. Articles University? Beate Borresen Hogskolen i Oslo. Lokal l?replan i muntlige ferdigheter Beate Borresen Hogskolen i Oslo Muntlige ferdigheter i K06 a lytte a snakke a fortelle a forsta a undersoke sammen med andre a vurdere det som blir sagt/gjore seg.

Arsplan for musikk 9. Can T Write School? trinn, 2014/2015 L?rere: Erlend Alm Lerstad og Eva Kristin Knutsen. ARSPLAN MUSIKK 9. TRINN Arsplan for research Adelphi musikk 9. trinn, 2014/2015 L?rere: Erlend Alm Lerstad og Eva Kristin Knutsen Grunnleggende ferdigheter i faget (fra Kunnskapsloftet) Grunnleggende ferdigheter er integrert. LOKAL L?REPLAN I MUNTLIGE FERDIGHETER. LOKAL L?REPLAN I MUNTLIGE FERDIGHETER Beate Borresen Hogskolen i Oslo FERDIGHETER OG SJANGERE I DENNE PLANEN Grunnleggende ferdigheter lytte snakke sporre vurdere Muntlige sjangere fortelle samtale presentere. SANDEFJORD KOMMUNE ANDEBU UNGDOMSSKOLE. FAGPLAN MUSIKK 8. ICS — International Community School? TRINN 2015/16 Periode Tema Kompetansemal Aktiviteter/innhold Kilder Vurdering 35-43 Gitarkurs og musikkteori MUSISERE Bruke musikkens grunnelementer, symboler for research Adelphi besifring og akkordprogresjoner. ARSPLAN I MUSIKK 5. Writing Essays The University Of Kansas? 7. TRINN BREIVIKBOTN SKOLE 2014-2015. ARSPLAN I MUSIKK 5. 7. University? TRINN BREIVIKBOTN SKOLE 2014-2015 L?rer: Knut Brattfjord L?reverk: Ingen spesifikke l?reverk Malene er fra L?rerplanverket for Fryeburg Academy kunnskapsloftet 2006 og vektlegger hva elevene skal.

Utdrag fra Beate Borresen og Bo Malmhester: Filosofere i barnehagen, manus mars 2008. Utdrag fra Beate Borresen og Bo Malmhester: Filosofere i barnehagen, manus mars 2008. Research University? Hvorfor skal barn filosofere? Filosofiske samtaler er mate a l?re pa som tar utgangspunkt i barnets egne tanker, erfaring. KUNSTEN A L?RE P. Krishna Dialog som en mate a l?re En ma skille mellom to ICS — International Community School slags l?ring.

Det finnes l?ringen som er akkumulering av kunnskap, som trenger tid og anstrengelse. Articles Adelphi? Dette er hovedsaklig dyrkingen. Musisere Hovedomradet musisere har musikkopplevelse, forstatt bade som estetisk opplevelse og eksistensiell erfaring, som faglig fokus. Write Short? Hovedomradet omfatter praktisk arbeid med sang, spill pa ulike instrumenter. LOKAL FAGPLAN MUSIKK 1.-7. Research? TRINN Midtbygda skole MUSIKK 1. Write Article? KLASSE Bruke stemmen variert i ulike styrkegrader og tonehoyder Delta i leker med et variert repertoar av sanger, rim, regler, sangleiker og danser. «Det patagelige frav?ret av kvinnelige regissorer, etc.»

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Amplifying the Voices of Women Photographers in the Middle East. WASHINGTON, DC — In the dominant narrative about the Middle East, the voices of women are among the research articles Adelphi, most difficult to Fryeburg Academy hear. Here in the West, their words are often drowned out by articles University our perceptions of their oppression, freedom, and alienation within the assumed monolith of regional culture and governance. There’s a narrative Western observers are more than willing to article writing Academy shoehorn Middle Eastern women into, devoid of nuance and articles Adelphi complexity, that does just as much to silence them as the societal and legal limitations they face. Can T Write My Essay? It’s against those opposing but similar walls that the Adelphi, National Museum of Women in the Arts’ exhibit She Who Tells a Story pushes. After runs at International Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts and Stanford University’s Cantor Arts Center, the show has come to Washington, DC, a powerful location for an endeavor that amplifies the voices of women living in a part of the world ravaged by US-led war and policy. The exhibit fittingly shares its name with Rawiya (Arabic for “She Who Tells a Story”), the first Middle Eastern female photography collective, founded in 2009. It seeks to present Arab and Iranian womanhood “far removed from the myths and research Adelphi tales of the ‘Persian’ Queen Scheherazade and the ‘Arabian’ One Thousand and One Nights, ” as the introductory wall text states.

In doing so, She Who Tells a Story offers a masterclass on how to provide a platform for marginalized voices. Installation view, #8216;She Who Tells a Story#8217; at Bishopstrow the National Museum of Women in the Arts, showing Lalla Essaydi#8217;s #8220;Bullets Revisited #3#8221; (2012) (click to research articles enlarge) Set in short article, several rooms, the exhibit is broken into three themes: “Deconstructing Orientalism,” “Constructing Identities,” and articles “New Documentary.” Each offers an opportunity to see how contemporary women living in the Middle East respond to ideas about their own identities and the world around them. Wall text provides crucial context, making the many layers of meaning clear to lay observers who may not know about legal complexities in Iran or the varied forms of short article Bishopstrow, veiling across the region. The works on view are remarkably powerful, at times uncomfortable. In Moroccan artist Lalla Assia Essaydi’s “Bullets Revisited #3” (2012), a woman adorned in gold jewelry lounges on a bed in a traditionally Orientalist pose, before an intricately patterned backdrop. Adelphi University? On closer examination, it becomes clear that the essay ICS — Community School, backdrop, bed, and jewelry are all made of bullet casings, and the woman’s languid gaze becomes one of confrontation. The work calls up restrictions on and violence against research University women, but also the need for outsiders to look more closely in order to see the complicated reality of a place often painted in simple, stark strokes. Shadi Ghadirian, wntitled, from the writing Fryeburg, series #8216;Qajar#8217; (1998), gelatin silver print, 15 3/4 x 11 7/8 in, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum purchase with the Horace W. Goldsmith Fund for Photography and Abbott Lawrence Fund (© Shadi Ghadirian, photo © 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Boushra Almutawakel, untitled, from the series #8216;The Hijab#8217; (2001), chromogenic print, 47 1/4 x 39 3/8 in Adelphi University, (image courtesy the artist and the Howard Greenberg Gallery) (click to enlarge) On an adjoining wall, Iran’s Shadi Ghadirian injects humor into list College, the show with her Qajar series (1998).

Ghadirian combined imagery from the Qajar dynasty at the turn of the 20th century with contemporary props to communicate tension between modernity and traditionalism in research, post-revolutionary Iran. Each black-and-white photograph in Academy, the series features a woman in traditional Qajar dress and research a classic pose, but holding an anachronistic item: a banned newspaper, sunglasses, a boom box. The pictures capture the contrary realities women face in write my essay, a changing Iran. Opposite Qajar , Yemeni artist Boushra Almutawakel’s Mother, Daughter and Doll series (2010) brings the viewer face to face with multiple forms of veiling. Showing the artist, her daughter, and a doll in each iteration, the series challenges the research Adelphi, idea that veiling is writing Fryeburg a monolithic practice that’s done one way and means one thing to all women in all contexts. Rula Halawani, #8220;Untitled VI#8221; from the series #8216;Negative Incursions#8217; (2002), chromogenic print, 35 1/2 x 48 7/8 in (© and research Adelphi courtesy the artist and the Ayyam Gallery) In addition to the navigation of societal and cultural expectations, the show captures war through the woman artist#8217;s lens. Among the most powerful works on School, this topic is research University Palestinian former photojournalist Rula Halawani’s series Negative Incursions . During Israel’s 2002 military incursion into write School, the West Bank, Halawani captured images of combat, destruction, and pain.

But she left the images as negatives, creating a haunting and obscuring effect. Her proximity to her subjects, which include bombed-out houses and Israeli tanks, also speaks to the myth of the demure Arab woman; she is as close as one can possibly get to the occupation here, unafraid to stare down danger in order to capture its reality. Elsewhere in the exhibit, artists explore Iranian restrictions on women singing, the changing nature of life for women in Gaza and Egypt, and the relationship between the hijab and American identity. Individually, the works offer an engaging window onto the clash between private and research articles public; hung side by side, they juxtapose subjects like fashion and armed conflict in writing essays The University, a way that emphasizes the connection between the personal and the political. Clothing choice becomes an act of confrontation on one wall, while war interrupts the rites of passage that define a young woman#8217;s life on research articles, another.

At every turn, She Who Tells a Story emphasizes the importance of even the most mundane minutia of womanhood, while grounding the larger, more easily abstracted questions of international conflict in the realities of lived experience. Rania Matar, #8220;Stephanie, Beirut, Lebanon#8221; from the series #8216;A Girl and Her Room#8217; (2010), pigment print, 36 x 50 in (image courtesy the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston; © Rania Matar) She Who Tells a Story continues at the National Museum of write, Women in the Arts (1250 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC) through July 31. I am nonreligious and I don#8217;t practice Yom Kippur#8217;s rituals, but I appreciate its teachings.

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coldfusion resume nj Several introductory and tutorial articles on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) are referenced in research University, the shorter XML Introduction document. Most articles are accessible online. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the universal format for structured documents and can t write my essay School, data on articles Adelphi University the Web. -- W3C XML Web site, 2000-07-06. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is descriptively identified in the XML 1.0 W3C Recommendation as an extremely simple dialect [or 'subset'] of SGML the goal of which is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on uc a-g list the Web in articles Adelphi University, the way that is now possible with HTML, for which reason XML has been designed for ease of literary Griffith (Navitas), implementation, and for research Adelphi, interoperability with both SGML and HTML. Note that the HTML referenced in the preceding sentence ( bis ) means HTML 4.0 and short article, 3.2 which were in common use as of 10-February-1998, when the XML 1.0 specification was published as a W3C Recommendation. The next version of 'HTML' is expected to be reformulated as an XML application, so that it will be based upon XML rather than upon SGML.

As of December 1998, 'Voyager' was the W3C code name for HTML reformulated as an application of XML. XML was initially developed by a W3C Generic SGML Editorial Review Board formed under the research Adelphi, auspices of the writing Fryeburg, W3 Consortium in research Adelphi University, 1996 and chaired by Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems, with the very active participation of a Generic SGML Working Group also organized by the W3C. An XML WG (Working Group) under W3C served initially as an editorial board, which received input from an XML Special Interest Group. As of late 1998, the XML design effort was re-chartered under the direction of an writing The University of Kansas XML Coordination Group and XML Plenary Interest Group to be carried out in research articles Adelphi University, five new XML working groups: XML Schema Working Group, XML Fragment Working Group, XML Linking Working Group (XLink and literary essay (Navitas), XPointer), XML Information Set Working Group, and XML Syntax Working Group. These working groups were designed to research, have close liaison relationships with the W3C's Extensible Style[sheet] Language (XSL) Working Group and Document Object Model (DOM) Working Group.

Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an literary Griffith University (Navitas) application profile or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language. By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents. XML is primarily intended to research University, meet the requirements of large-scale Web content providers for industry-specific markup, vendor-neutral data exchange, media-independent publishing, one-on-one marketing, workflow management in writing Academy, collaborative authoring environments, and the processing of Web documents by research articles University, intelligent clients. It is also expected to find use in certain metadata applications.

XML is fully internationalized for write essay (Navitas), both European and Asian languages, with all conforming processors required to support the Unicode character set in both its UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings. The language is designed for research articles Adelphi University, the quickest possible client-side processing consistent with its primary purpose as an electronic publishing and data interchange format. List Lancing? [971208 W3C press release] XML documents are made up of storage units called entities , which contain either parsed or unparsed data. Articles Adelphi? Parsed data is made up of characters , some of which form the character data in the document, and some of which form markup . Markup encodes a description of the document's storage layout and logical structure. XML provides a mechanism to impose constraints on the storage layout and logical structure. A software module called an XML processor is write short Bishopstrow used to read XML documents and provide access to their content and articles University, structure. It is assumed that an XML processor is doing its work on behalf of requirements list Lancing, another module, called the application . This specification describes the required behavior of an University XML processor in terms of requirements College, how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to the application. [adapted from the articles University, Proposal]

Valid XML documents are designed to requirements College, be valid SGML documents, but XML documents have additional restrictions. The W3C XML WG has published a technical NOTE providing a detailed comparison of the articles University, additional restrictions that XML places on write short Bishopstrow College documents beyond those of SGML: see http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-sgml-xml for the details. The NOTE also includes an SGML declaration which describes the constraints of XML applicable to an SGML parser. [local archive copy] [This paragraph is superseded by the technical NOTE 'NOTE-sgml-xml' referenced immediately above.] Features in SGML but not in XML include [as of November 5, 1996]: Tag omission; The CONCUR, LINK, DATATAG, and SHORTREF features; The connector in content models; Inclusions and exclusions in content models; CURRENT, CONREF, NAME, NAMES, NUMBER, NUMBERS, NUTOKEN, and NUTOKENS declarations for attributes; The NET construct; Abstract syntax; Capacities and quantities; Comments appearing within other markup declarations; Public Identifiers; Omission of quotes on Adelphi University attribute values. For a more recent/complete comparison of features, see the relevant section in the language specification, or What else has changed between SGML and XML? in the FAQ, maintained by Peter Flynn. As of December 1997, the current and former members of the XML WG are: Jon Bosak, Sun (Chair); James Clark (Technical Lead); Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape (XML Co-editor); Jean Paoli, Microsoft (XML Co-editor); C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. (XML Co-editor); Dan Connolly, W3C; Steve DeRose, INSO; Dave Hollander, HP; Eliot Kimber, Highland; Eve Maler, ArborText; Tom Magliery, NCSA; Murray Maloney, Muzmo and essay International Community School, Grif; Makoto Murata, Fuji Xerox Information Systems; Joel Nava, Adobe; Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad; John Tigue, DataChannel. Historically: The W3C SGML Editorial Review Board, as of November 5, 1996, had the following members: Jon Bosak, Sun (jon.bosak@sun.com), chair; Tim Bray, Textuality (tbray@textuality.com), editor; James Clark (jjc@jclark.com), technical lead; Dan Connolly (connolly@w3.org), W3C contact; Steve DeRose, EBT (sjd@ebt.com), editor; Dave Hollander, HP (dmh@hpsgml.fc.hp.com); Eliot Kimber, Passage Systems (kimber@passage.com); Tom Magliery, NCSA (mag@ncsa.uiuc.edu); Eve Maler, ArborText (elm@arbortext.com); Jean Paoli, Microsoft (jeanpa@microsoft.com); Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad (peter@sqwest.bc.ca); C. Michael Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. at Chicago (cmsmcq@uic.edu), editor. XML/XLink/XSL Specifications: Reference Documents. Extensible Markup Language (XML) [Formerly: 'xml-lang']

Extensible Markup Language as a W3C Recommendation. [February 10, 1998] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 . W3C Recommendation 10-February-1998. Editors: Tim Bray (Textuality and University, Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), and C. M. Help Essay ICS — International School? Sperberg-McQueen (University of Illinois at Chicago). Research Articles Adelphi? Reference: REC-xml-19980210. [October 06, 2000] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) . W3C Recommendation 6-October-2000. Edited by Tim Bray (Textuality and can t School, Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), C. M. Research Articles Adelphi? Sperberg-McQueen (University of article Academy, Illinois at Chicago and research Adelphi, Text Encoding Initiative), and Eve Maler (Sun Microsystems, Inc. - Second Edition). Reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006 . [December 13, 2001] XML 1.1 . W3C Working Draft 13-December-2001. Edited by John Cowan (Reuters). Version URL reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/WD-xml11-20011213/.

Latest Version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/xml11/. Abstract: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of SGML that is completely described in this document. Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and writing essays, processed on the Web in the way that is research articles now possible with HTML. XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML. Sources: [see W3C for analytical The University of Kansas, additional translations] Other Links: [October 09, 2000] XML 1.0 Second Edition as W3C Recommendation. The W3C's XML Core Working Group has published a new W3C Recommendation for Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) . Reference: W3C Recommendation 6-October-2000, edited by Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, and Eve Maler. This REC specification follows the earlier publication of a public Review Version. This second edition is not a new version of XML (first published 10-February-1998); it merely incorporates the changes dictated by research Adelphi University, the first-edition errata as a convenience to readers. Can T Write My Essay School? The errata list for this second edition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-2e-errata. The document abstract, unchanged from the 1998 first edition, appears to validate the hermeneutical theory that a text's intent escapes from the author and passes immediately into the control of the community upon utterance: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of articles Adelphi, SGML that is completely described in this document.

Its goal is to how to write literary essay Griffith University (Navitas), enable generic SGML to research articles, be served, received, and how to write (Navitas), processed on the Web in articles, the way that is uc a-g requirements list Lancing College now possible with HTML. Adelphi University? XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML. The specification is provided in the following formats: XHTML, XML, PDF, and XHTML review version with color-coded revision indicators. Academy? See also the (non-normative) Production Notes in Annex I: This Second Edition was encoded in the XMLspec DTD (which has documentation available). The HTML versions were produced with a combination of the xmlspec.xsl, diffspec.xsl, and Adelphi, REC-xml-2e.xsl XSLT stylesheets. The PDF version was produced with the html2ps facility and a distiller program. [August 15, 2000] Paul Grosso (Co-Chair XML Core WG) announced that the article Fryeburg Academy, W3C XML Core Working Group has released a draft of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Second Edition for public review: Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) Review Version ; Reference: W3C Working Draft 14-August-2000. The second edition is not a new version of research articles, XML; it is analytical of Kansas designed to bring the XML 1.0 Recommendation up to date with the XML 1.0 Specification Errata (first edition). Research Articles Adelphi University? Reviewers are asked to report errors to the 'xml-editor@w3.org' mailing list, which is publicly archived. Paul writes: At this time, we are making two versions of the draft Second Edition available for a four week public review, and all interested parties are invited to review the current drafts and submit comments. This review period ends September 11, 2000, and soon thereafter, the XML Core WG plans to make these documents (possibly as amended per essay International Community, comments) the research articles, official XML 1.0 Recommendation Second Edition. All these public review documents are linked from the uc a-g list College, W3C TR page.

The 'plain' draft Second Edition is at Adelphi, http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xml-2e-20000814.html, and this is the version that would become the official Second Edition. Write University? We have also produced a 'review copy' which highlights changes between the first edition and this Second Edition, and it is at research University, http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xml-2e-review-20000814. Academy? This may be provided along with the official Second Edition if it is deemed useful and appropriate, but the 'plain' version is the official one. Both versions contain embedded [Exx] references/links to research articles Adelphi, the Errata document for each individual erratum that has been applied. Uc A-g Requirements List Lancing College? (If we decide to maintain the 'review' version, we may decide to Adelphi University, delete the [Exx] references from the 'plain' one.) Please note that this review period is to allow everyone a chance to check that the errata that have been applied to the Second Edition are correct and correctly applied. Reports of further errata or ambiguities in XML 1.0 are welcome, but they will likely be saved to be considered for possible application to Fryeburg Academy, a later edition, not added to this Second Edition. [cache] Annotated Version of the XML specification, from Tim Bray.

See further description below. Bob DuCharme. XML: The Annotated Specification. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on articles Adelphi University Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Write? Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. Adelphi University? [January 15, 1999] Michel Goossens (Président GUTenberg) posted an open invitation for assistance in the creation of a French translation of the XML 1.0 Specification and uc a-g list Lancing, Peter Flynn's XML FAQ document. Alternately, if any readers are aware of the availability of such a translation already, or of a similar initiative, please communicate with Goossens about it so as to avoid duplication of efforts.

Press release: The World Wide Web Consortium Issues XML 1.0 as a W3C Recommendation. Research University? Key Industry Players, Experts Collaborate to Griffith, Develop Interoperable Data Format for research articles, the Web. Can T Write? [local archive copy] Announcement on TEI-L, XML 1.0 Is Official. From TEI Editor, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen. Quotes Allen Renear (ACH President), Susan Hockey, and others in the academic community. XML 1.0 Fact Sheet; ;[local archive copy] XML 1.0 Testimonials, - from ACCESS, Adobe, Agranat Systems, Alis Technologies, ArborText, Bitstream, CNET, DataChannel, IBM, Inso, Junglee, Lotus, Microsoft, Open Market, Open SoftwareAssociates, POET Software, SoftQuad, Texcel, Textuality, Unwired Planet, Vignette, and webMethods. [local archive copy] W3C Endorses First XML Standard for Global Use. By Dana Gardner. In InfoWorld Electric . Posted at 11:40 AM PT, February 10, 1998. Details on the German translation: Deutsche Übersetzungen der XML-Spezifikationen, von Henning Behme (iX) und Stefan Mintert (Universität Dortmund). Also available in .ZIP format. Extensible Markup Language as a Proposed Recommendation. [December 08 [12], 1997] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, issued as a W3C Proposed Recommendation.

December 8, 1997. Editors: Tim Bray (Textuality and Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), and C. Research Articles Adelphi University? M. Sperberg-McQueen (University of Illinois at Chicago). Reference: PR-xml-971208. Version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/PR-xml-971208. Announced at the SGML/XML '97 Conference in Washington, D.C.

See the press release, or a press release, alternate source. XML WG Chair Jon Bosak clarified the WG's new work focus in light of the write article Bishopstrow, publication of this PR. HTML Format Postscript format Postscript, .ZIP compressed RTF format XML format local archive copy (HTML) Japanese translation of the XML PR, in articles Adelphi, HTML format and in XML format Associated and Lancing, referenced NOTE: Comparison of SGML and XML. By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. Extensible Markup Language - Other Earlier Working Draft Versions. [November 25, 1997] New draft specification for the Extensible Markup Language (XML), published by the W3C. References: W3C Working Draft 17-November-1997, WD-xml-971117, Version 1.0.

The version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xml-971117; [local archive copy]. Extensible Markup Language (XML). Version 1.0. Articles? Edited by Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen. W3C Working Draft 07-Aug-97. WD-xml-970807. From W3C, HTML format, local archive copy in short article, HTML format In XML format In Postscript format, local archive copy in Postscript format Part 1: Japanese translation Previous version: Draft 30-June-97. HTML version, Postscript; local archive copy in HTML, or Postscript.

Previous version: Draft 31-March-97. from W3C, from Textuality, local copy Previous version: Draft 14-November-96. HTML version, from W3C. Extensible Linking Language (XLL/XLink) [Formerly: 'xml-link'] Note: A separate document xll.html with more complete information on the Extensible Linking Language (XLL) is under construction. Extensible Style Language (XSL) [Formerly: 'xml-style'] Note: A separate document xsl.html with more complete information on the Extensible Style Language (XSL) is under construction. Extensible Style Language Proposal [September 11, 1997]. Submission to the W3C by Microsoft, Inso, and Arbortext for research Adelphi University, Extensible Style Language (XSL) based on DSSSL. August 27, 1997. Title: A Proposal for XSL . Reference: NOTE-XSL.html. Submitted by: Sharon Adler, Inso Corporation; Anders Berglund, Inso Corporation; James Clark; Istvan Cseri, Microsoft Corporation; Paul Grosso, ArborText; Jonathan Marsh, Microsoft Corporation; Gavin Nicol, Inso Corporation; Jean Paoli, Microsoft Corporation; David Schach, Microsoft Corporation; Henry S. Thompson, University of writing Fryeburg, Edinburgh; Chris Wilson, Microsoft Corporation.

HTML version from W3C. XSL proposal local archive copy XSL submission: the overview, and Press release from Microsoft, or press release from articles Adelphi University, ArborText; local archive copy XSL submission: from Microsoft [January 23, 1998] Formation of a W3C Working Group for XSL. See XSL Information from W3C (Chris Lilley) Software implementations supporting the write literary essay (Navitas), Proposal for XSL submitted to W3C: XSLJ - Jade-compatible XSL-to-DSSSL translator from Adelphi, Henry Thompson msxsl - Microsoft XSL Processor, Technology Preview XML Styler - ArborText tool for creating and modifying XSL stylesheets docproc - an XML + XSL document processor from of Kansas, Sean Russell ECMAScript is research articles Adelphi University referenced in the XSL proposal. Fryeburg Academy? ECMAScript: ECMA-262 JavaScript Language Specification. A general purpose scripting language (GPSL), 1997. Available as PDF, or MS Word, in Win 32 self-extracting binary. Alternately, from ECMA Early proposal (mid-1997): Announcement from Jon Bosak for a draft document that puts the existing DSSSL Online (dsssl-o) specification in a form that can easily be made into a Working Draft for XML Part 3. Research Adelphi? Draft for discussion [Postscript].

Part 3 draft: local mirror copy [Postscript] XML FAQ Documents: Answers to Frequently-Asked-Questions See now the separate document for references to SGML/XML FAQs. This document cites the earlier versions of the article writing, XML FAQ (1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1) and early translations into Japanese, Spanish, and Korean. XML Information Online: Other WWW Sites. SGML, XML, and Structured Document Interchange - W3C activity statement Extensible Markup Language (XML) - W3C Overview Overview of SGML and XML Resources - W3C XML at Sun Microsystems - 'Standards and technologies driving the DOT-COM world' XML Resources - James Clark XML.com - Seybold, O'Reilly, Songline. Includes an index of XML articles from Seybold Publications. XML Resources from Textuality (maintained by XML Co-editor, Tim Bray) UNC Sunsite WWW [and FTP] Server, maintained by W3C XML Chair, Jon Bosak XML Community - An Inso XML Forum XML: Some hyperlinks minus the hype. By Philip Wadler (Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies). Articles Adelphi University? XML (Extensible Markup Language) is requirements Lancing College a magnet for hype: the successor to HTML for web publishing, electronic data interchange, and e-commerce.

In fact, XML is just a notation for research articles, trees, little more than a verbose variant of Lisp S-expressions; and a way to define tree grammars, a poor-man's BNF. Yet this simple basis has spawned scores of specialized sub-languages: for airlines, banks, and cell phones; for astronomy, biology, and essay International Community, chemistry; for the DOD and the IRS. This note is a brief guide to web resources that explain XML. XML Reference Guide - From Web Review InformationWeek XML Toolbox IBM XML Web Site XML Competence Center at GMD-IPSI - 'conducting active research on XML-based information systems' XML - Links from Adelphi University, James K. Tauber's XML page XML Files - GCA's XML Magazine. Edited by Dianne Kennedy, published by Norm Scharpf.

Partially/provisionally online: Issues 1 (September 20, 1997) - 4(March 17, 1998). Xmlu.com Website XML Software Guide - WDVL xmlTree - Resource listing for a list of sites and write literary, resources which offer data according to XML formatting rules. University? By James Carlyle. XML - Links from The Virtual School of Molecular Sciences (VSMS) XML Resources - Links from write essay Griffith (Navitas), ArborText finetuning.com - XML Resources collected by Lisa Rein XML School - Jan Egil Refsnes XML/XSL Resources - from Bryan Van Hook Cafe con Leche XML News and Resources - from Elliotte Rusty Harold Content-X. Focused on the application of server-side XML. XML Adam Rifkin's Collection of research articles, Links XML Links - From DataChannel. Including DataChannel's XML Technology Demo Microsoft's XML Support: Overview, XML White Paper, XML Parser in Java, CDF, XML-Data. Also: XML Object Model XML Francophone SGML Cafe (Japanese) XML Resources - Italian Language Site. Paolo De Lazzaro. Korean XML site from Techno 2000 Project Inc.

Chinese XML Now! = Chinese XML Web Site. 'A project to write short Bishopstrow, help developers of Chinese XML Software.' Chinese XML Site - Open China/Open XML. Korean XML Web site XMLis.com Contact: Kwangmin Lee. World Wide Weave - Weave allows people to publicize new XML-based web sites and documents Weave contains only research articles sites that provide content in XML-based markup. Short Bishopstrow? XML Information in the Document Interchange Standards Page, OII Standards and articles Adelphi, Specifications List Section on XML Software Tools in the SGML/XML Web Page Internet Toolkit - XML. PC Magazine/ZDNet. XMLshareware.com. XML: Proposed Applications and Industry Initiatives. The XML applications and announced industry initiatives listed below have not been evaluated according to any serious criteria for quality and uc a-g, genuineness.

Since the various specifications documents for XML/XLink/XSL are still in some flux, it would often be unfair or difficult to make such a judgment. Obviously, many of these application areas provide exemplary models, having unquestioned integrity and high quality. Some already play a vital role in profitable commercial enterprise. It is also to be expected that some early XML/XLink/XSL applications may be merely demonstrations, toys, proof-of-concept applications; still others might be naive or ill conceived. It may be necessary to regard some of these ideas 'in draft' like some of the research Adelphi, specifications documents themselves. The good news is this: Net users are seeing clearly that a fixed tag set (like HTML) is not the article Academy, solution. . . Contents Listing for XML Applications and Industry Initiatives. W3C Specifications Documentation aka 'XML Spec DTD' See now the separate document IEEE Standard DTD. [June 30, 1999] A 'TEI Lite DTD in XML' was made available from the TEI Web site. See the references for TEI - the XML version in a separate document, and the section 'Academic Applications' for background on Adelphi the SGML version of the TEI DTD. Channel Definition Format, CDF (Based on XML)

Channel Definition Format (CDF) is an application of the Extensible Markup Language designed for push technology. The proposal has been submitted to help International, the World Wide Web Consortium. My Netscape Network (MNN) is articles Adelphi a free Netcenter service that lets you create your own My Netscape channel. Create an RDF Site Summary (RSS) 0.9 file that describes your content. See description and short article Bishopstrow College, references in a separate document. Research University? Note 'OCS' below. W3C Document Object Model (DOM), Level 1 Specification.

In early January 1999, a W3C Working Draft for the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Specification Version 1.0 (WD-DOM-Level-2-19981228) was released. It defines the Document Object Model Level 2, a platform- and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and essay Community School, update the content, structure and style of research University, documents. The Document Object Model Level 2 builds on the Document Object Model Level 1. Level 2 adds interfaces for a Cascading Style Sheets object model, an event model, and a query interface, amongst others. On October 1, 1998, the World Wide Web Consortium published the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification, Version 1.0 as a W3C Recommendation. The Document Object Model is write School a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow programs and Adelphi, scripts to dynamically access and literary University, update the content, structure and style of documents. The document can be further processed and the results of that processing can be incorporated back into the presented page.

The main database entry for research articles Adelphi, the W3C DOM has been moved to a separate document. Web Collections are an application of XML - a meta-data syntax that fits easily within the framework of the World Wide Web. Web Collections are an application of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. In addition, Web Collections can be expressed inside HTML documents or on essays The University their own. In addition they are stylistically similar to HTML to enable easy authoring. . . Some of the anticipated applications of Web Collections include Web Maps, HTML Email Threading, PIM functions, scheduling, content labeling, and distributed authoring. [work in progress] Web Collections using XML - March 09, 1997. By Alex Hopmann, with Scott Berkun, George Hatoun, Yaron Goland, Thomas Reardon, Lauren Antonoff, Eric Berman, and others. [mirror copy] Netscape Communications announced a new proposed XML application. According to the notice on articles University the Netscape Developer's page: The Meta Content Framework, or MCF, provides a standard way to describe files or collections of information. A new Netsape document describes how to apply MCF using XML, the Extensible Markup Language.

On January 5, 1998, a new (revised) submission on XML-Data was presented to requirements list Lancing, the W3C by Microsoft, ArborText, DataChannel, and Inso. Reference: W3C Note 05 Jan 1998. Authors: Andrew Layman, Edward Jung, Eve Maler, Henry S. Thompson, Jean Paoli, John Tigue, Norbert H. Mikula, and Steve DeRose. Research Articles Adelphi University? According to the introduction, XML-Data describes an XML vocabulary for schemas, that is, for defining and documenting object classes. It can be used for classes which as strictly syntactic (for example, XML) or those which indicate concepts and relations among concepts (as used in International, relational databases, KR graphs and RDF).

The former are called 'syntactic schemas;' the latter 'conceptual schemas.' The text of University, this NOTE thus provides a specification (XML-Data) for describing and can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, exchanging structured and networked data on the Web. Such exchange is facilitated by schemas defining the characteristics of classes of objects. The objects can be syntactic constructs such as are used in XML instances, or may be more abstract such as are found in databases, information models or directed, labeled graphs. This paper describes an XML vocabulary for schemas. Research Articles Adelphi University? One immediate implication of these ideas is a substantive part of the writing analytical, functionalities of XML document types can now be described using the XML instance syntax itself, rather than DTD syntax. We expect XML-Data to be useful for a wide range of applications, such as describing database transfers or remotely-located Web resources. [Previous draft:] On June 22 1997, Jean Paoli announced a draft specification of an XML application called XML-Data.

The specification is documented in a Position Paper from Microsoft, written by Andrew Layman (Microsoft Corporation), Jean Paoli (Microsoft Corporation), Steve De Rose (Inso Corporation), and Henry S. Thompson (University of Edinburgh), with contributions from University, Paul Grosso, Sharon Adler, Anders Berglund, François Chahuneau, and Edward Jung. XML-Data is an application of XML for exchanging structured data and metadata on the Internet. Article Academy? The paper outlines a number of XML-Data design features which are not in the MCF specification. The position paper has been sent to multiple working groups in Adelphi, the W3C currently dealing with XML and meta-data. XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in Extensible Markup Language documents by associating them with namespaces identified by essay Community, URI. A W3C Working Draft Namespaces in XML was published on research Adelphi September 16, 1998 (WD-xml-names-19980916). Description of the XML namespace work and how to literary essay University (Navitas), references are provided in a separate document. Resource Description Framework (RDF)

The RDF section currently provides information and articles Adelphi University, references for both the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification and the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schema Specification . The Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC) - Metadata. The Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) and ANZLIC Working Group on how to literary Griffith Metadata created a version 1 draft DTD using SGML. The ANZMETA DTD Version 1.1 (19th January 1998) now has been written to conform to the requirements of XML 1.0. The Coastal Atlas Spatial Data Guidelines (ACA-STD-0001) now under development also by research articles Adelphi, ERIN will use the same XML-based metadata language (e.g., metadata records for the 'Blue Pages' of the Marine and Coastal Data Directory of Australia, [MCDD], which is part of the Australian Coastal Atlas). XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) - Object Management Group (OMG) The design of the XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) represents an extremely important initiative.

It has a goal of write Bishopstrow College, unifying XML and related W3C specifications with several object/component modeling standards, as well as with STEP schemas, and Adelphi, more. Write Literary Essay University (Navitas)? Particularly, it would combine the benefits of the web-based XML standard for defining, validating, and sharing document formats on research University the web with the analytical essays, benefits of the object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML), a specification of the Object Management Group (OMG) that provides application developers a common language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting distributed objects and business models. Information on XMI is maintained in a separate document. Educom Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS) Metadata Specification. The IMS project has released XML-based technical specifications for how learning materials will flow over the Internet, and for how organizations and individual learners will manage the learning process, [which] have broad support among industry and among leaders in higher education, training, government, and K-12 schools. See IMS Metadata Specification.

Fighting for Standards in our Browsers is the motto of the Web Standards Project (WSP). The Web Standards Project is a collective effort of web developers and end users whose mission is to stop the fragmentation of the web, by persuading the browser makers that common standards are in everyone's best interest. Its goal is to support these core standards of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and to encourage browser makers to do the same, thereby ensuring simple, affordable access to research articles Adelphi University, Web technologies for all. At the time of WSP's launch (August 10, 1998), standards for International School, the Web included 'Structural Languages' (HTML 4.0, XML 1.0), 'Presentation Languages' (CSS, XSL), 'Object Models' (Document Object Model 1 Core HTML/XML), and research Adelphi, 'Scripting' (ECMAScript). HTML Threading - Use of HTML in Email. On January 27, 1998, the submission of a proposal for my essay, HTML Threading: Conventions for Use of HTML in Email was made to the W3C by Microsoft Corporation, Lotus Development Corporation, and Qualcomm Corporation. Articles Adelphi University? Reference: W3C NOTE 05-Jan-1998. The document editor is writing analytical essays of Kansas Eric Berman (Microsoft), and authors include Pete Resnick (Qualcomm) and Nick Shelness (Lotus). According to the press release, the HTML Threading Proposal outlines how Extensible Markup Language (XML) can be used to articles Adelphi, enable data-rich features in HTML email applications. The document abstract clarifies: As [email] messages go back and forth between participants in a discussion, it is interesting to be able to track properties of the text in the message and write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, properties of the message itself, such as who wrote what or what message a quoted excerpt is Adelphi originally from. Write Bishopstrow? This proposal defines a mechanism for embedding this information within an email message in a manner that degrades gracefully to downlevel mail clients.

Appendix B of the research Adelphi, NOTE provides some sample mail messages using the HTML Threading. Open Software Description Format (OSD) A joint submission was made to W3C on August 13, 1997 by Marimba Incorporated and requirements Lancing, Microsoft Corporation for a proposed Open Software Description Format (OSD). Research? A document 'NOTE-OSD' written by Arthur van Hoff (Marimba, Incorporated), Hadi Partovi and Tom Thai (Microsoft Corporation) bears this abstract: This document provides an initial proposal for the Open Software Description (OSD) format. OSD, an application of the essay, eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is a vocabulary used for research articles Adelphi, describing software packages and their dependencies for heterogeneous clients. We expect OSD to be useful in automated software distribution environments. The proposed specification has apparently been endorsed by other companies, including CyberMedia, InstallShield Software, LANovation, Lotus Development, and Netscape Communications. [from Net.Com article] And: The goal of the OSD format is to writing analytical essays The University of Kansas, provide an research XML-based vocabulary for describing software packages and their inter-dependencies, whether it is user initiated (pulled), or automatic (pushed). XML (eXtensible Markup Language) provides a general method of essay ICS — International School, representing structured data in the form of lexical trees.

Using this data model, markup tags in the OSD vocabulary are represented as elements of research articles University, a tree. Help Essay Community School? The three basic relationships between elements are parent-of, child-of, and sibling-of. Distant relationships can be formed from recursive applications of the three basic ones. XLF (Extensible Log Format) Initiative. This XLF project is [2001-06] apparently no longer active, but see references in the separate document.

See also Log Markup Language (LOGML). WAP Wireless Markup Language Specification (WML) The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Wireless Markup Language (WML) is a markup language based on XML, and Adelphi University, is intended for use in specifying content and user interface for narrowband devices, including cellular phones and pagers. . . Fryeburg Academy? 'A tag-based display language providing navigational support, data input, hyperlinks, text and research articles Adelphi University, image presentation, and forms. A browsing language similar to article writing Fryeburg, Internet HTML.' HTTP Distribution and Replication Protocol (DRP) On August 25, 1997 a submission entitled The HTTP Distribution and Replication Protocol was tendered to the W3C by representatives of Marimba Inc., Netscape Communications Inc., Sun Microsystems Inc., Novell Inc., and At Home Corporation. The goal of the DRP protocol is to significantly improve the efficiency and reliability of data distribution over HTTP. . Research Adelphi? . The DRP protocol uses a data structure called an index, which is currently specified using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Because the index describes meta data, we anticipate using the help essay ICS — International School, Resource Description Format RDF), which was formerly called the Meta Content Framework (MCF), in a future versions of the DRP protocol specification. XML is used in the interim because the RDF standard was not finalized at the time of writing. Research Adelphi University? . . The DRP defines the article College, following new features: (1) Content identifiers, using the existing URI specification, which can uniquely identify a piece of content; (2) An index format which can be used to describe a set of files; (3) A new HTTP header field, Content-ID, which is used to obtain the correct version of a file by specifying a content identifier; (4) A new HTTP header field, Differential-ID, which is used to obtain a differential update for research articles Adelphi University, a file. The Chemical Markup Language was documented (July 1998) as an application of XML and was demonstrated at WWW6 with the Jumbo Java-based browser for XML documents. One of the first interesting XML appliations.

See the separate document for references: Chemical Markup Language (CML). Bioinformatic Sequence Markup Language (BSML) Description and references for the Virtual Hyperglossary (VHG) project are contained in a separate document Virtual Hyperglossary (VHG). Weather Observation Markup Format (OMF) The Weather Observation Markup Format [or: Weather Observation Definition Format] is an application of XML used to encode weather observation reports.

The goal of the OMF system is to annotate and augment standard weather reports with derived, computed quantities, and to writing Fryeburg Academy, re-cast the essential information in research articles University, a markup format that is easier to uc a-g requirements list Lancing, interpret, yet completely accurate. The data formats typically used in articles Adelphi, weather reports (FM 15-X Ext. Academy? METAR, FM 16-X Ext. Research Articles University? SPECI, FM 51-X Ext. TAF, etc. [constituting] KAWN, WMO feeds . . .) are both incomplete and essays, suboptimal for some processing objectives. According to a summary from one of OMF's designers, the OMF application thus uses XML for annotating weather observation reports, forecasts and research Adelphi, advisories as issued by essay International School, Weather Meteorological Organization (WMO), the National Weather Center and Air Force Global Weather Center.

Currently, METAR/SPECI observational reports, Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs) and SIGMET significant weather aircraft advisories are being analyzed and marked up. The incoming source of data are raw bulletins distributed by KAWN/ADWS or National Weather Service'sGateways. The bulletins are parsed, reports are decoded and articles Adelphi University, stored into a database, which can then be queried. The results of the queries are XML-formatted into literary OMF documents. It is always possible to reconstruct original reports by stripping away the Adelphi University, XML markup. The designers are also working on adding other types of reports - Upper Air reports, regional SIGMETs, AIRMETS, Bathythermographs, PIREPS, etc. The markup system is in actual use to article Fryeburg Academy, distribute the most current annotated weather observations, forecasts and advisories; the Navy's Joint Metoc Viewer is one application that can ingest OMF documents and display the corresponding data. References for Open Financial Exchange (OFX) are provided in Adelphi, a separate document. Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX) Information on the Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX) is provided in a separate document.

The Internet Open Trading Protocol (OTP) provides an interoperable framework for Internet commerce. It is payment system independent and encapsulates payment systems such as SET, Mondex, CyberCash, DigiCash, GeldKarte, etc. OTP is able to handle cases where such merchant roles as the can t School, shopping site, the payment handler, the Delivery Handler of goods or services, and articles Adelphi University, the provider of Academy, customer support are performed by different parties or by one party. OTP Messages are XML documents which are physically sent between the different organisations that are taking part in a trade. Information on the [Internet] Open Trading Protocol (OTP) is contained in a separate document. XML Digital Signature (Signed XML - IETF/W3C) The XML-Signature WG is research a joint Working Group of the IETF and W3C. References are provided in write, a separate document.

Digital Receipt Infrastructure Initiative. Information on the Digital Receipt Infrastructure Initiative and articles Adelphi, the Digital Receipt Consortium is referenced in a separate document. A Network Working Group INTERNET-DRAFT by requirements list, Hiroshi Maruyama, Kent Tamura, and Naohiko Uramoto (IBM) addresses how digest (hash) values should be defined for general DOM structures. The document is intended to become a Proposed Standard RFC. Compare 'XHASH'. Digest Values for DOM (DOMHASH) draft-hiroshi-dom-hash-00.txt, January 1999 Local archive copy Similarly: 'XHASH' - XML canonical digest algorithm proposed by GlobeSet and documented in articles University, the XHASH proposal.

This algorithm has been inspired by the DOM-HASH proposal, but operates closer to the surface string of the document. Elements and attributes are subject to formalization in a way quite similar to the one proposed by DOM-HASH - XML delimiters are represented by binary values and entities are replaced by their actual values. However, formalization happens as elements are acquired. Furthermore, this algorithm has been tailored for explicit support of the write article Bishopstrow College, XML Namespaces and research Adelphi University, it takes into account some specifics of article Fryeburg Academy, this specification ( e.g. , dsig:eval attribute). See also: Digital Signatures for XML. Research University? By Richard D. Brown (GlobeSet, Inc.).

January 1999. A syntax and procedures for the computation and verification of XML digital signatures is writing specified. [local archive copy] See also (earlier): Digital Signatures for XML. Articles Adelphi University? From the IETF TRADE Working Group. Richard D. Brown, GlobeSet, Inc. November 1998. Writing Of Kansas? - The objective of this document is to propose syntax and procedures for research University, the computation and verification of digital signatures applicable to general XML documents. [local archive copy] Signed Document Markup Language (SDML) Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS)

The BIPS specification includes a protocol for sending payment instructions to can t write my essay School, banks safely over the Internet and research Adelphi University, a payment server architecture for processing those payment instructions. On August 24, 1998, a specification for the Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) was published: Bank Internet Payment System Specification Version 1.0. Public Review Draft, August 24, 1998 . Appendix G of the requirements list College, specification supplies the 'XML Structure and Document Type Definition (DTD)'. BIPS instruction messages and their responses conform to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard which can be verified and interpreted by freely available XML parsers. The Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) is a project of The Financial Services Technology Consortium (FSTC). FSTC is a not-for-profit organization whose goal is to enhance the competitiveness of the United States financial services industry; members of the consortium include banks, financial services providers, research laboratories, universities, technology companies, and government agencies.

Details: Network Payment Protocol (NPP): BIPS requirements result in a set of functions that must be carried out in research articles University, the client software. In order to ensure that the uc a-g requirements Lancing College, client software interfaces with the payment processing systems at each bank in a standard manner, the NPP has been defined and is described in this chapter. The NPP is a non-proprietary standard that will ensure that any BIPS-enabled client software can initiate BIPS payment instructions. Research Articles? The BIPS model is shown in Figure 4.1. All BIPS messages conform to the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C's) XML specification. NPP Message Specification, Message Formatting, and Data Encoding: NPP messages will be specified and formatted according to standards described in the XML Version 1.0 specification.

XML is a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language [SGML, International Standards Organization (ISO) 8879]. XML provides a standard format to describe different types of data so that the information can be decoded, manipulated, and displayed consistently and correctly. Analytical The University? XML also provides a file format for representing data, a schema for describing data structure, and a mechanism for extending and annotating Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) with semantic information. NPP-specific messages are documented in Appendix G, along with the Adelphi University, BIPS DTD. Some characteristics of NPP messages are: 1) all messages are in XML; 2) all messages start with a BIPS XML header; 3) all fields are self-identifying; 4) all messages are signed; 5) all messages include the requirements Lancing, originator's certificate; 6) all request messages include a user-supplied transaction number; 7) all response messages include the signature of the user on the original request, and 8) all response messages include both a bank-supplied transaction number and the user-supplied transaction number. BIPS messages contain blocks that describe the articles University, request or response (a block is an XML element or conglomerate of elements).

Each BIPS message begins with an XML header that includes the XML version number, document type, a reference to the BIPS DTD file, and the BIPS version number. Uc A-g Requirements List Lancing College? A sample BIPS message is shown in Appendix G. FSTC Home Page Financial Services Technology Consortium BIPS Main Page [August 24, 1998] FSTC Publishes the Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) Specification. Research Articles Adelphi University? - FSTC announced today that its Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) specification has been released for public review and writing, comment. . Adelphi University? . BIPS instruction messages and their responses conform to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard which can be verified and interpreted by freely available XML parsers. Download BIPS Specification [local archive copy, 980824] XML Structure and Document Type Definition (DTD), from the spec 980824. smartX ['SmartCard'] Markup Language (SML) The goal of University (Navitas), SML (smartX Markup Language) is to enable automation of research articles Adelphi University, all interactions with XML documents providing general methods to represent a set of smart device functions. XML supports the creation of marker content that preserves data structure and promises web documents to be machine-readable. Help Essay Community? The SML is an implementation of XML for the smart card industry. SML also brings to the smart device applications many IDL features that have been implemented in research articles Adelphi University, distributed computed and writing Fryeburg Academy, transaction processings.smartX defines a complete framework that encapsulates the development of both the smart card and terminal application. Research Adelphi University? By separating the requirements list, application process from the application protocol that is card-specific, smartX makes possible to port quickly an application to articles University, a new smart card. The innovation of smartX technology relies on a strong description of the smart device data and College, attached processes.

The semantics and grammar of the description do not equate a programming language with arithmetic and conditions. On the contrary, the data and protocol description is built upon the familiar foundations of the smart card industry, which simplifies programming for the developer. smartX introduces a new description language to describe the application protocol: SML (Smart Markup Language) that implements the University, Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the smart card industry. OpenMLS and International Community, RELML - Real Estate DTD Design. Information on OpenMLS and research articles University, RELML (Real Estate Listing Markup Language) is provided in a separate document. Founded in how to essay, 1992, the Customer Support Consortium is a group of over 70 leading technology companies who work together to significantly improve customer support by developing innovative new strategies, standards, and programs. Its mission is to develop ways to leverage and share knowledge within and among support organizations. The development of research, open exchange standards is help essay Community one of the three principal consortium initiatives.

A subgroup is developing a set of Adelphi, mappings from standards specifications to XML. XML for College, the Automotive Industry - SAE J2008. In response to requirements from the 1990 US Clean Air Act, The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has adopted a number of standards under the research, 'SAE J2008' family of standards designed to provide easy access to emission-related automotive service information. At the help essay International School, heart of this SGML standard is a relational Data Model for Automotive Service Information rather than any particular document model. The SGML definition set forth within J2008 provides a hierarchical representation of the research Adelphi University, Data Model. In addition, this standard provides models for common text constructs such as tables, paragraphs, lists, and uc a-g requirements list College, procedures which are found within automotive service information. Recently, as explained by Dianne Kennedy in the presentation XML and the Automotive Industry (XML the Conference 98, Seattle 1998), effort has been made to convert the articles University, SGML DTD into a version compatible with XML. The current chairperson of the SAE J2008 Working Group is Dianne Kennedy, founder and principal consultant for XMLXperts. [adapted from Dianne Kennedy's overview] [March 09, 1999] A communiqué from Dianne Kennedy reported on recent efforts by short College, the DTD Working Group for articles, SAE J2008. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2008 DTD Working Group met on March 3, 1999 in Detroit.

Among the write, work items was the development of an official XML version of the SAE J2008 DTD for posting automotive service information on the Web. The XML version of the DTD can be found at XMLXperts Web site along with a description of how the XML version was created and sample data with a CSS style sheet as a prototype for Web viewing. X-ACT - XML Active Content Technologies Council. [May 04, 1998] On May 4, 1998, an Adelphi announcement was issued by list Lancing, DataChannel and OASIS concerning X-ACT: DataChannel Transfers X-ACT Council to OASIS. XML Market Receives Enhanced Services Through Vendor-Neutral Management of Leading Industry Council.

According to the press release, OASIS, the Organization for the Advancement of University, Structured Information Standards (formerly SGML Open), announced today that it will take the helm of the XML Active Content Technologies Council (X-ACT) to provide vendor-neutral management and enhanced industry services. A press release was issued on March 4, 1998 announcing the formation of a new industry technology council, X-ACT - XML Active Content Technologies Council. X-ACT is an industry council formed to provide a communications venue for corporations working to develop real-world XML-based solutions to meet today's business needs, increase awareness about essays of Kansas, Active Content Technologies and their benefits, and maintain an index to Active Content software. Research Adelphi? Aligned with all standards bodies, X-ACT specifically focuses on write short College promoting the usage and adoption of XML in research University, real-world applications. . How To Essay? . Active Content represents all the possible forms of XML as documents, data and meta-data, and the new class of information systems that will allow data or objects to Adelphi University, be re-used and write my essay School, re-purposed by any application. Articles Adelphi University? The new industry group recognizes that XML, a groundbreaking new technology, will spawn a new class of literary essay University, computer applications and Adelphi, transactions (Active Content Technologies) that will enable active content at all levels of networked computing (Desktop, Server, Internet, Intranet, Extranet, VPNs, LANs, WANs). The eighteen (18) members include, to date: Allaire, Andersen Consulting, Arbor Text, BTG, DataChannel, Daylight Software, Informix, Inso, NexGen SI, OmniMark Technologies, Online Computing Library Center, PLATINUM Technology Solutions, Poet Software, NC Focus, Sybase, Thomson Corporation, Wall Data and WebMethods. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) The Mathematical Markup Language (W3C Working Draft) is a specification which defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. Can T Write My Essay? MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and research Adelphi, content.

The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text. The document begins with background information on mathematical notation, the problems it poses, and the philosophy underlying the analytical essays The University of Kansas, solutions MathML proposes. MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About 25 of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another 75 provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and presentation elements interact, and University, how MathML renderers might be implemented and should interact with browsers. Finally, the document addresses the issue of analytical of Kansas, MathML entities (extended characters) and their relation to fonts.

[February 24, 1998] MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. Editors: Patrick Ion and Robert Miner. Reference: PR-math-19980224. Articles University? Abstract: MathML is a low-level syntax for representing structured data such as mathematics in machine-to-machine communication over the Web, providing a much-needed solution for including mathematical expressions over the Web. In developing MathML, the goal was to define an XML-compliant markup language that describes the article writing Fryeburg, content and presentation of mathematical expressions. This was achieved with MathML. As an Adelphi University effective way to include mathematical expressions in Web documents, MathML gives control over the presentation and the meaning of such expressions. It does this by providing two sets of markup tags: one set presents the notation of help ICS — International Community School, mathematical data in articles Adelphi, markup format, and the other set relays the semantic meaning of mathematical expressions, enabling complex mathematical and scientific notation to be encoded in an explicit way. Essay ICS — International? As an XML application, MathML capitalizes on XML features and benefits from the wide support of XML.

Unlike HTML which was intended as a markup language for use by people, MathML is intended to be used by machines, facilitating the searching and indexing of mathematical and scientific information. Research University? Software tools that work with MathML render MathML into formatted equations, enabling users to edit mathematical equations much as one might edit HTML text. Several early versions of such MathML tools already exist, and a number of essay Griffith University (Navitas), others, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development. Research Adelphi? See the press release. Links: [April 07, 1998] Announcement for MathML as a W3C Recommendation Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) specification as Recommendation - REC-MathML-19980407, W3C Recommendation 07-April-1998. [local archive copy, .ZIP] Fact Sheet - for MathML as W3C Recommendation Testimonials - for MathML as W3C Recommendation MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. February 24, 1998. How To Griffith University (Navitas)? Mathematical Markup Language - W3C Working Draft. January 06, 1998. WD-math-980106. MathML DTD (Working Draft 6-Jan-98); [local archive copy] Syntax highlighted version of the MathML DTD (Pankaj Kamthan) 'Htpertext' version of MathML DTD (dtd2html) [June 25, 1998] Mathematics On the Web.

By Rockford J. Ross [Computer Science Department, Montana State University]. In ACM SIGACT NEWS Volume 29, Number 2 (June 1998) [Education Forum], pages 33-41. Adelphi University? Review of MathML from the ACM Special Interest Group on essay Griffith University (Navitas) Algorithms and Computation Theory. See: Mathematical Markup Language (XML) - Main entry [August 14, 1998] Note from Eitan Gurari: work done to configure TeX4ht for research, XML and MathML. Fryeburg Academy? See: http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/ gurari/temp/xml/ml.html; [local archive copy] Also, the collected documentation. MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for MathML MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for MathML. Articles University? (David Carlisle) MathML in Mozilla (Roger B. Write Essay University (Navitas)? Sidje, David Fiddes, P. S. Karthikeyan).

The priority of the project will be to provide a compact and research articles, fast engine that will process MathML and enable Gecko to short Bishopstrow, render mathematical expressions. Another goal is to provide a WYSIWYG interface to articles Adelphi University, MathML. College? This will be a graphical equation editor with an internal representation in standard MathML text. TtHMML, a TeX to MathML translator. Articles Adelphi? See Try out TtHMML. NB: 'You need a browser such as Amaya, with MathML support, to see equations.' See: OpenMath Standard. PICS-NG Metadata Model and essay ICS — International, Label Syntax (W3C WD-pics-ng-metadata-970514.html), with Appendix A: Correspondence to articles Adelphi, the XML Web Collection Proposal.

One proposal for the metadata syntax is XML: the Extensible Markup Language . . .is attractive because of its political appeal and the fact that it may find other uses in the Internet arena. The full definition of an XML syntax for PICS-NG will be included in write short College, a future version of this document. [mirror copy] CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format) attempts to address a problem faced by both users and vendors of Visual Modeling tools and Computer Aided Software and research, Systems Engineering (CASE) tools: interoperability. Users need to be able to move information from one CASE tool to another in order to develop systems efficiently. They need to move information from a tool to a repository and can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, back.

They need to exchange data between repositories. CDIF is a Family of research articles Adelphi, Standards that lays out a single architecture for exchanging information between modelling tools, and my essay, between repositories, and defines the interfaces of the components to implement this architecture. CDIF has been defined by the CDIF Division of the EIA, an industry standards committee. CDIF is also being standardized at an international level through ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG11. Many of the major modeling, CASE and repository vendors, and some large user organizations have pooled their expertise and resources to develop this Family of Standards. Currently, the CDIF Family of Standards has 10 standards as members and more will be added in the future. The CDIF standards development process is open-ended, and driven by the interests of the CDIF member organizations. Any organization can become a CDIF member and thus influence current and future CDIF work.

The CDIF Technical Committee is preparing a specification called the research University, CDIF XML-based Transfer Format . The Working Group Chair is Woody Pidcock (Boeing Company) and how to write literary Griffith, the standards draft editor is Johannes Ernst (Aviatis Corporation). A June 1998 draft (CDIF-DRAFT-XML-V3, EIA-PN-XXX, CDIF XML-based Transfer Format, EIA/CDIF 1998) edited by Johannes Ernst outlines the ongoing work of the Adelphi University, CDIF Technical Committee on the transfer format. Uc A-g Lancing? The CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format) family of University, Standards is primarily designed to be used as a description of article, a mechanism for transferring information between CASE tools. It facilitates a successful transfer when the authors of the importing and exporting tools have nothing in common except an Adelphi University agreement to conform to CDIF. The language that is uc a-g College defined for research Adelphi University, the Transfer Format also has applicability as a general language for Import/Export from repositories. The CDIF Integrated Meta-model also has applicability as the basis of standard definitions for use in repositories. Article Fryeburg Academy? The XML-based CDIF Syntax which allows the research articles, exchange of meta-models and models using the emerging XML standard is being provided in addition to the CDIF Transfer Format based on SYNTAX.1 and ENCODING.1. In the version 3 draft document, (Section 5.2 of the Transfer Format Overview), the relationship of the CDIF Transfer Format to XML is can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt explained: The primary application of the XML standards is document markup. Compared to the HTML document type definition, XML-based document type definitions allow for research articles University, a more strict definition of the content and content structure.

On the other hand, the exchange of modeling information according to the CDIF architecture requires an even stricter set of rules to be followed than even in a strict application of XML. This has two consequences: (a) any CDIF Transfer file employing the XML-based CDIF Transfer Format is also a legal XML file; (b) the can t write School, rules to be followed by files employing the articles, XML-based CDIF Transfer Format cannot be fully captured in Griffith (Navitas), an XML DTD alone; instead, this standard defines rules that are mandatory for such an articles XML-based CDIF Transfer beyond those defined in the DTD. As an example for the latter, consider the rich set of data types for writing, meta-attributes and meta-meta-attributes required to exchange modeling information, and compare them to the significantly smaller set of data types provided by XML. When exchanging models with the XML-based CDIF Transfer Format that employ any of the richer data types, additional rules have to articles Adelphi University, be obeyed. CDIF Man Page Introduction to CDIF. July 1998. By Johannes Ernst, Aviatis Corporation.

Draft 3 of XML-based CDIF Transfer Format. The XML-based CDIF Syntax allows the The University, exchange of meta-models and models using the emerging XML standard. This is in addition to the CDIF Transfer Format based on research University SYNTAX.1 and ENCODING.1. XML-based CDIF Transfer Format DTD -- DRAFT 3 [local archive copy] CDIF XML-Based Transfer Format. Writing Fryeburg Academy? Draft 'standard' version 3. CDIF-DRAFT-XML-V3, EIA-PN-XXX, CDIF XML-based Transfer Format, EIA/CDIF 1998. [local archive copy, 980622] Draft version 2. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML) On April 03, 1998, a submission was made to the World Wide Web Consortium concerning a proposed Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML) . Research University? References: W3C NOTE-PGML-19980410, World Wide Web Consortium Note 10-April-1998, URL http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/NOTE-PGML-19980410. The W3C NOTE was submitted by representatives of Adobe Systems Incorporated, International Business Machines Corporation, Netscape Communications Corporation, and Sun Microsystems, Inc. The abstract: This document is the specification for uc a-g list College, the Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML).

PGML is a 2D scalable graphics language designed to meet both the research articles, simple vector graphics needs of casual users and the precision needs of graphics artists. PGML uses the imaging model common to the PostScript(R) language and Portable Document Format (PDF); it also contains additional features to satisfy the needs of Web applications. The NOTE is characterized as a working document. It is not meant to be a complete definition for PGML. Can T? Many sections have been left open or have been labeled Ideas for Adelphi, Consideration so that the working group can develop the strongest possible language specification and ensure that it is fully compatible with other W3C standards efforts. Among the 'Design Principles': PGML should be an XML application and the imaging model is an instance of the RDF data model. . . PGML should be compatible with and fully leverage all related W3C standards efforts. . .in particular, PGML will be an application of XML. . Write Article College? .[provision for ] exporting the imaging model to the DOM.

A W3C 'Comment on PGML Submission' asserts: PGML is expressed in XML, which allows PGML graphics to be modified with style sheets along with the document in which they are contained. A sample from Appendix B (minus the pretty-printing): ?XML version=1.0?!DOCTYPE PGML SYSTEM pgml1.0.dtdpgml boundingbox=0 0 300 300path fill=1 fillcolor=100 0 0moveto x=100 y=100/lineto x=200/lineto y=200/lineto x=100/lineto y=100//path/pgml . See the (extracted) Document Type Definition for the Precision Graphics Markup Language, PGML from Appendix D of the document. On May 28, 1998, the W3C acknowledged receipt of research articles Adelphi, a submission for can t St. John's-Ravenscourt, a proposed Vector Markup Language (VML) from Autodesk Inc., Hewlett-Packard Company, Macromedia, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, and research articles Adelphi, Visio Corporation. References: NOTE-VML-19980513, World Wide Web Consortium Note 13-May-1998. The submission defines the Vector Markup Language (VML), which is an application of Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 which defines a format for writing Fryeburg, the encoding of vector information together with additional markup to describe how that information may be displayed and edited. According to the Introduction in the NOTE, The Vector Markup Language (VML) supports the markup of vector graphic information in the same way that HTML supports the markup of textual information. Within VML the content is composed of paths described using connected lines and curves.

The markup gives semantic and University, presentation information for the paths. VML is how to Griffith University written using the syntax of XML just as HTML is written using the research University, syntax of SGML (the Standard Generalized Markup Language, [ISO 8879]) - XML is a restricted form of SGML. Help Essay? VML uses Cascading Style Sheets, Level 2 in the same way as HTML to determine the layout of the vector graphics which it contains. Normative references cited in Adelphi University, the NOTE include HTML 4.0, CSS1/2, XML 1.0, XML Namespaces, XLink, IEC 61966-2, PNG, and ISO 10918-1 (JPEG); VML is said to be based on well-established vector graphical techniques. From the W3C Comment on the VML Submission: VML is expressed in XML, which allows VML graphics to be modified with style sheets along with the document in which they are contained. The submitters have clearly given thought to style sheet binding, to the necessary stylistic differences between editors and requirements list Lancing, viewers, and to containment in University, HTML; they have also taken care to write short article College, address the points in the W3C Requirements document.

WebBroker: Distributed Object Communication on the Web. On May 12, 1998, the W3C acknowledged a WebBroker submission from Adelphi University, DataChannel. Short Article College? DataChannel, Inc. Articles Adelphi University? had submitted a proposed specification to the W3C for WebBrokering, governing 'Distributed Object Communication on the Web.' WebBroker, which falls under the W3C HTTP-NG Activity, represents an attempt at unifying interface technology used in existing distributed object systems like CORBA, DCOM, and RMI but is based on XML, HTTP/1.1 and traditional CGI technology for easier integration into the existing Web model. The submission is article writing Fryeburg composed of five separate documents: WebBroker: Distributed Object Communication on the Web (NOTE-webbroker-19980511, authored by John Tigue and Jon Lavinder) ObjectMethodMessages DTD AnonymousData DTD TerseAnonymousData DTD InterfaceDef DTD. The abstract: This document provides a specification (WebBroker document type definitions, or WebBroker DTDs) for describing and exchanging structured messages between software components on the Web. Such exchange is facilitated by the DTDs which describe the structure of the messages (method requests and method responses) and which also describe the articles, interfaces of the software components themselves.

The AnonymousData DTD describes a simple way of expressing the data type of write article Bishopstrow, structures which works within XML 1.0 and is designed to work with XML-Data. The ObjectMethodMessages DTD describes how to represent, in XML documents, the serialized messages between software components. ObjectMethodMessages uses the AnonymousData DTD and is modeled after DCE RPC Request and research articles, Response PDUs. ICS — International Community School? The InterfaceDef DTD describes software component interfaces much like CORBA IDL and Microsoft IDL. One immediate implication of these ideas is that there can now be a unified Web publishing and traditional client/server programming model which work over HTTP 1.1. Articles Adelphi? We expect the article Bishopstrow, WebBroker DTDs to be useful for articles University, enabling many organizations to implement a mature yet simple and easy to reproduce model of distributed computing on the Web.

Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) The Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) consists of six XML-compliant HTML extenders that define a universal schema for HTML documents based on the Document Object Model (DOM) as it is being defined by the World Wide Web Consortium. Submission of a specification for the Web Interface Definition Language [WIDL] to W3C by webMethods, Inc. According to the abstract, the write College, document provides the specification for the Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL), a metalanguage that implements a service-based architecture over the document-based resources of the research University, World Wide Web. WIDL is an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML); it allows interactions with Web servers to Academy, be defined as functional interfaces that can be accessed by remote systems over research Adelphi University, standard Web protocols, and provides the structure necessary for generating client code in languages such as Java, C/C++, COBOL, and how to write literary University, Visual Basic. WIDL enables a practical and articles Adelphi, cost-effective means for diverse systems to be rapidly integrated across corporate intranets, extranets, and the Internet. Of Kansas? Short Take: WIDL submitted to W3C as standard. By Tim Clark. CNET News.com , October 13, 1997, 2:15 p.m. PT. [August 29, 1997] Announcement from webMethods Inc. that the core of research articles University, its Web Automation technology has been built around the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). webMethods' Web Automation product suite now uses XML to define automated access to Web data and services, and can be used against existing HTML or new XML-based Web resources. . . Web Automation technology is based on webMethods' Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) 2.0, an XML application that defines Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to Web data and services. [local archive copy] WIDL Description See also: Building Blocks: Turning the Web Into a Data Source, by writing Fryeburg, Leslie Marable. From Web Week , Volume 3, Issue 11, April 21, 1997. [mirror copy] [March 04, 1998] Free Web Automation Toolkit for XML HTML - from webMethods Inc.

Submission - local archive copies. XML and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). EDI works by providing a collection of standard message formats and element dictionary in research articles Adelphi University, a simple way for businesses to exchange data via any electronic messaging service. . . XML/EDI provides a standard format to describe different types of data -- for example, a loan application, an invoice, healthcare claim, project status -- so that the information can be decoded, manipulated, and displayed consistently and correctly by implementing EDI dictionaries. Thus by short Bishopstrow, combining XML and research Adelphi, EDI we create a new powerful paradigm! (Dubbed by the designers as An idea almost as good as peanutbutter and chocolate!) In March 1998, the XML-EDI Group become an organization of the Graphic Communications Association Research Institute (GCARI). GCARI, an Lancing affiliate of Graphic Communications Association (GCA) in Alexandria, Va.

GCA is a technical management association in the publishing and printing industries that has supported XML since its creation. XML/EDI Overview Main XML/EDI Page for the XML/EDI Group -- an University ad hoc group of professionals and volunteers in various industries. My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Redix XML/EDI Authoring Tool - The XML/EDI Authoring Tool gives you ability to define your own interface between your application software and XML formats, regardless of whether your application format is EDI based or proprietary. Several examples are provided in this tool. These include X12, EDIFACT, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996), Oracle ERP, and SAP. We also provide a tutorial that guides you through the steps to research articles Adelphi, interface with the XML/EDI Authoring Tool. Another XML/EDI Home Page XML/EDI Frameworks - The Executive Summary Guidelines for Using XML for Electronic Data Interchange, edited by Martin Bryan. Contributors: Members of the XML/EDI working group, including Benoít Marchal, Norbert H. Mikula, Bruce Peat, and David R. R. Webber. Version 0.04, 23rd December 1997. [local archive copy, version 0.04]; [archive copy, version 0.02] The Role of Document Type Definitions in Electronic Data Interchange. By Martin Bryan.

Internet Explorer 5.0 XML/EDI Demonstration using Intelligent XSL Stylesheets. By Martin Bryan. Guidelines for using XML for Electronic Data Interchange [variant of preceding document] Answers to ICS — International Community, Frequently Asked Questions, by research articles Adelphi University, Martin Bryan. [archive copy] EDI and XML time for a dual approach?, by Bruce Peat; [archive copy] Advantages of including Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) entities with eXtensible Markup Language (XML), by writing Academy, Bruce Peat with XML assistance from Richard Light. [archive copy] Using XML for Electronic Commerce, by Adelphi, Martin Bryan Electronic commerce topic page Contact form [August 29, 1997] Accelerating Electronic Commerce: Making EDI Accessible with XML, by Mary Fletcher Laplante (Director, Document Software Strategies Group, CAP Ventures). Published in Document Software Strategies Analysis 2/29 (August 15, 1997); [local archive copy] [February 02, 1998] XML/EDI XML/XSL Example - Fill-In-Form (Betty Harvey) A form developed as a test scenario for ordering product and creating an my essay XML/EDI message. [March 11, 1998] XML-EDI Group Becomes a GCARI Organization. GCARI: Graphic Communications Association Research Institute, and research, affiliate of the write literary essay Griffith, Graphic Communications Association (GCA). Research Adelphi University? [local archive copy]

According to a press release of July 27, 1998, the objectives of the Community, working group are to: 1) Develop draft standards on research University repositories for submission to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Object Management Group (OMG), and UN/EDIFACT working groups; 2) Establish a formal working group to coordinate proposal development; 3) Provide a technical forum for individuals involved in repository development to participate; 4) Offer links among disciplines and standards such as W3C's XML, as well as OMG's UML (Unified Modeling Language) and MOF (Meta-Object Facility); 5) Provide a means for requirements list Lancing College, vendors who have announced products based on open standards on University this topic to offer their ideas. The first draft is anticipated for uc a-g requirements list College, an availability date of September 30, 1998. Research Adelphi? For the purposes of this discussion group, the term EDI shall include business-to-business, business-to-consumer, and consumer-to-business exchanges of XML formatted and structured data or information. Home Page [July 27, 1998] Press release: New XML Electronic Commerce Repository Proposal Announced. Adapted from the press release in Fryeburg Academy, RTF format Announcement - Press release from GCA Project Overview and Focus [local archive copy] Project Goal, Objectives, and Discussion Topics; [local archive copy] Press releases Position Statement on Global Repositories for research, XML. - By The XML/EDI Group. Version: 0.98, July, 1998. Authors and Contributors: Betty Harvey, Denis Hill, Ron Schuldt, Martin Bryan, Will Thayer, Dick Raman and how to write literary, David Webber. The XML/EDI Guidelines identify the need for effective use of Global Repositories and document structure grammars. Adelphi? This paper discusses the implementation of such technologies and the bringing together of related ongoing efforts in this field.

See also http://www.xmledi.com/repository/xml-rep.htm Preliminary Findings and Recommendations on the Representation of X12 Data Elements and Structures in XML X12C Ad Hoc Task Group on the use of XML with X12 EDI. DRAFT Version 0.03a, July 31, 1998. Editors: Bob Crowley, Rik Drummond, David Webber, Christine Pellar-Kosbar. Writing Fryeburg? Contributors: Denis Hill, Ken Steel, Mike Rawlins, Dan Codman, John Hathaway, Martin Bryan, Robert Miller, Betty Harvey, William Kammerer, John Kevlin. UN/CEFACT/TMWG OO-Edi Compatibility With XML/EDI. The XML/EDI Group. Version: 0.92. July, 1998. Authors and Contributors: David Webber, Klaus-Dieter Naujok. The international EDI community has developed OO-edi over the past three years as an implementation neutral framework for the future architecture of EDI.

XML/EDI has emerged over the last twelve months as the implementation and deployment method of choice for next generation of University, electronic business facilitation via the Internet. This paper shows how these two technologies are completely compatible and write article College, strongly complimentary. XML/EDI emerges as the implementation method of choice for FVS (Functional Service View) of research articles, Open-edi, and Open-edi BOV (Business Operational View) provides the means to underpin the physical implementation methods of XML/EDI with design, process and logic verification to ensure robust and efficient systems development and architectures. Two representation methods provide the requirements list College, link between the two: Universal Model Language (UML), and research Adelphi, Extensible Markup Language (XML). UN/CEFACT/TMWG OO-edi Compatibility With XML/EDI. From the XML/EDI Group. July 1998. [local archive copy] The European XML/EDI Pilot Project is write literary essay University being run as part of the Information Society Standardization System within the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/ISSS) open workshop on Electronic Commerce. [The objective of the project is] to test the applicability of articles Adelphi University, XML for article writing, interchanging data, between SMEs and articles, their business partners, of the type currently exchanged using EDI messages. The project will build on the findings of existing and write short article Bishopstrow, proposed European initiatives on the use of research, XML for EDI data interchange.

The EEMA EDI Work Group would like to my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, propose to CEFACT the establishment of a Global Repository for the translation of XML tags in UN/EDIFACT and human language on the Internet. The EEMA EDI Working Group is prepared to assist in the set up and operation of such a repository, which could be crucial in the advancement of the use of EDI over the Internet. . . . When the research articles University, fusion between ANSI X12, EDIFACT and all other EDI standards takes place in a proper way it should be under the auspices of the International, UN so it is global, public domain, open and available for anyone. Today this is research Adelphi not the case with the ANSI standards and many other EDI standards that are only available at considerable cost. Of course today the my essay, EDIFACT standard is already in the public domain and can easily be obtained through the Internet. . . .there could be a relatively easy fusion between EDIFACT and ANSI X12. Essentially every data-element one can find in ANSI or in EDIFACT could be placed inside the XML/EDI file.

What would be required is to set up a repository in articles, which the tags for the XML files are listed with the corresponding EDIFACT data-element number, the corresponding ANSI X12 element number, and a description. Help Essay International School? . . Research Adelphi University? By setting up one global repository on the Internet, CEFACT can assume responsibility for the creation of new tags based on a corresponding EDIFACT data-element number and article writing Fryeburg Academy, the standard description, while other organizations can assume responsibility for a language code or the corresponding element number in different standards. Even if XML/EDI is not the ultimate solution, a global repository would be extremely useful for conventional EDI and other forms of EC, because it would provide an independent Data Dictionary which could be used by applications. As of Fall 1999, there was a proliferating activity of X12-XML initiatives [which] reflects the essential foundation the X12 standard provides to research articles Adelphi University, a multitude of emerging e-commerce technologies. See the separate document. Information and requirements list Lancing College, Content Exchange (ICE) On October 26, 1998, the W3C acknowledged receipt of a submission from Adobe Systems Incorporated, CNET Incorporated, Microsoft Corporation, Sun Microsystems Inc., and Vignette Corporation, in the form of a NOTE: The Information and Content Exchange (ICE) Protocol. Other information on the Information and Content Exchange (ICE) Protocol is provided in a separate document. In an announcement made today by Patrick Gannon, Executive Director of CommerceNet's Information Access Portfolio, at the XML Developers' Day program being held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, CommerceNet gave its full support to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) development of the Working Draft Requirements for the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and research, launched its international industry initiative to demonstrate commercial viability of XML in Internet Commerce. The CommerceNet initiative is designed to close the time gap between the development of industry standards and implementation of open, interoperable applications in the electronic commerce arena.

The multifaceted program involves development of examples, demonstrations and a showcase of member applications. How To Literary? The goal is to accelerate the adoption of articles Adelphi, XML as a key technology for the realization of essay ICS — International Community School, efficient Internet Commerce. . . The CommerceNet program is made up of three strategic projects: (1) XML Catalogs DTDs; (2) iMarkets; (3) XML/EDI. RosettaNet is a global business consortium creating the electronic commerce framework to align processes in the IT supply chain. Research Articles Adelphi? See the independent document for references. IETF Internet Draft draft-kristensen-xml-map-00.txt. By Anders Kristensen.

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. This document proposes an XML encoding for sets of named values. The primary application is as a transmission format for form values being submitted to a processing agent over the Web. The main advantage over other form value encodings is that it allows field names to be associated with structured values without resorting to non-XML encodings. The multipart/related MIME type is used for carrying non-XML media. Capability Card: An Attribute Certificate in XML. This IETF INTERNET DRAFT for a 'Capability Card' describes basic ideas and data components of 'Capability Card,' which is a kind of attribute certificates designed from the standpoint of a secure communication framework on the Internet. Similar to the SPKI certificates, a capability card can be used to grant a person particular access privileges to resources like WWW pages, IRC channels, and message boxes. Fryeburg? In addition, it can carry a variety of descriptive information about the issuer, the resources, and the privileges specified in it. A capability card is written in XML, which is becoming a standard format rapidly for the internet data exchange.

Consequently, users can handle various information in research articles Adelphi, capability cards visually with an XML viewer. This is a fairly desirable feature for the existing internet services. In this document, following the motivation and the basic concepts, the article Bishopstrow, elements of research, XML DTD of capability cards are described. Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TCIF/IPI) The recent revision of the TIM DTD toward version 2 has been motivated, in how to essay, part, by research Adelphi, a desire of the subcommittee to make this news industry DTD XML compliant.

Information Products Interchange (IPI) is a working committee of the help essay ICS — School, Telecommunications Industry Forum. IPI was established to select standards and guidelines capable of allowing the interchange of a variety of information products for the telecommunications industry . . . Adelphi? Most of the IPI Committee's published work has to can t write, do with the Adelphi University, Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TIM, an SGML DTD) and how to literary University (Navitas), the Telecommunications Electronic Document Delivery Package (TEDD). The TIM Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specification for describing the structure of telecommunications and University, other technical documents . . . based largely on early versions of the article writing Fryeburg Academy, DocBook DTD developed by the Davenport Group. TIM 1 was approved as a TCIF Guideline in December 1995, and revisions for TIM 2 were begun in December 1996. As described in the TCIF Information Publication TCIF-IPI-97-004 (Issue 1, 10/24/97), several of the DTD changes were aimed at making the TIM 2 specification XML compliant.

These included changes to Adelphi, the SGML declaration, removal of inclusion and exclusion exceptions from content models, implementation of external cross-references through URLs, restricting the attribute data types to the XML-valid AttType values ('TokenizedType' -- in particular, NMTOKEN for essay School, NAME, NUMBER, and NUTOKEN), and restriction of PCDATA to content models having repeatable 'OR groups'. Thus: except for changes to adapt to the not-yet-finished XLL linking specification, TIM is already XML-complaint and ready for the next generation of browsers. Main database entry, with summary and bibliographic references: TCIF/IPI (Telecommunications Industry Forum Information Products Interchange) Telecommunications Industry Forum Information Products Interchange (TCIF - IPI) Committee Home Page TIM DTD Telecommunications Interchange Markup, alias Technical Information Markup DTD [March 06, 1998] Comments from Don Pratt, Technical Team Leader on research articles Adelphi the XML DTD issues (v. 203, 204). Version 2.0.4 has introduced all-lower-case names (a decision based upon XML case-sensitivity rules) and implemented other minor changes to allow (optionally) better compatibility with TEDD and XML. College? [March 06, 1998] See http://bigbird.bellcore.com/TCIF/lib/sgml/ as of this date for TIM DTD draft version 2.0.4. Alternate locations: ftp://ftp.bellcore.com/pub/world/TCIF/ or http://www.atis.org/atis/tcif/. The change history describes the `XML compliance' issues in 2.0.4. Adelphi? A PE reference %m-; appears: - mapped to Fryeburg, - - for the 'SGML only' DTD marked sections, mapped to articles Adelphi University, nil for St. John's-Ravenscourt, XML. The ZIP archive for the DTD. [April 21, 1998] Note from Don Pratt, Technical Team Leader on the Availability of XML-compliant TIM. Dated 1998-03-06. Further details on XML-compliant version of TIM (2.1.1) as of April 21, 1998; [2.1.1 local archive copy, 19980421]

Electronic Component Information Exchange (ECIX) and Pinnacles Component Information Standard (PCIS) ECIX - 'For Internet and XML-based Component Information Exchange'. Research Articles Adelphi? The Electronic Component Information Exchange (ECIX) project is write St. John's-Ravenscourt School dedicated to designing standards for research articles, creation, exchange and use of write Griffith (Navitas), electronic component information, including ASIC cores. The ECIX architecture and standards are extensible, unambiguous, well documented and are maintained under the direction of Si2. The current ECIX specifications are QuickData (QuickData Protocol and Quick Evaluation Data Specifications), PCIS, CIDS, and TDML. Details on the new ECIX QuickData specifications for real-time business-to-business Internet transactions (based on XML) are accessible [via the Web site]. A new, XML-based version of PCIS (Version 1.5) was announced in June at DAC '99.

ECIX Component Information Dictionary Standard (CIDS) The aim of the research articles University, Component Information Dictionary Standard is to provide authors and users of component information with a computer sensible dictionary of writing analytical of Kansas, characteristic properties of components, allowing for a common and unambiguous understanding of those characteristics. University? ECIX has created a CIDS dictionary in write short article Bishopstrow, support of the ECIX Quick Evaluation Data Specification, and is working with NIST, IEC (61360) and JEDEC organizations to realize CIDS dictionaries for those industry standard dictionaries. A new XML-based version of CIDS (Version 1.9) was announced in June at DAC '99. The US Library of Congress and several research level institutions have been engaged in the collaborative work of the articles Adelphi University, EAD (Encoded Archival Description) initiative for several years.

These institutions use the EAD DTD, and Bishopstrow, currently encode their archival finding aids using the articles Adelphi, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or in XML. The EAD Document Type Definition (DTD) represents the formal part of a standard for encoding archival finding aids using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). This standard is maintained by Community School, the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress (LC) in partnership with the Society of American Archivists. See the dedicated page for research University, information on the Encoded Archival Description (EAD). A communique from writing Fryeburg, Junichi Suzuki (The Graduate School of Computer Science, Keio University) describes an XML application proposed as the UML eXchange Format (UXF). The UML (Unified Modeling Language) is an emerging standard modeling language for the description of research University, software systems.

UXF is a XML-based format to interchange software analysis/design models with UML (Unified Modeling Language), which is an object-oriented analysis/design methodology. According to the description on uc a-g the UXF Web site, the project addresses how UML (Unified Modeling Language) models can be interchanged and proposes an application-neutral format called UXF (UML eXchange Format), which is an exchange format for UML models based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). It is a format powerful enough to express, publish, access and exchange UML models, and a natural extension from the existing Internet environment. It serves as a communication vehicle for developers, and as a well-structured data format for development tools. With UXF, UML models can be distributed universally. UXF is thus expected to support intercommunications between software developers, interconnectivity between development tools, and a natural and transparent extension from the existing Web environment. Several related DTDs are now available or in draft: Parent DTD for all subset DTDs, DTD for class diagrams, DTD for collaboration diagrams, DTD for statechart diagrams, UXF DTD for sequence diagrams. The designers are using 'XSL' stylesheets for UXF data. Links: UML - Unified Modeling Language Version 1.4 of the UML Documentation set was scheduled for release in April of 1999. Articles Adelphi? Main UXF Page UXF Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Making UML Models Exchangeable over the Internet with XML: UXF Approach. Article Writing? By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto.

Paper presented at the International Workshop UML'98 (3rd-4th June 98, Mulhouse - France). Articles Adelphi University? Available in Word97, PDF, and Postscript formats. [local archive copy] Managing the writing, Software Design Documents with XML. By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Keio University. Presented in Session 11: 'Working with XML', Thursday, September 24, 1998, Loews Le Concorde Hotel, Quebec City, Canada, ACM SIGDOC 1998. In the research, software engineering community, Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely accepted as an object-oriented software analysis/design methodology, since it provides most of the concepts and notations that are essential for write literary University (Navitas), documenting object oriented models. UML, however, does not have an explicit format for interchanging its models intentionally. This paper addresses this lack and proposes UXF (UML eXchange Format), which is an University exchange format for UML models, based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). [local archive copy] [September 16, 1999] Leveraging Distributed Software Development.

By Junichi Suzuki and help essay School, Yoshikazu Yamamoto. In IEEE Computer [IEEE Computer Society] Volume 32, Number 9 (September), pages 59-65, with 6 references. Toward the Interoperable Software Design Models: Quartet of UML, XML, DOM and CORBA. By Junichi Suzuki and research, Yoshikazu Yamamoto. Second draft, presented to ISESS '99 (Fourth IEEE International Software Engineering Standards Symposium, May 17-21, 1999). This paper addresses a standard-based UML model interchange and presents our effort to make UML interoperable.

We developed a XML-based exchange format called UXF (UML eXchange Format) and a distributed model management system for UML. The system leverages the team development, reuse of design models and tool interoperability by School, interchanging the model information with XML through the Document Object Model (DOM) interface that is implemented on top of CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). DOM provides a platform and articles, programming language neutral interface to manipulate the content, structure and style of documents. Fryeburg Academy? [local archive copy] Making UML Models Interoperable with UXF. By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto. This paper addresses the UML model interchange and presents our efforts to articles Adelphi, make UML highly interoperable.

We developed an interchange format called UXF (UML eXchange Format) based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). [local archive copy] Archived Samples (DTDs, instances, stylesheets) in Bishopstrow, a .ZIP collection, 19980528 Contact: Junichi Suzuki. Email suzuki@yy.cs.keio.ac.jp; WWW: http://www.yy.cs.keio.ac.jp/ suzuki/jsuzuki.html Compare: UML-Xchange from Normand Rivard, 07-09-98. UML-Xchange is a SGML DTD for exchanging data models between CASE tools that use the UML language. All of the six kinds of UML diagrams are supported. See the DTD, [local archive copy] Compare: Object Management Group (OMG) and XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI). Related: Pattern Markup Language (PML) - an research Adelphi University XML-based format to describe software patterns. Writing The University Of Kansas? . . PML internally uses UXF. Information on the LISA/OSCAR 'TMX' DTD for translation memory exchange is provided in research articles, a separate document.

P3P Syntax Specification: Platform for Privacy Preferences. [March 23, 1998] Frontier 5 is now an XML database with a programming and storage model. . .; see http://www.scripting.com/frontier5/xml/code/. [January 1998] In one of a series of articles on XML, Frontier 5 and Fryeburg, XML: Scripting News in articles, XML, Dave Winer describes how he puts Scripting News in XML. The [publication] format is article Bishopstrow College regular enough so that with a reasonable script I can also generate a new format called scriptingNews format, that could be read by a new kind of browser, specially designed to carry news items with links, a possible picture, and a rare comment from my evilTwin. [. ] I also converted all the back issues of Scripting News, dating back to April 1997, each in its own XML file. Through the InterX.org initiative, SGML Open and its members pledge to promote: (1) open standards; (2) elimination of proprietary extensions; (3) complete interoperability. Research Articles? The name 'InterX.org' embodies the concepts of XML and serves as an abbreviation for help essay International Community, interchange, interactivity, interoperability, internet and international. Press Release: SGML Open Launches InterX.org Initiative in research articles University, Support of uc a-g requirements list, XML. University? Monday September 22 3:14 PM EDT. Lead paragraph: SGML Open, the School, international consortium dedicated to promoting structured document and data interchange based on the SGML family of standards, today announced the adoption of a new initiative, InterX.org. Serving as a forum and resource center for developers and users of XML tools, InterX.org will work to bridge the gap between the XML specification and articles, tool interoperability. 'InterX.org' represents the concepts of interchange, interactivity, interoperability, internet and international -- together with XML. Information on 'InterX.org' from SGML Open.

NuDoc is a technology for describing, editing, and viewing highly designed pages for print and on-line distribution. NuDoc supports applications for WYSIWYG page layout, online XML browsing, and database driven, variable-data publishing. In NuDoc, a document object is made of style, content, and page layout sub-objects. A style object contains rules that govern the form (or visual appearance) of the document. Content elements such as words, images, movies, etc. are organized into a tagged tree structure that represents the logical organization of the information (sections, sub-sections, etc.). The W3C's Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the default content data representation. XML files are the default representation for the structured, tagged content. Article? NuDoc reads and writes XML content files during the authoring process. Articles Adelphi? NuDoc's TSL files are used to define the style sheets. For rapid saving and restoring of the entire document object's state, NuDoc can save to disk (and re-read) the how to literary essay Griffith (Navitas), post-composition document containing the research articles, style, content, and School, resulting page layouts (including all user edits and research articles, mark-up) to article College, an external XML-format checkpoint file. Finally, if the shared content feature is required, external shared content is articles stored in yet another XML format file. [from the Technology Briefing, August 1997]

PageFlex is a NuDoc-based Application under development as of mid-1998. PageFlex is a high-end solution built from modular components and open standards. How To Literary Griffith? It is the first solution to use XML as the intermediate data format between databases and the page composition process. The output formatter is based on Bitstream's revolutionary NuDoc page composition engine, NuDoc offers unprecedented control over the graphic design of page templates while maintaining a strict separation of articles, form from the input XML content. Coins: Tightly Coupled JavaBeans and write article Bishopstrow College, XML Elements. Coins is University a programming project undertaken by Bill la Forge.

Description: A coin has two faces, an XML element and an instance of a JavaBean: a) the XML element is the persistent form, an can t School b) the JavaBean instance is the runtime form. Research? One of the primary operations of a coins program is the binding of can t write St. John's-Ravenscourt, XML element types to specific Java classes. Adelphi University? In some cases (runtime program composition), an initial set of bindings is assumed and the XML document being processed uses that initial set to specify additional bindings in a bootstrapping process. The bindings used to process a document are not always fixed, but are often determined by the application or server processing the document. In these cases, the XML document is simply a vehicle for help ICS — International School, moving information between applications, and the coins technology simply provides the means for processing that document. A particularly interesting feature of coins is its use of hyper-links. Java serialization has no equivalent capability, forcing the .ser files generated by research articles Adelphi University, Java serialization to be self-contained. . . Coins Web site: http://www.jxml.com Coins Overview XML-Based Components: Coins. Help ICS — School? Presentation to ACM Greater Boston Web Tech Chapter, by Bill la Forge Source and articles Adelphi, Documentation Contact: Bill la Forge. [June 21, 1998] Two-faced Coins Catching On. By Jeff Walsh. In InfoWorld Electric (June 19, 1998) Posted at 4:56 PM PT.

A new programming paradigm called Coins is gaining momentum with developers as a way to deliver JavaBeans using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) without the need for can t St. John's-Ravenscourt School, Java serialization. DMTF Common Information Model (CIM) On October 19, 1998, The Desktop Management Task Force, Inc. Research Articles Adelphi University? (DMTF) announced the ICS — School, availability of its XML Encoding Specification for research articles Adelphi, the encoding of the Common Information Model (CIM) schema in analytical essays, XML. Information on DMTF's CIM and WBEM technology solutions is held in a separate document. Process Interchange Format XML (PIF-XML) On June 12, 1998, Jeffrey Ricker posted an announcement for an initial design of PIF-XML (Process Interchange Format XML). PIF is an interchange format designed to help automatically exchange process descriptions among a wide variety of business process modeling and research articles University, support system such as workflow software, flow charting tools, process simulation systems, and process repositories. PIF itself is based on the Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF), which is in turn based on LiSP.

Since both LiSP and ICS — International Community, XML are text-based and nested trees, the translation is relatively straightforward. Research Articles Adelphi? However, PIF also includes an object-oriented design with inheritance, which does not directly translate into XML. The initial work attempts a direct translation of PIF version 1.2, and write article College, is not optimized for economy in XML; a provisional DTD and example encoded PIF-XML document are available. Ontology and Conceptual Knowledge Markup Languages. QAML is a new language created using XML. The purpose of QAML is to provide a more specific format for documents dealing with questions and research, answers. Why use QAML instead of HTML?

Because unconstrained HTML is too powerful and loose! In particular QAML is meant for FAQs, or Frequently Asked Questions. QAML was originally meant to be a broader language, but we have decided to focus it specifically on FAQs. We are programming a CGI which will format QAML documents and write short Bishopstrow College, convert them to Adelphi, HTML, so it will be possible to implement QAML without having to writing Academy, worry about research articles Adelphi, when XML browsers are commonplace. Rick Jelliffe (ricko@gate.sinica.edu.tw) has helped us to make QAML fully XML-compliant. We have posted the new, full XML QAML DTD. [October 07, 1999] New version of the DTD. [February 26, 1999] A recent communiqué from Rick Jelliffe (Academia Sinica Computing Centre) announces a 'Call for how to Griffith, Comments' on a proposed XML DTD for 'Frequently Asked Questions' documents.

The new QAML 2.0X XML DTD is based on the QAML 1.0 SGML DTD, with backwards-compatible augmentations for XML, I18N (internationalization), XLL [XLink] hypertext linking, style, accessability and tracking. Comments on the proposed DTD are solicited by the authors, Justin Higgins of digitalNation Network Services, and Rick Jelliffe. Research Articles University? The XML DTD is available online from the FAQ.org website (http://www.faq.org/qaml/) and from the 'Chinese XML Now!' website (http://www.ascc.net/xml/). LACITO Projet Archivage de données linguistiques sonores et textuelles [Linguistic Data Archiving Project] Boyd Michailovsky (LACITO/CNRS, project coordinateur) forwarded a communique concerning a linguistic data archiving project which uses XML and SGML encoding. Principal investigators include Boyd Michailovsky, John B. Lowe, and Michel Jacobson. The 'Projet Archivage de données linguistiques sonores et textuelles', under the auspices of the larger LACITO programme (Laboratoire de langues et civilisations à tradition orale) and direction from can t write my essay, CNRS, concentrates on the encoding, archiving, and distribution of speech data, particularly for rare languages that are researched within the unit. The main source of data for the project is the mass of documents recorded and research Adelphi, transcribed in the field by members of the LACITO over the last thirty years. These unique recordings, mainly of spontaneous speech in unwritten languages, serve as the Community School, basis for research on research articles Adelphi the languages and the cultures concerned. Some of the transcriptions and translations have been published, but the original sound recordings have never been published or properly archived. . . An explicit XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup has been adopted for the text materials.

In many cases, older documents whose structure is implicit are marked up automatically by program. The interlinearized text (annotated and glossed) is literary Griffith (Navitas) displayed using XSL stylesheets. Research University? Audio portions corresponding to the encoded text are aligned using XML linking elements. . .The structure of the XML documents prepared by the project is defined by a DTD (Document Type Definition); all project documents are validated using public-domain tools. c/o Boyd Michailovsky. 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez. 75014 Paris, FRANCE.

GedML: [GEDCOM] Genealogical Data in XML. GedML is a way of encoding genealogical data sets in XML. It combines the well-established GEDCOM data model with the article, new XML standard for encoding complex information. The result is a representation that can easily be converted to research University, and from GEDCOM, but can be manipulated much more easily using standard tools. See now the document Genealogical Data and XML for information on GedML and writing Fryeburg, other specifications using XML for genealogical information. Newspaper Association of America (NAA) - Standard for Classified Advertising Data. The NAA Classified Advertising Standards Task Force was organized by the NAA Technology Department to facilitate the electronic exchange of classified ads. References to research University, the commmitte work and the XML DTD are provided in a separate document. The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) has made an XML version of the my essay School, NITF (News Industry Text Format) DTD available from its Web site. Research? Description and references are found in a separate document. As of January 1999, a News Markup Language (NML) was under development through the effort of the American Press Institute's Media Center.

In a meeting of April 1999, it was decided to incorporate the requirements for NML into the NITF design and development work. Further information is provided in a separate document. An announcement for writing analytical essays The University of Kansas, a new XML application initiative (Notes Flat File Format Initiative) was posted by Sean McGrath on May 14, 1998. NFF is an XML based interchange format for the Lotus Notes/Domino platform. The NFF DTD supports the majority of the constructs that can occur in research Adelphi, Lotus Notes data such as structured fields, rich text, doclinks, import objects and so on. Once data is in write essay Griffith (Navitas), XML conforming to articles Adelphi University, the NFF DTD it can be imported using an article writing import filter (NINFF.DLL) into Lotus Notes using a simple 'File-Import'. The download package includes the necessary software along with a sample application - Timon Of Athens by William Shakespeare in research University, NFF format. Java Help API: The structure of a HelpSet is can t write my essay XML-encoded (Extensible Markup Language) data. . . See Byte Magazine (May 1998) page 108, sidebar So, Help Me, Java. The HelpSet formats in XML were presented in: Introduction to the JavaHelp API.

By Eduardo Pelegrí-Llopart, Roger Brinkley, and Nancy K. Lee (Sun Microsystems, Inc.) Presented at JavaOne (Sun's 1998 Worldwide Java Developer Conference). So, Help Me, Java. From Byte , May 1998: . . . The new Java Help API, currently in articles Adelphi, beta testing, is an help essay ICS — School all-Java 'über alles' help system for JavaBean components, applications, desktops, and articles, HTML pages. . . Writing? [it's] written purely in Java, [which] means you can embed a help system within an application or compress it into a Jar file for transport to articles Adelphi, another destination. List Lancing College? . . Research Articles? Java Help permits a single help system to support varying navigational views of writing analytical The University, help content. . . Adelphi? The data structure that carries all the information needed to provide a view into uc a-g requirements a help system is Adelphi bundled into article a HelpSet file. Note that there are two loose terms at use here. Research Articles? First, a HelpSet file isn't necessarily a file, in the same sense as files that you store on your hard disk. A HelpSet file could be bound into write an application, for example. Research Articles Adelphi? Second, it's probably more accurate to say that the information is help ICS — Community School rooted in the HelpSet file. The structure of a HelpSet is XML-encoded (Extensible Markup Language) data.

The data points to the URLs from research Adelphi, which you can find the info necessary to build the article writing, help system. Cold Fusion is research articles a general-purpose Web development system for rapidly building Web applications that integrate browser, server and database technologies. It consists of the Cold Fusion Markup Language (CFML), the Cold Fusion Application Server (NT UNIX) and Bishopstrow College, the forthcoming Cold Fusion Studio, a visual tool for building dynamic Web applications. . . In essence, CFML provides a generalized markup language for research Adelphi University, handling the richness of can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, programming, logic and integration required to build full-scale applications on research the Web platform. Can T Write St. John's-Ravenscourt? It achieves this based on the same inspiration that is driving interest in XML -- simplicity and power. Adelphi University? . Write Literary? . Syntactically, Custom Tags are XML compliant custom markup language elements that allow developers to build reusable components that can be easily dropped into Adelphi University a dynamic Web application. These tags are processed by the Cold Fusion server, and can dynamically generate and literary essay Griffith, execute client and server-side code. Press release, September 15, 1997: Allaire Introduces Online Exchange for Cold Fusion Custom Tags. Third-party Custom Tags Extend the University, Cold Fusion development system with cross platform XML-compatible components. Cold Fusion and Custom Tags FAQ The Allaire Tag Gallery [August 04, 2000] ColdFusion Markup Language. By Mark Cyzyk. In WebTechniques Volume 5, Issue 8 (August 2000), pages 74-77. Consider the selection of article writing, server-side scripting languages: The big contenders in this arena are Active Server Pages (ASP) and JavaServer Pages (JSP).

Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is also starting to edge in on the market. Research Articles Adelphi University? While each is powerful in its own way, neither of the environments is particularly aesthetic by Gelernter's definition. Performing simple tasks with these technologies often requires a lot of overhead, resulting in code-heavy, convoluted programs. If you're choosing a server-side scripting language, you should consider a fourth option: ColdFusion. Because it acts more like a markup language than a programming language, ColdFusion is an help essay International Community School elegant solution for embedding code in HTML files. Allaire, the articles University, company that also makes the literary (Navitas), popular HomeSite HTML editor, has a whole suite of ColdFusion technologies consisting of an articles application server, an requirements list integrated development environment, and of course, the markup language. Articles University? It is this ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) that competes directly with ASP and JSP. Article Academy? Within CFML you'll find all the usual conditional logic constructs, data structures, and utility functions available in most mature programming languages. Further, CFML provides tags to easily implement email interactions, LDAP integration, and FTP and HTTP agent creation -- functions that other Web application development platforms require third-party modules to support.

Finally, the Web application developer can create custom tags in CFML, thereby extending the language's power. University? Contact: Jeremy Allaire. Document Content Description for XML (DCD) [August 10, 1998] International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Microsoft Corporation have submitted a proposal to help School, the World Wide Web Consortium defining a vocabulary for describing constraints upon XML documents: Document Content Description for XML. References: NOTE-dcd-19980731, Submission to the World Wide Web Consortium 31-July-1998. The document proposes a structural schema facility, Document Content Description (DCD), for specifying rules covering the research Adelphi, structure and content of XML documents. The DCD proposal incorporates a subset of the writing essays The University, XML-Data Submission and research Adelphi University, expresses it in can t write, a way which is consistent with the ongoing W3C RDF (Resource Description Framework) effort; in particular, DCD is an RDF vocabulary. Adelphi University? DCD is intended to write article College, define document constraints in an XML syntax; these constraints may be used in the same fashion as traditional XML DTDs. DCD also provides additional properties, such as basic datatypes. The abbreviation 'DCD' is used to describe both the general facility described in this document and individual schema instances that conform to it. Editors listed for the document include Tim Bray (Textuality), Charles Frankston (Microsoft), and Ashok Malhotra (IBM).

Other credits: The specification has benefited greatly as a result of input from David Fallside and David Singer, both of IBM, Andrew Layman and Jean Paoli both of research articles Adelphi, Microsoft, and from Lauren Wood of SoftQuad. We also wish to thank Henry Thompson of the can t write my essay, University of research articles, Edinburgh and all the authors of the XML-Data specification. XSchema is the name of a collaborative effort hosted on the XML-DEV mailing list. Help Community? The principal goal of the XSchema project is to produce an XSchema specification which, when complete, will provide a means for XML developers to describe their XML document structures using XML document syntax. Research Adelphi University? The target date for a complete initial XSchema 1.0 proposal is June 30, 1998. As of how to write literary essay Griffith University, June 1, 1998, discussion had resulted in the creation of a list of twelve XSchema Goals, as refined through four draft documents. This XSchema work was initiated by Simon St.Laurent with the publication of a paper A Proposal for the Representation of articles Adelphi, XML DTDs as XML Documents and by several supportive postings, including a position paper authored by Paul Prescod. During the initial period of writing analytical essays of Kansas, discussion on XML-DEV, the project proposal went under the name XSD (Extensible or XML Structure Definitions). [November 03, 1998] Simon St.Laurent and Ronald Bourret report that a final draft of the XSchema Specification, Version 1.0 is now available (November 1, 1998).

Public comments on the draft should be posted to articles Adelphi University, the XML-DEV mailing list. General information on the XSchema project is available at write short, http://purl.oclc.org/NET/xschema. Note that this borderlands effort is not part of the W3C work (it parallels work already begun within the W3C, e.g. , XML Data). Its authors declare that XSchema is not intended to compete with proposals from the World Wide Web Consortium, and research Adelphi University, they envision that the results may profitably feed into short Bishopstrow College the W3C activity on XML schemas. According to Jon Bosak (XML WG Chair), design work by articles Adelphi, the XML WG on XML schemas using instance syntax is likely to be re-chartered. Can T St. John's-Ravenscourt? Of course, it also bears note that concrete proposals for enhanced 'DTD's using instance syntax have been made by many individuals over the past decade or so. See, for example, references in chapter 8 of The SGML FAQ Book: Understanding the Foundation of HTML and XML by Steve DeRose: SGML: It's 3, 3, 3 Languages in One. Document Definition Markup Language (DDML)

The Document Definition Markup Language (DDML) a schema language for XML documents, and a the research articles, successor to XSchema. WEBDAV (Extensions for Distributed Authoring and Versioning on the World Wide Web. WebDAV stands for 'Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning. It is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. WebDAV uses XML. See references in a separate document. Graphic Communications Association - GCA 'Paper' DTD.

For several years, the Graphic Communications Association (GCA) has requested (or required) that papers for GCA conferences be prepared according to guidelines in SGML/XML DTDs. Write Article College? Conference proceedings volumes, both paper and electronic, are generated from the research articles University, SGML/XML source provided by the authors. DocBk XML is an help ICS — Community XML version of the DocBook DTD. DocBook is an SGML DTD maintained by the DocBook Technical Committee of OASIS. Research? It is particularly well suited to books and papers about computer hardware and software (though it is by no means limited to these applications). References are provided in uc a-g requirements list Lancing College, a separate document.

SABLE: A Standard for Text-to-Speech Synthesis Markup. SABLE is an XML/SGML-based markup scheme for text-to-speech synthesis, developed to address the research Adelphi, need for a common TTS control paradigm. The SABLE specification evolved as an initiative to combine three existing speech synthesis markup languages: 1) SSML, the Speech Synthesis Markup Language; 2) STML, the Spoken Text Markup Language; 3) JSML, the Java Synthesis Markup Language. List? The draft SABLE specification is an initiative to establish a standard system for marking up text input to speech synthesizers. The current draft is research Adelphi being circulated for write essay Griffith (Navitas), comment by users, developers and researchers of articles University, speech synthesis. Java Speech Markup Language (JSML/JSpeech)

The JSpeech Markup Language is referenced in a separate document. SpeechML from IBM's alphaWorks Laboratory is how to essay a[n XML] markup language for building distributed network-based conversational applications. Together with Guillaume Belrose, W3C's Dave Raggett (on assignment from HP Labs) is developing a voice browser to test out ideas for using context free grammars for more flexible voice interaction dialogs. The applications are written in XML and CSS using a language we are calling TalkML. We plan to extend this work to look at how to deal with existing Web content developed for desktop browsers. Some ideas for this are covered in a W3C NOTE ['Voice Browsers'] I wrote last year with Microsoft's Or Ben-Natan.

The goal is to make it easy to University, create dual access Web-sites which can be accessed via visual or voice browsers. How To Write Griffith? See also my talk on Style sheets for Voice Browsers, as presented at the Developer's Day at WWW8. TalkML is an articles University experimental XML language for write literary essay University (Navitas), voice browsers, and articles Adelphi University, is being developed by HP Labs for help essay International School, use in the following markets: (1) Call centers (IVR++) -- sales and support services accessed via 800 numbers, adding speech recognition to today's DTMF (touch tone) systems; (2) Smart phones with displays; (3) Access to email, appointments, news and travel services etc. Research Articles Adelphi University? while your are on how to write literary the road (in-car systems); (4) Mobile devices too small for decent displays or keyboards, WCDMA palmtop organizers/pagers with low enough cost to be a must-have (like cell-phones). Guillaume Belrose helped to devise TalkML and develop the sofware. A NIST project cordinated through MEL (The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, under Project Leader Joshua Lubell. The objective of this NIST-sponsored project is to explore the use of articles Adelphi, XML (eXtensible Markup Language), a standard for uc a-g requirements list College, structured document interchange on the Web, for research Adelphi, exchanging complex data objects between tasks in a distributed workflow application. In details: The WebWork workflow application development tool kit, created by the University of Georgia with funding from NIST's Advanced Technology Program, supports the building of uc a-g requirements list, distributed, web-based workflow applications. NIST has demonstrated the benefits of XML for representing highly structured documents such as product data standard specifications and has shown that WebWork can be integrated with an XML repository. Leveraging this implementation experience, NIST will extend WebWork to support the exchange of XML-structured objects between workflow tasks.

NIST will demonstrate the efficacy of this approach by research articles Adelphi, building a small application to manage a subset of the workflow in ISO TC184/SC4 (International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 184, Subcommittee 4), an international standards body developing specifications for write short article, the representation and exchange of industrial data for which NIST serves as Secretariat. SWAP - Simple Workflow Access Protocol. The SWAP (Simple Workflow Access Protocol) working group has submitted a charter to the ETF Application Area Directors and is expected to become authorized by the IETF. SWAP is research Adelphi a protocol designed to allow for interoperability between workflow systems and between workflow systems and other applications. SWAP allows for the programmatic initiation of a workflow process by an application, and the exchange of process data and state information between the the workflow process and short article, application. The proposed SWAP protocol defines four primary interfaces, which are used to manage, monitor, initiate and articles Adelphi, control the execution of processes on external workflow systems. . . SWAP is how to write literary essay University not intended to Adelphi University, overlap with the WebDAV in any way. Write My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt? They are designed to be complimentary, use the same basic encoding (XML), and in fact use the same commands where appropriate for the same things (getting object properties). The goals of the articles University, two specs are different. St. John's-Ravenscourt? WebDAV is for document management: how to check out check in, handle multiple versions, lock, unlock, and move documents. There is articles nothing in WebDAV about applications. Writing Analytical The University Of Kansas? SWAP is for articles Adelphi University, starting, monitoring, controlling, and ICS — International School, receiving notifications from a remote asynchronous service.

The idea is research University that you have some application out there that takes a long time to complete, you want to pass it some data and invoke it. This is all about applications development, and almost nothing to do with document management. Writing Fryeburg? [adapted from the FAQ and main Web page, by Keith Swenson] See: SWAP references in Asynchronous Transactions and research articles University, Web Services. SWAP Working Group Simple Workflow Access Protocol (SWAP) The Simple Workflow Access Protocol is a proposed way to solve this problem through use of write article Bishopstrow, HTTP protocol, and by transferring structured information encoded in Adelphi University, XML. A new set of HTTP methods is defined, as well as the The University of Kansas, information to articles Adelphi, be supplied and the information returned in short article Bishopstrow College, XML, that accomplish the control of generic asynchronous services. - draft-swenson-swap-prot-00.txt SWAP Main Page SWAP FAQ document SWAP Issues and Action Items.

VSI (V-Systems Inc.), an industry 'Leader in research articles Adelphi University, Integrated Fax,' has recently proposed an XML Interface for FAX. Help ICS — International Community School? XML-F ('XML for articles Adelphi, FAX'), under VSI's new proposal, would be used for for connecting fax servers to applications, other fax servers, and fax service providers. VSI has outlined a simple method for integrating applications to fax servers using XML, the article writing, latest Internet technology for data interchange between applications. Launched at research articles University, a time when both network fax and help, XML are coming into the mainstream, VSI believes that their proposal, called 'XML-F', has the potential to solve a major issue facing the fax service community. Research Articles University? XML-F Specifications (including DTDs) have been written, and are to be released in Community, the near future. The XML-F interface provides a simple framework for software applications to use in employing a network fax service to send an electronic document to a terminating fax machine. The XML-F interface supports three basic features: 1) Submit a Fax for Transmission; 2) Get Status of a Fax Transmission; 3) Cancel a current Fax Transmission or Request. XML-F employs six XML document types to implement these three features: three requests and three responses.

Using a simple request/response model, each feature has a corresponding request and response document. The request/response model lends itself well to internet transports and to applications which might require off-line use. All data is articles University formatted as text and binary data is article Fryeburg encoded using Base64 encoding. XML-F can be coupled with internet transports such as TCP/IP and HTTP and security mechanisms such as SSL to research articles, provide secure transactions over public networks. XML-F does not imply or require any particular transport, however.

XML-F is an open specification that anyone can implement: any fax server or fax service provider, any application software developer, or other party. It is recommended that any public implementation of a server representing this interface fully implement all of the interface, while client systems might opt to implement only those portions which are relevant to the application. [from the 0.1.90 draft] VSI (V-Systems Inc.) Home Page Press release: VSI Proposes New XML Interface for Fax. Fax over XML Could Solve Key Issues in the Fax Service Community. - Announcement for XML-F. [also from VSI] Fax Integration using XML. August, 1998. Can T Write School? 6 pages. - VSI has created a document that explains how application vendors, fax service providers, and fax servers can integrate using XML and XML-F. Research Articles Adelphi University? [local archive copy] XML-F Specifications. Write? XML-F Preliminary Specification. Revision 0.1.90, August 1998. 23 pages. - VSI has also created a document that outlines the articles Adelphi, XML-F DTD's and recommendations for use by application developers, integrated and fax server vendors. [local archive copy] Email discussion forum: discussion@xml-f.com VSI Contact: Lydia Loizides (Product Marketing Manager) [January 11, 1999] VSI Announces VSI-Fax Gold Series 3.5 -- Introduces Faxing From Outlook. New Outlook Fax Integration Brings Proven Enterprise Fax Capabilities to Popular Messaging Client -- Allows Faxing Right from the Inbox. - XML-F Integration: As the first step in VSI's implementation of XML for fax communications, VSI-FAX 3.5 features the ability to use XML Documents to send, receive, and cancel faxes, as well as obtain status information.

What is XML? - From VSI. [local archive copy] [February 15, 1999] Fax Integration Using XML Technology. By Dave Droman and International Community, Gila Jones [V-Systems, Inc.]. In Computer Technology Review Volume XVIII , Number 1(January 1999), pages 28, 32-33. Adelphi University? As it stands today, there is no standard means of communicating between (1) fax servers and the applications that need faxing services and (2) among various fax servers or fax service providers across a network, including the Internet. Short Article? . . Research Articles University? To solve these problems, VSI has created a common faxing interface using XML, called XML-F. As many people now know, XML is a markup language, like HTML, with a vocabulary that consists primarily of 'tags.' HTML was specifically designed for marking up documents to communicate how they should be formatted for display on the World Wide Web.

The purpose of XML is far more open-ended, but in general it is a 'meta-language' intended to be used to how to write University, define other standard markup languages (known as Document Type Definitions or DTDs) that can be used to Adelphi University, allow different systems to exchange information in a standard, process-readable format. Businesses can define their own vocabulary of XML tags and rules that are embedded within the DTD inside the XML document or made publicly available to how to write literary (Navitas), any program that wants to research University, comply with the agreed-upon information exchange format. Short Article Bishopstrow College? The use of articles Adelphi, XML-specific parsers eliminate the burden of parsing and validating XML interchange documents, reducing the work and support required to implement an application reading XML. [local archive copy] Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) The main entry for the Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) is found in a separate document. Broadcast Hypertext Markup Language (BHTML) The ATSC T3/S17 specialist group is in the process of defining the application programming interfaces for a Digital Television Application Software Environment (DASE) compliant receiver. As this process evolves, the elements, attributes, properties, and values of BHTML will solidify. T3/S17 has selected the Java virtual machine (VM) as the application execution engine.

As specified by writing analytical essays, T3/S17, the Java VM will be found on articles University all DASE-compliant receivers. Aninda DasGupta, the T3/S17 chairman, proposed [what] he called 'Broadcast HTML' [which] uses Internet technologies favored by many T3/S17 members: it is article written in articles, XML, scales back HTML elements and attributes, and integrates synchronization functionality as new elements, attributes, and style properties. BHTML is an XML compliant language based on a reduced set of HTML 3.2 elements and attributes. Media synchronization functions from SMIL and style elements from CSS 1 and CSS 2 are added to this base functionality (into Broadcast CSS or BCSS). Appendix C of the August 6, 1998 draft (XML-Data Specifying BHTML using the XML-Data Syntax) represents 'a first pass at defining the BHTML elements and attributes using the XML-Data (XMLD) notation'. xHTML specifies a collection of document type definition (DTD) sets that can be combined to specify an xHTML-based platform. Three such platforms are used as examples throughout this specification: w3HTML, bHTML, and cHTML. xHTML is designed to meet the requirements of consumer electronic and computer manufacturers that wish to produce a broad range of products with various levels of Internet connectivity and product features. xHTML started with HTML 4.0 and HTML 3.2. These elements and article, attributes were converted to XML, in research articles, line with the stated goals of the W3C for future HTML. The XML-based markup language was partitioned into DTD sets that correlated with the needs of platform developers to differentiated based on internet connectivity, memory footprint, and power management. Article Academy? xHTML is Adelphi University written in XML, therefore element names are case-sensitive. Digital-TV Application Software Environments (DASE) - Main Page BHTML Draft Specification - BHTML Draft #2.

Document Number ATSC T3/S17 092, prepared for ATSC T3/S17 (DASE) by requirements, Ted Wugofski, Gateway. A Modular Hypertext Markup Language for Broadcast Applications.. Prepared by Ted Wugofski. Research? 1 Oct 98, Draft #4. How To Literary Griffith University? [local archive copy] Synchronization and Transitions in Broadcast HTML. Ted Wugofski, Over the Moon Productions. This is an addendum to the Broadcast HTML (bHTML) Proposal in the area of specifying timing, synchronization, and research University, special effects.

The design is based on functional requirements specified in the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) specialist group (T3/S17) that is write essay Griffith defining the digital television application software environment (DASE). [local archive copy] Broadcast HTML Specification - General Information DASE Introduction [August 25, 1998] As Intel-led group sideswipes standards body, Thomson and Microsoft roll spec of research Adelphi University, their own - Debate rages over how to bring data to TV. By Junko Yoshida. In EETimes Issue 1022 (August 24, 1998). Excerpt: The debate over article writing Fryeburg Academy, how to bring data and Internet technologies to digital television will bubble up this week, as a key industry group reconvenes here to research Adelphi, discuss a set of proposals that has come under fire. . . Where the ATVEF's technology is based on standard Internet specifications such as HTML 4.0, BHTML is written in the emerging Extensible Markup Language (XML), a new language for advanced Web applications. BHTML scales back HTML elements and requirements list Lancing, attributes by using parts of HTML 3.2, while it integrates synchronization functionality.

The biggest difference between the research University, two lies in the use of the writing analytical essays The University, Java software technology. BHTML is articles University designed to be tightly integrated with the Application Execution Engine, or Java Virtual Machine, and with the Java framework. See the database entry, Broadcast Hypertext Markup Language (BHTML). Essay ICS — Community School? [September 24, 1998] Group Seeks Integrated Multimedia, DTV. By Junko Yoshida. In CMPNet TechWeb News (September 20, 1998). With a goal to integrate 2-D, 3-D, and streaming content for research University, digital TV (DTV) programming, leaders from can t my essay School, key international technology-development forums gathered [in Leidschendam, Netherlands] last week to launch a new initiative to harmonize the various multimedia streams. Taking part in the AIC meeting were representatives from the Motion Picture Experts Group, Virtual Reality Modeling Language organization, and Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC).

The initiative will 'write an open specification to integrate and harmonize VRML, MPEG-4, and Broadcast HTML BHTML into a seamless stream,' said Rob Glidden, co-chairman of VRML 3-D Integrated Media Working Group and one of 12 founding members of AIC. BHTML, written in the emerging Extensible Markup Language (XML), is designed for tight integration with the research Adelphi, Java framework. Pointing to longstanding integration efforts between VRML and XML, as well as between MPEG-4 and VRML, Glidden said, 'This is how to (Navitas) a natural extension of articles Adelphi, what we have been doing at International Community, each of the groups'. The International Standard 12083 presents a reference document type definition which facilitates the authoring, interchange and archiving of a variety of publications. This document type definition is research University deliberately general. It is a reference document type definition which provides a set of essays, building blocks for the structuring of books, articles, serials, and similar publications in print and electronic form. This International Standard is intended to provide a document architecture to facilitate the creation of various application-specific document type definitions. [January 25, 1999] ISO 12083 (AAP, EPSIG) DTDs for article, book, serials, and math are being edited for XML compatability. [November 06, 2000] ISO 12083 is available free in PDF format from NISO: ANSI/NISO/ISO 12083 Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup (The standard specifies the SGML declaration defining the syntax used by the document type definitions [DTD] and document instances, and a definition for mathematics which may be embedded in other SGML applications). Extensible User Interface Language (XUL) XUL stands for 'extensible user interface language'.

It is an XML-based language for describing the articles University, contents of windows and dialogs. XUL has language constructs for all of the help essay ICS — International School, typical dialog controls, as well as for widgets like toolbars, trees, progress bars, and menus. User Interface Markup Language (UIML) The User Interface Markup Language (UIML) allows designers to describe the user interface in generic terms, and then use a style description to map the interface to various operating systems (OSs) and appliances. Thus, the Adelphi University, universality of essay International School, UIML makes it possible to research, describe a rich set of interfaces and reduces the work in porting the user interface to another platform (e.g., from article Fryeburg Academy, a graphical windowing system to a hand-held appliance) to changing the style description. See the separate document. Commerce XML (cXML) is an open Internet-based standard for e-commerce. cXML reduces on-line business trading costs by facilitating the exchange of content and transactions over articles Adelphi University, the Internet.

Developed in concert with more than 40 leading companies, cXML is a set of lightweight XML DTDs -- based on article Fryeburg Academy the World Wide Web Consortium's XML standard -- with their associated request/response processes. XML DTD for Phone Books was published as a Network Working Group Internet-Draft (draft-ietf-roamops-phonebook-xml-00.txt) in February, 1999. The authors are Max Riegel (Siemens AG) and Glen Zorn (Microsoft Corporation). In addition to providing a DTD, the document describes the articles University, information to be included in write, the standard phone book for Adelphi, roaming applications. All data is list Lancing College described in XML (Extensible Markup Language) syntax leading to a concise XML DTD (Document Type Declaration) for the phone book.

The goals of articles, this document include: 1) Creating a flexible, extensible and robust framework upon which to build a standard phone book; 2) Promoting a standard phone book format, to how to essay Griffith University, enhance interoperability between ISPs and roaming consortia. XML DTD for Phone Books. Proceedings URL. Research University? XML DTD for Phone Books, February 1999. This version expires on August 15, 1999. Local archive copy, draft-ietf-roamops-phonebook-xml-00.txt See also: XML DTD for Roaming Access Phone Book. How To Write University (Navitas)? IETF RFC 3017.

December 2000. This document defines the syntax as well as the research Adelphi, semantics of the information to be included in the phone book for roaming applications. It comprises the information necessary to my essay School, select the most appropriate ISP and to configure the host to get access to the network of the provider. The specification consists of University, a small set of required information elements and a variety of possible extensions. All data is specified in XML (Extensible Markup Language) syntax leading to a concise XML DTD (Document Type Declaration) for the phone book. The Data Documentation Initiative. The Data Documentation Initiative is a Project to Develop an XML Document Type Definition for Data Documentation [germane to datasets in the social and behavioral sciences.] See Data Documentation Initiative: A Project of the Social Science Community. XML General Articles and Papers: Surveys, Overviews, Presentations, Introductions, Announcements. The document with Current XML Articles/Papers represents a more mixed collection of references: articles in professional journals, slide sets from presentations, press releases, articles in writing Fryeburg, trade magazines, Usenet News postings, etc.

Some are from experts and Adelphi, some are not; some are refereed and others are not; some are semi-technical and writing analytical essays, others are popular; some contain errors and others don't. Discretion is strongly advised. The articles are listed approximately in the reverse chronological order of their appearance. Articles? Publications covering specific XML applications may be referenced in the dedicated sections rather than in the main reference lists. Books on XML are referenced only briefly in the following section.

They are described more fully in the SGML/XML Books section, and in the main SGML/XML bibliography. For now, only books already published are listed. Writing Of Kansas? See the section on planned and rumored works for books apparently not yet available. A collection of articles Adelphi University, Introductions to XML is write short article Bishopstrow provided in a separate document. A more complete XML book list is maintained by Charles F. Goldfarb in Adelphi University, All the XML Books in Print. Henning Behme and Stefan Mintert.

XML in der Praxis: Professionelles Web-Publishing mit der Extensible Markup Language. Bonn: Addison Wesley Longman, [June] 1998. Analytical Essays The University? Extent: 328 pages, CD-ROM. ISBN 3-8273-1330-9. Price: DM 69,90. Neil Bradley. The XML Companion . Harlow, Essex: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998. Research University? Extent: 464 pages.

ISBN: 0-201-41999-8. Dan Connolly (guest editor). XML: Principles, Tools, and Techniques . World Wide Web Journal [edited by Rohit Khare] Volume 2, Issue 4. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Associates, Inc., Fall 1997. International Community? Extent: xii + 248 pages. ISBN: 1-56592-349-9. ISSN: 1085-2301. Steven J. DeRose. The SGML FAQ Book: Understanding the Foundation of HTML and XML . Electronic Publishing Series, Number 7. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Extent: xxiv + 250 pages, appendices. Research Articles? ISBN: 0-7923-9943-9. [Chapter 8. XML: A Simple, Standard Subset.] Bob DuCharme.

XML: The Annotated Specification. The Charles F. Essay Griffith University (Navitas)? Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. Articles? The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Writing? Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. Extent: xx + 339 pages. ISBN: 0-13-082676-6. Peter Flynn. Understanding SGML and XML Tools. Practical Programs for Handling Structured Text. . Foreword by Steve DeRose. Research Adelphi University? Kluwer Academic Publishers SGML Bookshelf, Electronic Publishing Series. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

Extent: xxvi + 432 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-7923-8169-6. [description] Charles F. Goldfarb and Paul Prescod. The XML Handbook. Foreword by Jean Paoli. The Charles F. List? Goldfarb Series on research Adelphi Open Information Management.

The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1998. Extent: xlvi + 642 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-13-081152-1. Ian S. Graham and Liam Quin. Write St. John's-Ravenscourt? XML Specification Guide . New York, NY: John Wiley Sons, 1999. Extent: xiv + 432 pages; with [technical online] 'Supplementary Material and Resources'. ISBN: 0-471-32753-0. Has a supporting Web site. Elliotte Rusty Harold.

XML: Extensible Markup Language. Structuring Complex Content for research University, the Web. Foster City/Chicago/New York: IDG Books Worldwide, 1998. Extent: xxiv + 426 pages, CDROM. ICS — International? ISBN: 0-7645-3199-9. Rick Jelliffe. Articles Adelphi University? The XML and SGML Cookbook. Recipes for Structured Information.

The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on article Bishopstrow College Open Information Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, May 1998. Extent: 650 pages, with CD-ROM. ISBN: 0-13-614223-0. [provisional description] Michael Leventhal, David Lewis, and Matthew Fuchs; with contributions from research Adelphi University, Stuart Culshaw and Gene Kan. Designing XML Internet Applications. The Charles F. How To Literary Essay Griffith University? Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. [Subseries:] The Definitive XML Series from research articles Adelphi University, Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [May] 1998. Extent: xxxii + 584 pages, CD-ROM.

ISBN: 0-13-616822-1. Price: $44.95 U.S./$63.00 Canada. Henning Lobin. Help International? Informationsmodellierung in XML und SGML . Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, [May] 1999. 250 pages. ISBN: 3-540-65356-2. Richard Light, Simon North, Charles Allen ( et al. ). Presenting XML . Indianapolis, IN: SAMS.NET [Sams Publishing, Macmillan Publishing USA], 1997. Extent: 400+ pages.

ISBN: 1-57521-334-6. Sean McGrath. XML by Example. Building E-Commerce Applications. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [June] 1998. Extent: xlviii + 476 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-13-960162-7. David Megginson. Structuring XML Documents . Charles F. Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from research articles Adelphi, Charles F. Goldfarb. Essay ICS — International School? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [March] 1998. Extent: xxxviii + 425 pages, CDROM.

ISBN: 0-13-642299-3. Murata Makoto, Atsuhito Momma, and Kyoichi Arai. XML Nyuumon [Introduction to XML. In Japanese] . Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1998. Extent: 224 pages. ISBN: 4-532-14610-0. Details: see the abstract in English, or the Fujixerox Web site, or bookseller descriptions (1), (2). Simon St. Laurent. XML: A Primer . Foster City, CA: MIS Press/IDG Books, 1998. Extent: xx + 348 pages.

ISBN: 1-5582-8592-X. Research? Also in Korean, Japanese, and Italian translation. Simon St. Laurent and uc a-g College, Robert Biggar. Inside XML DTDs: Scientific and Technical . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Research Articles Adelphi University? Extent: xii + 468 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-07-134621-X.

Simon St. Laurent and Ethan Cerami. Building XML Applications. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, (May) 1999. Requirements List College? Extent: 512 pages, 150 illustrations. ISBN: 0-07-134116-1. Ed Tittel, Norbert Mikula, and Ramesh Chandak XML for Dummies. Foreword by articles University, Dan Connolly. [Series: For Dummies.] Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 1998. Extent: xxviii + 367 pages, CDROM.

ISBN: 0-7645-0360-X. XML Mailing Lists, Discussion Groups, Newsgroups. A more complete reference list of discussion groups, mailing lists, and hyer-mailed fora appears in the dedicated document. How To Griffith University (Navitas)? Discussion groups focused upon style languages are referenced in research University, the main XSL document. XML-DEV, an XML development mailing list, maintained/organized by help International, Peter Murray-Rust and Henry Rzepa. See the text of the announcement.

To subscribe to the digest, mailed on University Monday of each week, send email to majordomo@ic.ac.uk with the message line 'subscribe xml-dev-digest'. [October 3, 1997] The XML-L mailing list was set up on September 30, 1997 as a general discussion of the how to write (Navitas), Extensible Markup Language. The list owner is research articles Adelphi Peter Flynn, University College Cork. To subscribe to the list, send email to Community, listserv@listserv.hea.ie with the command 'subscribe xml-l [your name]' in the body of the message. For questions about the list, write to the list owners: XML-L-request@LISTSERV.HEA.IE. [July 15, 1998] [Provisional/planned Usenet Newsgroup], comp.text.xml . University? See the draft RFD (Request for article writing Academy, Discussion): http://www.jtauber.com/xml/CTX_RFD.txt, [local archive copy, 980408.] The first call for votes was issued on June 23, 1998.

On July 14, 1998, Neil Crellin published the results of the Adelphi University, Call for Votes (CFV) for a new unmoderated Usenet Newsgroup comp.text.xml . Write Article? The voting period closed at 23:59:59 UTC, July 14, 1998. The vote passed, 365:22. On December 01, 1998, Ralph Ferris of Fujitsu Software Corporation posted an announcement for a new XLink/XPointer Developer's List. This email forum has been launched in order to promote wide discussion of XLink/XPointer development issues. To subscribe to the new xlxp-dev list, send an email message to majordomo@fsc.fujitsu.com with the following in the body of the message: subscribe xlxp-dev . Information on the W3C's XML Linking Language is accessible in the XLink/XPointer document. [July 20, 1998] A German language discussion group for XML has been set up: XML-DE. Research Articles? The list is hosted by GMD and DFN, two German national research institutes; this host arrangement is meant to help ensure neutrality in commercial questions and professional maintainance.

The goals of this group are to provide a native German language forum for general XML discussion, to promote XML in write short College, the German industry, and to articles University, build a pool of experts for know-how transfer. Topics for discussion include core technologies (XML, XSL, XLink, DOM), related standards (SMIL, . ) and software (browsers, parsers, . ). To subscribe to the group, send a mail to listserv.gmd.de with the message subscribe xml-de [firstName lastName] in write short, the body of the message. Research University? See further information in the main entry: XML-DE. xml-litprog-l: Literate Programming with XML List. Short Article? A mailing list for discussions about how best to use XML/XSL/XLink/XPtr for constructing literate programming frameworks and tools. Organized initially by Anthony B. Coates (Educational Multimedia Services, TEDI, The University of articles Adelphi, Queensland). As of September 25, 1998, the list moved to write literary essay Griffith, an Allette server. See: http://www.allette.com.au/xml-litprog/. To subscribe, send email to xml-litprog-l-subscribe@egroups.com. See [the database entry XML and Literate Programming, the articles University, list entry xml-litprog-l - Literate Programming with XML List and] the document SGML/XML and Literate Programming. JXML: Java--XML, the analytical essays of Kansas, Java and research articles Adelphi University, XML mailing list.

This list is intended for discussions relating to analytical, Java and XML, particularly with reguard to the following: 1) Java Class and research articles Adelphi, Bean metadata expressed as XML documents; 2) Conversion of Java Class metadata to bytecodes defining simple, data-only classes; 3) Reversable conversion of Java Object Streams to XML documents while maintaining type safety (JSXML); 4) Description of Jar Resources as an XML document; XML document-driven construction of Jar files (etc.). Literary Essay Griffith? See the articles, more complete description: http://www.camb.opengroup.org/ Related discussion and development forum: DSSSList, with the DSSSList Archive, sponsored by Mulberry Technologies, Inc. and managed by can t write School, Tony Graham. XSL-List is provided by Mulberry Technologies as a service to the XSL user community and the XSL standardization effort. Research Adelphi? It hosts discussion of XSL (Extensible Style Language) itself, XSL applications and requirements Lancing, implementation, and University, XSL user questions. Python XML-SIG: A Special Interest Group for short article Bishopstrow, XML Processing in Python. Adelphi? The SIG was created to provide a forum for analytical essays of Kansas, discussion and implementation of tools to make Python an excellent choice for research University, XML processing. The goal of this SIG is to decide what software is required for this purpose, and coordinate its implementation and documentation.

See the announcement and write School, the main list entry for details. The Python XML-SIG Status page describes project deliverables and the resources page describes some Python Software for XML. See also the dedicated database section Python for XML/SGML Processing. Perl-XML list, a mailing list is research articles Adelphi dedicated to the discussion of The University, enhancing Perl's ability to work with XML and for using Perl with XML documents. Send 'SUBSCRIBE Perl-XML' to Adelphi University, listmanager@activestate.com. Send list contributions to: Perl-XML@ActiveState.com.

XML: Working Groups, SIGS, Design and Development Initiatives. [January 28, 2000] SAX 2/Java (beta). David Megginson has posted an announcement for the beta release of SAX2-beta. SAX is the Simple API for XML, a very-widely implemented event-based interface for processing XML documents. The beta release of SAX2/Java is now available for download at http://www.megginson.com/SAX/SAX2/. Help ICS — International Community? Highlights of the research University, release: (1) Namespace support; (2) Configurability and extensibility through features and writing of Kansas, properties; (3) A new interface and research Adelphi, base class for SAX filters; (4) Adapters for using SAX1 parsers with SAX2 and Fryeburg Academy, vice-versa; (5) Way too much JavaDoc documentation; (6) Public domain (even less restrictive than Open Source). Research University? SAX2 adds standard methods to query and set features and properties in an XMLReader. It is write short now possible to request an XML reader to University, validate (or not to short Bishopstrow College, validate) a document, or to internalize (or not to internalize) all names, using the getFeature , setFeature , getProperty , and setProperty methods. Research University? There is how to essay Griffith University no fixed set of features or properties available for SAX2: implementors are free to define new features and properties as needed. All feature and property names are fully-qualified URIs (often URLs), such as http://www.acme.com/features/foo; as with Namespace URIs, people should always define feature and property names based on URIs that they control. All XML readers are required to recognize the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces and the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes features (see below), and to articles Adelphi University, support a true value for the namespaces property and a false value for the namespace-prefixes property: these requirements ensure that all SAX2 XML readers can provide the minimal required Namespace support for higher-level specs such as RDF, XSL, XML Schemas, and XLink.

XML readers are not required to recognize or support any other features or any properties, even the core ones. [. ] WRT SAX version 1: Of the core classes and interfaces, only write article Parser, AttributeList, DocumentHandler, and HandlerBase (which is research articles really a helper anyway) are deprecated. All of the rest -- InputSource, Locator, EntityResolver, DTDHandler, ErrorHandler, SAXException, and SAXParseException -- are left untouched. [June 01, 1999] David Megginson has announced that an alpha version of SAX2 for Java is now available for download. SAX2 is an update to the widely-implemented SAX 1.0 interface for XML parsers. SAX2 consists of two parts: (1) a new, extensible mechanism for querying and setting features and help International Community School, properties in SAX parsers in a standard way; and research articles Adelphi, (2) a set of recommended core feature and property names.

SAX Home Page, and Microstar mirror site [May 12, 1998] Announcement for the public release of SAX 1.0. See: http://www.megginson.com/SAX/. Writing Analytical Essays? [May 14, 1998] SAX Parsers and Applications Quick Start for SAX Application Writers [September 25, 1999] SAX C/C++ Implementations: I have just successfully completed a C++ implementation of SAX/SAX2 and DOM, based upon research articles expat. Currently I'm in literary essay University, the process of testing the whole thing ;). Research Articles Adelphi University? Eventually I will make it available to the public; however, some parts of the implementation use my company's proprietary C++ class library, so certain things need to be sorted out first. Feel free to contact me for writing analytical, more information. Guenter Obiltschnig, Sat, 25 Sep 1999 20:11:21 +0200, XML Developers' List. Research? Update 2000-08-10: the XML class library for essay, C++ is now available as open source at http://www.cpointc.com/XML. saxlib, a Python version of Adelphi University, SAX, with drivers (Lars Marius Garshol) [April 27, 1998] For developers only: SAX 1.0 beta, almost ready for announcement. [April 10, 1998] For developers only: test re-release beta version of SAX, and demo which does the identity transform What is an Event-Based Interface? By David Megginson. Draft Interface Specification for SAX [March 20, 1998] , per uc a-g College, the posting from David Megginson SAX - Simple API for XML.

The SAX API was developed collaboratively during a month (December 1997 - January 1998) of discussion on the XML-DEV mailing list. Research Articles? SAX is a simple, common, event-based API for XML parsers written in object-oriented languages like Java, C++, or Perl5 (the reference implementation is in Java). SAX is write article Bishopstrow similar in philosophy to JavaSoft's JDBC -- it allows you to write an application once, then plug in any XML parser that has a SAX driver, just as the JDBC allows you to plug in any SQL database that has a JDBC driver. See the main database entry, the announcement from David Megginson [980112], or the Microstar Web site. References for 'XML and Literate Programming' have been moved to a separate document under the title SGML/XML and Literate Programming. University? This document provides a collection of references for literate programming techniques and style in write article Bishopstrow College, the context of descriptive markup languages, e.g. , SGML, XML, DSSSL, HyTime, etc. Numerous researchers have observed that the research articles Adelphi, goals of information re-use and data normalization embraced by both literate programming and SGML-based markup languages provide the basis for using the two technologies together.

GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) XML Library. References for 'XML and Python' are provided in a separate document, XML and Python. XML in Microsoft Internet Explorer. A press release of October 13, 1998 clarified Microsoft's plans for XML support in the MS Windows operating system and in help International Community, Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. 'XML 1.0, XSL, XML DOM, and XML Namespaces'. Research Articles University? Support features as announced include: Direct viewing of XML; High-performance, validating XML engine; Extensible Style Language (XSL) support; XML Schemas; Server-side XML; XML document object model (DOM).

Description of Microsoft's XML support is provided in a collection of help ICS — Community, references accessible from a separate document. [December 17, 1998] Sun Microsystem's Java Project X: Java Services for XML Technology is the new name for the Java services formerly released as the Sun XML Library. On December 01, 1998, this development project was renamed Java Project X, and moved to Early Access 2 with API updates, some speedup, and articles Adelphi University, minor bug fixes. Java Project X is the codename for a set of core XML-enabling services written completely in the Java programming language. With Java Project X's extensible Java services, developers can build robust yet flexible XML-oriented network services and applications that are internet-ready. This release requires JDK 1.1.6 or later or JDK 1.2, and help International School, approximately 3.5M bytes of disk space. Sun's Java services in this new release provide full XML processing capabilities, including a fast XML parser with optional validation, an in-memory object model tree that supports the W3C DOM Level 1 recommendation, and basic support for JavaBeans integration with XML. The development tools in the Java Project X are freely available, but one must register through the Java Developer Connection.

The second early access release is addressed to Java developers who want access to Sun's fast and fully conformant core XML software for their development. The library supports an optional in-memory object model tree for manipulating and articles, writing XML structured data. The library is short article 'core' in the sense that significant XML based applications can be written using only this functionality, and that it is intended that other XML software be layered on top of it. That is, it is a building block for developers. According to the Release Notes, the Java Project X library conforms fully with open standards: 1) the parsers conform to research University, the W3C's XML 1.0 recommendation; 2) the parse tree supports the XML (core) part of analytical essays of Kansas, W3C's DOM Level 1 recommendation; 3) in articles, combination, the two also support the short, current W3C XML Namespaces proposed recommendation; 4) the articles Adelphi, parser supports the SAX 1.0 API; 5) the write short, entity resolution used within the parser normally conforms to the IETF's RFC 2376 registration for XML-related MIME content types, [but] this can be overridden as required. [September 25, 1998] On September 16, 1998, Sun Microsystems, Inc. released an 'Early Access 1' version of The Sun XML Library. Research? As described by David Brownell at the Montréal XML Developers' Conference, the XML Library is writing essays The University of Kansas a highly modular XML library that has been developed by the Java Software Division of research Adelphi University, Sun. The XML library is list written in the Java programming language and provides support for research articles, the latest version (July) of the W3C DOM APIs and for article, the SAX 1.0 API. The XML package includes fast validating and nonvalidating XML parsers, preliminary support for XML Beans , and examples, including an research Adelphi XML Validation Service . The September 16th version is the first early access release, addressed to Java developers who want access to essays The University of Kansas, Sun's fast and fully conformant XML library core for research Adelphi, their development of extensible, conformant XML-enabled services and applications. Essays Of Kansas? That library supports fast parsing of XML documents, including optional validation, and supports an optional in-memory object model tree for manipulating and writing XML structured data. In addition, the core functionality supports an research articles Adelphi University implementation of the W3C DOM APIs and the XML Namespaces proposal.

The library is 'core' in the sense that significant XML based applications can be written using only this functionality, and that it is how to write literary (Navitas) intended that other XML software be layered on research articles top of it. All classes are written exclusively in the Java[tm] language, and accordingly may be used with any JDK 1.1 conformant system, including JDK 1.2 conformant systems. Developers have expressed strong interest in seeing XML enabling technology emerge from Sun because of the key role Sun has played in developing the XML specification and in creating the Java platform. The Java technology's 'portable code' along with XML's 'portable data' are valuable complements in creating truly platform-independent applications. Through the early access release, developers have an unique opportunity to participate in defining and evolving the write my essay, XML Library. [adapted from the XML Library 'README' and 'FAQ' documents] References: Java Project X Early Access 2 Release Notes Introduction README document FAQ Document. [local archive copy, 1998-09-25] Library Installation Developer feedback: xml-feedback@java.sun.com The Sun XML Library. Presented by research articles Adelphi, David Brownell at the Montréal XML Developers' Conference. How fast is Sun's XML parser included in the core toolkit?

In Sun's testing using JDK 1.1.6, the validating parser (doing lots of error testing) was significantly faster than the majority of the non-validating parsers tested and was an writing analytical essays The University order of magnitude faster than other validating parsers. Of course, Sun's non-validating parser is faster still. [December 08, 1998] XML and Java Technology - An Interview with Dave Brownell. [Part One] From java.sun.com ['The Source for Java Technology']. December, 1998. XML, the eXtensible Markup Language, is the universal syntax for describing and structuring data independent from articles University, application logic. This past February, XML 1.0 became a Technical Recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). From this milestone, numerous applications of XML are popping up far and wide - and write short article, more often than not they're using Java technology. We asked David Brownell, designer of research articles University, Sun's Java Project X, for some perspective. [Excerpt:] Q: Is there some special, natural affinity between Java technology and XML? A: You bet. Java software is my essay School portable code . XML is portable data.

By themselves, neither of these technologies provides such a solution. To get portable data, you need to pick a representation that is usable in most programming languages . like XML, which is research articles Adelphi University structured text. To get portable behavior, you need a maintainable program standard that runs on most computer systems . Help Essay ICS — International Community School? like Java language class files. Use Java and XML together, and you get both. . Research Adelphi University? . A Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J) Collaborative project for A Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J). Includes: (1) Statement on can t write School Informal Work on research University a Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J), and (2) Collected Suggestions -- ideas for post XAPI-J 1.0 W3C XML/XLL/XSL Working Groups and SIGs. Generally, documents produced by W3C editorial boards, working groups, and SIGS are available only to W3C members. See, however: XML Development: Technical Documents and Development Resources.

Comparison of SGML and XML. By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. Can T My Essay? The document provides a detailed comparison of University, SGML (ISO 8879) and XML under three section headings: 1) Differences Between XML and SGML; 2) Transforming SGML to XML; 3) SGML Declaration for XML. Help Essay ICS — Community School? [local archive copy] Annotated Version of the XML specification, from XML co-editor Tim Bray. This resource presents the research articles Adelphi University, unaltered text of the XML specification in one pane (frame) of the display, augmented by write Bishopstrow, graphically distinct note markers of research articles Adelphi, five types: (1) Historical or cultural commentary; some entertainment value; (2) Technical explanations, including amplifications, corrections, and answers to literary essay Griffith University (Navitas), Frequently Asked Questions; (3) Advice on how to use this specification; (4) Examples to illustrate what the spec is saying; (5) Annotations that it's hard to find a category for. A second pane provides the text of the commentary for each linked annotation. Adelphi University? The resource also features a linked list of Terms Defined in XML 1.0, and how to write literary Griffith University, links to relevant sections of the XML specification from a list of EBNF productions. The annotations (some 308) are accessible from their titles as well. [March 26, 1999] Supplementary Resources and articles Adelphi, Tools - A collection of additional resources, not found in the book [ The XML Specification Guide ], that are useful for understanding the XML specifications and using XML. My Essay? These include [1999-03-26]: (1) A searchable index of University, all XML specifications (2) A searchable index of EBNF productions (3) A set of XML design patterns -- based on the approach of the how to literary essay Griffith University, same name introduced in research University, object oriented design -- applied here to modeling document architecture; (4) Extracted EBNF for XML - defines, along with the well-formedness and help essay ICS — International Community School, validity constraints, the rules for writing well-formed or valid XML documents; (5) A list of useful online resources.

[February 10, 2000] Hyperlinked EBNF Productions Available for XML Standards. A recent posting from Dan Vint reports on a new Web site which contains all the EBNF productions, validation and well-formedness constraints for the following specifications: XML, Namespaces, XPath, XSLT, XPointer, XML Stylesheet PI, and research articles, XML Fragments. I have linked together information where the Namespaces or Fragments specification have modified the basic XML productions and I have included all of the constraints for how to essay University (Navitas), each of these productions. The symbols within the productions are linked to their descriptions and all the articles Adelphi, references to a production are also listed so you can follow the logic in both directions. The menu on Academy the left side needs a little time to build, but once available you can get to any production in alphabetical order by the specification. Let me know what you think about the Adelphi, site and if there is anything I should add. [October 01, 1998] Stylesheet Linking. Lancing? Associating Stylesheets With XML Documents . Version 1.0 WD-xml-stylesheet-19981001. Edited by James Clark.

World Wide Web Consortium Working Draft 1-October-1998. This document allows a stylesheet to be associated with an XML document by research articles Adelphi, including one or more processing instructions with a target of xml-stylesheet in write short article Bishopstrow, the document's prolog. Research Adelphi University? Pseudo-attributes are used in can t my essay, a processing instruction (href, type, title, media, charset, alternate), or in multiple xml-stylesheet processing instructions. Examples: ?xml-stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css? and ?xml-stylesheet alternate=yes href=mystyle.css title=Medium type=text/css? . Articles University? [local archive copy] XML Catalog proposal.

By John Cowan. This is a proposal for XML Catalogs, a system based on SGML/Open catalogs (Socats) for translating XML public identifiers to XML system identifiers, which are Uniform Resource Identifiers [URI]. Note (1999-04-06): 'XCatalog' is now called 'XML Catalog'. [May 11, 1998] An earlier proposal [see preceding item] for a standard mechanism to associate a stylesheet with an list Lancing College XML document by means of an XML processing instruction is documented in a recent W3C NOTE, Associating Stylesheets with XML Documents. Research Articles Adelphi University? The NOTE, authored by James Clark, has been submitted to the W3C at the request of the XML Working Group. The proposed syntax and semantics are analogous to the HTML LINK element used to identity stylesheets, as illustrated in the following example: LINK rel=stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css ?xml:stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css? . The XML processing instruction uses pseudo-attributes like href, type, title, etc. The examples shown in article Academy, the NOTE are for CSS client-side stylesheets. Document identifier: NOTE-xml-stylesheet-19980405, W3C Note 5 Apr 1998. [local archive copy] [December 01 [13], 1997] Announcement from research Adelphi University, James Clark for a test suite of files for XML processors. Requirements? The collection of XML test cases in the ZIP archive contains 141 small files that (in my view) fail to be well-formed XML documents, and should therefore cause any conforming XML processor to report a fatal error.

See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltest.zip. Updated December 13, 1997 to research articles, bring the test suite into alignment with the Proposed Recommendation of 1997-12-08. Also updated apparently February 9, 1998; [local archive copy] [April 03, 1998] David Megginson's book Structuring XML Documents (1998) devotes all of Part 4: DTD Design with Architectural Forms to architectural forms. Specifically: Chapter 9. Architectural-Forms Concepts; Chapter 10. Basic Architectural-Forms Syntax; Chapter 11. Advanced Architectural-Forms Syntax.

[June 10, 1998] XAF is XML Architectural Forms Processor. Accompanying David Megginson's XAF software package is detailed, tutorial-oriented documentation about XAF and architectural forms (Using the requirements list College, XAF package for Java), appropriate for both XML document designers and XML software designers. Adding Strong Data Typing to SGML and XML, by research Adelphi University, Tim Bray. May [21,] 1997. archive copy, May 21, 1997; or: previous archive copy, May 15, 1997]. Note: Jean Paoli of Microsoft has submitted a related proposal in connection with the XML discussion XML for Structured Data [December 06, 1997] Why I Demand Schemata: Element Type Hierarchies for Transparent Document Structure Definition. Write School? By Henry S. University? Thompson (Language Technology Group, University of Edinburgh). Draft date: October 15, 1997. Overview: In this paper I describe the list College, XML-Data schemata proposal, concentrating on the motivation for and nature of the Adelphi, provision of an element-type hierarchy, in essay ICS — International Community, which element types can inherit attribute declarations and research University, positions in content models from ancestors in can t, the hierarchy.

I argue that this represents a major improvement over the use of parameter entities to research University, structure and maintain DTDs. [local archive copy] [April 24, 1998] xml:lang resources for parser writers. Contributed by Murray Altheim (Sun Microsystems, SunSoft). Currently there are XML versions of files providing the ISO 639 (language), ISO 3166 (country), and IANA charset values required for can t School, support of the xml:lang attribute values in Adelphi University, XML 1.0. Please direct comments and corrections to Murray Altheim. These 'xml:lang resources' will be made available later on Sunsite. See other language-code information in the dedicated section, Names of Languages - ISO 639. [May 08, 1998] The 'standalone document declaration' in XML 1.0. Some questions were raised about its design/use in the XML 1.0 specification. See the collection of XML-DEV postings. [October 02, 1997] Architectural Forms handout from a presentation Java Beans and Architectural Forms, (August 21, 1997 - XML Dev Day), by David Megginson: Proposal: Architectural Forms for International Community School, XML. See the accompanying XML-DEV posting (October 2, 1997); [archive copy] [December 13, 1997] Architecture processing in XML: at Adelphi University, the WG4 meeting in Alexandria, Virginia (December 1997), WG4 N1957 was accepted as the proposed text of an amendment to ISO/IEC 10744:1997 (HyTime).

As a subclause to Annex A.3 (A.3.4.4 Architecture Use Declaration Processing Instruction), the proposed architecture use declaration (arch) processing instruction would provide an alternative form of architecture use declaration for use in how to write essay University (Navitas), environments where notations or data attributes are not supported. The amendment was sponsored by Charles F. Goldfarb, Steven R. Newcomb, W. Eliot Kimber, and Peter Newcomb. Research University? See the related posting by Eliot Kimber Architectures, Schemas, and XML: Proposed Amendment to ISO/IEC 10744:1997, with followup by David Megginson. [N1957, local archive copy] [November 01, 1997] A new submission to the W3C from Electricité de France, Research and Development Division. The STTS2 submission for Simple Tree Transformation Sheets 2 would in principle govern the uc a-g Lancing, transformation of well-formed XML documents in Adelphi University, order to render them in a HTML browser. The submission abstract: This document describes a proprietary specification of Electricité de France. It specifies the format of STTS2 transformation rules that can be applied to a HTML document (without CSS styles) in order to take advantage of the Bishopstrow College, Cascading Style Sheets and remove deprecated HTML elements or attributes in favor of CSS. Even if the specification deals only with HTML, this kind of transformation, or an extension of this specification, can be easily applied on research articles Adelphi University the fly to well-formed XML documents in order to render them in a HTML browser without any XML plug-in or internal knowledge. The grammar of this specification is mainly based on write short Bishopstrow the CSS2 grammar and research Adelphi, extends it in some ways.

[December 18, 1997] Reports from the W3C SGML ERB to short article Bishopstrow College, the SGML WG and from the W3C XML ERB to the XML SIG. Complied by research Adelphi, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen for the use of the WG and SIG. Covers October 9, 1996 through December 1, 1997. Date: 4 December 1997. [local archive copy] [June 19, 1997] A proposal written by article Bishopstrow, John Tigue of DataChannel for collaborative effort toward XML Java API Standardization. The document title is Informal Work on articles Adelphi XML API Standarization for Java. Since the announcement of write short College, this proposal, other leading XML developers have registered their willingness to cooperate.

The proposal's first goal is to find a lowest common denominator for the current implementations and abstract that to a set of interfaces such that a developer could use this new API independent of an underlying implementation of the Adelphi University, XML processor and/or invest in learning the particular benefits a specific implementation provides. See: http://www.datachannel.com/ChannelWorld/XML/dev/. [January 23, 1998] SGML Exceptions and XML, by Eve Maler (ArborText) - briefly describes SGML exceptions (inclusions and essays, exclusions) and discusses how 'exception users' can handle their DTDs and data in research, XML, which does not allow exceptions. International School? See the database section: Use (and Non-use) of Exceptions in DTDs. [July 26, 1997] XML-ized ISO 8879 entity sets, by University, Rick Jelliffe of Allette Systems.

The postings were made to write literary Griffith University (Navitas), the XML Development list. A typical header comment: This version of the entity set can be used with any SGML document which uses ISO 10646 as its document character set. This includes XML documents and ISO HTML documents. This entity set uses hexadecimal numeric character references. Please report any errors to Rick: ricko@allette.com.au. The entities mapped to Adelphi, hex are in the following files: ISOgrk4.pen, ISOtech.pen, ISOdia.pen, ISOlat1.pen, ISOgrk1.pen, ISOlat2.pen, ISOgrk2.pen, ISOnum.pen, ISOgrk3.pen, ISOpub.pen. Griffith? Available in research articles Adelphi University, a concatenated file, or archived as separate files in a .ZIP package. Write Bishopstrow? Note the disclaimer. See also the Adelphi, alternate source for XML entity sets, from James Tauber.

XML BNF, generated by can t write St. John's-Ravenscourt, Henry S. Thompson [March 7, 1997] [August 29, 1997] David G. Durand's Five Paragraphs on 'Whitespace in XML', posted to XML-DEV. See also the discussion thread: http://www.lists.ic.ac.uk/hypermail/xml-dev/9708/0147.html. Revised SGML Declaration for XML 1.0, submitted by research, Rick Jelliffe [June 27, 1997]. Probably out-of-date. TEI Extended Pointers (Links) tutorial, by Lou Burnard. February 4, 1997. Part 2 of the XML specification (link) is based in part upon this TEI extended pointer syntax. If you prefer, see this unofficial archive copy as a single-file document. See also chapter 14 of the TEI Guidelines, and the alternate location of the help essay School, tutorial on the UIC TEI server, as a single document. [August 28, 1997] Steve DeRose on TEI Extended Pointers vs.

XML-LINK. Clarifies the research articles University, relationship. XML Notes by Dan Connolly,W3C SGML ERB member, and W3C contact for the XML effort. Write College? Python module for XML, Perl script for checking XML well-formedness [xml-check.pl], Converting XML to Lout, XML Typing, XML Modules, etc. Research University? Date: 1997/05/22. W3C Notes - Some thoughts and software on XML, by Bert Bos. A simpler XML.

Date: May 23, 1997. [August 09, 1997] ADT and write St. John's-Ravenscourt, Marshalling for XML, by Bert Bos. Abstract: This is an attempt at articles University, defining XML ( i.e. , XML proper, not the meta-grammar for defining XML applications, nor the hyperlinking conventions) in write literary Griffith, a formal, mathematical way, that hopefully takes away all ambiguity as to what an XML document contains, or what the relation is between the document and its linearized, textual representation. [archive copy] [October 23, 1998] XML and Semantic Transparency. By Robin Cover. [op - comments requested] The notion of XML conformance is addressed directly in research, the XML specification (Version 1.0, REC-xml-19980210) section 5. Conformance, which includes a discussion on 5.1 Validating and can t write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, Non-Validating Processors and another on 5.2 Using XML Processors. Information on articles University the OASIS XML Conformance Subcommittee and Testing and Validation Resources is provided in requirements list Lancing College, a separate document.

See the XML/XSL/XLink Software entries in research articles University, the Public Software section of the SGML/XML Web Page for how to literary essay, more complete descriptions of these tools. The software tools listed below are free or available for Adelphi, use under nominal constraints, sometimes as evaluation/demo versions. Software tools specific to article writing Academy, XLink and to XSL are listed in their respective sections. Some 'query language' tools are referenced in the document XML and Query Languages. Commercial XML/XSL/XLink software support is provided by the vendors, of University, course. For other listing of XML software tools, see also: Steve Pepper's Whirlwind Guide to SGML Tools and Vendors , the Free XML Tools and Software from Lars Marius Garshol [ANN], and uc a-g, the XML Software Guide from WDVL. A list of SAX 1.0 Parsers and Applications is research articles Adelphi available on David Megginson's Web site. [ This section under revision ] [January 14, 2001] How to validate XML.

This is not an XML parser, but a note of potential importance to developers contemplating XML parser design. From Joe English. XML validation is an instance of the regular expression matching problem. Uc A-g? The most commonly-used technique to articles, solve this problem is based on finite automata. Analytical The University Of Kansas? There is another algorithm, based on derivatives of regular expressions, which deserves to be more widely known. In this connection, see the discussions referenced in SGML/XML Notion of Ambiguity (non-deterministic content models). Ælfred XML Parser.

From Microstar. A small, fast, DTD-aware Java-based XML parser, especially suitable for research University, use in Java applets. Free for both commercial and write, non-commercial use. Updated to version 1.2 May 02, 1998. [Updated to version 1.1: 980309]. [cache copy] Larval. Larval is research a validating XML processor built on the same code base as Lark. From Tim Bray. [October 06, 2000] expat - XML Parser Toolkit.

See the uc a-g list College, announcement for the release of version 1.2 [2000-10-06]; see also two entries following. expat is research articles Adelphi University a high-performance, fully conforming, non-validating XML 1.0 parser toolkit written C. Described by Clark Cooper 1999-09-03. Comes with Win32 binaries and an xmlwf application. Test version 19990626 supports parsing external DTDs and writing Fryeburg, parameter entities. Updated to version 1.1 29-May-1999. Pre-1.1 test release 1999-04-25. From James Clark, released 980405. Updated to version 1.02, January 11, 1999. Version 1.0, August 14, 1998 (first production release). Previously updated June 21, 1998; Updated May 14, 1998; and updated 19980504. expat is the successor to xmltok.

See the research articles, description on Clark's server, or in the software page. Note 2000-07, The Thai Open Source Software Center as a source for expat. [July 02, 2000] expat - 12-May-00 01:11 145k [cache] [October 05, 2000] expat development on SourceForge. According to uc a-g Lancing College, a note from Clark Cooper: Maintenance of the expat XML parser has been delegated by articles Adelphi University, James Clark to a team that includes James, Fred Drake, Paul Prescod, and help essay, [Clark Cooper]. SourceForge is hosting this project. [March 21, 2002] A posting from articles Adelphi University, Dare Obasanjo of Microsoft announces the release of MSXML 4 SP 1 (Microsoft XML Core Services).

This version 40SP1 (14-March-2002) release offers a number of new features and improvements over the MSXML 3.0, including support for the XML Schema language and substantially faster parser and XSLT engine. MSXML 4.0 SP1 is a complete replacement for MSXML 4.0 RTM. [July 21, 2001] Microsoft XML Parser (MSXML) 4.0 July 2001 Technology Preview. The Beta 2 release offers a faster SAX and XSLT, complete XSD, etc. XSD validation with SAX; XSD validation with DOM, using the requirements list, schemaLocation attribute. DOCTYPE replacement using a Java FilterReader/FilterStream. From Simon St.Laurent. DOCTYPEChanger and DOCTYPEChangerStream are Java classes that allow you to Adelphi University, change the writing Fryeburg Academy, DOCTYPE declarations as a document is being read into an XML parser. This may be useful in several cases: (1) You want to add a default DOCTYPE declaration to documents that arrive without one to feed them to a validating parser. (2) You want to test documents against a different DOCTYPE declaration than the one they arrived with. (3) You want to prevent document creators from making changes to the DOCTYPE your application understands. These classes allow you to set a root element, public identifiers, system identifiers, and an internal subset independently, and also let you specify whether the Adelphi University, DOCTYPE declaration should be changed if present. ['It's not real sophisticated, but you might want to check out my DOCTYPEChanger, which lets you specify a DOCTYPE. It's a Java FilterReader (or FilterStream) which strips out the old DOCTYPE (if you insist) and writing analytical essays of Kansas, puts in a new one.

You can put it in front of an XML parser if you want, or just run documents through it.'] ElCel Technology XML Validator. The ElCel Technology XML Validator is research a free command-line utility built using our C++ XML Toolkit. As its name implies, this is a validating XML processor. Uc A-g Requirements List Lancing? It contains complete and up-to-date support for XML 1.0 (second edition and errata) and XML Namespaces. It has been designed to highlight some of the strengths of the articles, underlying XML Toolkit, allowing you to judge its speed and essay International School, accuracy for yourself. Features include: fast and accurate, proven against the OASIS/NIST conformance suite; XML catalog support for resolution of public identifiers; any number of files can be validated in one go; validating or well-formedness mode; will report and recover from articles Adelphi, multiple errors, even 'fatal' ones; user-friendly error messages with optional location arrow; options to support batch processing; input can be via pipes, the local file system or HTTP URLs; freely available for writing Fryeburg Academy, both Windows and Linux. See the online manual.

Canonical XML Processor. The ElCel Technology Canonical XML Processor is a free command-line utility built using the SAX 2.0 interface of our C++ XML Toolkit. It implements the canonicalization algorithm as described by the W3C's Canonical XML recommendation. It also implements the original Canonical XML specification from James Clark. This is a very useful program for converting valid XML with a DTD into a standalone document.

We also use it internally to check the conformance of our XML Toolkit against the OASIS/NIST conformance tests. ObjectStore XML Parser - Microsoft's Java-based XML Parser integrated with ObjectStore PSE PSE Pro for Java. XJParser From DataChannel. Also has advanced query language support through emerging W3C standards support like data typing, XSL pattern matching, and articles Adelphi, node transformation. The DataChannel - Microsoft XML Parser for Java (Beta 2). Includes a validating XML engine, XSL support, and short Bishopstrow, transformations of data. December 1998 and later.

See the FAQ document. [May 07, 1999] Redistributable 'Microsoft XML Parser' - Microsoft Corporation announced the release of the Microsoft XML Parser for research Adelphi, incorporation by can t, third-party developers into their applications. DataChannel XML Development Environment (DXDE) and DXP XML Parser. University? DXP is a validating XML parser written in Java. It is specifically aimed at write short article College, providing a utility for research University, server-side applications that need to School, integrate XML capabilities into existing systems and for out-of-the-browser Java-based software. Research Adelphi University? Updated 980211 or later. IBM XML for Java. Write Short Article Bishopstrow? XML for Java is a validating XML parser written in 100% pure Java.

The package ( com.ibm.xml.parser ) contains classes and methods for parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating XML documents. Last updated 1999-02-10 (version 2.0.0). Updated July 28, 1998 for bug fixes, new samples, additional command line options, and updated API documentation. Released with a free commercial license Version 1.0.0 June 23, 1998. Updated 19980612. Previously updated May 13, 1998, and updated 1998-04-16. [December 07, 2000] miniXML parser. David Cox presents a tree-based miniXML parser for XML that is written in C++ using the Standard Template Library for strings and various containers.

The parser works with canonical XML, and research articles Adelphi, is very fast, though limited to smaller XML documents. See the January 2001 issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal . Help Essay International Community? With code listings and the complete and articles University, source code; [cache listings, [cache sources] [June 29, 1999] XML Parser for the C++ Language (XML4C). IBM alphaWorks' XML4C is a validating XML parser written in a portable subset of essay International, C++. XML4C makes it easy to research articles, give an application the ability to read and write XML data. Write Short Article Bishopstrow College? It is articles Adelphi University a single shared library that provides classes for parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating XML documents. XML4C is faithful to the XML 1.0 Recommendation and associated standards (DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0). Source code, samples and API documentation are provided with the parser distribution. Version 2.2.0 released 1999-06-25.

Version 2.3.1 released August 26, 1999. SP Parser. SP 1.3.4 released 1999-10-13. SP version 1.3 has better support for XML based on writing analytical of Kansas the Web SGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879. SP adds support for (XML) documents that are merely well-formed. This is enabled by using -wno-valid . There's also a -wxml switch that warns about research articles Adelphi University, various things that are legal SGML but not XML. Write School? Update 971013: test release of SP with much more XML support.

xmlwf - Clark's XML well-formedness checker, [now] part of articles University, XMLTok. A program built with the XML tokenizer that checks the well-formedness of XML entities. See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltok.zip. [971201] And, note that the WebTechs' Validation Service now supports 'XML' - (possibly using this code?). XXX: eXperimental Xml leXer - from Rick Jelliffe (Academia Sinica). experimental software. the basic idea of essay ICS — Community, XXX is articles that XML can be parsed using a recursive descent parser made from a highlyparameterized general-purpose lexical analyser. See also XXX Notation Processors. Sun Java Project X [XML Library] parser - a fast XML document parser with optional validation in the core of the help essay International School, Sun Java Project X toolkit. OpenXML Parser - Version 1.0.5 introduces the X3P Publisher API, provides support for XHTML 1.0, and offers and major performance improvements.

[February 24, 2000] Java pull parser built on SAX. This (XP) package contains a wrapper that converts a pushing SAX parser into a pulling parser and some related classes. Namespace support added 2000-01. From Stefan Haustein. John Cowan announced the articles, availability of help essay International, a preliminary version of DOMParser (alpha source code). DOMParser is a compliant SAX parser, except that its input (elements, attributes, and so on) comes from a DOM implementation rather than an InputSource (XML source code). Silfide XML Parser (SXP), a parser and a complete XML API in Java. Adelphi? Withe other client.server components. XSilfide is Lancing a client/server.

P. Bonhomme: I have developed an XML Parser in Java and a tree based API which works fine. Research Articles Adelphi? I have implemented the whole XML 1.0 (REC 10-02-1998), the XML Namespaces (WD 27-03-1998, the Document Object Model Level 1 (DOM Core and XML, WD 16-04-1998) and both XML links and XML pointers. Updated 980731. RXP - RXP, a GPL'd validating XML parser in C. The parser program reads and parses XML from the (or standard input if none is provided) and writes it to standard output, optionally expanding entities, defaulting attributes, and translating to a different output encoding. Available also with MSDOS/Windows32 binaries. Version 1.0.7 released May 1999. Version 1.0 released 1999-02-17. See also the Academy, LT XML entry.

Updated 980526, and research articles Adelphi, previously 980216. Xparse: A JavaScript XML Parser - work in progress; in writing Academy, JavaScript (ECMAScript). Watch for 'Sparse, a companion XSL parser.' Updated 980219. HXP - Hubick's XML Parser. 'Work in progress' by Adelphi, Chris Hubick as of July 23, 1998. Article Writing? See the associated 'HXA - Hubick's XML Analyzer' tool. Sam Blackburn's freeware C++ XML parser. In the WFC package (Win32 Foundation Classes). In Release 35, entity resolution was added to the XML classes. XMLCheck - a new sample utility that loads an XML file and tells you if it is Adelphi valid or not.

XMLParser class and xmllib module in the Python distribution. Expat (XML Parser Toolkit) Module for Ruby. The XML Parser Module for write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, Ruby uses James Clark's expat XML toolkit, Version 1.0. It has two kinds of interfaces (event handler and iterator) and supports several encodings (UTF-8 and UTF-16, and articles, with the article writing, 'Uconv' module, EUC-JP, Shift_JIS, and ISO-2022-JP). Version 0.3.3 description. RUWF - XML well-formedness Syntax Checker with HTML interface, from XML.com. Articles Adelphi? Built with Tim Bray's Lark parser.

XML Syntax Checker - from Frontier 5. Use the blox XML parser based on expat, or the Frontier 5.1.3 built-in XML parser to check well-formedness of an XML document. 'XML-by-hand' (a (non-validating) XML parser written in Java) and parser take two (variant of the earlier parser above which may be more suitable for certain kinds of uc a-g list College, XML data . . .). XML software from research articles Adelphi University, Bert Bos. ISO-to-UTF [UTF-8 or UTF-16] XML Conversion Tool. From Richard Goerwitz, Brown University, STG. Analytical? Use this utility to research articles University, convert an article writing Fryeburg Academy existing XML document in an ISO format ( e.g. , ISO-8859-1) to UTF-8 or UTF-16. To facilitate autodetection of the document's existing format (as per appendix F to the W3C XML spec), please be sure to prepend a valid XML declaration to articles University, your document.

See the Open eBook Validator from Brown University, Scholarly Technology Group. Article Writing? The Open eBook Validator, a free service provided by Brown University's Scholarly Technology Group (STG) and NuvoMedia, Inc. HEX - The HTML Enabled XML Parser. From Anders Kristensen (HP Labs, Bristol). HEX is a simple, 100% Java, non-validating XML parser with some hooks for mostly correct parsing of HTML pages. It doesn't understand either SGML or XML DTD's but the articles Adelphi University, parser API allows the application to control its operation in article writing Academy, ways that facilitate HTML parsing.

It implements the DOM core level one API and the SAX event-driven API. The HEX parser is research Adelphi University freely available, with source code for non-commercial use. It comes with a couple of sample applications. Essays Of Kansas? See: the HEX main page. Delphi XML parsers.

1) CUESoft version ['CUESoft is offering free Delphi and ActiveX XML components for a limited time. . Articles Adelphi? . CUESoft will be adding XML capability to its powerful CUEBase database for providing the ability to index and search large XML document databases']; 2) ICOM Datenverarbeitungs GmbH 'XML Parser Component for Delphi'. Can T Write St. John's-Ravenscourt School? . . the first version of a XML Parser component for the Borland Delphi development environment. The current version supports all major features of the XML standard. We will enhance the component to Adelphi University, support the full XML standard as soon as possible. Contact: xml@icom-dv.de. Whisper Mac/Win32 C++ application framework - 'The Esoterica [layer] includes automata classes, a regular expression class, a compression class (based on zlib), a simple text parser, a more complex parser (it builds parse trees), and a validating XML parser.'

MuXML - An XML Document Multiplexor. MuXML is a prototype Perl module that implements configurable multiplexing of XML document streams accessed via the LWPng module and write short article Bishopstrow College, parsed using the XML::Parser module. Its returns its results using the XML::Grove module. Its primary purpose is to serve as a demonstration of the articles Adelphi University, use of non-blocking design approaches with XML and College, Perl. . . MuXML is a demonstration of the utility of the partial parsing capability that Clark Cooper added to the 2.22 release of XML::Parser. From Gabe Beged-Dov. [local archive copy] PHP XML Parser Functions. PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor. Research Articles? PHP Version 3.0 is an HTML-embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and uc a-g College, Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to research articles, allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. See the PHP Manual [Section] XLVIII.

XML Parser Functions. This PHP extension implements support for James Clark's expat in PHP. This toolkit lets you parse, but not validate, XML documents. Write Literary Essay Griffith? It supports three source character encodings also provided by PHP: US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8. UTF-16 is articles Adelphi not supported. This extension lets you create XML parsers and then define handlers for different XML events.

Each XML parser also has a few parameters you can adjust. See further the PHP3 Manual. Erlang XML parser. - (pre) release of an experimental XML parser. . . This parser has 5 Erlang modules. The University? By Joe Armstrong. ['Erlang is a concurrent functional programming language suitable for implementing large systems with soft real time demands.'] XML Document Editing, DTD Editing, Stylesheet Editing, Formatting, Browsing, and research articles Adelphi University, Delivery Tools. XML in MS Internet Explorer - XML Browser support in Internet Explorer. XML in Mozilla - XML Browser support in Netscape. XED - A WYSIWYG XML instance editor. From Henry S. ICS — International Community? Thompson, 980318. Updated 1999-09-13 [FreeBSD, Linux, WIN32, and Solaris 2.5 versions].

Updated to version 0.5 1999-07-20 [local archive copy]. Updated to beta July 12, 1998. Updated to 'final alpha' 980427. Updated to alpha version 0.2.1.4 980402. XML Editing Mode in research Adelphi, PSGML. Uc A-g Requirements Lancing College? XML patches from David Megginson. Version 1.2.0 (XML support, beta) 1999-10-13.

See: 'PSGML Tricks', by research, Bob DuCharme. How To Write Griffith (Navitas)? . . . Research? [including] an Bishopstrow College Acrobat file with the 99-page chapter on research articles using Emacs with PSGML, the SGML/XML mode for short article Bishopstrow, Emacs. Adelphi? The Web page also has a link to a page of PSGML tricks contributed by various users, and I'm always happy to add new ones. [1999-10-14] Kai Grossjohann described a problem with incompatible system identifiers when using psgml to analytical essays, edit XML documents; David Megginson supplied the University, lisp code for a provisional fix. Note: Unicode encoding for GNU Emacs - If your file is encoded in UTF-8, you can use the Unicode encoding package for Emacs (http://www.cs.ust.hk/ otfried/Mule/) so that characters beyond US-ASCII are displayed properly. (I keep meaning to write a hook for article writing Fryeburg Academy, psgml so that it can use the XML declaration to set the articles, encoding automatically, but for now it's easy enough to use `C-x C-m c' before opening the file to set it manually. [XSL List] See the essay ICS — Community School, source for PSGML version 1.2.2. [PSGML version 1.2.3, November 8, 2001, cache] [December 06, 1999] XFA Edit - An Advanced XML Editor. A new XML editing tool with source code is research articles University available, as announced: XML For All Announces XFA Edit, an Advanced XML Editor. - XML For All, Inc. Uc A-g Requirements List Lancing College? today announced the release of XFA Edit, an advanced text editor for XML and HTML documents that runs under Microsoft Windows operating systems. AuthorIT - According to the AuthorIT folks, the next version, to be released in Adelphi University, about two weeks [ca 2001-01-19], is supposed to have full XML output implementation. XRay from Architag International. (1) Can be used to create any XML document: [XML documents, XSL Stylesheets, XML Schemas, Document type definitions (DTD)]; (2) Support for XSLT: [XSLT transformation window updates with every keystroke See changes as you type Multiple windows are allowed for each XML document Full XPath support]; (3) Fully validating XML editor: [Verifies well-formedness, Validates structure according to DTD, Validates structure and datatypes according to XML Data schema]; (4) HTML Viewing Window. Interactive Authoring and The University of Kansas, Display System (IADS). The IADS program distribution includes an articles Adelphi XML DTD.

The IADS Software is can t write St. John's-Ravenscourt School classified as a Class 3 IETM package, however, IADS has the capability of producing a Class 4 and 5 IETM. Research Articles Adelphi University? IADS uses SGML as its underlying text format. WYSIWYG editing is now provided which allows text entry, graphic manipulation, tag insertion, and can t my essay, modification within the context of the formatted display. This mode is turned on or off using the research, 'Edit mode' option under the 'Authoring' menu. The DTD (if specified in writing analytical The University, the DOCTYPE) is loaded, processed, and its rules stored for use when inserting or editing tags in the document. The tag editor dialog box will only allow tags and tag attributes to be inserted that are defined in the DTD. 'Currently [2001-10], IADS is the only software able to parse and articles University, display IETMs meeting MIL-STD-40051A.' Contact: iads@redstone.army.mil ([Neil Frazier] IADS / Publications Services, US Army AMCOM). jEdit for XML - jEdit has an easy to use interface that resembles that of many other Windows and MacOS text editors. jEdit is extremely customizable, and has an extensive feature set, that includes, among other things: Syntax highlighting for 46 file types; Auto indent with support for intelligent indent in Java, C and Python source; Search and replace with support for essays The University, regular expressions, and research Adelphi, searching in multiple files; Bracket matching; Abbreviations; Multiple clipboards; Rectangular editing; Split-window operation; Word wrap; Macro recording; BeanShell scripting. Write Essay Griffith University (Navitas)? See also Thomas Passin's comments. XMetaL from SoftQuad Software.

Is shipping as of 1999-05-26. Was in beta (1999-03). [October 14, 2000] [Star Division / Sun] StarOffice. See StarOffice and XML for anouncement of source code and StarOffice XML DTDs. Earlier StarOffice entry (1999): The Sun product is articles Adelphi expected to support XML -- in light of a Webcast statement by Star Division's Marco Boerries to the effect that XML specifications created as part of the StarPortal initiative would be submitted to the W3C, and that the APIs would be submitted to ECMA. An article by Stephen Shankland in CNET News.com offers the same hint from an interview with Marco Boerries: In line with the plan to become more open, Star Office file formats eventually will become XML, and the standard for interacting with it will become published openly and contributed to the ECMA standardization group. Possible hints of some SGML pedigree in a couple help files: one shows that the color of SGML can be changed for display purposes, and another shows that SGML is in the glossary. [credits kd] Note: As of 2000-07, OpenOffice.org is the open source project through which Sun Microsystems is releasing the technology for the popular StarOffice productivity suite. a principal goal is the establishment of open, XML-based standards for office productivity file formats and language-independent bindings to component APIs. [January 04, 2000] epcEdit - A full-featured SGML/XML editor, which makes extensive use of the TkSGML library included in analytical essays of Kansas, the epcEdit package. The epcEdit package consists of: (1)the source code of epcEdit, which is written entirely in Tcl/Tk. If you have some programming experience, it will be easy for you to adapt epcEdit to your needs; (2) the TkSGML widget library (binary) and documentation.

TkSGML is an SP-based SGML system that could best be described as a generic toolkit for building integrated SGML applications. epcEdit supports Unicode for articles Adelphi, SGML and XML documents; internally handles all data as UTF-8; Release 0.92 contains a very early version of a WYSIWYG editor for CALS tables. Support for HTML tables will be added later. See the technical description. XMLware - Java based editor that ses the parser XML4J from IBM; a validating and specifying editor based on write literary Griffith University (Navitas) the DTD definition. Download evaluation version. EditML - EditML is a windows based editor for creating well-formed/valid XML documents. The document can be a data file, schema file or a stylesheet. Articles Adelphi? It is essay International Community School based on Microsoft's MSXML parser conforming to research Adelphi, XML specification 1.0 (W3C standard). By Saravanan Lakshmanan. DocZilla XML/SGML Browser. ICS — International Community School? See the articles, announcement for DocZilla SGML/XML browser for article writing Fryeburg, WinNT/95/98 and Linux [1999-06-03].

Envision XML - An industrial strength XML schema development tool. Has a fully graphical interface and a central data dictionary; well suited to larger development teams; designed to research articles Adelphi, reduces the need to learn complex syntax. Uc A-g College? Contact: James Knowles. GO. GO is a [GNOME] word processor with a plugin system, hyphenation and articles University, justification, undo system, an ICS — International xml file format, printing, and other features. From Chris Lahey. AbiWord - a full-featured word processor, he first application in a suite from AbiSource, Inc. which is developing a cross-platform, open-source office suite called AbiSuite. 'Why does AbiWord use XML as its native file format? Because we like XML.' See the AbiWord DTD, cache; also XML Schema for AbiWord Markup Language, cache. KWord - a Linux-based word processor that uses XML for articles University, its native file format. A FrameMaker-like wordprocessor of the KOffice. Frame oriented, not page oriented.

Morphon XML Editor, based on Java. From Lunatech Research. Beta 1 version 1999-06-28. Also: http://www.morphon.com/. Documentor from Excosoft AB. Short Article College? Evaluation version available for download. See screenshots. [September 30, 1999] Stilo recently announced an articles University introductory offer [reduced price, 'try and buy'] for its Stilo WebWriter, described as a comprehensive editor for creating XML. sxml-mode for (X)Emacs. From Philippe Le Hégaret. Fryeburg Academy? This emacs mode uses psgml-1.0.1 and font-lock (with a Java Virtual Machine) to 'validate' XML documents with SAX (The Simple API for XML) in Emacs.

LiveDTD. a perl program which converts an SGML/XML Document Type Definition (DTD) into a hypertext document. See the announcement. Visual XML - alpha version 980406, designed to assist in the creation and editing of XML documents, including DTDs. From Pierre Morel. An application written in research articles Adelphi, Java, with support for internationalization and help ICS — Community School, customization ( e.g. , Metal, Windows, Motif interfaces) features. Adobe 'ReadXML' for FrameMaker Sample Code. 'ReadXML' is Adelphi a sample plug-in that demonstrates reading XML into my essay FrameMaker+SGML 6.0. Research Articles Adelphi? This plug-in parses XML and outputs an SGML document. The resulting SGML document is passed to can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, FrameMaker+SGML's built-in SGML parser. Research Articles Adelphi University? Note opnly a sample as of help essay ICS — Community School, 2001-01-05, not fully functional and research Adelphi, will not correctly handle most XML files; its purpose is to illustrate how a developer could create a robust XML-based solution. XML Authority - a graphical design tool accelerating the can t, creation and enhancing the management of schemas for XML.

With support for data typing, solutions for data interchange and document oriented applications converge. XML Authority includes a toolset to help convert existing application and document structures to schemas, defining the basis for well formed XML documents and enabling valid XML. Beta, 1999-03-25. Zveno Swish XML Editor - Swish is a non-validating XML document editor. University? It allows the user to view and edit a XML document in both a tree-mode and a document-mode simultaneously. Can T Write? Linux, Windows 95/98/NT and Macintosh PPC. Version 1.0 beta 1 released 1999-03-27.

Emilé - XML Editor for Macintosh. Version 1.0 1999-06-10. An introductory price of $79. A demo copy of the articles University, editor can be downloaded from the company's website. HyBrick SGML/XML Browser. HyBrick is an advanced SGML/XML browser developed by Fujitsu Laboratories, the how to literary essay Griffith (Navitas), research arm of articles Adelphi University, Fujitsu. HyBrick is based on an architecture that supports advanced linking and formatting capabilities. HyBrick includes a DSSSL renderer and XLink/XPointer engine running on top of James Clark's SP and Jade. See also the how to essay Griffith University (Navitas), announcement. SixPack - an open source code XML editor for Macintosh designed in research articles, REALbasic. includes an XML parser (that complies to the XML 1.0 specification as a well-formed processor), a set of help essay Community School, classes that emulate the DOM, and a variety of visual components for editing and displaying XML documents. all in 100% native REALbasic.

Microsoft XML Notepad. A simple prototyping application for HTML authors and developers that enables the rapid building and editing of small sets of Adelphi, XML-based data. Validates instance against an XML DTD at article, load time. First released 980722. DTDGenerator - XML DTD Generator. From Michael Kay (ICL). SAXON DTDGenerator is a program that takes an XML document as input and articles University, produces a Document Type Definition (DTD) as output. The aim of the Bishopstrow College, program is to give you a quick start in writing a DTD. [19980505.] Note 2000-01-05: DTDGen is now part of SAXON. DTDGenerator Frontend - A perl script written by Paul Tchistopolskii, as a frond end to Michael Kay's DTDGenerator. Near Far Designer. - An XML and SGML DTD authoring tool; visual, drag-and-drop interface.

tdtd - Emacs Major Mode for editing SGML/XML DTDs. Updated [version 0.7] March 15, 1999 or later. Previously updated (version 0.6) 980801. Previously updated (version 0.5) 980524. XML Spy - a professional validating XML editor that provides three integrated views on XML documents: an enhanced grid view for structured display and editing, a low-level source view with syntax coloring, and an integrated browser view that supports CSS and XSL style-sheets. Detailed find, replace, and print options are available in all views.

Complete Unicode and research Adelphi University, character-set encoding support is included. XML Styler - ArborText tool for Academy, creating and articles University, modifying XSL stylesheets. MIOW browser - miow can render XML documents, using CSS style sheets; XSL is not yet supported [soon-to-be-released, 1998-08-26] XSL Authoring Studio, from ContentWare. Soon to be available in alpha version on the Web. It was demonstrated by Ray Cromwell and Shawn O'Connor at 'XML: The Conference' Developers' Day, March 27, 1998. Essays The University? The tool as shown also supported an XML document instance editor from which the XSL stylesheet editor may be launched. It uses Lark and DocProc.

XSLJ - Henry Thompson's XSL-to-DSSSL translator. Updated: 980112. PrismEd. A configurable metadata editor which will cope with structured metadata values; reads and writes RDF. Written in Java 1.1 (1.1.6), and can be run either as an applet or as an application. Research Adelphi? Announced 1998-09-05. Link - The tool ' Link is an XML-XSL-XLL browser'. Write University (Navitas)? Link is a simple application written in Java that allows a user to view XML documents with XSL stylesheets and XLL hyperlinking.

[April 09, 1998] JBX - Java XML Browser - JXB is a project to articles University, create a web browser in Java for the Extensible Markup Language (XML). Under development by Chris Hubick [now discontinued?]. [May 14, 1998] IRIS XML EDITOR, beta 1 and IRIS XML DTD GENERATOR, from innovation Partners and CEI (Cabinet d'études Informatiques). Demo/Beta-1-ware. Jade - DSSSL engine. The latest distributions include SP and other applications with XML support.

XML Flow Object Tree backend: The -t xml option makes empty elements and Fryeburg Academy, processing instructions use the XML syntax. Jade 1.2.1 updated October 13, 1998. SGML/XML Kit - The SGML/XML Kit is a browser add-on that transforms SGML/XML documents into University displayable entities; [it] is based on a DSSSL script engine. XML Application Environments, Development Toolkits, Conversion. SAX - the Simple API for XML.

SAX is uc a-g list a common event-based XML API now in use by research, many parsers and applications. Help Essay ICS — International School? David Megginson is the project leader. See also the research University, references above. Essay University? Version 1.0 released May 12, 1998. SAX 2/Java (beta).

Released by David Megginson 2000-01-28. DAE SDK and DAE Server SDK (w/ XML processor for building groves from XML documents) - Copernican Solutions. [SAXDOM renamed 'FREE-DOM' as of research articles, 19980505] - see the following entry] SAXDOM - An implementation of write literary Griffith University, W3C Document Object Model (DOM) API using Simple API for XML (SAX). From Don Park. See the main page.

Updated 980504 to support the articles University, 04/16/98 DOM spec. Updated 980406 to support the DOM specification of 03/18/98, WD-DOM-19980318. Docuverse DOM SDK. Supersedes FREE-DOM, above From Don Park. Docuverse DOM SDK is an implementation of W3C Document Object Model (DOM) API in Java. Formerly 'FREE-DOM' and before that, called SAXDOM. Updated September 06, 1998. Updated July 21, 1998 to support the DOM version of write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, 19980720. C++ LGPL'ed Implementation of the Document Object Model (DOM) - From ÁNOQ of the Sun [Johnny Andersen]. Adelphi University? 980818 DOM spec, . . Fryeburg? . written for the Berlin project.

Berlin uses CORBA, but this DOM implementation can be used both with and without CORBA. . . . Research Adelphi? implements most of the core DOM API according to article Academy, the DOM specification from 1998-08-18. There are still a few methods missing and some components doesn't behave correctly yet. The document type components are not implemented yet. It should however be possible to build a usable DOM tree with this implementation. XML Testbed. An XML application environment written in Java. From Steve Withall. Research Adelphi? . uses an XML configuration file to define the Bishopstrow, (Swing-based) user interface; includes its own non-validating XML parser (though it can use any SAX parser instead), a nascent XSL engine (to the research University, old submission standard - just in can t write St. John's-Ravenscourt School, time to be out of date), and a few other odds and articles Adelphi University, ends.

SAXON - a Java class library for XML Applications. The SAXON package is a Java interface for processing XML documents. It provides a set of services that are particularly useful for applications performing XML- XML or XML- HTML transformations. Article College? From Michael Kay. Version 4.4, 1999-07-14; Version 4.3, 1999-06-15. Updated 1999-02-16. Earlier: Updated October 20, 1998. Updated September 01, 1998. Updated 980721 to use the new Free-DOM release of July 21, 1998.

Was updated 19980616. [Previously updated: 980513.] XAF - an XML Architectural Forms Processor. XAF is research articles Adelphi a Java-based XML architectural forms processor that acts as both a SAX application and a SAX parser. . . the client application sees the (virtual) architectural document instead of the actual XML document. From David Megginson. ExCost. ExCost is for 'Expat and Cost'. Uses an extension to TCL that allows it to write short College, parse ESIS file and handle output in a event or tree driven behaviour. It provides about the same functionality as Cost [Copenhagen SGML Tool, from Joe English], but for XML. XML-DBMS - a set of Java packages you can use to transfer data between XML documents and relational databases.

DB2XML - a tool for research articles University, transforming relational databases into XML documents. Delta XML - Monsell's standalone tools for comparing XML documents and comparing complex data in how to write literary essay, XML. identify and monitor changes to XML documents and data files. Research? Similar tools from IBM alphaWorks: (1) XML Diff and Merge Tool; (2) XML TreeDiff. WebBroker: XML for Distributed Computing - under development by can t, John Tigue. The goal is to come up with a unified software object model for the Web. See slides from XML'98 in Seattle and the database entry. PLSXML From Oracle. a set of PL/SQL-based XML utilities and demonstrations. The PLSXML Suite consists of: (1) DBXML - For generating rich, nested XML documents from SQL queries; (2) DBDOM - For creating, parsing, traversing, and searching XML Documents using the Document Object Model API; (3) DBXSL - For generating a database-driven XSL stylesheet for a tree-rendering of data. LT XML - XML toolset.

LT XML is a set of C programs for manipulating XML files and a C application program interface (API) designed to ease the articles Adelphi University, writing of C programs which manipulate XML documents. Updated to version 1.0 980624. Previously updated 980508. OmniMark LE 4.0 Preview - a special early release (for Windows 95/NT only) that previews the enhanced XML functionality in ICS — International Community, the new, soon-to-be-launched full version of OmniMark 4.0; LE is research articles Adelphi a free product. XML Script - an XML compliant language designed to handle XML with a minimum of overhead. X-Tract is writing a freely available XML Script processor.

From DecisionSoft Ltd. Contact: Paul Warren. [Notice posted for] a [script] conversion from RTF to 'XML' [viz., SGML] that uses OMLE, rather like Rainbow, plus CALS tables support. The RTF2XML filter, formerly RTF2SGML, has been enhanced in version 0.4 for handling XML, including built-in support for Unicode RTF. Research Adelphi? Requires OmniMark or OmniMark LE from OmniMark Technologies, Inc. See RTF2XML, or the local archive copy. MajiX - Java compliant tool from essay ICS — School, Tetrasix, automatically transforms RTF files (Microsoft Word files) into XML. Articles Adelphi? converts RTF styles and some document characteristics into a XML file conforming to a document type definition DTD. The names of the tags may be changed by the user. Majix version 1.1 is the third release; it corrects some bugs from version 1.0 and provides support for XSL through James Clark's XT. How To Literary Griffith (Navitas)? With online documentation. xtr2any - 'configurable filter, easy-to-use XML transcoder for prepress departments.' A Linux command or as a Win32 console application.

Download the (restricted) demo version. masterplan - a convertor generator; you'll need gcc, bison and flex or equivalents to build both the executable and the convertors. Research Adelphi University? Version 0.0.1 (1999-03-29). From: Paul Janssens. XML Enabler - a Java Servlet that converts XML-tagged data into HTML using different stylesheets for different browsers. From IBM. See the white paper, Accessing XML on can t write St. John's-Ravenscourt the Client. XTAL (XML Translation for AntLr) is a general conversion tool for XML and SGML. ANTLR and Java serve as basis and description language. From Oliver Zeigermann.

MetaMorphosis - SGML/XML Tree Transformer. Research Adelphi? MetaMorphosis is a target-driven SGML/XML tree transformer that uses a declarative language. Ace utility program. Ace is article a freely available scripting language which allows powerful manipulation of research University, SGML and XML documents. XTL - A C++ XML toolkit with DOM SAX support. OpenXML - An open source, pure Java, commercial-grade, fully featured framework for XML-based applications. OpenXML covers the entire cycle of requirements Lancing College, XML documents production, processing and delivery for dynamic content publishing and application to University, application communication. Updated 1999-04-01.

Latex to XML Converter - This converter takes a latex file (*.tex) from your directory and list Lancing College, outputs an XML file (*.html) to the browser. Research Articles Adelphi? The math modes in latex are converted to MathML (Mathematical Markup Language). List College? To view the output, you will need to download the W3C test-bed browser Amaya. From Ashes Dhanna Ganguly. Extensible Protocol (XP) - a bidirectional protocol on which XML documents are exchanged between two endpoints. The com.thinlink.xp package implements XP draft 00 using stream sockets and the IBM xml4j processor. It uses an event-listener interface and the Document Object Model to send and receive XML documents. Articles Adelphi? From Tom harding. Implements IETF 'draft-harding-extensible-protocol-00.txt'; [local archive copy].

See: Extensible Protocol. See also: XML tools in Steve Pepper's Whirlwind Guide to SGML Tools and Vendors , SGML TOOLS - By Tool Category Main entry for W3C Recommendation 'Namespaces in XML' (REC-xml-names-19990114) and its commentary: Namespaces in write my essay, XML A Proposal for research articles, Namespaces in write short article Bishopstrow College, XML, by Adelphi University, Henry S. Thompson. Language Technology Group, HCRC, Edinburgh. May 27, 1997. Overview: . . Help Essay Community School? .a quite simple proposal for namespaces, lighter weight than those seen heretofore, but admittedly NOT valid SGML as things stand. I think its light weight, flexibility and functionality commend it. See also a free-form XML version submitted to the W3C SGML WG list. Adelphi University? [HTML mirror copy] [June 06, 1998] A Proposal to Community, Introduce 'Module' Structures into SGML.

By Toru Takahashi. ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 N1987. 98-05-15. Supersedes WG8 N1873. From the research Adelphi, Introduction: Designing a large, complex DTD is a very difficult job. One reason of this difficulty comes from write my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School, SGML's restriction on namespaces.

For element type names, SGML allows only one name space throughout a document. Adelphi? This restriction means, that if you intend to design a new DTD, you have to ICS —, be familiar with all the element types you wish to use to construct the DTD, and have to select their names very carefully to research University, avoid name conflicts. This lack of modularity makes difficult to use separately designed declaration sets (DTD fragments) in mixture to build up a complete DTD. Short? For example, if you want to use pre-defined declaration sets for 'tables' and articles Adelphi University, 'math expressions' together to construct your own 'report' DTD, you have to examine whether there are any name conflicts between them or not. If there are any such conflicts, you have to modify several declarations. This restriction in name space makes impossible to treat these declaration sets as public (read only) texts. How To Essay Griffith (Navitas)? Similar problems may occur on University the parameter entity names. To solve these problems, I propose to introduce the write College, concept of University, 'Module' into SGML. Essay Griffith University? [local archive copy] [See preceding entry] Relative (also) to articles Adelphi, 'namespaces' in XML: A Proposal to Introduce 'Module' Structures into how to write literary essay Griffith University (Navitas) SGML [namespaces], by Toru Takahashi.

12 November 1996. From the Introduction: Designing a large, complex DTD is a very difficult job. One reason of this difficulty comes from research articles Adelphi, SGML's restriction on name spaces. For element type names, SGML allows only one name space per document. . Writing Academy? . [mirror copy], also available as http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/wg8/document/1873.doc. Web Architecture: Extensible Languages. W3C Note 10 Feb 1998. NOTE-webarch-extlang.

By Tim Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly (W3C). Articles Adelphi University? This document is write St. John's-Ravenscourt meant to be a fairly explanatory synthesis of the requirements for articles, namespace extension in languages on the web, and in particular for the general language planned to be the common basis of many future applications, XML. It was originally written as part of the 'Design Issues' series of notes. Whilst technically the personal opinion of the authors, it their best attempt as technical coordinators at writing of Kansas, outlining common architectural principles for W3C development. [local archive copy] xml-bind - XLinks from Types and Names. By Rick Jelliffe. Reference: Note 13 March, 1998 (Note-xml-bind-19980313). This document is a NOTE for discussion by the W3C XML-related groups.

It is primarily an Adelphi alternative to the namespace proposal and a contribution to defining XLink requirements. Can T St. John's-Ravenscourt School? RDF and XML-data designers may also find it relevant. [Abstract:] Current linking systems are based on links from elements ( i.e. , instances of element types in a document). This paper holds that several of the technologies under development by research Adelphi, the W3C working groups are better characterized as links from types and names. Suggestions are made for a general architecture to can t write my essay School, handle this, and for how this can be integrated into XLink. Research Adelphi University? Namespaces, parts of RDF, and uc a-g requirements list College, SGML Open Catalogs are re-characterized as XLinks from types and names. [local archive copy] A Cut and Paste Infrastructure for XML. By Rick Jelliffe. Reference: Note-xml-cnp-19980131, Note 1-February-1998. Research Articles Adelphi? This document is essay International Community School a NOTE for discussion by the W3C XML-related groups. It is a personal critique of XML 1.0 PR, especially in the light of the namespace proposal, RDF and XML-data.

It may be seen as a contribution to user requirements for an XML 1.1. XML Cut'n'Paste is a proposal for various conventions which address many sophisticated uses in Extensible Markup Language (XML) while retaining true to its underlying model, as an application of SGML. [local archive copy] Comparison of SGML and XML. By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. University? The document provides a detailed comparison of essay International School, SGML (ISO 8879) and research Adelphi, XML under three section headings: 1) Differences Between XML and SGML; 2) Transforming SGML to XML; 3) SGML Declaration for XML, in two variants: (a) one which takes advantage of the Extended Naming Rules Technical Corrigendum to ISO 8879, but does not make use of the Web SGML Adaptations Annex; (b) one which takes advantage of the uc a-g requirements Lancing College, Web SGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879. Articles Adelphi? [local archive copy] The new (informative) ISO 8879 Annex L: Added Requirements for XML illustrates the relationship of SGML declarations to 'added requirements' by means of a real-world example, XML. The annex has a prose application summary and sample SGML declaration. Some of the Recent Changes to ISO 8879 (Annex K, Web SGML Adaptations; also Annex L, Added Requirements for XML) are motivated by the goal of bringing SGML and XML into alignment. Short Article Bishopstrow? See Bob DuCharme, SGML: Changing to Accommodate XML. [July 19, 1998] Converting an SGML DTD to XML.

By Norman Walsh [ArborText]. Norm Walsh itemizes the Adelphi, steps in writing of Kansas, SGML-to-XML DTD conversion in a couple categories: Many of these changes are straightforward and, for a large number of SGML DTDs, they will be fairly easy to accomplish. . . There are also some changes that may have a large impact on the semantics of the DTD. Luckily, these are mostly infrequently-used SGML features so they don't turn up often in most DTDs. Research Articles Adelphi? Also at write literary Griffith (Navitas), XML.com [XML QA] (July 08, 1998). [September 17, 1999] XML/SGML: On the Web and Behind the Web.

By Alfred Attipoe and Philippe Vijghen [The SGML Technologies Group]. Research Articles Adelphi University? In InterChange: Newsletter of the International SGML/XML Users' Group Volume 5, Issue 3 (July 1999), pages 25-29. There is some confusion as to when [to] use SGML and when to use XML. In this paper we argue that both have their rightful place in publishing systems. We discuss the impact of the new Web technologies on write literary essay Griffith publishing systems by clarifying the articles Adelphi, relationship between XML and SGML. We describe available features of both markup languages and evaluate them empirically, taking into consideration several distinct points of view. Write Bishopstrow? Our analysis should help you decide which (SGML or XML) to use where (behind or on the Web). . . we argue that XML, devoid of SGML complexity, is ideally suited for the exchange and publication of documents/information on the Web.

However, XML lacks some features which are very useful when creating behind-the-Web systems where reqirements stress the University, need for expressive information models and data-processing functionality. SX , a converter from SGML to XML. Part of James Clark's SP parser toolkit; new in the distribution of SP version 1.3 [980309]. Article Writing Academy? SX converts SGML to XML. Research? SX parses and validates the SGML document contained in sysid. . Uc A-g Requirements College? . and writes an research Adelphi equivalent XML document to the standard output. SX will warn about SGML constructs which have no XML equivalent. [local archive copy]

Using an XML Audit to Move SGML Data towards XML. Article Fryeburg Academy? By Charlie Halpern-Hamu, Incremental Development, Inc. Research University? Presented at XML'98 in Chicago. This paper describes, at a technical level, how to assess the XML-readiness of your SGML data as a first step towards moving it towards XML. Article College? This paper suggests an 'XML audit': a technical review of Adelphi University, current markup practice with eye towards simplification. The goal of an how to write XML audit is to understand which portions of articles, your current SGML application are not XML.

The next step might be to start deemphasizing your use of those features. Writing Analytical Essays The University? . . [November 06, 1998] Automating SGML-to-XML DTD Conversion (Part 1). By Bob DuCharme. Articles Adelphi University? In TAG Volume 11, Number 10 (October 1998), pages 9-10. DuCharme introduces his serialized article by noting that a DTD conversion might not be just a one-time affair, and by categorizing DTD editing/conversion tasks into ranked groupings. [December 09, 1998] Automating SGML-to-XML DTD Conversion (Part 2). By Bob DuCharme. In TAG Volume 11, Number 11 (November 1998), pages 5-7.

In this second part of a two-part TAG article, the author discusses SGML-XML DTD conversion in the case of mixed content models, RCDATA, CONREF, and SUBDOC. SGML, XML, and HTML Document Components Compared. From a poster session, by Dennis J. O'Connor, Consultant, Mulberry Technologies, Inc. MicroStar Ltd. is developing a set of heuristics (and software) for automatic conversion of SGML DTDs to XML DTDs. Steph Tryphonas presented a paper on list College DTD Conversions at research Adelphi, the Seattle XML '98 conference. TCIF/IPI (Telecommunications Industry Forum, Information Products Interchange) has provided a record of its recent efforts to XML-ize the TIM Telecommunications Interchange Markup DTD, version 2.0.4. My Essay School? See provisionally the March 06, 1998 entries.

One now also encounters the phrase XML-compliant HTML . University? . . [May 13, 1998] W3C published a NOTE entitled XML in HTML Meeting Report. This report, edited by Dan Connolly (W3C) and Lauren Wood (SoftQuad), addresses a number of issues relating to the use of essays of Kansas, XML encoding within HTML documents. At a meeting of February 11-12, 1998 (San Jose, California, Sun Microsystems), participants from a variety of W3C working groups met to discuss these issues, and in particular, concerns relating to the support of MathML and RDF written in XML and intended to be used in HTML documents. The W3C NOTE (NOTE-xh-19980511, W3C Note 11 May 1998) summarizes the discussion and conclusions of this meeting. [local archive copy] [July 27, 1998] IBTWSH (Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weeny Simple Hypertext) DTD - from John Cowan. This is an XML DTD which describes a subset of HTML 4.0 for embedded use within other XML DTDs. It is by intention equivalent (within its scope) to -//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN, but is not a derived work in the copyright sense. [local archive copy, 980727] The development of new vocabularies and the design of namespace syntaxes have increased public interest in registration authorities and authentication services which could be set up to manage name conflicts. Facilities are needed for research Adelphi, support of globally-unique names, persistent links and resources, name (public identifier) resolution, mapping between public and system identifiers, etc. Online libraries/repositories with public text resources also present a strong desideratum.

Several initiatives for article writing Fryeburg Academy, registries and research articles University, repositories have been announced. A few of the early initiatives which have been publicized are referenced in a separate document. References to literature on XML Media/MIME Types are held in a separate document. In the article Fryeburg, following lists of XML Examples and research articles, Non-Examples, a certain number of items in the former category undoubtedly will (come to) belong to the latter category, given the how to literary essay Griffith, evolution of the XML specifications and other factors. Note also that most of the proposed XML applications also contain sample XML documents and DTDs in the documentation. The XML Recommendation 1.0 (February 1998) in XML format.

The corresponding XML specification DTD (-//W3C//DTD Specification::19980323//EN) is available online, as well as commentary: Design Report for the W3C XML Specification DTD . Version 2.0 of the XML Spec DTD 1999-07. Adelphi University? See the updated XML Specification DTD and corresponding XML Spec DTD - Data Modeling Report, Version 1.2, 1998-09-10. See the XML versions of the XLink and my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, XPointer specifications ( i.e. , 3-March-1998). XML source files for PR-DOM-Level-1-19980818. The DOM specification serves as a good example of the power of using XML: all of the HTML documents, Java bindings, OMG IDL bindings, and ECMA Script bindings are generated from a single set of University, XML source files. [local archive copy] See the Production Notes for details. [July 1999] Updated Shakespeare XML documents, from article writing, Jon Bosak.

See: shakespeare.2.00.xml.zip, and articles Adelphi, shaks200.zip. College? Also: religion.2.00.xml.zip and rel200.zip. Note 2001-01: URLs are now Four Religious Works '(1958896-byte zip file, http://metalab.unc.edu/bosak/xml/eg/rel200.zip)' and University, The Plays of Shakespeare '(2195143-byte zip file, http://metalab.unc.edu/bosak/xml/eg/shaks200.zip)'; I do not know if these are identical version 2 document sets. [October 12, 1998] See above. Requirements List Lancing College? Jon Bosak (Sun Microystems)) announced the research articles University, availabilty of uc a-g requirements College, a major revision to the XML-tagged religion set. The collection includes a group of four religious works (The Old Testament, The New Testament, The Quran, and The Book of Mormon) marked up for electronic publication from publicly available sources. The texts were originally marked up (1992) as an exercise in SGML DTD and style sheet design, and in 1996 were released along with a companion Shakespeare set as the University, earliest examples of real documents marked up in XML. The current distribution conforms to the XML 1.0 Recommendation released February 8, 1998.

Verse numbers for the referencing systems are now generated by Bishopstrow College, style sheets, which are included in the distribution. These texts are used as benchmarks for Adelphi University, XML parsers by some developers. My Essay? Source: http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/xml/eg/rel200.zip; [local archive copy]. Sample XML documents with DTDs ( e.g. , Bible, Shakespeare), for the benefit of anyone developing XML tools; provided by Jon Bosak. Research University? See the updated announcement of help School, January 30, 1998. [See also the earlier announcement for other details.] Example XML documents in Japanese are available.

They are encoded in UTF-16 (big endian and research Adelphi, little endian), UTF-8, iso-2022-jp, shift_jis, and euc-jp. One document is the writing essays of Kansas, translation of the XML PR, and research articles, it will soon be replaced with that of the XML recommendation. . . From Murata Makoto. [local archive copy/snapshot, 19980603] [April 09, 1999] xmlTree. - a list of write literary essay (Navitas), sites and research Adelphi University, resources which offer data according to XML formatting rules collected by James Carlyle. [February 18, 2000] We have approximately 160,000 XML documents indexed in how to write essay Griffith (Navitas), the GoXML XML Search Engine. Many of research Adelphi, these are in XML with XSL format. THe url is: www.goxml.com. We believe it is the largest repository of how to write essay, XML (and subsequently XSL) documents on the Internet.

Grab a copy of research Adelphi, Microsoft's IE 5.+ and write my essay School, have a blast. Research University? [Duane Nickull; Fri, 18 Feb 2000] XML served by the Sun Microsystems corporate document server, docs.sun.com . The docs.sun.com service from Sun stores information in a compiled SGML format and can deliver either XML or HTML data dynamically, according to requests from a client. Requirements List Lancing College? See, for example, the Adelphi University, docs.sun.com XML documents for display with Mozilla source: TocView.xml and list College, disability.xml. [See also the database entry for the docs.sun AnswerBook Documentation.] [January 19, 1998] W3C NOTE Name Spaces in articles University, XML: NOTE-xml-names in XML format from article College, W3C; [local archive copy] [March 06, 1998] Sample chapters 'in XML format' from Richard Light's book, Presenting XML . Presented on the companion Web site. [October 06, 1998] XML test data from Simon North's book Presenting XML , available from the Macmillan Web site. Research University? The author says: The material was written in Author/Editor using the TEI-lite DTD (freely available on the Web) and Fryeburg, converted to Adelphi University, Microsoft Word, via RTF, for printing using jade. The XML and HTML code was created from the how to literary Griffith University, SGML sources. The text is copyright, of course, but for experimentation it's got a very rich mix of elements (including copious CDATA sections). [XML-L 6 Oct 1998] [December 07, 1998] XML release of the TEI Lite DTD (personal work, from Patrice Bonhomme, not an official release of the TEI Lite.) See also reference to work on preparation of an XML Version of the full TEI DTD. [October 05, 1997] XML Scenarios, sponsored by Microsoft and participating companies. This part of the Web site features a collection of articles that describe how industry leaders are using XML-based applications today to increase sales and articles Adelphi University, productivity, improve customer satisfaction, and lower costs.

The companies represented are top ISVs who have built XML-based, three-tier Web applications. Each brief scenario demonstrates the writing analytical The University of Kansas, solution to a real business problem. It includes: 1) the specific business problem that was impacting mission-critical processes; 2) the role XML played in the solution; and 3) a discussion of how the problem was solved through the use of specific XML-based tools, with a behind-the-scenes look at exactly how the software components handled a typical user scenario. As of October 5, 1998, nine articles were available. [January 27, 1998] XML Auction Demo from Microsoft.

[January 25, 1998] XML Weather Station Demo - part of XML Online from research, insideDHTML. University of Oregon Virtual Laboratory, serving HTML from the XML source. Behind what you see, there is a Java servlet based on write literary Griffith Lark that pumps out HTML. The applets at this site have been programmed by Sean Russell. [December 13, 1997] James Clark's test suite of files for XML processors.

The collection of XML test cases in the ZIP archive contains 141 [now 164] small files that (in my view) fail to be well-formed XML documents, and should therefore cause any conforming XML processor to report a fatal error. See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltest.zip. Articles? Updated December 13, 1997 to bring the essay ICS — International School, test suite into research Adelphi University alignment with the Proposed Recommendation of can t my essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, 1997-12-08. OASIS XML Conformance Subcommittee (under the OASIS Technical Committe) will be working on an XML Conformance Test Methodology, etc. Contact G. Ken Holman for additional information, and see the dedicated entry. For online WF checking via HTML-forms, see above: well-formedness checking of Adelphi, documents by URL and by pasted-up text. Provided by Tim Bray (Lark, XML.com) and James Clark (XP, WebTechs). XML Conferences, Seminars, Workshops.

Since XML is a subset of SGML, most 'SGML' and events now prominently feature XML. The Conferences section of the how to essay, SGML/XML Web Page contains the full entries, often with pointers to conference reports or proceedings volumes. Summary information for special XML events is provided below. XML '99. December 6 - 9, 1999. Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA. XML One - The International Users Conference.

Increasing Your Productivity with XML. May 24 - 27, 1999. Austin Marriott at the Capital, Austin, Texas. XML Europe '99. April 26 - 30, 1999. Granada, Spain. XML/SGML '99 Sweden. March 16-17, 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. XTech '99.

XML Application Developers Conference XIO Expo March 7 - 11, 1999. San Jose Convention Center, California. Markup Technologies Conference. Research Articles University? November 19 - 20, 1998. Analytical Essays Of Kansas? Chicago, Illinois, USA. . . University? .technical issues relating to the design, development, and deployment of a variety of markup technologies including but not limited to list College, SGML, XML, HyTime, and Adelphi, DSSSL. XML '98. November 15 - 18, 1998. Chicago, Illinois. TAG '98. November 4 - 6, 1998.

Washington, D.C. SGML/XML BeLux '98 Conference. Help Essay International School? Fifth Annual Conference on the Practical Use of *ML. October 21, 1998 - Antwerp, Belgium. SGML, XML, and Databases. Tuesday, October 20, 1998. Research Adelphi? The Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), Russell Square, London. SGML/XML Asia-Pacific '98. October 12 - 15, 1998. Sydney, Australia and Tokyo, Japan.

SGML/XML Japan '98. September 30 - October 3, 1998. Nippon Convention Center, Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan. XML World Conference and Exposition. September 14 - 17, 1998. Palais des Congrès de Hull, 200 Promenade de Portage, Ottawa/Hull, Québec, Canada. XML-seminar 98 Göteborg.

September 8 - 9, 1998. At the Novotel in Gothenburg, Sweden. A two-day XML workshop and seminar, sponsored by the Swedish Chapter of the International SGML Users' Group. Seybold San Francisco/Publishing '98. Analytical Of Kansas? August 30 - September 4, 1998. Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA.

With XML Day. Metastructures 1998 Conference. Research Adelphi University? August 17 - 19, 1998. Le Sheraton Hotel, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Proposals for the XML-related metastructures, such as XLink, XPointers, Resource Description Format, SMIL, and write my essay School, XML-EDI, are welcome. Research Adelphi? . . SGML/XML Europe '98. From Theory to New Practices. Uc A-g List? May 17 - 21, 1998. Hotel Sofitel - Forum Rive Gauche, Paris, France. W3C Workshop - Shaping the Future of HTML.

May 4 - 5, 1998. San Francisco Airport Hyatt Regency, California. Several position papers address XML, architectural forms, and related matters. Electronic Publishing '98. The Seventh International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation and Typography. April 1 - 4, 1998. Palais des Congrès, Saint Malo, France. Tutorials on SGML, XML, DSSSL, XSL, TEI-SGML. Conference presentations on SGML.

SGML UK. Research Articles Adelphi University? March 31, 1998. Putting on the Style! - DSSSL, CSS, XSL, . Wiltshire Hotel, Swindon. Can T Write? Slide sets and sample stylesheets (CSS, XSL, DSSSL) are available from some of the presentations. XML Developers Day within XML: The Conference (1998). Enabling Intelligent Content on the Web.

March 23 - 27, 1998. Seattle, Washington. The 'XML Developers Day' in research University, this conference, chaired by Jon Bosak, is on March 27, 1998. Proposals for article Academy, XML DevDay should be sent to Jon Bosak, W3C XML WG Chair. See the XML DevDay Call for Presentations, and research articles, the XML Developers' Day, Preliminary Schedule. Seybold Seminars New York / Publishing '98. Event and Exposition, March 16 - 20, 1998. Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York NY. Includes XML Xposed and XML Tutorials.

Documation '98 West. Exposition The Document Software Conference. March 10 - 12, 1998. Help Essay ICS — School? Santa Clara Convention Center. Santa Clara, California. See the separate document which extracts the relevant listing of XML/XSL sessions. INRIA XML Workshop. The Potential of XML for Web-based Applications.

October 23 - 24, 1997. Articles? INRIA Sophia Antipolis, (Nice), France. SGML UK October Meeting: The eXtensible Markup Language (XML). October 23, 1997. Wiltshire Hotel, Swindon, UK. Published agenda.

Other details in the announcement from Francis Cave (Pira International), to whom inquiries should be directed. Seybold San Francisco '97. September 29 - October 3, 1997. My Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Mosconi Center, San Francisco, CA. The conference included an XML tutorial, XML tools survey, and a dedicated XML session, XML: Publishing on the Web Just Got Easier. SGML Open for Business. September 17, 1997.

Clarion Hotel, Millbrae, California. [management and implementation information on SGML and XML. ] XML Developers Day. August 21, 1997. Montreal, Canada. In connection with the research Adelphi University, 1997 International Conference on the Application of HyTime. Note also that Tim Bray will offer an XML Tutorial on Sunday and Monday, August 17-18 as part of the HyTime/XML/DSSSL tutorials programme. European Conference on XML.

XML Ready for Prime Time? London, UK. Fryeburg? April 22, 1997. WWW '97: Sixth International World Wide Web Conference. April 7 - 12, 1997. Santa Clara Convention Centre, Santa Clara, California, USA.

GCA XML Conference: XML SGML INTRANET. Articles University? The New Publishing Business Case: XML, SGML, and the Intranet. March 10 - 12, 1997. The Mission Valley Marriott, San Diego, California. XML: Demos and Miscellaneous Uncategorized. A separate document contains references to XML-related sites or documents for which I have had insufficient time to make investigation, or which are evidently tangential.

Readers are invited to analytical The University, send email re: appropriate disposition. Some are [or will become] serious applications; others may be interesting demos; others may be clearly experiments and articles Adelphi University, 'just for fun'. XML: Of (Possible) Historical Interest. A separate document contains references to early draft versions of XML-related proposals, and so forth. Article Writing Fryeburg? 'Early' means about 1996-1997. It's not a maintained collection of Adelphi, links, but you might find what you're looking for. . .

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