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How to write better essays The University of Kansas

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Sample Reviews from the Mental Measurements Yearbook. Below are three sample reviews like the ones you will find in the pages of the Mental Measurements Yearbook or online through Test Reviews Online. Most tests will have two reviews by two independent reviewers, and will contain descriptive information and an evaluation of the test's technical properties. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and how to better essays may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults.

Purpose: Designed to estimate intellectual ability from a human figure drawing. Administration: Individual or group. Price Data, 2006: $99 per complete kit including examiner's manual (75 pages), 50 administration/scoring forms, and 50 drawing forms; $45 per examiner's manual; $40 per 50 administration/scoring forms; $25 per 50 drawing forms. Authors: Cecil R. Reynolds and Julia A. Hickman. Review of the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults by JONATHAN SANDOVAL, Professor of Education, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA:

DESCRIPTION. The Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ) consists of the essay Preparatory evaluation of 23 features of a human figure drawing produced in response to the instruction draw a picture of yourself (examiner's manual, p. 5). Write Better Essays Of Kansas. Examinees are asked to draw a full figure from a frontal view. Each of the drawing features (e.g., eyes, clothing, arms) is individually scored from 0 to 1, 0 to 2, 0 to 3, or 0 to 4 points. How To Write Holderness. A maximum score of 49 points is possible.

Raw scores may be converted into write essays a single standard score, an IQ with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, a T-score, a z-score, or a stanine. The manual also provides percentile ranks, age equivalents and grade equivalents. The test may be individually or group administered to individuals from age 4 years to 89 years and 11 months and is untimed. The time to administer and score the test is from how to write essay Chaminade School, 8 to 15 minutes. Administration requires a pencil with eraser and drawing form. Better Essays The University. The administration/scoring form is used to record test information and the scoring of each drawing feature. A Good In English Bournemouth University. The authors recommend that examiners using the measure be formally trained in assessment and write The University have knowledge of current theories of cognitive development and neuropsychology. The examiner's manual is straightforward and provides technical information, normative data, and scoring examples. The test is not intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of cognitive ability. The developers claim it offers a lower bound estimate that may supplement, and have less cultural specificity than, other intelligence tests. It may be inappropriate for use with examinees who have visual or motor impairments.

DEVELOPMENT. The DAP: IQ is the latest in a long line of measures aimed at using human figure drawings as estimates of cognitive ability. In the past, these measures have focused on children, and the authors of how to essay Oxford Tutorial College, this test wished to extend the applicability to adults. How To Write Better Essays. Additionally, the authors hoped to develop a single set of criteria to be used across the age span with both genders. Another goal was to produce current norms, and to reduce the influence of motor skill on the scoring of essay writing students Windermere Preparatory School, figure drawings. TECHNICAL. Norms for the test were based on 2,295 individuals matched to U.S. Census data from 2001 with regard to geographic area, gender, race, Hispanic origin, family income, educational attainment of parents, and how to write better The University disability status. The normative sample was obtained by essay for esl Windermere, soliciting volunteer examiners from the publisher's customer files and setting up additional sites throughout the better The University of Kansas country with a focus on essay writing for esl students Preparatory School Texas. More protocols were collected than used in scoring, so the match to census information could be obtained. Samples were obtained at each age from 4 to 16 and how to write The University of Kansas thereafter in age ranges (10-year groupings from 19 to 40, a 15-year grouping from 40 to 55, a 5-year grouping from 60 to 75, and a 15-year grouping from 75 to 90).

These age brackets of scores were developed from a continuous norming procedure and are consistent with cognitive developmental theory. There is some evidence of internal consistency and stability of the DAP: IQ score. The coefficient alpha estimates for the age groupings varied from .74 at how to write of an essay Сollege Preparatory School, age 4 to .87 at age 30-39, with a mean and median value of .82. The standard errors of measurement vary between 4 and 5 points. Alphas calculated by gender, ethnicity, and handedness indicate the same range of coefficients. The manual reports as evidence of reliability, correlations with scoring systems by Koppitz and Goodenough-Harris by how to The University, three scorers. These correlations are .85, .86, and .86. This information is more usually considered evidence of write essay Chaminade Preparatory School, concurrent validity. Stability estimates over a short 1-week period yielded a test-retest correlation of .84 (n = 45). Interscorer reliability was estimated at .95 for protocols selected from essays The University of Kansas, across the sample, and at write essay Сollege Preparatory, .91 for the more difficult-to-score age group of 6 to 11.

In all, the estimates of reliability are acceptable and comparable with the reliabilities found for other human figure drawing tests. The test developers provide validity information based on better essays theory, on critical thoughts State University content, on response processes, on internal structure, and on relationship to other constructs. The scoring on the tests across ages parallels the theoretical progress of the expression of fluid ability across the essays The University lifespan. The content of the test has been used historically to estimate general mental ability in several other measures. The partial point-biserial correlations between each item and write of an Preparatory School the adjusted total are sufficient to suggest the better essays items are tapping the same construct, as do the alpha statistics. Essay Writing Students Preparatory. A rationale for the test is that everyone regardless of culture or economic background commonly experiences the human figure. The content is also less influenced by education and how to write better essays of Kansas the task is simple.

External evidence of validity includes total score correlations with scores derived from how to write Holderness School, other scoring systems, and correlations with other established measures of how to write better essays of Kansas, intellectual functioning and achievement. Correlations between DAP: IQ total score and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Primary: Second Edition scores (all corrected for of critical thinking, unreliability) are .60 for Nonverbal, .42 for Verbal, and .54 for General Mental Ability. For the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III correlations are .33 with Verbal, .49 with Performance, and .46 with Full Scale. How To Write Better Essays. The DAP: IQ correlates .39 with Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) Broad reading, and .36 with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Reading. Correlations with Math are .46 with WJ-R Broad math and .43 with WIAT Math. The authors report additional moderate correlations in the same range for other subject scores on these achievement measures for children between 6 and 11 years of age. Both convergent and divergent validity data are reported.

The DAP: IQ has moderate correlations (around .40) with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Adolescent and Adult, a measure of visual and motor perception administered to standardization sample participants 11 years of how to of an Chaminade Сollege, age and up, and lower correlations (between .36 and .25) with the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt Test using the Koppitz scoring system for children ages 4 through 10, suggesting the test shares some variance with visual perceptual skill. The low correlation of how to essays The University of Kansas, .18 with a measure of motor speed, the composite score of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test, is evidence that the test does not tap rapid motor skill or sequencing ability. Very small correlations with scores from the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial indicate that copying skill alone is not assessed by the DAP: IQ. The examiner's manual also presents data on subgroup performance. In the normative sample, there were no differences in means above the 4-point SEM for gender, handedness, or four of the five ethnic groups examined.

However, the African American mean was 6 points below average. A group from the standardization sample labeled mildly mentally retarded had a mean score of Louisiana State University, 77 and a group labeled learning disabled had a mean of 92 on the DAP: IQ. The University. The test developers addressed potential fairness issues by examining differential item functioning on the test by ethnicity and gender. The results showed moderate or large effect sizes for State, four items on gender, although they balanced each other, and no moderate or large effect sizes in how to write better essays the race and ethnic comparisons. COMMENTARY. Human figure drawing measures offer a useful adjunct to the assessment of intellectual functioning. The DAP: IQ has a large normative base, is how to essay quick to administer, and write better The University is easy to score. The norms would only seem to approximate roughly the Holderness School geographical distribution of the population, because much of the data are from Texas, and many samples of convenience were combined to produce them.

However, the norms are based on a larger sample than other similar measures, have been examined with sophisticated psychometric methods, and are more current. Much more evidence on write better essays The University of Kansas reliability and validity will be needed, as the manual reports only the minimum necessary to meet standards. For example, studies could be done testing multiple drawings done at the same time (Draw yourself and someone of the opposite gender) and how to write across somewhat longer spans of time. The test developers have not mentioned why they have excluded parallel forms of the test as are found on other drawing tests. Most of the validity information to date has been collected on children up to better of Kansas, age 12. More studies with other age groups and with other well-validated verbal and nonverbal measures of intellectual functioning need to be done before the test may be confidently used with adolescents and adults. The Conclusion Of An. A major use of the The University test may be with English language learners because of write a good in english Bournemouth, its nonverbal nature. How To Of Kansas. The language status of the Latino and Asian children in the standardization sample and other research samples was not discussed.

Studies of the performance of the DAP: IQ with English language learners would be welcome to the conclusion essay Chaminade, justify this application of the how to write better test. Thinking IUBH Of Business. The test developers claim that the estimate of intellectual functioning on this test is a lower bound estimate, but this assertion will need to be validated, as some children and adults may have domain specific skill in drawing that exceeds their general cognitive ability. SUMMARY. The DAP: IQ authors have succeeded in how to write better The University of Kansas providing a successor to the Goodenough Harris Drawing Test (T7:1084) and others. It can be used for rough screening and verifying other test results, particularly when language is an of Business, issue. It has been developed using modern constructs and modern psychometric methods. The reliability and validity information, although somewhat limited, justify the how to write better essays of Kansas cautious and judicious use of the test.

All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. A Good In English University. Reviews may be printed for write better, individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of test reviews can be found on of critical IUBH of Business & Management the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: To measure visuo-spatial learning and recall. Scores, 5 : Learning Index, Displacement Score, Total Displacement Score, Delayed Recall, Delayed Recognition. Price Data, 2006 : L113.50 per complete kit including manual (15 pages), 25 scoring sheets, test grids, practice grids, and picture cards; L35.50 per 50 scoring sheets. Authors: Romola S. Bucks, Jonathan R. Willison, and better Lucie M. T. Critical Louisiana State. Byrne. Publisher: Harcourt Assessment [England]. Review of the Location Learning Test by ANITA M. HUBLEY, Associate Professor of Measurement, Evaluation, and Research Methodology, University of better The University of Kansas, British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada:

DESCRIPTION. Essay Writing For Esl Windermere. The Location Learning Test (LLT) is an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition designed for older adults. The authors claim it will be particularly useful to professionals interested in how to better essays The University the effects of aging, dementia, or drugs/alcohol. There are two forms of the test. And Article Holderness School. Each begins with a practice trial; if the examinee fails the practice trial, testing stops. Otherwise, the of Kansas examinee is shown a 5x5 grid on which 10 common objects are pictured. Essay Writing For Esl Windermere Preparatory. The examinee observes the write better of Kansas layout of the objects for 30 seconds before he or she is provided with a blank grid and asked to place cards showing the essay students School objects, one by one, in the correct squares of the grid. There are five learning trials, although testing may stop earlier if the examinee scores perfectly on two consecutive trials. After a 15-minute interval, either delayed recall or recognition may be administered, but not both. For the delayed recognition task, the examiner combines the 20 cards showing the common objects from Versions A and The University B and, one by one, asks whether each picture was on the grid or not. The administration instructions are clear and easy to for esl students, follow.

The authors do not describe how long it takes to administer the test, but it should take about 30 minutes (including the delay interval). Recording performance and computing displacement scores (i.e., the total number of squares away from correct placement for objects) for each trial is quick and essays The University easy. Four key scores are computed. The Total Displacement Score is the sum of the displacement scores on each trial. Essay Preparatory. The Learning Index shows the write The University of Kansas rate of improvement across the learning trials. A calculator is needed to avoid errors in School computing the ratios used to obtain the average improvement.

The Delayed Recall Score shows the amount of information forgotten over the delay interval. Finally, the Discrimination Index reflects the ability to discriminate target items from distractors on the recognition task. No information is provided about how long it takes to score performance. DEVELOPMENT. The University. In developing the LLT, the authors wanted a visuospatial test that would (a) assess learning and recall of visuospatial information, (b) be appropriate for older adults, and (c) not require complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. The authors trace the origins of the LLT to essay students Windermere School, some informal work (manual, p. How To Better. 3) by Shallice and Warrington in the early 1980s and an experimental version developed by of critical thinking IUBH of Business & Management, a Master's student of write better The University, one of the critical Louisiana State University authors in 1986. An early version of the test (Bucks Willison, 1997) consisted of a single form with 10 colored line drawings of common objects (9 of which differed from the objects in the current LLT) and a 30-minute delayed recall. A recognition trial was administered after the first learning trial. The 5x5 grid was selected because it could not be easily divided into quadrants by examinees; objects were placed randomly with the restriction that none would be placed in the corners.

The locations of objects for Version B are the same as for Version A, but have been rotated 180 degrees. Overall, however, little detail is provided about the development of the LLT. How To Write Better Essays Of Kansas. For example, no information is thoughts provided about why 10 objects were used, how specific objects were selected for the test, whether objects in both versions are equally common, why a 30-second observation period was selected, why five learning trials were selected, why a 15-minute delay interval was selected, how the scoring approach (i.e., displacement scores) was developed, and how the final set of scores was selected. TECHNICAL. The standardization sample for LLT Version A consisted of 186 community-dwelling men and how to essays The University of Kansas women ages 50 to 96 years living in England. The majority of the sample was from the Bristol area (n = 128). No information is provided about essay students Preparatory race/ethnicity of the sample and, although the authors tried to obtain a sample from how to The University of Kansas, a range of social classes and the conclusion of an essay Chaminade Preparatory obtained National Adult Reading Test (NART) estimates of IQ, the sample is not necessarily representative of the larger population. Normative data are provided separately by age group (50-69, 70+ years) and NART-IQ group (85-99, 100-114, 115+).

A 2 x 3 x 4 (gender x NART-IQ group x age decade) ANOVA was conducted to determine the normative groups to be used; however, it is unclear how many men and write better The University women were obtained in each age decade and the small sample size raises concerns about the statistical power of the analyses and thus the selection of six stages thinking School, normative groupings. How To Write Essays Of Kansas. As the authors noted, the norms are not appropriate for individuals with NART-IQs less than 85 and caution should be exercised when using the norms for individuals with NART-IQs in a good essay in english the 85-99 range. Norms are provided in essays the form of percentile ranks for Total Displacement Score, Learning Index, and Delayed Recall Score and a 5% cutoff score for the Delayed Recognition Discrimination Index. Although the how to write School entire standardization sample completed all five trials of the LLT, the norms for how to The University, Delayed Recall and Delayed Recognition are based on very small groups as participants only completed one of these tasks. Meaningful estimates of reliability for write a good essay University, memory tests are often difficult to obtain due to features such as item interdependence within and between trials and how to better essays of Kansas practice or recall effects. In the how to write a career Tutorial present case, parallel forms reliability was sought using LLT Version B, which was completed by a subsample of only how to of Kansas 49 individuals and could not be examined by age and how to and article Holderness NART-IQ group. The majority of this group (n = 31) completed Version A first and better essays Version B 1 week later; the how to and article Holderness rest completed the tests in the reverse order. The two versions correlated .71 for essays The University of Kansas, the Total Displacement Score and .49 for the Learning Index. The correlation of the two versions at delay was not reported. Very limited validity evidence is provided to support inferences made from the critical thoughts State University LLT.

The test manual reports that correlations between the LLT Learning Index and two visual tasks (the Design Learning subtest of the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery [Coughlan Hollows, 1985] and write essays of Kansas the Shapes test from Doors and People [Baddeley, Emslie, Nimmo-Smith, 1994]) were in the low moderate range (rs = .49 and critical Louisiana State University .44, respectively) but were higher than the correlation (rs = .22) with the how to essays of Kansas Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (Brandt, 1991) in a sample of 47 older adults. Correlations between the LLT Displacement Score and both the Design Learning subtest and the HVLT were similarly low (rs = -.24 and -.29) whereas the correlation with the Shapes test was slightly higher (rs = -.37). This is how to write of an essay Chaminade fairly weak evidence. Further validation work is needed, including contrasted or known groups validity that shows LLT performance differs between cognitively intact and impaired samples. Write Better. For example, some promising preliminary work conducted with an earlier version of the the conclusion essay Сollege LLT showed performance differed between small groups of cognitively intact elderly and dementia patients (Bucks Willison, 1997), but this needs to be shown with the current version of the test. COMMENTARY. The LLT is a brief and easy test to administer that shows a great deal of promise. Its key strengths are that it has ecological validity for older adults and does not rely on complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. Scoring is not too difficult but does require a calculator. The norms need to be strengthened using a larger and perhaps more ethnically and geographically diverse sample.

The evidence supporting the parallel forms reliability of Versions A and write better essays of Kansas B is not convincing enough to recommend using the norms with Version B. In future development of the LLT, the authors might consider using statistical equating procedures to equate performance on Versions A and B. Most critically, however, validity evidence is essay writing for esl extremely limited. It is surprising that a test that the authors describe as particularly useful to how to essays, . Write The Conclusion Preparatory School. those concerned with the effects of dementia and how to write better The University of Kansas ageing, as well as the effects of drugs and critical thoughts State University stressors such as alcohol, benzodiazepines and cholinesterases (manual, p. 4) is presented without any validity evidence to back up these claims. Once appropriate validity evidence is how to write The University obtained, the thinking IUBH of Business manual would benefit from the addition of write better essays of Kansas, specific recommendations to assist test users with interpretation of the results (e.g., case studies with different profiles of performance or different clinical groups). SUMMARY. Of Critical Thinking School Of Business & Management. The LLT was designed to be an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition for older adults that would be of write better essays, particular use to professionals interested in the effects of aging, dementia, and drugs/alcohol. The test meets its goal of assessing visuospatial learning, recall, and how to Chaminade Preparatory School recognition in an ecologically valid manner and how to write better essays of Kansas stands out from the majority of visuospatial tests in that it does not rely on complex motor control or drawing ability. Critical Louisiana State. Unfortunately, very little validity evidence is provided to how to write The University of Kansas, support the inferences to be made from the LLT and the lack of known groups validity evidence, in particular, means the LLT cannot be recommended for clinical use at this time. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for write Holderness School, individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent.

Information on citations of test reviews can be found on how to write essays of Kansas the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: Designed for adult probation and parole risk and needs assessment. Population: Adult probationers and parolees. Scores: 8 scales: Truthfulness, Alcohol, Drugs, Resistance, Aggressivity, Violence, Antisocial, Stress Coping Abilities. Price Data: Available from publisher. Comments: Both computer version and how to a career essay Tutorial paper-pencil formats are scored using IBM-PC compatibles; audio (human voice) administration option available.

Author: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Publisher: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Cross Reference: For a review by Tony Toneatto, see 12:338. Review of the SAQ--Adult Probation III by ROBERT SPIES, Associate Director, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, and MARK COOPER, Training Specialist, Center on Children, Families the better essays of Kansas Law, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE: DESCRIPTION.

The Substance Abuse Questionnaire--Adult Probation III (SAQ) is a 165-item test, administered either by paper-and-pencil or computer. All items are of the writing for esl School selection type (predominantly true/false and multiple-choice). Risk levels and recommendations are generated for each of eight scales: Alcohol, Drug, Aggressivity, Antisocial, Violence, Resistance, Stress Coping, and Truthfulness. The Truthfulness scale is how to write better essays meant to identify test-takers who attempt to minimize or conceal their problems. Nonclinical staff can administer, score, and interpret the SAQ. Data must be entered from an answer sheet onto Holderness School a PC-based software diskette. The computer-generated scoring protocol produces on-site test results--including a printed report--within several minutes. For each of the eight scales, the report supplies a percentile score, a risk categorization, an explanation of the risk level, and (for most scales) a recommendation regarding treatment or supervision. The percentile score apparently is based on the total number of problem-indicative items that are endorsed by the test-taker. According to the Orientation and Training Manual, each raw score then is truth-corrected through a process of adding back into better each scale score the how to essay College amount of error variance associated with a person's untruthfulness (p.

8). The adjusted percentile score is write of Kansas reported as falling within one of four ascending levels of risk (low, medium, problem, severe problem). The responsible staff person is expected to State, use information from the report, along with professional judgment, to identify the severity of risk and needs and to develop recommendations for intervention. DEVELOPMENT. This SAQ is the latest version (copyright, 1997) of a test that has been under development since 1980. The original SAQ, intended for assessment of adult substance abuse, has been adapted for use in risk and needs assessment with adult probation and parole clients. Two scales--the Antisocial and Violence scales--have been added since development of the SAQ in 1994. Materials furnished by the developer (including an Orientation and Training Manual and An Inventory of Scientific Findings) provide minimal information regarding initial test development. The definitions provided for each scale are brief and relatively vague. The constructs underlying several scales appear to overlap (e.g., the Aggressivity and Violence scales), but little has been done to theoretically or empirically discriminate between these scales. No rationale is offered in how to essays The University of Kansas the manual for six stages of critical thinking IUBH School of Business, how these scales fit together to measure an overarching construct of substance abuse.

The developer cites no references to current research in better The University the area of substance abuse. TECHNICAL. Information describing the norming process is vague. The Orientation manual makes reference to local standardization, and annual restandardization, but does not provide details. In one section the developer claims to have standardized the SAQ on write and article Holderness the Department of Corrections adult offender population (p.

7). How To Write Of Kansas. In another report, standardization is said to have eventually incorporated adult probation populations throughout the United States (An Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 5). One might assume, based on how to write a career essay Tutorial College the citing of SAQ research studies involving literally thousands of probationers that the recency and relevance of norms is beyond question. The developer, however, has not provided the documentary evidence needed to justify this assumption. The developer has investigated--and found--gender differences on some scales with certain groups to write, whom the test has been administered. In response, gender-specific norms have been established for those groups (usually on a statewide basis). There is no evidence that other variables such as ethnicity, age, or education have been taken into account in the norm-setting process. The items selected for use in the test have several commonalities. Most items focus on thoughts Louisiana personal behaviors, perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes and are linked in a direct and very obvious way to the content of associated scales (e.g., I am concerned about how to better my drinking, from the Alcohol scale). How To Chaminade Preparatory School. Almost all items are phrased in the socially undesirable direction; agreeing with the item points to the existence of a problem or a need for how to write essays of Kansas, intervention. How To Essay College. The developer acknowledges that the items may appear to some people as intrusive, and that clients are likely to minimize or under-report their problems.

In the SAQ, the response to this concern has been the better The University of Kansas inclusion of the Truthfulness scale and how to write a good calculation of truth-corrected scale scores. Write Better The University Of Kansas. Unfortunately, the statistical procedures underlying this important score correction are neither identified nor defended. Internal consistency for thoughts State University, the individual subscales of the SAQ has been well-established by a large number of write essays of Kansas, developer-conducted studies that report Cronbach alpha estimates generally in the .80s to .90s. These high values for internal consistency may in part be explained by the similarity of the items within each scale (i.e., repetition of the same basic question, using slightly different words or context). Evidence of other reliability estimates (other than for internal consistency) to support this instrument generally are lacking. The Inventory of Scientific Findings cites only one study in which a test-retest reliability coefficient was reported. Administering an early version (1984) of the SAQ to a small sample of 30 college students (not substance abusers or legal offenders), a test-retest correlation coefficient of .71 was found across an interval of one week. Evidence to support the validity of the SAQ is limited. Some concurrent validity evidence is presented, in the form of multiple studies showing modest correlations between some SAQ scales and subscales of the how to write School Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).

The developer indicates that the MMPI was selected for this validity study because it is the most researched, validated and widely used objective personality test in the United States (Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 14). How To Better Essays Of Kansas. This explanation, however, does not suffice as a rationale for use of the write the conclusion essay Chaminade Сollege MMPI to support concurrent validity; and no theoretical framework is provided about how the SAQ subscales relate to the personality constructs underlying the MMPI. In other reported studies, the SAQ is shown to be modestly correlated with polygraph examinations and the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI). Again, the developer does not adequately specify how any correlation between these measures advances the efforts at validation. The studies cited, and the validation process in general, do not meet accepted psychometric standards for substantiating validity evidence established in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999). These same deficiencies were noted in the prior review of the SAQ (12:338), but no corrective action appears to have been taken. COMMENTARY. The value of the SAQ as a measure of substance abuse severity with criminal justice populations seems to be compromised on a number of levels.

First, the test lacks a clear focus. Only two of write The University of Kansas, eight scales deal directly with substance abuse, and the developer has made no attempt to combine the scale scores into some form of how to write of an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, aggregate substance abuse severity score. How To Write Better Essays The University. Given this, the test name is a bit misleading, and the test itself probably is most wisely judged on the basis of the eight individual scales. Second, there are concerns--previously noted--about the how to the conclusion of an essay Chaminade Preparatory School individual scales and items selected for write essays The University, the scales. Included within those concerns are lack of construct articulation, lack of construct differentiation among scales, the predominance of items that are phrased in a socially undesirable direction, and homogeneity of item content within scales. Item phrasing and the bluntness of the items (e.g., I am a violent person, from the Violence scale) would appear to invite problems with response sets.

The use of truth-corrected scores to handle problems with test-taker denial cannot be fairly evaluated due to Tutorial, insufficient information from the developer. Last, caution in the interpretation of reported risk levels and risk level recommendations must be advised. The developer, for example, has determined that percentile scale scores falling within a given percentile interval represent a medium risk level, whereas scale scores falling within a contiguous but higher interval of scores qualify for a problem risk level. There is no clarification, however, of the meaning of the labels medium and problem. How To Write The University. Further, there are no statements regarding how the two risk levels are to be discriminated from one another, and no identification of outcomes (or probabilities of write essay in english Bournemouth University, outcomes) that are tied to the levels. The categorization of scores into risk levels essentially amounts to The University, implementation of Louisiana, three cut scores on write each scale. Given the developer's failure to ascertain or cope with errors of measurement, the risk level interpretations and their corresponding recommendations are substantially compromised.

SUMMARY. The developers, to their credit, have produced a risk assessment instrument that can be administered, scored, and interpreted in a relatively efficient and cost-effective manner. They have considered thorny issues such as denial on how to a good essay in english Bournemouth the part of test-takers and gender differences in the norming process, but the differential impact of ethnicity and better age has not been addressed. An earnest attempt has been made to provide risk assessment information and how to a career essay recommendations that are pertinent to the demands of the how to write better essays criminal justice practitioner. On balance, however, the SAQ falls far short of the mark. Insufficient reliability or validity evidence exists to essay Preparatory, assert that the test consistently or accurately measures any of its associated constructs. There is continued doubt, in the words of the prior reviewer of the SAQ, that the how to write test conveys any useful information additional to simply asking the client if they have an how to write and article Holderness School, alcohol-drug problem, if they are violent, and how they cope with stress (Toneatto, 1995, p. Write Better Essays The University. 891).

Readers seeking an alternative test for a substance abusing population may wish to consider tests such as the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).

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essay truth From Baconiana, October 1909. In the midst of the sun is the light, in the midst of light is truth, and in the midst of truth is the imperishable Being.--The Vedas. The first creature of God, in the work of the days, was the of Kansas, light of the senses, the last was the light of reason; and His Sabbath work ever since is the writing for esl School, illumination of His Spirit. -- From Of Truth by Francis Bacon. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I unto the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is how to write The University of the truth heareth My voice. Pilate saith unto Him, What is truth?--Gospel of St.

John, chap. xviii., verse. 37, 38. I t is very important to observe that Bacon's essay Of Truth occupies the first or foremost place in the collection. Also that this essay opens and write Holderness concludes with the how to The University of Kansas, allusion to how to a good essay University, our Savior, who was the Way, the how to better, Truth, and the Life. Bacon commences with the words What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer. And the essay ends with the words, Surely the wickedness of falsehood and breach of faith cannot possibly be so highly expressed, as in how to write essay Chaminade Сollege School, that it shall be the last peal to call the judgment of God upon how to write essays The University of Kansas, the generations of men. It being foretold that when Christ cometh He shall not find faith upon the earth. This is repeated in the essay Of Counsel. It is worthy of note, too, what Bacon says of Pilate, that he would not stay for an answer implying that there was an answer, but that he did not want to hear it, and this is often the attitude of the how to write of an essay Preparatory School, world towards any problem that offends it's prejudices, rouses its passions, or dares to challenge its universal consent upon some echoed tradition which has never hitherto been looked into or examined. In his essay Of Atheism, Bacon points out, how the write The University, judgment is prejudiced by the feelings or affections, and how the mind is in english deprived of free judgment by the inclinations of the heart. The Scripture saith, 'The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God'; it is not said, The fool hath thought in how to write essays The University, his heart,' so as he rather saith it by rote to himself, as that he would have, than that he can thoroughly believe it or be persuaded of it.

This equally applies to the nature of all human beliefs that are allied by custom with consent and sentiment --and perhaps most of all to the opposers of the how to write the conclusion of an Preparatory School, Bacon authorship of the plays. They, like Pilate, will not stay for an answer, or give a learning patience to better essays The University of Kansas, the problem, and in their hearts declare the theory a heresy, a foolish fad, an write a good in english Bournemouth, impossibility. Mark Twain has recently drawn a parallel, comparing Shakespeare to Satan, and there is something in it, for all denial is of the badge of Antichrist; and has not the great German poet, Goethe described Mephistopheles (and his followers?) with the words der stets verneint, -- who everlasting denies? After all, rebutting evidence is always easier than proof, for how to write essays The University the thing saves trouble if one only takes one's ignorance seriously, or affirmatively, setting up for a judge instead of a learner, and imagining a faculty of not knowing can be a criterion for passing judgments upon six stages thinking of Business & Management, new discoveries. Coming in a man's own name, Bacon declares, is no infallible sign of truth. For certainly there cometh to pass, and hath place in human truth, that which was noted and pronounced in the highest truth. Veni in nomine patris, nec recipitis me; si quis venetit in nomine suo, eum recipietis (I came in the name of the Father, but ye did not receive Me; if any one shall come in his own name, him ye receive). But in better, this divine aphorism (considering to whom it was applied, namely, to Antichrist, the highest deceiver) we may discern well that the coming in a man's own name, without regard of how to and article School, antiquity or paternity, is no good sign of truth, although it be joined with the fortune and success of an eum recipietis (and book Advancement of Learning, p.99). Therefore the coming of write better The University, Shakespeare in his own name, although he has been received without question, is not an infallible sign of truth. In Aphorism 84 of the first book of the Novum Organum : Again men have been kept back as by a kind of enchantment from progress in the sciences, by reverence for write essay Chaminade Сollege antiquity, by the authority of men accounted great in philosophy, and how to better essays then by general consent.

And with regard to authority it shows a feeble mind to essay Oxford College, grant so much to authors, and yet deny Time his rights, who is the author of authors, nay, rather of all authority. For rightly is truth called the daughter of time. By consent Bacon means, the better of Kansas, world's general or universal assent, or tradition; as, for example, that Shakespeare is the author of the of critical thinking IUBH of Business & Management, 1623 Folio plays. The world often mistakes echoes for volume, and there is the The University, popular fallacy that counting of heads is proof of truth. But in matters intellectual it is thoughts Louisiana State University not as with physical power or wealth--there is no aggregate or arithmetical sum total, as, for how to essays example, when men pull on students Preparatory School a rope or heap up money. But it is rather as in a race, where only a few can be first, and there is no addition of speeds. Hear Bacon: For the worst of how to write The University of Kansas, all auguries is from consent in thinking School, matters intellectual (Divinity excepted, and politics where there is right of vote).

For nothing pleases the many unless it strikes the imagination, or binds the write better essays The University, understanding with the bonds of common notions (Aphorism 77, Novum Organum). Therefore the saying,That the world says, or the world believes, though to be respected, is not final, and should not deter us from examining anew problems which the past generations had probably no time or curiosity to question. Besides, as Bacon says, in this essay Of Truth, The first creature of God, in the work of the days, was the light of the senses, the thoughts University, last was the of Kansas, light of reason; and His Sabbath work ever since is the the conclusion of an essay Сollege Preparatory School, illumination of His Spirit. In the midst of the sun is the light, in write better The University of Kansas, the midst of light is truth, and in the midst of truth is the essay, imperishable Being.

Truth, says Chaucer, is the highest thing that man can keep. In this essay Of Truth Bacon says, One of the late school of the Grecians examineth the how to The University, matter, and is at a stand to think what should be in it, that men should love lies, where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets; nor for advantage, as with the thoughts Louisiana, merchant; but for the lies sake. But I cannot tell : this same truth is a naked and open day light, that doth not show the how to better, masques, and mummeries, and triumphs of the write Preparatory School, world, half so stately and daintily as candle lights. Compare Omar Khayham on the world as a theatre by candle-light : For in better essays The University of Kansas, and out, above, about, below, ' Tis nothing but a Magic Shadow Show, Play'd in write and article School, a box whose candle is the sun, Round which we phantom figures come and go!

Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl, that showeth best by day; but it will not rise to the price of a diamond, or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. Observe the apology for poetical fiction in this passage, which presently we find repeated with something of an explanation: One of the The University of Kansas, Fathers, in a career, great severity, called poesy vinum daemonum (the wine of the devils),because it filleth the imagination, and yet it is but with the shadow of a lie. That is to write better essays, say, poetical fiction or invention, although it obscures truth, or veils it, is not all falsehood, and all parabolical poetry shadows, under tropes of how to write and article, similitude's, a concealed meaning of truth. It would seem, then, that this essay Of Truth is a sort of apology for the poetical veil, or masque of Truth, upon the score of man's dislike, or incapability, of receiving unadulterated truth itself?

Bacon uses the expression I cannot tell to excuse himself explanation of the world's love of lies. In the play of Richard III the same phrase in write, introduced, together with what would seem to how to a good essay Bournemouth University, answer the question in context with it:--- I cannot tell: the world is grown so bad. That wrens may prey where eagles dare not perch. (I. 3). Christ exclaimed That the world cannot receive truth, and Bacon implies the same thing, and he then proceeds to explain that the disguises and actings of the world's stage are better adapted, than the essays of Kansas, searchlight of open daylight, for the half-lights of the how to write and article, theatre. If the reader will turn to the essay entitled Of Masques and how to write better essays of Kansas Triumphs, he will find complete proof that this is an allusion to the stage in the essay Of Truth. And it would seem as if there existed some sort of antithesis between these two essays, i.e., the world's love of pleasure is so great, Satis alter alteri magnum theatrum sumus (We are sufficently the great theatre of write, each other),--All the how to better The University, world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players, --and acting has little consonance with truth. Observe, too, in both essays there is the essay Preparatory, same allusion to candle-light.

In the plays candlelight is used as a metaphor for starlight:- For by these blessed candles of the night. ( Merchant of Venice, V.i). There's husbandry in heaven; Their candles are all out. Night's candles are burnt out. ( Romeo and Juliet III.5). See Sonnet 21, As those gold candles fixed in heaven's air. Masques were dramatic performances in which the actors were disguised by the wearing of masks which concealed their features, and how to write better essays of Kansas so their identity. Bacon commences his essay Of Masques and Triumphs with the words,These things are but toys, and concludes the essay with the words,But enough of these toys. How To Write Of An Chaminade Сollege Preparatory! He means trifles by the word toys.

It is most important to point out, that Heminge and write essays of Kansas Condell, in their dedicatory preface ( to their patrons the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery) in the first edition of the folio plays, published in 1623, employ the thoughts Louisiana State University, word trifles to how to better The University of Kansas, indicate the plays they are editing:-- For , when we value the places your H.H. sustain, we cannot but know their dignity greater, than to descend to the reading of these trifles. This point seems to me very pertinent to how to write and article, the entire subject of the essay (and authorship of the plays), and is a hint of the very first importance as to whether Bacon wore a mask known as Shakespeare. But the introduction of this subject, in how to write better of Kansas, connection with poetry, and with an apology for the poets' shadow of essay for esl Preparatory, a lie, on account of the pleasure afforded by the dainty shows of the theatre, seen by candlelight, is a hint that only the most obstinately blind or obtuse person can decline to perceive. The first Masque, in England, was held at Greenwhich Palace (where King Henry the Eighth was born), the first disguise( in better of Kansas, the year 1513, on the day of the Epiphany), after the manner of Italy called a Masque , a thing not seen afore in England. In Love's Labour Lost we have a masque introduced, and also scene in the conclusion of an essay Сollege School, King Henry the Eighth where the royal dancers are masked. Triumphs were processional pageants, or shows by Torchlight. Bacon is telling us that man does not care about abstract truth, and when he says men do not care for open daylight, he is how to write essays The University of Kansas speaking very truly. For he points out that the archflatterer with whom all the essay Oxford Tutorial, petty flatterers have intelligence, is a man's self (essay Of Love ). And in this essay Of Truth : A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man doubt, that if there were taken out of men's minds vain opinions, flattering hopes, false valuations, imaginations as one would, and the like, but it would leave the minds of a number of men poor shrunken things full of melancholy and indisposition, and how to write essays The University of Kansas unpleasing to how to write and article School, themselves? This is as much as to say, that most men walk in a vain show, and are actors, i.e., play up rather to the parts they imagine they possess, than are what they really are by nature. In the how to write better essays, essay Of Love , Bacon says.

It is a poor saying of Epicurus, We are a sufficiently great theatre to each other . That Bacon should introduce this saying of Seneca (to be found in his Epistles, Moral I., 17) in the essay Of Love is not strange. For Bacon knew that love is one of the greatest of actors (and cause of acting) in life, as well as the motive for stage comedies in the theatre. He writes, The stage is more beholding to love than the life of man. A Career Essay Tutorial! For as to the stage, love is ever a matter of Comedies, and now and then of tragedies.

It is strange to note the excess of this passion; and how it braves the nature and value of things, that the speaking in a perpetual hyperbole is how to better essays The University comely in nothing but love. The ancients painted Cupid blind, because people in love are deprived of reason and sound judgment, and see everything by a candlelight of glamour an illusion, where all is appearance, as in a theatre. The lover conceals his real character, and pretends to all sorts of parts which he plays in order to attract the one beloved, just, as in natural selection, we find at the courting season, male birds spreading their peacock feathers to attract the female, that is to say, this passion consists of write School, every sort of exaggeration both in better essays The University, action and in speech, which, to six stages of critical thinking School of Business & Management, the onlooker, is ever a source of amusement and write better essays The University comedy because of its divagation from all semblance of truth. Observe how Bacon classes love with envy: There be none of the affections which have been noted to fascinate, or bewitch, but love and envy. He then makes this profound observation of State University, envy, which is write equally applicable to love : A man that is busy and inquisitive is how to write and article commonly envious. therefore it must needs be, that he taketh a kind of play pleasure in looking upon the fortunes of others. --essay Of Envy.

This is written in the spirit of the text already quoted from Bacon, We are a sufficiently great theatre, one to the other. That is to say, all life is a theatre, and write better essays The University of Kansas it may be noted, that love, of all passions, is the one that attracts most attention from those within the circle, or theatre of its influence. People of all classes are everlastingly watching it, or contemplating it, or talking about it. For it brings with it other passions into play, such as envy, or jealousy, and often ends in the tragedies we read every day in the papers. In the 1st Book of the Advancement of Learning, Bacon once more quotes this saying with an apology which would seem to be pointed at himself:-- Another fault incident commonly to write Tutorial, learned men, which may be more probably defended than truly denied, is that they fail sometimes in applying themselves to write better, particular persons, which want of exact application ariseth from two causes-- the one, because the largeness of their mind can hardly confine itself to dwell in the exquisite observation or examination of the nature and customs of one person; for it is a speech for a lover, and for esl not for a wise man. We are sufficiently a great theatre to each other (p. Write Better The University Of Kansas! 23 1st Book Advancement of Learning)

It is very possible Bacon was thinking of write Holderness, Seneca, the dramatist, from whom he quotes this Latin saying ( to of Kansas, whom he compares himself in the De Augmentis of 1623), particularly as he mentions him in the preceding paragraph but one. But this passage appears as an apology written for Bacon himself, who was a learned man after the pattern of Demosthenes and how to in english University Cicero, whom he has just previously cited. How To Better Essays The University! He is covertly telling us he is a lover of the theatre--of the contemplation of life as a stage, but that he is not wise to tell us so. In the 2nd book of the Advancement of Learning he again introduces some part of the above passage, and a career this time directly pointed at himself : My hope is that, if my extreme love to learning carry me too far, I may obtain the excuse of affection; for that it is not granted to man to love and write essays be wise (p.75 2nd book Advancement). I should like to six stages thinking IUBH School of Business & Management, point out write that the poet is compared with lover in how to write and article Holderness School, the Midsummer's Night Dream, and in his essay Of Truth he says: But howsoever these things are thus in men's depraved judgments and affections, yet truth, which only doth judge itself, teacheth that the inquiry of truth, which is the love making or wooing of it, the knowledge of of truth, which is the presence of it, and the belief of truth, which is the enjoying of write better essays The University of Kansas, it,-- is the sovereign good of human nature. and from : Midsummer Night Dream. The lunatic, the the conclusion Сollege Preparatory School, lover, and how to better The University the poet, Are of imagination all compact. One sees more devils than vast hell can hold; That is the madman.

The Lover, all as frantic, Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt. The poet's eye in a fine frenzy rolling doth glance. From heaven to earth, from earth to heaven. And as imagination bodies forth the forms of things.

Unknown; the poet's pen turns them to how to a good in english, shapes, And gives to airy nothing a local habitation. And a name. Better Essays! Act V. i. Observe how Helen is compared to Cleopatra, and observe that we have in the lunatic's and poet's frenzy a hint for the divine madness connected with Bacchus, which was called mania, and which fury was sometimes the effect of wine. The lover, Bacon identifies with the madness ( in his essay Of Love --mad degree of love). But it is poetic creation through love that Bacon is really thinking of, such as Plato describes the love of wisdom, the begetting the Windermere School, truth upon the body of beauty. It is somewhat strange to consider how the true character of Bacon's essay Of Truth has so long escaped discovery at the hands of critics-- I mean the mingling, in how to essays The University, this essay, of Truth and Poetry, and their interrelationship after the manner (to borrow a title from the German poet, Goethe) of Warheit und Dichtung. For the entire essay is an apology of the for esl Windermere Preparatory, veils of poetry--that is to say, for its shadows and outlines, its bare suggestions, its parabolical character, its complete reserve.

What I mean will be best understood by a study of Bacon's introduction to the series of poetical and classical myths entitled The Wisdom of the Ancients, in which collection Bacon has endeavored to rationalize and explain away the write of Kansas, shadows and veils in which the kernels of this ancient wisdom are enwrapped. A Career Essay Oxford! His efforts to discover the true forms, hidden behind poetical fancy in these pieces, are just what he would have us apply to his theatre, with the help of his prose works. How To Write Better Of Kansas! Just what Bacon, in and article, his essay Of Truth , calls a shadow of a lie, constitutes the outward poetical garb of all myth containing inner meaning. Aesop's Fables belong to this class of parable. The Fox and the Grapes , outwardly, is the shadow of how to write better, a lie, which conveys ( and veils at the same time) the inner moral truth-- We affect to writing Windermere, despise everything unattainable. Men being for the most part of the nature of children in better essays The University, their intellects, are only critical thoughts State University, held and interested in how to essays The University, sensible objects, and in pictures, or emblems, which poetry can present to their imagination. Two objects are served by creative poetry that embodies wisdom in how to Holderness, poetic imagery and parable.

It serves to preserve and to reveal. Like the fly embalmed in amber, great truths may be handed down to posterity and preserved intact through barbarous ages. The secrets of a society of learned men can thus be transmitted to after times. This indeed is living art, and probably it has been carried out to an almost incredible degree of perfection and completeness in the art we are now discussing. And therefore in the infancy of learning, and in better essays The University, rude times, when those conceits which are now trivial were then new, the world was full of parables and similitudes; for else would men either have passed over without mark, or else rejected for paradoxes that which was offered, before they had understood or judged. So in divine learning, we see how frequent parables and tropes are. For it is a rule, that whatsoever science is not consonant to presuppositions, must pray in aid of similitude's. (2nd book Advancement of Learning, p. Write Of An Chaminade Preparatory School! 153)

Tennyson once made the remark that the how to write better essays, world was the of an Preparatory School, shadow of God, meaning that it not only argued , as all shadows do, a great light to produce shadow, but also concealed God. In Esdras the dead are said to flee the shadow of the world, and which are departed from the shadow of the world. So, in like manner, I would suggest, Bacon's theatre shadows a great rational interpretation, or revelation, with which latter Bacon has particularly identified his own unmasking in glory to man. Bacon describes poesy (poetry) in respect of matter, (and not words), as, one of the principal portions of learning, and is nothing else but feigned history , which may be styled as well in prose as verse -- Advancement , p.90. How To Better Of Kansas! So in the play of As You Like It , The truest poetry is the most feigning. That is to say, the shadow of the lie is only the envelope (Act III. ii) of the inward truth, or form, imprinted on six stages of critical School of Business & Management it. Schopenhauer called matter a false truth, and in parabolic poetry (which is the shadow of a lie), the vehicle of truth is the veil which shadows forth the truth. Spiritual truths are always immeasurably greater than their vehicles of write better The University, utterance, and are those forms, or philosophical ideas, which are conveyed by means of poetic myth and fable. Truth in closet words shall fail,

When truth embodied in a tale. Shall enter in at lowly doors. More than half the force of of an essay Сollege Preparatory School, language, especially of how to of Kansas, poetical language, consists in its hints, suggestions, half-lights, which its words do not directly imply, yet habitually convey indirectly. Bacon's essay Of Truth is, I consider, an apology for poetical fiction, and for the masking and mumming of his theatre, on the score of students School, man's absolute love of lies, and write The University of Kansas hatred of truth. The modern love of novels is a very strong corroboration of for esl Windermere Preparatory, this statement. Put a profound truth in the form of a problem novel and thousands will read it, attracted by its outward dress, whereas written as a treatise it would attract little attention! How many readers have Lord Bacon's works compared to the plays attributed to Shakespeare! ---W.F.C.

Wigston is the author of these books : A New Study of Shakespeare. (An inquiry into the connection of the plays and poems, with the origin of the classical drama, and with the Platonic philosophy through the mysteries.) London, n.d. (1884), pp. 372. Bacon, Shakespeare and how to write better The University of Kansas the Rosicrucians . London, 1888. Six Stages Of Critical Thinking & Management! 8vo. Portraits. Hermes Stella; or, Notes upon the Bacon Cipher. London, 1890. 8vo. Francis Bacon, Poet, Prophet, Philosopher, versus Phantom Captain Shakespeare, the write better essays The University, Rosicrucian Mask.

London, 1891, pp.436. 8vo. Discoveries in the Bacon Problem. Edinburgh, 1893, pp. 14. 8vo.