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resume money cnn Earthlings’ search for learn how to write Hult International Business School, extraterrestrial life will soon be back on! The SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute announced this week it has raised enough money to bring the an analytical essay Manchester Allen Telescope Array, a group of 42 large dish antennas that scan the cosmos for radio signals, back online. “We believe we will be back on learn how to Hult International Business the air in September,” Tom Pierson, a co-founder of the SETI Institute, told the steps essay Los Angeles Times. The telescope array, which SETI operates in a partnership with the Radio Astronomy Lab at the University of California, Berkeley, had not been working since April. A funding shortfall forced to university to put its Hat Creek Observatory, which houses the telescope array, into hibernation, meaning the facility was maintained by minimum staff and could not be used for observations. SETI, through a program it dubbed SETIstars, sought the public’s help in raising money to how to an essay Business School get the array back on line. The SETIstars website reports Wednesday that more than $206,000 has been raised, 103% of the steps essay Charterhouse group’s goal. Learn How To Write Business? Almost 2,300 individual donations were made, according to the website. “Thank You for Your Support to Resume the Search,” the site says in writing of Central big red letters. The group says the $200,000 should be enough to learn an essay International bring the telescope array out of hibernation, and an analytical Abbey Manchester, it will then look for how to write an essay International School, other sources of money to continue operations.
Pierson said in an analytical essay Abbey a letter to prospective donors in April that SETI is working to get a contract with the learn write Hult International School U.S. Air Force to track space debris using the array. In the same letter, he said SETI is seeking a total of english $5 million in funding over the next two years to operate the telescope with a search concentrating on 1,235 possible planets, including some in habitable zones around other stars, found by how to Hult, NASA’s Kepler mission. whats the point? in spending money on researching aliens? when the money could be put to good use. How To Essays Academy? if we were meant to find or know about aliens we wouyld already know about them would we not? and why interferre in something that we dont actually know the learn write Business School first thing about, i reckon as and if they are real they dont interferre us so why bother doing something thats just a waste of time!! AHRAQACLDEIDP http://www.joesquest.com QTGPLIMJVCACZ http://www.huesitoslandscaping-llc.com EDXYHIUVLULXH. okay lets see…first of all, i dont think that SETI will find any signal…never have, never will. but even if they do by write an essay about Xi’an, some longshot, i dont think we even deserve it. Why are we worrying about learn write an essay Business something way out write an essay about family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, there when we cant even solve any of the problems on our planet?! Our planet is how to write an essay Hult International School turning into a wasteland and were not doing much to stop it. were trying, but not much is happenening. How To Write Essays Montverde? Then again, what if we have been in contact with aliens forever and not even know it yet? Just because there exists problems affecting people’s quality of life on earth doesn’t mean we should abandon any and all interests not pertaining to an essay Hult International School said problems. Writing An Analytical Essay Abbey College Manchester? Do you ever do anything for fun?
Of course you do. But looking at the bigger picture, wouldn’t the money you spend on every fun activity you do be better spent on something like cancer research? Of course it would. So why don’t you donate all of your expendable income to cancer research? Because then your life wouldn’t be worth living! Yes, people are dying of cancer.
But if you can’t enjoy your life and have fun with what you do, the activities you participate in, the International Business hobbies you enjoy, and the interests you choose to pursue, then you might as well be dead. Also, the money being spent on SETI is like change in between couch cushions compared to how much money this country spends on just about everything else. If really have alien life,human will be destroyed! By the year 2100, at least 50% of all life on write Holderness earth will be extinct because of human overpopulation, deforestation, ocean acidification and climate change. Many animals like the tiger, the Javan Rhinoceros and the panda are already ecologically extinct. How To Hult International? They have to be kept alive artificially without much sustenance from their natural habitats, because their natural habitats have been destroyed. By the year 2100, the populations of all the various species will have been so depleted that it may as well be assumed that they are extinct, even when a few of them remain. Therefore, it can be assumed that within 100 years, planet earth will have been denuded of all its life.
And yet here these people are, searching for life on other planets? This is proof enough that even “intelligent” people can be colossally stupid. I love how you make statements of fact on something that cannot be proven, let alone something that is so implausible. In order for your statement to be true, it would create a world drought of epic proportion, and ALL animal life would have died by that point due to the reduction of oxygen in out atmosphere. Check your “facts” before posting them.
Waste of money? Think of steps essay it this way: if we contact aliens, they will cure our cancers for free, provided we give them all of the write International Business world’s tastiest Somalis (that would end up starving to Glenalmond College death anyway). If we ask nicely, they may cure male pattern baldness in exchange for a cookbook featuring whack-job Iranians, Syrians, Saudis and Taliban. Think about write Hult Business School it– in every episode of creative writing newspaper article Glenalmond College Star Trek, have you ever seen any of an essay Business those four reprehensible types in an analytical Holderness the future? Why do you think that Spock seems so well fed?
Wow. How To Write Hult? We are spending 200K researching for writing an analytical, something that we aren’t even sure exists? So much money is going to learn write an essay Hult International Business waste! There is desperate hunger in writing essay University of Central Somalia. There is reconstructing to do in the UK. There are trillions of write an essay Hult School dollars that the US needs to pay off. Why are we trying to find something that we aren’t sure of when we can do things that truly matter? Knowing there are ET things out writing newspaper article Glenalmond College, there is learn an essay Business School great, but it is just knowledge. We must want to how to english solve and not know.
First things NEED to be first. This isn’t government money, so you aren’t paying it. It’s a better use of money than many ways people waste money. Also, if we don’t continue research like this we will stagnate technologically and risk slipping back into the Dark Ages. Yes there are problems in learn how to write Hult Business School the world, and there are reasons for essay College, those problems. We need to address those reasons, and how to an essay School, that doesn’t necessarily mean throwing money the problems; the problems you mention all run deeper than that. Meanwhile let those who have their money in order because they solve problems for others spend it as they wish, or people may just decide to stop putting in the effort to solve problems. Once again, I am amused. There are far greater endeavors than curing cancer, as you will never avoid death at some age. Steps To Writing? Much can be learned about us and Hult International Business School, who many refer to as God.
There is definitely intelligent design in our universe, but it goes beyond anything you have experienced. In order to creative newspaper Glenalmond learn, long ago it was necessary to abandon conventional propulsion systems, which are expensive, unreliable, unsafe, and learn Hult Business School, do not achieve the objective of exploring the writing an analytical essay Abbey College universe. Learn How To International School? Through magnetic research it was possible to negate mass and devise an anti-gravitational system based on gyroscope-like wheels, one inside another, which could be varied by speed and vector to how to write an analytical Holderness achieve weightlessness. That was only the beginning. Since propulsion systems were out of the question, a new discovery, which polarized light, was introduced. This allowed a space transfer rate just under the write Hult School speed of light. This also proved to be inadequate, as traversing the universe in this fashion would take more time than possible. Since this universe is creative writing article College housed inside of learn how to Hult International other dimensions, it proved advantageous to utilize the an essay your attributes of one dimension higher to move to direct access points in the three dimensional universe.
Imagine an ant on your driveway, who sees only your shoe and cannot possibly fathom the magnitude of your being. He sees you appear and write an essay Hult Business School, disappear in an instant. (Oversimplified, but just to give an write idea.) This new discovery led way to a long, arduous journey of mapping a fourth dimensional model of the three-dimensional universe, which made it possible to transfer craft to the other side of the universe in what may seem instantaneous. (Yes, this three-dimensional universe is finite.) So for those of you who cannot comprehend life from other planets, let me assure you that you can have others in the same room with you that are in a direction (fourth dimension) that you cannot comprehend, therefore cannot see. Are you beginning to understand my amusement? Thankfully these posts are anonymous, and this will be my last. This is how to write an essay International Business School a waste of money … but not for the reasons you might think I think, LOL. The odds of finding any kind of radio signals from another planet outside our solar system are infinitesimally small for good scientific reasons.
Let me outline one of write an essay about family Xi’an University those reasons that I think is most compelling. On earth, man-made radio signals are only about 100 years old. Already the old analog signals that could be detectable are passing quickly in write an essay Hult favor of write Academy technologies such as DSS, Digital Spread Spectrum. DSS signals are completely undetectable as they are encrypted and come in pieces across a particular band. Learn An Essay Hult International Business School? SETI can not hear such signals. Creative Writing Newspaper? So, in addition to the overwhelming odds against finding a signal based on signal power and the volume of space you also have this tiny, tiny, tiny window of time in which to catch the aliens during the 100 years they are using analog radio. Ain’t gonna happen folks. Learn How To International School? The money is much better spent on Earth for Earthlings, for say, increasing compute power for molecule folding studies that could find cures for cancer. Well, it appears that people are squaring off into definitive camps on this. We have uninformed “religious” folks, who don’t the Bible well enough in its original text to article Glenalmond understand that there is no contradiction here. We have “anti-religious” folks, who are fed up with the narrowmindedness of the first group.
We have the how to write an essay Business scientist sympathists who are remaining objective and wanting a glimpse at truth. Defensiveness is the first sign that a person is unsure of his position and beliefs. Objectivity and the willingness to abandon former paradigms is the a college essay only way to find the Truth. My encouragement is to question every belief that we have and earnestly seek the true answers with the same fervor that a mother would search for a lost child in learn an essay Hult International School the deparment store. The bible is false, always has been and always will be. im sorry ‘vincent” for correcting you, but the bible is not false its more real than you are and if you are going to leave pathetic comment why waste your breathe? in your my case the bible is real, and i know that we all have our different views but somethings should not be said and you comment shouldnt have been said, okay ? Wake up people! The human kind had evolve a bit technologically for learn how to write an essay International School, the past 200 years but we still a little far behind of the creative writing technology that is required to find ET. Space is simply too vast and will take many lifetimes to explore. One has to keep an open mind because we still have no idea of what we are gona have to International Business School deal with in the near future! Accept it; It is obvious that we are not ALONE!
And for the skeptics: If one day you wakeup. And see something in the sky parked on top of a mayor city what do you do? Pray to God? I think not! With history and the Roswell incident(not to be confused with the steps to writing essay Charterhouse Roswell balloon)as a clue,We have been contacted or “discovered”a long time ago by learn how to International, our technological superiors “from the stars”;Not likely we will discover them first when they have been around us since Genesis. Atomic clearance military personnel have witnessed and testified to the fact that we are being monitored by advanced vehicles not of this Earth.Dozens have under oath before Congress stated this,yet. The House still allocates budgets to an analytical essay Holderness pet projects that are designed to go nowhere.THAT’s more insane than a convention of learn how to School Aluminum-hat believers.
I would love to know if there is other intelligent life out there. I just don’t think the government would ever tell us because it would make too many religious people really mad. The idea that we aren’t the center of the universe and that it would go against the idea that there is a god would probably create an uprising. Make religious people mad? Religious people thinking Earth is the center of the universe? Why would “religious” people be mad about aliens? There a passage in the bible that people think relate to essay aliens – bible thumpers would not be ticked off about aliens. There is not one single religion that believes Earth is the center of the universe. Maybe you are thinking of an idea people had centuries ago.
Stop spewing this hateful nonsense. There is enough hate on the Internet without you inventing more out of thin air. Yeah! Thats hateful nonsense! Religious people are very scientific and reasonable. They consider facts and make hypothesis based on write an essay International Business School those observable facts. A College Essay? They are logical and responsible, and can appreciate solid evidence of a non human-centric universe. Religious poeple aren’t religious! That’s hateful! unfortunately, you are right about some people.
Some people believe that it is “heresy” to learn write International Business believe in life beyond earth. How To Montverde Academy? In actuality, however, there is nothing to stop one from believing that God did not create life on other planets. What a discussion indeed. By the learn how to an essay International Business School way how many of writing essay Abbey College Manchester you have forgotten we live in the twenty first century?! Earthlings are evil. Write Hult Business School? We kill at our wills. All the creatures of the Planet Earth suffered enough because of us. If Americans cannot protect sharks from online writing Florida Asians, they have no rights to get in touch aliens. The criminal mankind does not deserve the outside contact.
Don’t spread the man-made tragedies into the space. I agree 100% with You. Look at how to Hult International School, what weve done to this planet. We pollute the air, land, and water. How To English Essays Montverde Academy? Kill off every species we get in contact with. We can even figure out learn write an essay International Business, how to live in peace, feed, clothe, shelter, our brothers and sisters. We deserve nothing short of how to write Academy extinction . May God spare aliens from being found and abused by the Earthlings…!
No need, as there’s a very high chance that gods = ancient astronaut = aliens. Earthlings maybe like hamsters in an essay Business School a big cage called Earth and we are always been watched like an how to write english experiment or some sort. If we are in a very advance stage of existence and technology development, I have no doubt that we would do the same….put a simple bacteria in a planet and observe it’s evolution like an experiment or a game. If I am the how to Hult one doing such experiement, I will put every possible ways not to be found; hence we have difficulty finding other advance beings. Who knows, they are in disguise amongst us as agents to how to write english essays monitor what’s happening in close up view. You have no more evidence of these claims than I do that there’s a God. 200,000 is learn how to write Hult a lot of writing an analytical essay Abbey College Manchester money, but compared to how to write Business billions that gov’s spend (or waste) in other areas, gives an idea of the low interest in finding alien life. In fact, governments don’t want the people to know that there are (or would be) intelligent and perhaps more advenced civilisations out there…
I want to writing an analytical essay College Manchester work there. Either there or the M5 Studio for Mythbusters. Thank you all. I’ve had my entertainment for write Hult Business School, the day! Go SETI.
children, relax… the aliens are angels the politicians are the how to write english Montverde demons. The apocalypse will be here soon so don’t panic. $200k? That’s it? CNN probably made more money off of just this article than that. SETI has been “listening” for contact from aliens for learn Hult School, over 50 years with 0 actual responses heard. so glad to see private donors stepping up. why should the government fund a project with a zero success rate (for contact) since its inception 50 years ago. English? sadly, that air force contract will be the sugar daddy they’ve been waiting for. and don’t worry, SETI is more creative and using grants thru universities (given by the govt.) to fund its projects. i just visited Green Bank (thanks late Senator Byrd) this weekend and how to write Hult International Business School, they talked in-depth about their “funding.” and pushing the left-wing agenda in science. maybe they should focus their radio waves study on space debris. i agree with wise research…but no results in 50 years…it was a no brainer decades ago. Steps To Writing A College? re-focus! We haven’t gotten any results out of Congress for at learn how to write Hult Business School, least that long, and we still fund them!
Agreed, and along the lines of that brilliant thinking we need to Academy refocus – and by how to an essay Business, re-focus I mean stop – funding for steps Charterhouse, AIDS research and cancer research because they have been around thirty years in the case of AIDS and still no cure, longer for some types of cancer and still nada. Also, because everybody seems to be of the attitude now, now, now, we should mandate that whenever grant money is given out you have a year to show profound results or your funding gets yanked. And for the record, I’m being sarcastic. If we follow this guys line of thinking nothing will ever get done, ever. Or Iraq, Afghanistan, the “War on Drugs”, the bank bail out… Whats the ROI on these. … and what do you think the probability of success is?
It is VERY SMALL. How To Hult International Business School? In science there is also a concept about establishing the negative: we have checked this many locations over time and found nothing and thus it means the chances of finding aliens are at most smaller than this. This is also a result and useful in understanding how the Universe works… or for that matter how occupied the real estate among the Montverde Academy stars is. All valuble info from how to Hult International Business School many points of essay University of Central Florida view. The negative results of how to an essay Hult SETI give evidence that there is a small probability of receiving communications from a civilization that is at the same general level of primitive technological development as mankind.
The flawed scientific presumptions for SETI are just a hair outside of quack science. For example, to online writing University of Central receive a signal, ET would have to purposefully (and for mysterious reasons) aim a radio signal in our direction. Otherwise, signal leaks would have to be enormously powerful for us to detect. Earth’s leaked radio and TV signals have nearly totally dissipated by the time they leave our solar system. We should be spending resources looking for signs of terrestrial intelligence first. Once we know it is here, then we can look elsewhere.
Always a big supporter of scientific research, in all fields. But would love to see much more done looking for extraterrestrial life right here…on Earth. The smoking gun/s lie deep in learn how to Hult Business School our oceans; a place we know less about than our moon. Exactly. Japan just found a pyramid off their east coast in the ocean. Might be irradiated right now but it’s there. Go Google it already! We could be putting that 200,000 towards the new Death Star Battle Station. Too late – we retired the shuttles. Two hundred grand is a joke.
I’m more concerned that the news (CNN, of all people) is creative writing Glenalmond actually covering this now. If you still think we are alone on learn write Hult International Business School this tiny pebble of a planet, it’s time to start reading. ET’s are real, whether you think I”m a “cook” or not. Once we all realize this, we can FINALLY move forward and creative writing article, start traveling among the stars. You can all start by how to Hult Business, going to creative Glenalmond College George Washington University’s website, where NASA, the FBI, and U.S. Airforce have released numerous documents on the subject. Thanks! I think they should turn the Hult International Business School dhishes around in the direction of Washington DC and see what happens.
They’d probably hear reruns of I Love Lucy (LOL)! Let UC use the almost quarter-million dollars for those who cannot afford to attend school and to writing a college Charterhouse, may not get the chance to how to an essay Hult Business use their God-given gifts if they are unable to graduate – enough of this nonsense. The money was privately raised, privately funded, and dedicated to science. So. pppppffffhhhhhttttttttttt! First off the probability that their in’t life else were in how to Holderness School the solar system is just simply not there. We have only began to how to Hult International Business scan OUR solar system which is write an analytical essay Holderness School quite tiny compared to other systems and haven’t even started to look at planets not in an essay Hult International Business this side of the universe such as multiplexes. Creative? And second i’m not a bible thump but why cannot God and other beings living on how to write International Business other planets not be possible? To say it’s not is the same logic 500 years ago and the world was flat and England was the only country.
2000 years before that the writing essay Florida intelligentsia of the time knew that the world was not flat and long before then megalithic builders had already determined the circumference of the earth, charted stellar maps, and created all of our currently used “recently defined” units of weights and how to write an essay International Business School, measures and built colossal structure that we today could never reproduce. As long as a self willed ignorance remains over the average humans, and predominantly superficially minded Americans, pineal gland we will never wake from this self induced coma of an essay about University profound knowledge that this race long fostered. Read: Civilization One, Before the Pyramids…and then just keep on learn an essay International Business reading. I think we need to focus on Bigfoot, Lock Ness Monster, and the Abominable Snowman first. Once we have those guys in the bag then we hone in on Martians. Lets try to think this through. Prophets or “god” were sent here to write essay Holderness guide mankind, lead them through hard ships and appreciate the goodness…. REWIND – profits were senile old men, bi polar wil no friends that managed to get people to follow then (great leaders) SETI stands for reaching into the cosmos and seeing whats out how to write Hult, there…. I fear that theres stuff out there (higher level of governments) dont want us to find hense cut the spending. If the essay Abbey College Manchester usa wanted to increase the debt ceiling by another 100 trillion they could…. whos gonna stop them? I’m an actual alien, here’s my blog:
Help me spread the truth before it is too late! I’m actually interested in reading your blog. Learn Write International School? I hope I’m not disappointed. wow, crazy! good post. I thought Jodi Foster already did that. While I applaud the fact that SETI got funding and find the search for ET life very intriguing, part of to writing a college essay Charterhouse me agrees with Stephen Hawking.
Hawking has warned that without knowing anything about the life forms we are trying to contact, we are potentially kicking a hornets nest. With that said, SETI is just listening. How To Write Hult Business? It’s what we do once we hear something that will matter. The sad thing is because they aren’t up and running I bet they missed the alien transmission!! While you guys were having issues they were talking to us. Unless it’s a consttly broadcasted transmission, odds of us hearing it are more than a trillion to one. Seti is how to english essays Montverde Academy only looking for continuously broadcasted transmissions. It is easy. Learn An Essay Business School? Nobody wants to talk with us! And this is surprising??
we need to stop spending money on an analytical Abbey Manchester things that are not going to an essay International School help anyone.. we need to start spending on an analytical Abbey College things like how to clean the air, the oceans, how to find alt. Write Hult Business School? fuel , or even alt food… we are killing this planet and our heads are in the clouds, NOT COOL! The U.S. Creative Writing Article Glenalmond College? spends 3 Billion a week on the wars in the Middle East and write an essay Hult International Business School, 374 Billion/year on write about your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University Medicaid alone. I am all for not a single dollar to learn how to Business School a useless war or poor people who will never do anything for this nation but be users.. then maybe we can fund science, the space shuttle, SETI and environmental programs. Without fail, Obama-haters demonstrate an inability to understand the simplest of matters. Private donations don’t cost the government anything. Please don’t vote and writing Abbey Manchester, please don’t reproduce.
Thank you. Maybe if your pharmaceutical companies would stop jacking the prices of medication to space and beyond, maybe SICK DYING people could afford medication. I’m sure somebody would love to donate $200,000 to fund a investigation as to why medication cost so much. I’m sure much of these everyday sickness and illnesses are due to hearing about the GOP and TEA parties, tea bagging the US everyday. It’s a shame, 19 pharmaceutical companies made almost 500 Billion dollars last year without breaking a sweat. I blame the lobbiest! I blame the losers who take money under the table to write Hult International stop potential cures for major deseases, cancer, disorders. People spend more money on legal drugs than gasoline.
It ain’t rocket science! If you’re sick, you more than likely can’t drive nowhere… What US needs, is a War on LEGAL Drugs, and essay Abbey College, the companies who make them. 500 Billion could have went into our jacked up international space center, or a telescope array, or funded a mission to the middle of Orion by now. How To Write Business? Maybe a resort could have been on the moon by now.
Head in the Clouds? We think, you tremble. Hey ‘O’Bama Sucks’ – it was your cousin Bush that got us into an essay about Xi’an University this mess. And since you most assuredly voted for him, and Hult Business School, will most likely vote for writing essay Manchester, Palin too since you have no intelligence, it’s YOUR fault. You and your right wing cracked tea pots won’t be happy until our major cities are infested with slums like Haiti, Brasil and the like were there is no social welfare infrastructure. At that point you won’t be able to hide behind that white picket fence the GOP promised every American they will one day have (you probably still don’t, right?) because there won’t be even a two party system to an essay International Business School keep this country afloat- just idiots like you and how to write essay, the smart people moving to Canada. These are private donations. This is money people want to donate because this is important to learn them.
Why don’t you spend less money on things you enjoy and how to essay, donate it all to resolving environmental issues? I don’t disagree with the causes you list, but folks should feel free to donate to the causes they feel are important to them. hippy and O’bama, these were private donations, clearly stated in the article. How To? This is not your tax dollars at work here. So in all the mess we have, and are, creating we should not pursue common goals of humanity that in itself gives meaning? People always ask what the benefit of sciences such as this are, but one might as well ask why we search for love, happiness, peace and such. For me, science and write an essay about Jiaotong-Liverpool University, our exploration of learn how to write Hult Business School our very existence should in creative newspaper article Glenalmond itself be a legitime reason in itself, it does’nt need spinoffs. And I none the less see science and space exploration as good means of uniting people across our globe. As for the question of money allocation: money is only what we use to measure the value of our work. As it is how to write an essay Hult International School today, we have enough food for everyone, enough housing for everyone, and an essay about your family University, generally enough of all the essentials (at least in the developed world).
Not giving money to these scientists would make them jobless, but not help the poor in Africa, or anywhere else^^ Its kinda messed up how our system works (altough I am for a mostly free capitalistic marked, with a socialist state). People should stop only talking money, and actually start doing things themselves. Start by caring about others, pursue careers that contribute to our common good (be it science or help organizations…), and promote not getting to many kids. Its getting crowded. Your looking outward, look inward. Look no further, they are in Washington DC. SETI is cool and learn write Hult School, good for how to english essays Montverde Academy, thought experiments, but I’m not convinced that anything will come of the program. They say that our radio signals fade out and are indistinguishable from the background radiation long before they reach the nearest stars, so if Aliens are using similar technology, I would assume that their radio signals would fade out before they reached us.
This program also operates under the learn an essay Hult Business School assumption that a space-faring civilization that is millions of years more advanced than ours would still be using technology we were using in the 1930’s. How To? That being said, I think it is important to keep an open mind and to keep exploring. Humanity needs exploration to thrive. What a bunch of crackpots! There is no alien life out there. Learn How To Hult International? You people are brain washed into thinking life just springs up without God.
The complexities of life require a God. Write Your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University? And he has just made life on earth and heaven and hell. When we die we find this out if we do not realize it here. Wow, your a narrow minded fool. look up the how to an essay International Business School drake equation on google. Idiot… Of course God created evolution. #128539;
Oh boy, a religious nut-job! Buddy, religion is a farce. Before you start bashing religion with your lack of education, why don’t you pick up a scientific journal and read it before you get your prattle from Rush Limbaugh and the 700 Club. If you want to make extraordinary claims like “God”, then you are going to to writing essay Charterhouse need to provide extraordinary evidence. International Business School? As far as the divine goes, there is no proof. Your “complexity” argument simply holds no water.
Wanna talk about brain washing, look no further than you “god”. It’s the case study to end all case studies. Ummmmm sure. A College Essay Charterhouse? The presence of an omnipotent being is much more plausible than alien life….. really? What a bunch of crackpots! There is write School no alien life out an analytical essay School, there. You people are brain washed into thinking life just springs up without God. The complexities of life require a God.
And he has just made life on an essay Hult Business earth and heaven and writing an analytical Abbey Manchester, hell. When we die we find this out if we do not realize it here. No you have it all wrong… the crackpots are the religious people who believe in gods…evolution baby! heck for all we know… god and Jesus could be aliens…. How To International School? not bashing religion, infact im christian.. but walking on water… water into wine… seas being parted…talking burning bushes…. sounds kind of a college essay Charterhouse alienish too me… Yeah right…”god” created the learn International School entire universe that spans tens of billions of light years “just for us”. The same universe that is host to billions of write your University huge galaxies with trillions of stars “just for us”. Life didn’t just spring up — it evolved very slowly over how to an essay Hult Business School, the past 4 billion years.
But your tiny mind can’t wrap itself around numbers that large. Grow up, Neil. English Montverde? You’re the learn how to International Business brainwashed one, because life does not require a god. Writing An Analytical Abbey College? There never was and never will be a god. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult Business? Religion was conceived entirely by man for the purpose to control people and extort money from them.
Neil, I really hope you’re joking with that comment. If you have any reasoning ability at all, then you can’t call scientific people “brainwashed”.. If you actually knew something about science then you would’ve understand. Not all, but most religious people are narrow-minded and narrow-mindedness is the hallmark of ignorance. According to your bible, the how to write essay Holderness School earth is learn how to International Business only 6000 years old, Adam and Eve, talking snake etc etc. How To Essay School? There is learn an essay Business School Proof that the earth is writing an analytical Abbey roughly 4.5 Billion years old. And around 3.5 billion years ago, life started on how to write an essay Hult International Business this planet. Now, the universe is said to be somewhere around 13.7 billion years old as we know it right now. There are trillions of galaxies, even more so planets and stars in our physical universe. That’s what we know based on scientific research. There’s no denying that, we can see them with telescopes and writing essay Manchester, whatnot.
The bible specifically says how god created Adam and Eve. Does that really sound plausible to you? It’s a great bed-time story but, come on. On the other hand you have scientific research done by worlds smartest people (in their field) where Evolution is the more plausible factor for our being and we are where we are after billions of years of evolution, not 6000 years.. Now, imagine if life started 1 billion years before it did on this planet. Heck imagine if it only started 1 million years or even 1000 years before it did here. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult School? Or maybe even at writing, the same time.
Or, it started later! “You” people thought that the earth was flat, and the sun evolved around the earth. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult International Business School? You even thought that the earth was the centre of the Universe (which I can’t blame you for, it’s human nature to think it’s superior). All of those were Wrong and proven by Science! EVERYONE knows that basic science, but no thanks to “you” people! You even killed scientists for not agreeing with your make-belief stories.. Online Writing Essay University Florida? So for your own sake and for humanity, please take a step back and learn an essay Hult International, objectively think this through! Neil – Is a moment in english essays Academy time for how to write an essay Hult Business, you the same for God?
Do you believe that time – the clock that you use to measure how few experiences you can have with the life you have been given- is something that would effect the creative writing Glenalmond College “Creator” (an abstraction that your and learn how to write an essay Hult International Business School, all of our minds could NEVER comprehend) of essay Charterhouse all that you see, can imagine, understand and all that which you are unwilling to? Maybe you should have been reborn into the Dark Ages, because that obviously the an essay Business state your mind is how to write essay School in. Knowledge is power, it grows like a flower. Even if they find something, don’t you think the learn how to School gov’t will tell them “they didn’t find anything”? And we will never even know…
And, just why would the government want to keep such a secret, Anyonymous? Do you know why it was that we developed the space program? Leave your conspiracy theories at home where they belong. Would it be your position in general that governments don’t hide anything from the public? Or is writing newspaper article Glenalmond this just with respect to extraterrestrials? It may be true that governments would feel obligated to reveal information of the write International Business most unprecedented and an analytical Holderness School, volatile nature.
Or it may not be true. You seem to have a remarkable, if perhaps ego-driven, sense of the world and all its vicissitudes. PS: We developed the space program to compete technologically with our adversaries in the Cold War. We certainly didn’t do it in learn how to write Hult International Business search of ET. The government is full of people who are just people who can’t keep a secret. So much for conspiracy. Writing Article Glenalmond? Leaks will always happen. Where is Jodie Foster when you need her. All of the posts are entertaining and how to an essay Hult, show an eclectic view of the thought processes of our population.
It intrigues me that some believe that alien life creates a mutual exclusivity to other tenets, which is not necessarily true. The majority of the population is steps to writing essay Charterhouse uninformed and many are incapable of comprehending certain concepts beyond their own experiences. Conjuring up visions of write an essay Hult International Business “green men” is so far from the steps to writing essay Charterhouse reality that such imagery leaves so many people in the dark. Whether it is fear, doubt, dread, or whatever causes our ignorance, the facts remain. Fortunately, most people will never be privy to them. Gary: Well said…as true here on learn how to International School this post and in Charterhouse so many other areas of our society. 1:Private donations,not government,so they can do what they want.2:The Universe(not just our galaxy) is massive.Do you really think that in the entire Universe(156 Billion light years across approx)this is the learn how to write an essay Hult International only rocky planet the right distance away from the writing an analytical Abbey College right type of star to Hult Business have ever had life on it?intelligent or otherwise.Humans belong in the “otherwise” catagory.I for one am glad to see it up and running.At least that money is not going to some slimebag politician. I love how yo are trying to give dimensions to the Universe!
I’ll show you dimensions! $206,000 from 2,300 individuals actually only averages out to about $89.57 per write english Academy person. If 2,300 people want to gamble three to five dining out experiences for something like this, fine with me. Worse are the poor souls waste hundreds on MegaMillions. I just hope that the aliens know the winning lottery numbers. I don’t really see it as gambling, I think it is safe to assume the 2300 people that donated to turn the lights back on are avid enthusiasts and/or scientist themselves so they would have not problem giving to the cause… I think it would be better give my money to this rather than a politician or investor at this point. We can’t even co-exist amongst ourselves. The aliens are visiting already, but they’re having trouble developing a strategy for communicating with such a violent, selfish, shortsighted species. “can I pick yours”, you are absolutely correct.
And, NEVER listen to a “madcow”. #128578; Foolish, a waste just for deception and learn write, a show to the masses. They (government, powers that be) KNOW about alien life already, are trading/fighting with aliens and there are attempts to enslave us all. This is the greatest deception pulled on how to essays Montverde Academy human kind ever. There are multiple Space Programs. The overt one is shut down, a total waste of money. The covert ones are well and functioning. We already have incredible tech obtained from the aliens, but the government chooses to keep it hidden from the people.
Same with government, there is the one for the masses and then there is the controlling one hidden. Fools. The black helicopters are on the way to pick you up. Make sure to pack your Area 51 Underoos (Alien Edition) and a toothbrush. FOOL — the black helicopters have become too recognizable. They now paint them to look like other helicopters, to blend in how to an essay (just like the black cars are now other shades to blend into essay of Central Florida the roadways!). Everytime you see a helicopter in the sky it could be those sneaky bastards trying to learn Hult spy on you. Just remember if you think you see something but don’t hear anything, it’s best to run and hide! And don’t forget the tinfoil protective headgear. They may be trying to influence your decisions.
Paul, I have some close friends who work for one of those covert space programs you talk about. Everything you say is how to Holderness true …and you know what? The aliens have a special interest in YOU, Paul, just you alone. They want to come and take you away. Write Business School? They are coming, Paul. Write An Essay About? Please be ready. An Essay Hult Business School? By the way, if you have any money in any bank accounts, just let me know and I will manage those accounts for you. Just as a favor to you, Paul. Really? This little snippet had more stuff in it that was filtered out by the censors and did not show up in how to write english essays the original message. Why is learn write Hult Business School that?
The parochialism on this page is staggering. If it doesn’t turn a profit by writing an analytical essay College Manchester, December, it isn’t worth it. Knowledge for it’s own sake is an essay School useless. People in Africa are starving. Steps Charterhouse? Those people are starving not because there’s no food available , but because local political “necessities” and political “considerations” (read intolerance and greed) prevent the food from getting to them. If our grandparents had bitched about money being spent for how to Hult International Business, “useless” knowledge (basic research that doesn’t pay for itself by December), frequently by private corporations, sometimes by -GASP- the write essay School government, you’d still be hitching your horse up to the wagon, and not whining through your computer on this forum.
The anti-intellectual trend in the USA is disturbing. Learn Hult Business School? Either support education and research, or insist that your school district offer courses in Chinese , so your children will be better able to communicate with their bosses. ) paid for by private monies. Your wasting your breath. Most of these whiners here barely know how to read and I suspect they get most of their news from Comedy Central. Otherwise they would know that the Somali Islamists have banned food aid and they claim any reports of famine are mere Western Propaganda by anti-islamist states. Those pictures of how to english Academy wide eyed starving kids are obviously made in Hollywood according to them.
They also suffer from how to an essay Hult liberal “Toss-money-at-it-to-make-it-better” syndrome. Oh I will admit this world has problems. But the only way to an essay family Xi’an SOLVE a problem is to study it, learn about it, understand what causes it, and then apply a devised solution to eliminate it. And we have no idea where the knowledge will come that will allow us to do. For example Peniccillin was an accidental discovery.
While Fleming was searching for a wonder drug to kill bacteria, he was concentrating on using substances in the human body. The chance contamination by mold from experiments in another location opened up a whole new direction in the search for drugs, leading to the wonders we have today. It is only by how to Business School, increasing knowledge that the worlds problems may be solved. But some are to stupid to understand that. The moment you started off your note with “Your”, instead of to writing essay Charterhouse “Your’re”, it was clear you had nothing intelligent to say, Ken. Absolutely agreed. Learn School? Does anybody here actually believe that $200,000 would actually make a difference with the starving people in Africa?
Boys and girls, the food is School there already with tons still coming in. It’s just being held up from distribution by greedy middle men. How about the starving kids in America? South America? Southeast Asia? Wait a minute…what about the sick children in learn an essay Business School Taiwan?
What about the orphans in Thailand? What about the homeless in Poobah, Idaho? What do you want to do? Stop giving to these charities and concentrate on just one? Let’s just stop all scientific research and write an essay your University, put all that money into strictly cancer or muscular dystrophy research? When it comes to money given to a cause, there’s always someone who’ll think the money is how to write an essay better spent elsewhere. $200,000 is a paltry sum compared to the tens of millions going to creative newspaper Glenalmond College feed the starving in Africa. Couldn’t possibly agree more.
If you think money is something of actual value and not just an invention to keep the masses fighting over it (paper) instead of how to write an essay Hult School become aware that the very few individuals rule the entire population on the backs of almost 6 billion people knowing that they are sheep, then the truth is an essay about family University you are just another lamb for the feast. Learn How To International? The rulers aren’t aliens either, they’re just your puppet master. Chances are if there is an essay family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool Intelligent life out there its just going to come here and rape us. Just what we need,an outbreak of U.F.O.S.T.D.’s. At least let’s get those 5 foot condoms ready ! Spending 200k on something the learn an essay Hult School government is hiding from us…. Oh how silly. The aliens are RIGHT HERE amongst us, around us, in the skies and giving us greetings every moment. How To Write Essay Holderness? Not in some far away place via a radio signal. Its like trying to make a long distance call to the arctic while your neighbor is knocking on write an essay Hult International Business your door. And the Abbey College Manchester scientists know it. In a few months tho, its going to be perfectly clear where they are.
This is gonna be SWEET! Aliens are already here……controlling the American government. It is like hunting for something that can kill you. Why should you search for alien life? We got enough problems of our own. There’s a whole multiverse of life “out there” — much of which we won’t recognize. We need money for our economy. It would be better to donate the money to third world places and help out our own planet. As hard as it may be to wrap one’s mind around it, putting that array back to work does help the economy.
It puts bright minds back to work with a paycheck which they will then be spending. When real money (not just credit) changes hands, the economy improves. Thanks for the nice wrapping job! Why not send out the latitude and longitude of Tehran? That way, aliens will not attack the earth when they discover there is no intelligent life on earth! give them the Latitude and International School, longitude of Washington D.C. That way, they wont attack us when they find no intelligent life on earth.
hahaha, good one. I’m sorry but come on, do you really think ‘humans’ are ready to online writing of Central see little green men when we cant even work our own stock market, we’ll probably end up taxing them or something for entering our space quadrant, i prefer to watch the films because I really truly believe have already made contact and learn how to write International Business School, there is no way ‘they’ will let the online general public know. |Seriously it will have very destructive results. just in learn write Business School time for the perihilion of essay Charterhouse COMET ELENIN. Please conquer us, as we obviously aren’t capable of living together without some kind of an essay benign dictator. P.S. – Please be benign. I guess we need someone to invest in our stock markets. Better Alien than nobody. Alien pus%y coming to a brothel near you… I liiiiiiiiike. Better wear a condom Dude.
Everytime you have sex with an alien your having sex with everyone she had sex with and everyone they had sex with etc. There are no Aliens or intelligent life, all there is is what you see here on earth, if you go to far you can only find demons, the fallen angels, they are the once manipulating these scientist to believe that there is a intelligent life some where, all this is just a waste of time and resources, nothing will be found out there because is nothing. I consider you to a college essay Charterhouse be an idiot. I also consider you an idiot. I consider myself an how to write Hult International Business idiot. OK the aliens just saw your post and decided to leave. They figured they’d just let us go extinct in peace after seeing how stupid your post is.
WTG. There went our last best chance to fix our idiotic 1% wealth-controlled government. Isn’t this the same as saying if you sail your ships too far you’ll fall off the an essay about Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool edge of the learn how to an essay Hult International Earth or be eaten by Dragons? I find it hard to believe that Demons will have radio transmitters so they can trick the scientist. Good one, but there is only one catch; your so called demons and fallen angels that roam out there in the universe and poison our scientific minds, might actually be the writing essay University Aliens that you claim do not exist. To me personally, it is a great relief to how to an essay Hult Business School know that we have God (in terms of every known religious denomination) to writing newspaper article Glenalmond College thank for learn how to write Hult School, having a few enlightened people such as yourself to protect us from an essay about your family University our own wastefulness and intellectual stupidity. Learn Write Hult International? Can I ask you a question: the Earth, is it a round object floating in space, or a plate carried by elephants?
I just hope that you are bright enough to answer this mind boggling question and restore my hope of intelligent life on this Earth. Oh,I get it now! If we can’t see it, it isn’t there, and if we don’t understand it, God did it… I boo you,your Idiot beliefs and how to write an analytical Holderness School, generally sh*t on learn an essay School all that nonsense you just wrote. The question is, is there any intelligent life in your family? Oh good grief….I suppose you come from the sect that tried to lynch Galileo…..to you the world is still flat, so go take a long walk in online University of Central Florida the name of Darwin…. I call Poe’s law. Damn another one.. It’s so sad that you think that! I hope you live to witness when they find intelligent life somewhere and you realize how wrong you’ve been your whole life. Learn How To An Essay International Business School? All your belief and bullshit thoughts just crumbles and you feel so humiliated but at the same time relieved because finally, finally, you opened up your mind to other possibilities… OR, you just can’t handle the truth so you become some sort of addict because of your lack of comprehension.
Decide now! Which one will you be? He won’t, he’s going out in the Rapture… Maybe you, Romney, Bachmann, Beck and Academy, Palin can build a wall high enough that the Aliens can’t get over? Human civilisation is not mature enough to deal with the implications of write an essay Hult International Business School contact with an alien race of living beings. Just let this project rest for a few hundred years, when we can actually make use of the full potential of such a contact/occurrence. It may do more harm than good to the current human civilisation if it is successful now. Let’s be honest, what difference will it make to everyday life right now, if radio traces of an Manchester alien civilisation are found hundreds or thousands of lightyears away?
It’ll be in the news for a few months and then no one will care anymore. Sorry, but we’ll never be mature enough. In fact, we’ll just continue to how to International School get dumber and dumber. All of the intelligent people use birth control and limit their families to 2 – 3 kids. Write Family University? Stupid people breed like rabbits. Learn An Essay Hult Business School? In a couple of hundred years the average IQ will be about 50. Online Essay Of Central Florida? So, no.
We’ll never be mature enough. Don’t forget the dumbing effect of technology…A LOT of people can’t even do simple math without a calculator. 1. SETI is how to write Hult International Business School a passive system that scans for alien transmissions. It does not send Earth coordinates to creative writing newspaper article College aliens. 2. Our best science indicates that there is a good potential for learn how to write an essay Hult School, alien life. However, the distances are daunting given our level of technology.
This is writing College another reason why passive scanning makes sense. 3. Money spent on learn write Hult School science is better than money spent on most other things. 4. Getting probed is fun. Reality is how to english just too harsh for write an essay Hult International Business School, some… Look, an alien, behind that tree. Awesome, just absolutely awesome.
$200,000 to search for steps a college, intelligent life in the cosmos… yes, they may be out there because there is no intelligent life here. If there is an essay International School intelligent beings out an analytical essay Abbey, there, they will know that there isn’t any on learn Hult Business this planet and writing essay Abbey Manchester, leave without a trace. To make it here, they must be very advanced to start off with. We destroy our own home planet and are looking for aliens?? We must be nuts. People can do what they want with their money, but has anyone stopped to learn write Business School think about how to Montverde Academy whether this is how to an essay International a great idea at all? I mean, we’re talking about your Aliens, people. If I was an alien with superior technology and some humans were foolish enough to tell me where they lived, I’d turn Earth into my summer home planet. I’ve seen this movie before, and I for one am not looking forward to being conquered by an alien race.
Then again, maybe they’d run the planet better than our governments… tough choice, actually. Why does everyone care about space so much? There are so many things to how to write an essay worry about just on our own planet, who cares if there are aliens? Just because aliens always want to conquer Earth in the movies doesn’t mean they’d want to in reality. How To Write English Essays Montverde Academy? Maybe they’d just want to Hult hang out or exchange ideas.
Maybe CNN should ban all space-related articles from now on, since it’s all just a waste of time and money. Ban them? Why? Whose time and money is creative writing newspaper being wasted anyway? Allow me to borrow words from a Reader’s Comment in an on-line newspaper: “Perhaps the most convincing sign that there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe is the how to International Business School fact than none of it has tried to contact us.” Awesome comment, AC. Best so far! Actually, I think Stephen Hawking has been ABSOLUTELY correct. Lately, he has been extremely vocal that he believes it is a HUGE ERROR to attempt to get in touch with extra-terrestrials. In fact, he has been insisting that we should do everything we can to about your family Jiaotong-Liverpool University NOT be discovered by them, as there is a good likelihood that they may be extremely hostile and learn how to Hult Business School, violent. Only fools believe that because they might have advanced technology that they would be helpful little E.T.s…..No.
They might well want to writing article Glenalmond College exterminate our species. Write An Essay Hult School? That is entirely possible, and we should NOT be giving them any help to do so. This project is founded on online essay of Central the faith that they will be friendly–but there is NO EVIDENCE that this would be the case. None. I don’t believe that. Write An Essay Hult International? People are the violent monsters. If Aliens have the means to travel here and how to an analytical Holderness School, are super intelligent, I bet they will just laugh and pity out shallow existence. Blah Blah Blah…Aliens? what a load of rubbish, the people who donated to help raise the 200K are wasting there time and money. He can do robot voice, he must be smart. I totally agree with you statement, 100% or hawkings statement! although I believe we already have made contact and it will never come out that we have either,period so yeah, i’m a fan of NASA but SETI is pointless and dangerous. If people want to spend their money on this, good for them.
I’ll pay my bills instead. 200,000 of a privately funded program would hardly fix our economy. Throw the money into education and maybe we could stop raising dumbasses that think 200 grand would solve our problems. looks like we got our priorities right, looking for aliens instead of fixing our economy. Don’t be shortsighted.
Pretty soon, aliens are the only ones who will be able to give the U.S. any form of credit. No government money is being spent on that. It’s none of your business if individuals want to donate to furthering scientific knowledge. Your comment just makes you look stupid. What a waste of money, there are no aliens out in space, if there is they are demonic. An interesting and surprisingly closed-minded view of learn write an essay Hult International things. i want to fill a pillowcase with bars of soap and beat the $h1t out of you!
Paul is really small minded. There are obviously aliens in space due to the size of the write an analytical essay universe. However, the odds of us making contact with them or the learn how to write International Business chances of any living nearby are very very low. So you believe in your superstitious angels and demons while the educated of write about family us will leave keep up to date with the quest for UFOs. According that logic, anyone whose view differs from learn how to International yours is considered a ‘sheep’? Quite the write about your Jiaotong-Liverpool contrary, as Paul is International Business one of the few people here who doubt the how to write an analytical School existence of write Business School ET life. It is only by an essay about your family Xi’an University, your assumption that the universe was not created that you believe aliens must exist.
According to your world view, aliens must exist. However, your world view is based on write International Business unprovable assumptions, so perhaps you should examine your convictions a little more carefully. According to creative article College Paul’s world view, the learn how to Hult School universe WAS created, and not once does God mention alien life in the way you hope. Steps To Writing? Hence, according to Paul’s world view, it is learn write an essay International Business logical to steps a college presume that aliens DO NOT exist. Learn How To Hult School? This is a battle of the world views, and, to date, we have not found any irrefutable proof of alien life. We’ve only writing essay Florida found irrefutable proof of your eighth-grade logic skills. And your assumption is learn how to write an essay Hult Business that god exists.
This is a battle of the world views, and, to date, we have not found any irrefutable proof of alien life. Do you have any irrefutable proof of God? Just using your own logic to essays Academy ask this question. Your momma is learn how to Hult Business School demonic. CNN – put this on the menu of your first page.
Even Fox does that with its (ironically) very good science blog. @ steve gist cosmetics are makeup. Astronomy is space and people need to steps essay Charterhouse quit complaining It was from how to Hult International Business School PRIVATE DONORS! And SETI is worth it we need to become more advanced eventually earth will become overpopulated now this a ways away but it will happen so its best to start early. I saw aliens once, I should have gone with them…. Maybe you should have. While space travel is important and fully worth the to writing essay money put into it, this is an absolute waste of money. I’m just glad it was public money and not government spending. Intelligent life is most likely out there, but it’s not visiting Earth. To make sure I don’t get any hate comments, I mean looking for aliens is learn how to write Hult International Business School a waste.
Tracking space debris isn’t. #128521; Yeah! I see. Write Your Family Jiaotong-Liverpool? There’s a smiley coming from a voice. Intelligent life is how to write School out there, but perhaps not here. WOW! Applaud! On seeing the news, I’m excited. Of all the steps a college researches about deep space program, SETI is supposed to be a miraculous project.
Better still, SETI has become an aid of both U.S. Air Force and NASA’s Kepler mission. Let’s expect SETI can raise much more money from more achievable services. I am sorry that the number that you are trying is how to an essay International no longer working the humans that you’re trying to reach were stupid and run out of money. WHY? Why waste money on this, look how long they have been doing this and what’s the end result…..nothing.
They could have donated the money to me and I would run around in an analytical a alien suit for them yelling we come in peace. if this is write Hult International Business a waste of online writing University money-what about HAARP? They have burned a giant hole in out atmosphere and accomplished nothing and their budget is not even listed by the GAO nor is Area 51-or its other 2 sites.. We know ET exists-he/she/it is visiting the earth weekly and learn how to write an essay International Business School, smart enough not to land.. Yes, it is true that they have not found alien life. It is also true that governments are the only entities that have the luxury of College thinking in terms of generations and not weekly targets. This is a humanities project and may never pay off and learn how to write School, if it does it may not be for many, many years.
So what? You’d better stop searching for alien life, save our life instead. we should not compare oranges to apples, scientific research fund helps our next generation and its an investment. Write Essay Holderness School? we should appreciate donner’s long sight, and write an essay International Business School, if we find Aliens, then we can share our problems for better out-come. Its just my thought. I’m sorry, but 200K to search for life outstide of writing article Glenalmond College this planet is how to write Hult School rediculous, when there are issues here on this planet which require those funds. Look one of those children in Africa in the eye and essay University, watch them die of learn write an essay Hult starvation, and writing Glenalmond, then tell me that the money is being well used. Lets say for example that there is life out there other than ours. What then? Another planet for us to learn School do damage to online of Central Florida like the one we live on here?
Useless waste of money. And the learn write Hult School gov’t wonders why it’s in the trouble it’s in…. this is private money so they can do as they like…welfare for scientists is a worthy goal i think. As for aliens- they don’t exist. Write School? Mathimatical odd are that we are completely alone in this galaxy- the more we learn about the universe the lower the Hult International Business odds that there are other civilizations around is becoming. “Mathimatical odd are that we are completely alone in this galaxy-” This is untrue.
I’m not sure what new evidence you are referring to here. The only evidence that would suggest we are alone is the fact that we haven’t seen anyone else. Otherwise, the odds of there being possibly life harboring planets is staggeringly large. That’s the paradox though… I’m sorry, laurab68, but if you read the article, it says the $200k was from DONATIONS by private bodies. So you need to an analytical College Manchester take your complaints to the more than 2,300 people or institutions which donated. Don’t blame the government for how to Hult, something it didn’t do, sweetheart. What’s rediculous is your spelling.
The real ridiculous thing is that you are so narrow minded to your Jiaotong-Liverpool not see the importance of expanding our scientific horizons… And for the win: You are stupid for your government remark… Stop spending money on cosmetics then and donate it to the starving of the worlld. How To Write An Essay Hult? If all the people in the USA and steps to writing a college, the ‘first world’ stop spending did that trillions would go to the needy. How To Hult? $200k on research? Pah! Nothing. Here’s an how to Holderness idea if you’re so into helping starving africans donate all your wealth to how to Hult Business them, otherwise STFU and let nature take her course. AYO BRO. CHECK THIS OUT BRO. FIRST UP. HOW ABOUT IT AINT OUR OBLIGATION TO HELP PEOPLE WHO CANT HELP DEMSELVES BRO.
WE NEEDA GO OUT DERE AND STRAIGHT UP TAKE OUR STUFF INTO THE COSMOS BRO. In all honesty, we’re wasting time here on Earth. We need to go into an analytical Abbey College Manchester the cosmos. $200,000 wont solve any issues in Africa or America-its a drop in a bucket and privately funded so whats your point? How much you think 200K is… it does not get you s nice one bedroom home in learn write Hult International Business delhi… i am actually surprised that these guys can run show with such thin budget…. its totally worth it… if they get something its great… otherwise few million dollars is just peanuts in real world….
you make me sad. your narrow mindedness is exactly the kind of creative writing article College thinking that will lead us into learn how to Hult School the apocalypse you seem so convinced will befall any new worlds discovered by how to an analytical Holderness School, humans. if you don’t see the merit in investing in research, i invite you to how to International give up your car, your mobile phone, electricity, the internet, air conditioning, and steps to writing a college essay Charterhouse, move into a cave. You want to talk about wasting money? How about how to write Hult International all the millions that movie stars and athletes have? Yes, I know that they are the write your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool best at what they do … but it’s the write an essay Hult Business best at write, acting and how to an essay International, playing a game. Steps A College Essay Charterhouse? Or even better are the people that are famous because they know a famous person. If we wouldn’t spend so much money on being entertained and more on science and Hult, mathmatics then maybe we wouldn’t be in the situation we’re currently in. We could have already mastered interplanetary travel, but no. We would rather be entertained than be smart.
ur makin 2 much cents. Steps Essay Charterhouse? pleas stop makin my hed hert.
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How to write a compelling scholarship essay - Hult International
The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction. The predominant current-day meaning of how to write an essay, genotype is some relevant part of the DNA passed to the organism by its parents. The phenotype is the write essay Holderness School physical and behavioral traits of the organism, for example, size and shape, metabolic activities, and patterns of movement. The distinction between them is especially important in evolutionary theory, where the survival and mating of organisms depends on their traits, but it is the DNA, held to be unaffected by the development of the traits over the life course, that is transmitted to the next generation. Philosophical discussion mostly now takes the predominant meanings as given, focusing instead on questions about the genotype-phenotype relationship . Learn School! For example: How can DNA be construed as information for the processes of development of an organism’s traits? What is the causal status of DNA versus other influences in the organism’s development? (see entries on inheritance systems and School, biological information and also Griffiths Stotz 2013). Without dismissing the importance of learn how to write Hult, such questions, the focus of this entry remains on the genotype-phenotype distinction . Given that discussion by philosophers of this issue has been minimal, this entry cannot take the standard form of a review of newspaper article, published debates.
In order to help frame and orient readers’ conceptual inquiries, another approach is needed. The entry builds from the observations that the original meanings of genotype and phenotype and the distinction between them as given by Wilhelm Johannsen (1911) were quite different from the now predominant meaning (given above) and learn write School, that different kinds of meanings coexist in Johannsen and how to english Academy, up to the present. To make sense of those observations, Johannsen’s paper is recounted with special reference to practices or assumptions regarding control of biological materials and conditions. Subsequent developments are then described in relation to learn an essay problems introduced by conceptualizing heredity on the basis of how to Holderness, breeding experiments. This framing brings into play many areas of philosophical discussions, including the “New Experimentalism” in learn an essay, philosophy of biology (see entry on experiment in biology), abstraction (see entry on abstract objects), confirmation, ambiguity, Scientific Realism, descriptive versus normative approaches, and The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge. At the same time, the framing helps open up questions that have not been well addressed in those discussions and has implications for issues that might seem settled to many who, when they invoke the genotype-phenotype distinction, are simply thinking DNA versus trait. 1. Setting the Scene: Different Kinds of Meanings of Genotype and Phenotype.
The meaning of the terms given at the start of the introduction may at writing an analytical essay College Manchester, first seem clear, but conceptual questions have accompanied or been implied by the use of the terms since their introduction to write International School English-language readers by Johannsen’s (1911) “The Genotype Conception of Heredity” and up until the present. How does an individual organism’s DNA influence the processes of development of its traits over its lifetimeprocesses that also involve other influences? How can an online essay University Florida, individual organism’s traits be used to identify its DNA sequence? Why are the terms genotype and phenotype still used if they simply refer to the individual’s DNA and traits? One answer to this last question is an essay that what counts is less the meaning of the an analytical essay Abbey terms than what their use has come to signify , in particular, that certain issues have been resolved: the barrier between the organism’s life course and learn International Business School, DNA transmitted to write an essay about Xi’an the next generation; evolution is change in frequencies of genes or DNA sequences in populations over time; development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of learn an essay International School, a composite of the effects of DNA on the organism; what counts is what is underneath or inside the observable surface; and creative article Glenalmond College, findings about learn how to write Hult International School, heredity derived using one meaning of terms affirm findings derived using a different meaning. How firmly resolved are these issues? If one wants to open them up for further scrutiny, it could be helpful to question the meaning of genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them.
Another response to why the writing an analytical Manchester terms continue to learn how to an essay International School be used is that the predominant meanings are not the only ones. Type connotes a class . This sense of the terms leads to further questions: What makes organisms similar enough to be grouped in to writing Charterhouse, a genotype as a class? or in a phenotype as a class? How is the International School membership of organisms in a genotype manifest in their membership in a phenotypeor phenotypes? How can the membership of organisms in a phenotype be used to identify their membership in a genotype? Type also connotes an abstraction away from the article full set of observed characteristics. What then is to be accentuated and what de-emphasized about a genotype and phenotype, as DNA and traits or as classesespecially when asking any of the previous questions?
And howby what concepts, methods, and modelsis what has been de-emphasized to be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific account? To make sense of the learn how to write International Business School original meanings of the terms and to writing Charterhouse, the distinction between them as well as the learn how to write an essay coexistence of different kinds of meanings since then, a specific kind of abstraction (see entry on abstract objects) is pertinent, namely, the write english essays material practices of control over biological materials and conditions advanced in learn how to Hult International Business School, modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding or entailed in the allied use of models in analysis of data . Reliable methods more than endorsable theories are the touchstone of this kind of abstraction. It is within a framing of controland the consequent challenge of reintegrationthat this entry discusses the other senses already mentioned of the terms genotype and writing article, phenotype: in the context of the relationship between an individual’s DNA and traits; what the use of the learn an essay Hult School terms signifies; and grouping into classes. (Given the continuing coexistence of the different kinds of meaning of the terms, qualifiers are used when there might be ambiguity.) Although there may be grounds to revise various positions and inquiries about the genotype-phenotype relationship in how to write an analytical essay, light of assumptions made about control and eventual reintegration, such discussion lies beyond the scope of this entry. (If the learn write School genotype-phenotype relationship were the entry’s focus, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims; see Winther 2014 for an entry point and section 7.) The entry also cannot do justice to essay Abbey College the rich social and economic history of heredity, where concrete cases abound concerning the control of biological materials for production and breedingdating from well before the genotype-phenotype distinction through to present-day biotechnology. (Readers wanting to reintegrate the history and context might usefully start with the essays collected in Müller-Wille et al. 2008b, Deichmann et al. 2014, and Müller-Wille Brandt 2016, and references cited therein. Müller-Wille 2008 and Bonneuil 2016, in particular, describe Johannsen’s professional and modernizing aspirations and place them in their economic context. Rolls-Hansen 2014 places Johannsen’s 1911 contribution in the context of shifts in his views over his career.) 2. The Goals and learn write Hult Business, Open Questions of an analytical Abbey Manchester, Johannsen (1911) Marcel Weber (2014) notes that, because many areas of modern biology “are profoundly experimental disciplines, an increased attention [in philosophy of biology] to the experiment in biology was inevitable” (see also entry on gene). Yet, how an area of biology becomes experimental in the first place as well as the implications of that shift also warrant attention.
A recounting of Johannsen (1911) in this vein serves not only to introduce his original genotype-phenotype distinction, but also to point to various conceptual and methodological complexities that are associated with redefining heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. Learn Write International! The detail in writing essay of Central, this section and how to School, the next is important not as a matter of doing history, but to insert distance from the predominant current-day meanings and establish a space in which modern users of his terms can consider issues that had been left behind. 2.1 Goals: Establish Repeatable Outcomes and Expose Hidden Processes. The overarching project for Johannsen (1911) was to creative newspaper College promote a shift from “morphological-descriptive” natural history (1911: 134), in which appearances could mislead or be spun into speculative theories, to an “exact science” (1911: 131) using the learn Hult International School experimental control of biological materials and conditions needed to establish repeatable outcomes and expose hidden processes. 2.1.1 Alternative to “Transmission-Conception” of creative writing newspaper article, Heredity. A specific variant of Johannsen’s overarching project was to how to International Business School articulate an alternative to traditional accounts of heredity, which, in his words, tried to conceive or “explain” the presumed transmission of general or peculiar characters and qualities “inherited” from parents or more remote ancestors. (1911: 129) In rejecting such a “transmission-conception” of heredity (his term), Johannsen sought specifically to depart from two approaches: a) the analysis by biometricians of continuous variation (such as the spread of heights in a given population), which showed traits of offspring to be numerically correlated with those of their parents, grandparents, and so onsuch analysis preserved the an analytical essay Holderness possibility of “ancestral influences” (1911: 138); and b) particulate theories, such as those of August Weismann and Darwinians that could be seen as consistent with transmission of parental traits to the zygote (the initial cell resulting from learn how to write International, a fusion of gametes or germ cells , i.e., egg and sperm). Johannsen saw no evidence for the idea that the “elements responsible for inheritance involve the different organs or tissue-groups of the individual developing from the zygote” (1911: 131). Johannsen’s alternative involved four steps of concept and method:
“[T]he objects for scientific research” are “‘types’ of organisms distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description, [which] may be characterized as ‘ phenotypes. ’ Certainly phenotypes are real things” (1911: 134); There are germ cells that form a basis for development of an an essay your, organism of the next generation; Denote as a genotype the class of organisms that share the same basis for how to Hult development in the germ cells; Use experimentally manufactured subsets of possible phenotypes, namely, inbred lines of beans, to demonstrate the significance of the preceding items. (An inbred line is produced by mating or “crossing” plants with themselvesthat is, “self-pollinating”many times.) In Johannsen’s experiments, the plants in any line showed variation in a given trait under differing conditions, but selection among the plants for creative newspaper Glenalmond that trait did not result in improvement from one generation to the next. Whatever the nature of the how to write an essay Hult International Business germ cells that seeds from a line shared, and in steps, whatever ways it “reacted” during the plant’s development thus “interfering with the totality of how to write an essay Hult Business School, all incident factors, may it be external or internal” (1911: 133), seeds of the next generation did not result in plants that matched their parent any more than plants from any other seed from the same line (a theory summarized in Figure 1). Plants from the inbred line were instances of a genotype; variation in the traits grown from the seeds was, borrowing from Richard Woltereck, the norm of write about Jiaotong-Liverpool University, reaction (Reaktionsnorm) of that genotype; a plant’s relative position in the norm of reaction was not transmitted to its offspring; and (with the how to write Hult International emphasis Johannsen’s) “ selection is not able to shift the nature of genotypes ” (1911: 137). Because the nature or constituents of a genotype were stable , the “genotype-conception” of heredity was “ahistoric” (1911: 139). (Note: Johannsen did not adopt Weismann’s term germplasm to University denote the material basis for animal development sequestered from the somatoplasm early each generation [Churchill 1974: 19]. Yet, whatever the material basis of development was for plant genotypes, it was similarly shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the an essay International School organism’s lifetime within the organism and with the your family Xi’an University environment.) Figure 1: Johannsen’s view of learn write International Business School, heredity: Germ cells that form a basis for development of an organism get reproduced for the next generation unaffected by the development of the traits over the life course. 2.1.2 Unambiguous Use of Phenotypes to Distinguish Genotypes. Phenotypes might, Johannsen noted, be a mix of several genotypes (as illustrated by the sole figure in the 1911 article; Churchill 1974). To remove the ambiguity of appearanceto be able to how to write an analytical essay use phenotypes to distinguish genotypeshe relied on research that was flourishing after the learn how to write an essay Hult International rediscovery in 1900 of Gregor Mendel’s experiments on peas. Those experiments can be summarized as follows:
Conditions in which the peas were grown were kept as uniform as possible from one plant to the next. Inbred lines were established that differed one from the other in ways that Mendel dichotomized, e.g., round or wrinkly peas; tall or dwarf plants. How To Write An Analytical School! By preventing self-pollination, different inbred lines could be crossed to produce what are called hybrids (F1) and then self-pollinated to produce the next generation (F2). The F1 hybrids all showed one of any pair of write an essay Business, dichotomous traits. Around ¾ of the F2 generation showed that trait; ¼ showed the other trait. (For example, when a pure breeding purple-flowered variety was crossed to how to Academy a pure breeding white-flowered form, all the F1 offspring were purple-flowered. When, however, these purple-flowered hybrids were crossed with each other, both purple-flowered and white-flowered plants appeared in the progeny.) From the F1 and F2 ratios Mendel concluded that two “factors” influenced each trait of the pea plant, one from the pollen and one from the ovary of the learn Hult parent plants. In turn, only essays one of the two factors went to each pollen and ovary (Law of Segregation), each unaffected by the nature of the other factor it had previously been paired with. When the two factors were of different kinds, the trait that resulted from development was not intermediate. Instead, it looked the same as the F1 hybrid and the more-frequent F2 offspring, that is, like one of the originally crossed lines (Law of Dominance).
In other words, although the F1 hybrids appeared the same as one of the inbred parents, the write Hult School hybrids could be shown, through the ratios of the two traits in writing newspaper article Glenalmond College, the F2 generation, to belong, using Johannsen’s terms, to a different genotypea heterozygote (i.e., paired factors different from how to write Hult, each other), not a homozygote (i.e., paired factors the same). 2.2 Advances, Ambiguities and a college, Open Questions. The experiments of Johannsen and Mendel (summarized in Figure 2) can be seen as having achieved the goals given above (section 2.1). Figure 2: Mendel-Johannsen method: Inbreeding, controlled crosses, and control of experimental conditions allows unambiguous use of phenotypes to distinguish genotypes. Johannsen’s experiments on inbred lines produced repeatable outcomes and illuminated hidden processes: traits acquired during development in certain conditions were not transmitted to offspring, that is, the nature or constituents of the genotype were shielded from most of the interactions within the organism and with the environment that occur during the organism’s lifetime. Even if the reactions of different genotypes under various conditions resulted in “differences between the phenotype-curves [that] may vary considerably or may even vanish entirely” (Johannsen 1911: 145), a specific “genotypical constitution always reacts in the same manner under identical conditions” (1911: 146). Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines extended this genotype-conception of learn Business School, heredity. Of Central! Hidden processes were exposed in the sense that sexual reproduction involves joining together of pairs of factorsfor which Johannsen coined the term genes. That meant the reappearance in F2 of Business, traits not visible in F1 could be explained without any ancestral influence. How To An Analytical Holderness School! The rest of his goals were also fulfilled: The dichotomous nature of Mendel’s traits afforded Johannsen the distance he desired from the analysts of continuous variation who had entertained ancestral influences.
Mendelian researchers had a method to remove the ambiguity of learn how to write International Business School, appearance so genotypes could be distinguished from each other (and their constituents shown to be stable). Steps To Writing A College Essay! In sum, these experimental approaches rendered irrelevant past speculations about the “elements responsible for inheritance” (1911: 131; Churchill 1974). At the same time, Johannsen (1911) introduced many ambiguities and questions about the import of his new terms. At first sight, the learn how to write an essay International Business School sense of classes is predominant. About Your Family Jiaotong-Liverpool! The phenotype, consisting of organisms “distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description” (1911: 134), is used to learn how to an essay International identify the genotype as a class of University of Central, organisms that shares constituents stable from generation to generation. Yet, no method is discussed to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes, let alone identify a genotype-as-class in such populations. Learn Write An Essay Hult International! It is in the restricted realm of inbred lines that identifying genotypes from phenotypes is possible, albeit not reliably if a phenotype includes a mix of inbred lines. Notice, however, if an inbred line is bred true (i.e., not crossed with any other lines), it is a college Charterhouse a genotype-as-class. There is no need to divide up the lines into phenotypes in order to identify genotypes, and it matters not that the traits of individuals in an inbred line vary with the conditions in which the individuals are raised.
Indeed, the norm of reaction of the inbred line is one way to think of the an essay School genotype as an abstracted type. Moreover, there is no need to identify the material basis of the genotypic constituents shared by the inbred line. Nevertheless, Mendel’s experiments had begun to online writing University Florida expose the learn how to an essay Hult International School constituents’ nature. When inbred lines were crossed then self-pollinated, the how to english essays Montverde Academy traits of individuals raised under uniform conditions could be analyzed statistically by employingand thereby demonstratinga model of genotypic constituents as pairs of segregating factors. Hult Business School! In these experiments, phenotypes and write Holderness School, genotypes as classes still play a role, with the F2 phenotypes being used to identify whether apparently identical F1 phenotypes are heterozygote or homozygote genotypes. It might be asked whether Johannsen’s reference to the “finer methods of measuring or description” could be construed to include the disambiguating analysis of ratios after inbreeding, crossing, and self-pollination? If the answer is write an essay Business yes, the creative writing newspaper inbred parent could be classified as a different phenotype from the F1 hybrid. In that case, the Johannsenian study of heredity would amount to generating phenotypesclasses of organisms distinguished by “finer methods of measuring or description” of traitsthat are isomorphic with genotypesclasses of organisms that share identical stable constituents. Yet, the learn how to write Business School experimental control of creative writing newspaper Glenalmond, biological material and conditions that make such a mapping possible also provided the Mendelian researchers of the early twentieth century a means to investigate the genotype-as-material-constituents (see section 3). Indeed, Johannsen’s conception of the genotype as a class of organisms sharing stable genotypic constituents already pointed that way.
However, in taking up that direction of research what was left unaddressed was the relevance for understanding heredity in naturally varying populations of phenotype-to-genotype mapping and investigations of the constituents of learn how to write, genotype using Mendelian methods. Johannsen (1911) does not address those issues (which are returned to how to write an analytical in section 5), but he does point to several other concerns about the concepts, methods, and implications of the learn how to Business School genotype conception of heredity. These follow. The continuous variation common in regular populations did not, for Johannsen, contradict the discontinuity of genotypes: The well-known displacement of a population proceeding from generation to generation in an analytical Holderness, the direction indicated by the selectionis due to the existence a priori of genotypical differences in such populations. (1911: 137) Such selection changed the relative proportion of genotypes in the population, not any genotype itself.
There could have been room here for reconciliation with the how to write Business biometrical view of essay University of Central, variation in non-experimental populations, but that avenue was not pursued by Johannsen. Instead, like many other exponents of Mendel’s rediscovered work, he chose to dispute the Hult idea that different types of organism could be “evolved from each other by extremely small steps in genotypical change”. Instead, “the mutations really observed in nature have all shown themselves as considerable, discontinuous saltations” (1911: 158; i.e., jumps). Mendelian experiments fostered a particulate view of heredity in the way that two factors influence a given trait. (In that sense, the old transmission conception had not been fully banished.) Yet Johannsen wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole : “[C]haracters may be determined by several different genes, and one sort of gene may have influence upon several different reactions” (1911: 153). He advised that “the talk of ‘genes for any particular character’ ought to be omitted” (1911: 147).
If this view was to be made into newspaper article Glenalmond College exact science, some method for analyzing the genotypical constitution or genotype as a whole was needed. Johannsen did not provide one. Johannsen raised another concern about learn an essay International Business School, genes as particulate factors when he asserted that the writing article Glenalmond traits “of the organism in toto are the results of the reactions of the genotypical constitution” (1911: 147; his emphasis); there was no “suggestive value” in the idea that “discrete particles of the learn Business School chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet Mendel’s original experiments could be seen to creative Glenalmond support that very idea: the traits of the peas were not only dichotomous, but there was no pattern of how to write an essay Hult Business School, co-occurrence of variants of the different traits, as would be the case if, say, crinkly peas occurred more often on dwarf plants. Given such independent assortment of traits, it would make sense, contra Johannsen, to talk of a pair of factors or genes for crinkly peas. A new transmission conception of heredity was plausible. Johannsen also noted that. there may be very narrow limits for [Mendelian] analysis: the entire organization may never be “segregated” into genes. (1911: 153)
To put that in another way, the influence of factors that are identical for all members of a species cannot be studied through Mendelian crosses. The genotype-conception of heredity, by centering on genotypic differences associated with phenotypic differences, shifted attention away from the species-typical aspects of the write your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool germ cells and School, subsequent development. Mendelian analysis focused on differences over similarity , even though both aspects were included in then prevailing conceptions of heredity (Sapp 1987). (Similarity was part of heredity in the sense that, for the eye color of some flies to online University of Central differ from the rest of the population, the initial cell or zygote of the fly has to be able to develop into learn International an organism that has eyes with color.) Morphological-descriptive natural history is, as Johannsen (1911) desired, downplayed in the pursuit of experimentally generated and repeatable outcomes, yet his writing did not acknowledge that the same pursuit characterized a well-established field of writing an analytical College, zoological research, “developmental mechanics” ( Entwicklungsmechanik ). This experimental field had a morphological focus on how to International Business School how cells become arranged into tissues, organs, and writing Florida, the organism’s overall form, and how such organization is learn Hult School regenerated after disturbance or through the formation of germ cells (see entry on developmental biology). Important contemporaries of Johannsen grappled with the tensions between Mendelism and development (Deichmann 2014), but he merely evoked development in broad strokesas the writing an analytical essay genotypes reacting or “interfering with the totality of all incident factors” (1911: 133)and left the mechanics or dynamics as a secondary concern. For the new genotype-conception of heredity, stability of the genotype across generations was the primary fact. In putting mechanics to how to Business the side, the descriptive side of studies of heredity that Johannsen decried can be seen persisting, to some degree, in his original definitions of phenotype and genotype as classes of organisms. 2.2.5 Shared Nature of the Germ Cells. Johannsen placed not only the developmental processes, but also the material make-up of the germ cells or the writing an analytical essay genes outside the scope of an essay Hult International, his genotype-conception of heredity: “[T]he nature of the ‘genes’ is of Central as yet of no value to write an essay Business School propose any hypothesis” (1911: 133).
Yet, the shift (mentioned earlier), where the focus in studies of heredity moved on to the material make-up, was prefigured by his referring to the genotypical constitution and newspaper article, noting that “a ‘genotype’ is the sum total of all the ‘genes’ in a gamete or in a zygote” (1911: 1323). A further shift towards exposing the Hult Business School dynamics of development that build on those constituents was prefigured when Johannsen referred to “phenotypes i.e., the reactions of the writing newspaper article Glenalmond College genotypical constituents” (1911: 145). Figure 3: Extensions of Mendel-Johannsen method: Identification of genotypes as parts of germ cells corresponding to differences in phenotypes as specific traits → Location of genotypes on chromosomes → Further control and reproducibility of genotypes and phenotypes → Heredity as transmission of genes (pairs of which make up genotypes) → DNA as material basis of genes. 3. From Mendelian Research and Models to the Present: Advances, Ambiguities and write Hult International, Persisting Questions. The conservatism expressed in how to write essay, Johannsen (1911) about identifying the material basis of genes, as the nature of the germ cells shared by learn how to write Hult, a genotype, was not so evident among the how to english essays Mendelian researchers who quickly came to adopt the new terms gene, genotype, and phenotype during that decade. Learn Write An Essay International Business School! The focus moved beyond refuting what Johannsen called the “transmission-conception” of heredity and towards heredity as transmission in the new sense of genes going from parents to the germ cells of offspring (Figure 3). Research in to writing essay Charterhouse, laboratory genetics and learn Hult International Business School, agricultural breeding extended Mendelian methods productively, but it also allowed some of the conceptual and methodological problems of Johannsen introduced in section 2 to persist and ramify. 3.1 Particulate FactorsMapping Genes Along Chromosomes. Mendelian research soon showed the independent assortment of factors in Mendel’s experiments to be a special case, not a law. Departures from independent assortment of traits allowed the identification of linkage groups, in which variants of two or more traits co-occur, which eventually were shown to correspond to the proximity of their place or locus on distinct chromosomes. (Indeed, Mendelian research helped expose properties of the chromosomes, such as their role in write essay School, sex determination, and investigate many other biological issues. Waters  criticizes philosophers who interpret Mendelism solely in terms of establishing a theory of inheritance: “Posing and solving carefully orchestrated pedigree problems was the means, not the ends, of learn how to International Business, classical genetics”.) Johannsen’s resistance to the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the writing essay Abbey College Manchester whole inheritance” (1911: 1312) was shared by learn Hult International Business School, others (Deichmann 2014), but such reservations did not hold back the rise of Mendelianism to a dominant position in how to write english essays Montverde, research into heredity well before the material make-up and functioning of those particlesthe geneswas revealed in the 1950s.
The particulate view was affirmed by producing heritable alterations in phenotypes after bombarding organisms with high-energy ionizing radiation. It remained central to experiments involving crosses between lines that, as much as possible, those lines were inbred and learn write an essay Hult, identical and homozygous for genes influencing all traits apart from for the traits under study. Of Central Florida! While the identical homozygous genes might have an influence on the development of learn how to write an essay Hult School, any focal trait, differences in Montverde, that trait could be attributed to differences in the genes that were not identical among the crossed lines. (Indeed, by the 1930s heredity had come to refer to the transmission of and Hult International Business, cross-generational patterns in online University of Central, these differences, not to the development of the similarities from which differences depart [Sapp 1987].) Genotype could be applied to classes of how to Hult School, organisms with a specific pair of genes (or small set of pairs) or to steps Charterhouse the specific pairs of genes themselves (matching the connotation of type as an abstraction away from the full set of observed characteristics). In Mendelian experiments phenotypes-as-classes demarcated by a small set of traits could be used to identify genotypes-as-classes. Then, once the genotype as pair(s) of genes was mapped to a locus on the chromosome, the direction could be reversed: the learn write an essay International phenotype would then be the subset of an essay University of Central, organism’s traits associated with the genotype under given conditions (a forerunner here of the predominant current-day meaning). 3.2 Identification of write International, Phenotypes and GenotypesComplications. Mendelian methods of inference based on a small set of traits and pairs of genes were complicated by phenomena that came to be called epistasis, expressivity, penetrance, and incomplete dominance and, to a lesser extent, by College Manchester, a background level of mutation for any gene being studied. Muriel Wheldale’s genetic analysis of the color of snapdragon flowers, for example, showed that plants with one or more dominant alleles (i.e., variants of the gene) at learn an essay Hult International Business School, a certain locus would show color patterns that she was able to associate with the genotype at three other loci, but plants with two recessive alleles at the first locus would be white no matter whatthe homozygote recessive genotype had an epistatic effect over the other genotypes. A range of phenotypes may be shown to correspond to a college essay Charterhouse the same genotype expressivity . A phenotype that is associated with a certain genotype may be observed for only a fraction of individuals in or with that genotype penetrance . With respect to expressivity and Hult International School, penetrance, researchers try to link the observed variation to conditions occurring during development, stochastic developmental noise, or differences remaining at loci not under study, and to how to english Montverde Academy decide where in the range of the trait, say, melanin pigmentation, to learn how to International Business demarcate one phenotype from another. Incomplete dominance means the occurrence of an intermediate phenotype (e.g., pink snapdragon flowers resulting from crosses of white and red inbred lines). Incomplete dominance removed some of the ambiguities in using phenotypes to distinguish genotypes, but the combination of the four phenomena and linkage for multiple loci meant that Mendelian researchers had to distinguish among multiple hypotheses about the genotypes consistent with observed patterns of traits in the offspring of crosses.
Background levels of mutation, including mutations in essay of Central, non-germ cells during the lifetime, ensure that even genotypes-as-classes consisting of clones or of identical or monozygotic twins are not made up of strictly identical members. Nevertheless, with suitable organisms and for certain traits, and under the inbreeding and how to Business, control of conditions typical of writing Abbey College Manchester, Mendelian experiments, the how to International School painstaking work of inferring genotypes (as pairs of genes) from phenotypes could bear fruit. Not all aspects of the study of heredity could be made an steps essay Charterhouse, experimental endeavor through Mendelian methods. There were many traits for which the continuous variation could not be subdivided into discrete phenotypes, let alone linked to genotypes, especially for traits in agriculture of economic interest such as yield of plant and animal varieties or breeds. By the learn write an essay International Business School end of the 1910s Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright had begun to address the need to steps reconcile the discreteness of genotypes with continuous variation in many observable traits. In the mathematical models of a field that came to be known as quantitative genetics , differences between unobserved theoretical genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) at each of a large number of loci contribute to differences in the trait, modulated by degrees of write International Business School, correspondingly theoretical dominance and epistasis. Under the reasonable assumption that more of the genes are shared among relatives than in the population as a whole, data on a given trait as it varies across genealogically defined lines or groups of specified relatedness could be analyzed so as to provide predictions of changes in the average value of the trait in writing an analytical College Manchester, the population under selective breeding. Of course, the trait values and how to, thus the predictions depended on the conditions in how to Academy, which the organisms developed, but in the laboratory and, to varying degrees, in agricultural breeding, conditions could be replicated.
For the breeder, the focus of the learn how to write an essay International Business quantitative genetic data analysis on differences in the trait makes practical sense; it is not necessary to know the mechanisms through which the traits developed as organisms reacted to conditions. In other words, the meanings of genotype, phenotype, and their distinction again make sense as an abstraction through practices of steps a college Charterhouse, control over biological materials and conditions in agricultural and laboratory breeding and the allied use of models and analysis of data. It should also be noted that, in agricultural breeding, the lines or other genealogically defined groups became called genotypes as well. Genotypes in learn write an essay Hult International Business School, this sense are classes of individuals related by genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors. The relatedness takes a variety of Montverde Academy, formsnot only pure (inbred or cloned) lines, but also offspring of a given pair of write an essay International School, parents or a set of ancestors or an open pollinated plant variety in which the how to write english Montverde genes vary within replicable bounds among the generations of an essay, individuals in the class. The corresponding phenotype is then the range of values of the trait or set of writing an analytical Abbey, traits as they are observed to vary for the genealogically defined line or group in the given location(s) or situation(s). International Business! In this sense the to writing Charterhouse phenotypes from different lines may overlap; organisms are divisible into how to an essay Hult Business School phenotypes as classes for the purpose of quantitative genetic analysis not through “finer methods of measuring or description”, but because the write about Xi’an lines or groups are separable. (Quantitative genetics extended to humans does not involve controlled breeding, but does rely on relatedness that differs between, say, monozygotic and dizygotic (i.e., fraternal) twins. Even though a twin pair is not conventionally referred to Hult International as a genotype, human quantitative genetics has followed the same idea for data analysis as used in agricultural breeding.)
3.4 Continuous Variation; Particulate Factors. The mathematical models of online writing of Central Florida, quantitative genetics could be readily extended from selective breeding to evolutionary change by having theoretical genotypes from learn write an essay International Business, a large number of loci each contribute to parameters for surviving and leaving offspringso-called selection coefficients . Essay Manchester! Data on the variation for a trait in a specific group or population could be analyzed so as to estimate the parameters in the model that would generate the observed changes in the average value of the Hult International School trait over a college, time. Thinking about evolution in the terms of quantitative genetics meant that it was no longer necessary, contra Johannsen (1911: 138) (and others), to insist that evolution proceeded through “considerable, discontinuous saltations”. Notice, again the separate theoretical genotypes and their contributions, this time to selection coefficients, remain unobserved; the write an essay Hult Business School focus of the data analysis could be on differences in the trait, not the mechanisms of trait development. The complexity of developmental mechanisms, which involve interactions with the environment, was collapsed in an essay about family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, the models into the selection coefficients modulated by parameters for learn how to an essay Hult Business dominance between alleles (i.e., variants of a gene) within, and epistasis between, theoretical genotypes. A parallel development, initiated again by Fisher and Wright, as well as by J.B.S. Haldane, involved mathematical models of about family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, theoretical genotypes at one or a few loci each contributing to the parameters for surviving and leaving offspring. In this field, which came to be known as Population Genetics, estimation of selection coefficients of genotypes inferred from distinct phenotypes was possible, albeit more readily when the populations were subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time were observed in the wild (which was studied in the new field of ecological genetics ). Just as in quantitative genetics, the learn write Hult International Business School focus in population genetics was on difference in online University Florida, traits; complexities of development in its ecological context were typically collapsed into the parameters of the models. 3.5 Shared Nature of the Germ Cells; Mechanics of Development; Material Basis for Genes. Some Mendelian researchers extended the investigation of the material basis for write an essay International Business School genes to their role in steps to writing a college, developmental processes.
For example, the eyes of fruit flies, normally red, are sometimes white. Geneticists identified the location on the chromosomes that corresponds to the white-eye mutation (Morgan 1919) and later investigated the pigment-formation metabolic pathway and the enzymes (proteins that modulate biochemical interactions) involved as fruit fly eyes develop the normal or mutant color (e.g., Beadle Ephrussi 1936). Research since World War II that came to be known as molecular genetics or molecular biology went on to identify DNA as the chemical basis of genes and the mechanisms of DNA replication, mutation, transcription to how to Business RNA, and translation to polypeptides (components of proteins). Researchers probed the feedback networks that regulate these mechanisms, first in an analytical essay Abbey College Manchester, viruses and bacteria, then in complex, multicellular organisms; mapped and modified the specific DNA sequence of organisms; compared sequences among taxonomic groups (i.e., groups in different branches of the classification of how to an essay, life) so as to assess the degree of genetic variation in populations and to classify taxonomic groups into phylogenies; traced where and when in development specific genes are active; and examined the role of DNA sequences not associated with genes (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Such research, which now occupies the newspaper article Glenalmond College center of how to write an essay International Business, biology, renders it plausible to write an analytical essay School many researchers and commentators that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences on the organism over time of how to write International, identified DNA variants (see entry on to writing Charterhouse gene). 4. Philosophical Issues Brought into Play by Attention to Control of Biological Materials and Conditions. Johannsen, as noted earlier (and conveyed in the contrast between the method of figure 2 and the theory of how to write an essay Business, figure 1), provided no method to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes as classes of organisms, let alone to use these classes to identify genotypes as classes within such populations. What would be required then in order to apply his terms and Abbey College, distinction in the study of how to write Business, heredity for natural varying populations? A number of pathways can be delineated:
reintegrate develop methods to bring back and tie together what had been de-emphasized through the control of biological material and conditions employed in write essays Academy, the experiments that provided the basis for his original presentation of genotype and phenotype and for subsequent developments in the study of heredity; engineer retain the experimental control within an increasing range of contexts; generalize theoretically use the theory and models that inform the control and engineering as a basis for explaining and/or intervening more broadly (Hacking 1983; Cartwright 1999; entry on the structure of learn write Hult International Business School, scientific theories); liken think or act as if observations in natural varying population or less controlled situations derived from similar theory and models; and experiment more do not pursue reintegration, but continue to your employ Mendelian methods to learn more about the biology of organisms (Waters 2004). As a sociological, not a logical matter, success in engineering may underwrite theoretical generalizing and both may, in learn how to write International Business School, turn, make more plausible any assumed extension to naturally varying populations. Together with further experiments, these pathways may eventually lead to write Xi’an success in re-integration. It could be imagined that the processes exposed in controlled conditions would eventually explain heredity in an essay Hult School, naturally varying populations. This might happen by how to english essays Montverde Academy, researchers identifying the material constituents of the genotype passed to write an essay Hult the organism by its parents and then tracing how all these constituents influence the development over writing an analytical Abbey College Manchester, time of the organism’s traits or phenotypeperhaps first in controlled conditions, and then in variable ecological situations (see entry on reductionism in biology). Learn How To Write Hult School! However, there is no guarantee that the original experimental basis for the genotype-phenotype distinction or subsequent developments must lead to effective engineering, theoretical generalization, or likening that clarifies. Indeed, as a sociological not logical matter, pursuing such steps may distract attention from the project of re-integration. Section 5 reviews what would be entailed in reintegration, doing so in order to online essay University of Central Florida problematize the status of the original experimentally based distinction as a basis for write an essay Hult International Business School the study of online Florida, heredity for natural varying populations. The rest of learn an essay Hult International Business School, section 4 points to several areas of philosophical discussions brought into play and extended by experiments followed by the pathways and steps above. The “New Experimentalism” counters or complicates a traditional emphasis in philosophy of science on theories by studying what goes on in laboratories, or, more generally, the practical methods of achieving reliable results (see entries on experiment in writing an analytical essay Manchester, biology the structure of scientific theories). As noted earlier (section 2), attention is also warranted to the ways that an learn how to write an essay, area of biology, such as the study of heredity, becomes experimental in the first place.
Experiments in biology may lead to the engineering of an analytical Holderness, new phenomena or objects, such as knockout mice (i.e., a line with a specific gene deactivated), but, at the same time, they leave open the question of the learn write an essay Hult Business School significance of what gets de-emphasized through the control of Abbey College, biological material and conditions employed in the experiments. To continue the knockout example: does the effect of a gene knocked out in how to write an essay Hult School, a highly inbred line of mice extrapolate to its effects in naturally variable populations of mice, let alone other species? In other words, the writing demonstration of genes in learn how to an essay Hult International Business, knockout lines that have defined effects could be a textbook case of something representedthe DNA sequence as genewarranting the status real given the reliable effect of its absence. Yet antirealists could point to what has not yet been observed given the write about your family University special experimental conditions of Mendelian research and subsequent molecular biology (see entry on scientific realism). Such an objection notwithstanding, if there is a method that is productive of results, there will be scientists who apply it even if the results do not address questions that once motivated their line of inquiry (as evident, for example, when, as noted earlier, the study of heredity came to learn how to write an essay School focus on differences not similarity and newspaper article, development). How is any such pragmatism to learn how to write an essay International Business School be viewed?are experiments in an analytical Abbey Manchester, biology like a philosophical pragmatism concerned with truth or one concerned about achieving goals and formulating further goals that can be pursued in practice (see entry on pragmatism). Or is learn write International Business School it a pragmatism highlighted more in sociology than philosophy of science, in which the researcher or the interpreter of how to write, science considers how difficult it is in practice to modify what has been established as knowledge (Latour 1987)?
The last sense fits well with this entry’s attention to abstraction in the form of the material practices of control over biological materials and conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding. It should be noted, however, that this form of abstraction centers on objects that are concrete, not therefore conforming to the contrast abstract versus concrete (see entry on abstract objects). The interrelated issues concerning pragmatism, scientific realism, and abstraction become even more pertinent when the theory and models that inform experiments, such as the genotype-phenotype distinction in Mendelian research, are extended to less-controlled situations, such as agricultural breeding trials, and to how to write International School analysis of data derived from them. As noted earlier, quantitative genetics relies on models of contributions from unobserved, theoretical genotypes. Analyses of how to an analytical School, data using those models allow breeders to decide which traits to enhance through selection even though they have no evidence independent of the data to how to an essay Hult International School confirm the assumption in their models about theoretical genotypes and their contributions (Lloyd 1988). How To English Essays Montverde Academy! Yet, as publications, careers, release of varieties, software packages, and so on learn how to write International Business School get built on such a foundation, it becomes ever more difficult in practical terms for write an essay about your family Jiaotong-Liverpool researchers to learn write an essay International promote alternatives that do not rest on to writing a college essay the unobserved and unconfirmed entities and learn Hult, properties. Indeed, unconceived alternatives , the an essay your Xi’an University possibility that Stanford (2006) highlights, may well include theories that entail methods that are, for various reasons, impractical . The pragmatic issue of needing a practical method applies in turn to philosophy: When philosophers make distinctions or otherwise point to issues that scientists have left unclear or under-examined, by learn how to write International School, what means do they envisage influencing the scientists to change their views or practices? That question is left open by this entry. The genotype-phenotype distinction has been positioned in this entry in relation to control of online writing Florida, biological materials and conditions, thus drawing attention to the challenge of reintegrating what had been de-emphasized through that control.
Yet, no method is provided for philosophers to learn an essay Hult Business get the challenge taken up beyond the implication that the descriptionthe framingwould be a helpful starting point. In other words, the entry has positioned the write genotype-phenotype distinction in line with the learn how to write an essay Hult International descriptive emphasis in the New Experimentalism on scientific practice, a prescriptive possibility of reintegration, and an open question about the method needed to shift actual practice. (The contrast of descriptive versus prescriptive perspectives is explored in Stegenga’s 2009 review of Weber’s contribution to philosophy of experimental biology.) The description versus prescription contrast also comes into play in relation to the different kinds of meaning given to the genotype-phenotype distinction. Should philosophers descriptively trace the shifts in meaning from Johannsen to the current day, or should they prescriptively disambiguate different meanings that may coexist among the work of different groups of researchers or even within a given group (see entry on ambiguity)? Or should it be simply and descriptively noted that coexisting meanings make the genotype-phenotype distinction a “boundary object” that allows various fields (or “social worlds”) to interact even though the fields use the term to different ends (Star Griesemer 1989)? Perhaps the different meanings given to the term serve as a reminder of the disunity of science that follows once rationality and objectivity are seen not as “universal or necessary [matters], but local and contingent, relative to scientific interests and an essay about your Jiaotong-Liverpool, purposes” (entry on the unity of science; Cartwright 1999). Descriptively, philosophers could tease out the different, sometimes incommensurable, interests and purposes that make a line of inquiry rational.
Prescriptively, they may highlight where they disagree with a given field’s interests and purposes, but they could also advocate pluralistic acceptance of different sciences that reflect. the complexity of the phenomena under investigation in interaction with the limitations of human cognitive capacities and learn how to write Hult International School, the variety of pragmatic interests in writing an analytical Manchester, representations of those phenomena. (The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge; on “pragmatic interests”, see also references on social and learn how to an essay Hult International School, economic history of write an analytical essay, heredity at the end of section 1). However, two other possibilities remain, namely, ambiguity in the use of the genotype-phenotype distinction obscures shortcomings in theories and methods and allows the advances in one field (e.g., molecular genetics) to be seen to render more plausible the empirically and conceptually unrelated claims of another (e.g., quantitative genetics) (see sections 5.2.1, 6.4, and 6.5). Sections 2 and how to an essay Hult International Business, 3 described how the original genotype-phenotype distinction was operationalized under special, controlled conditions, namely, the growing and crossing of inbred lines raised under uniform conditions. Section 4 laid out pathways from the experimentally based distinction: reintegrate, engineer, generalize theoretically, liken, and experiment more. Yet biology and philosophy of biology have not emphasized the need to reintegrate what has been abstracted away as a necessary step if the genotype-conception of essay Charterhouse, heredity is to be extended beyond those special conditions (Figures 2 and 3) and how to International Business, applied to the study of heredity for natural varying populations (Figure 1). Therefore, to highlight the implications of basing the genotype-phenotype distinction in controlled conditions, this section considers what control and possible reintegration might entail in how to write an analytical essay Holderness School, the different realms reviewed so far. For inbred lines, in contrast to the realm of learn how to write an essay, natural varying populations, the phenotype-as-class is not used to identify the genotype-as-class; indeed it is recognized as a phenotype because the genotype, which is the inbred line, is write an essay about family Xi’an University given. As far as Johannsen’s experiments could discern, the genotype-as-material-constituents could be the whole germ cell or seed. Reintegration would entail conceptualizing the action of these constituents of the genotype-as-whole-cell and finding methods to Hult Business School investigate their influence on the development over an essay about family Jiaotong-Liverpool University, time of the organism’s traits (see entry on developmental biology).
Such a program had proponents, especially in the first half of the twentieth century, but came to be eclipsed by Mendelian genetics and discounted by historians and how to International Business, philosophers of heredity (Sapp 1987). Mendelian experiments require further control than for inbred lines, because the lines have to be raised in uniform conditions, crossed, and self-pollinated. Phenotypes can then be used to discriminate among multiple hypotheses about genotypes, where the phenotype is a class of organisms that share only some part of the an analytical whole set of the organisms’ traits and learn how to Hult International Business, the genotype is a class or organisms that have some part of their germ cells in common. The relevant part of the genotype was shown to be pairs of genes located along chromosomes as long as, given the control entailed by Mendelian experiments, the focus lay on differences in traits, not on how an offspring develops to have the steps trait at learn how to write Business School, all. Recall, as Johannsen noted, that Mendelian experiments are limited in write about Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, examining the species-typical aspects of the germ cells and subsequent development.
Again, a program for reintegrating what is abstracted away through experimental control can be imagined: researchers identify the material constituents of the genotype and learn how to an essay Hult International School, then trace how all these constituents influence the development over time of the species-typical traits. Write An Analytical Holderness School! From the composite of these influences the organism as a structured whole might emerge. Two emerging features of the learn write an essay study of heredity, however, work against such a reintegration program: Heredity, as mentioned earlier, has become equated with the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in the differences. That means development became a separate and secondary matter (Sapp 1987); analysis of the dynamics of to writing a college essay, species-typical development of morphological structure was eclipsed by genetics. It is not strictly correct to assert that Mendelian experiments are unable to examine species-typical traits.
For example, all individuals of all species of the how to write International School fruit-fly genus Drosophila have exactly three simple light receptors, ocelli , arranged in Montverde, a symmetrical triangle on write International School the midline of the newspaper article top of how to write Hult International, their heads. The simplest assumption is that there is no variation in genotypes (in the sense of material constituents) that influence this trait and its development is resistant to normal environmental disturbance. However, if the development of the fly is online sufficiently disturbed, some flies with two or fewer ocelli are observed. If those with fewer than three ocelli are used as parents for the next generation, they produced more abnormal flies than the parental generation. When the process of selective breeding from learn an essay Hult Business School, abnormal flies is continued over many generations, a line of flies is produced that consistently has two ocelli, even in the absence of any external disturbance of online writing essay University of Central Florida, development (Maynard Smith Sondhi 1960). The success of this and learn how to write International, other selection experiments in the same vein shows that the original uniformity of the trait is not an writing an analytical Abbey Manchester, indication that there is uniformity in all of the genotypes that may, under certain conditions, influence the trait’s development (Rendel 1967). Any investigation of how the learn write an essay International Business diverse genotypes result in the development of the typical three-ocelli pattern now has to family Xi’an explain the occurrence of the aberrant pattern as well. Although Johannsen (1911) gave almost no attention to learn International Business School the dynamics of writing essay University of Central Florida, development, recall (from section 2) that he wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole and learn, saw no value in write, the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet, Mendelian experiments seemed to show that the discrete-particles idea was justified. Much progress in restoring what was abstracted away has come through the productive research program of how to write an essay International, molecular genetics (as summarized at writing Manchester, the end of section 3).
This is not to learn an essay International say that any catalog or database of genes and DNA variants for any organism remotely resembles a literal “blueprint” or “program” for its development . Nevertheless, with ever-improving knowledge about genetics at the molecular level and technologies to manipulate DNA, the field of creative article Glenalmond, genetics is now involved, not only in accounting for write an essay Hult Business School how one organism differs in a trait from another, but also in illuminating the writing College networks of gene activity and feedback ( gene regulation ) and the major branch-points of development of the organized structuresbiochemical, physiological, and behavioral, as well as morphologicalwhich phenotypes-as-traits are variants of. Whether this progress eventually leads to an account of the operation of the genotype as a whole (or even of some delimited parts of the write Hult School genotype), and then to the species-typical development of structure, remains to be seen (Robert 2004, entry on online of Central Florida developmental biology). The need for such reintegration is, however, often discounted. This is evident when, for example, it is assumed that genes descended from a common ancestor ( orthologs ) should have the same function and influence the same traits across taxonomic groups descended from that ancestor (e.g., PAX6 gene in relation to the eyes of mammals and fruit flies). What that assumption overlooks is the possibility that traits depend on the genotype as a whole in the development of the organism as a whole and learn an essay Hult International School, the possibility that a gene may be conserved through roles that shift in the evolving lineages. Notwithstanding the advances of molecular genetics, its methods involve another significant form of control. The uniform conditions typical in molecular genetics exclude dynamics of online Florida, development in an essay Hult Business, ecological context, a context, moreover, that the organism, with its traits, helps shape (Gilbert Epel 2009; Lewontin 1983). It could be imagined that genetic investigations of the hereditary basis of traitsor, at least, of differences among traitsfor inbred organisms in tightly controlled situations might permit successful extrapolation to the development of traits in an ecological context (as pursued, for example, in investigations of strategies of growth and reproduction over the life course and plasticity of traits under environmental variation [“phenotypic plasticity”; developmental biology]). Yet, again, the a college essay need for how to write International Business School reintegration of these aspects of naturally variable situations may readily get discounted.
Consider animal experiments viewed as models for human medicine. Questions are routinely raised about the validity of, say, mice as a model for humans. However, even to speak of “mice” and “humans” is an abstraction that discounts the variation among mice and the variation among humans. If, instead, the variation were paid attention to, the first step would be to note that highly selected strains of laboratory mice are less variable than undomesticated populations (Rader 2004) and experiments made on such mice involve tightly controlled situations. A College Essay Charterhouse! To what extent, it could then be asked, do experimental observations hold for individuals from undomesticated populations raised in varied and far more complex situations? If mechanisms have been exposed using laboratory mice (Tabery 2014), to what extent do they depend on the controlled value of learn write Hult International Business, factors that are not typically enumerated when describing the mechanism? Of course, this line of questioning is preempted when biotechnology expands its capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. Newspaper Glenalmond College! (Biotechnology can be seen as the industrial manifestation of learn an essay Hult International School, analytic biology , the program that seeks to understand organisms by write your family Jiaotong-Liverpool University, cutting them up into some appropriate small parts. Relevant here are the politics, economics, and cultural dimensions of the rise of biotechnology and, before that, genetics itself in the areas of agriculture, health, food science, the legal system, and more.
All that lies beyond this entry’s scope; see Müller-Wille Brandt 2016.) 5.2 The Use of Models for Selective Breeding. The use of write School, models in quantitative genetics and population genetics is also based on control of biological materials and conditions. For these fields, as indicated in this section, it is Xi’an more difficult to how to write Hult International Business School formulate programs that reintegrate what had been de-emphasized. Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines met the goal of Johannsen (and biologists following him) of giving repeatable outcomes and exposing hidden processes, but quantitative genetics, designed to analyze continuous traits (see sections 3.3 and 3.4), bore an ambiguous relationship with that goal. Models allowed breeders to creative Glenalmond predict outcomes under different mating designs; the outcomes were not strictly repeatable given that what was actually achieved typically varies from learn how to an essay, what was predicted. Moreover, while researchers could imagine that the hidden processes were like the theoretical ones in the models, the theoretical genotypes forming the basis for quantitative genetic models were unobservable (see entry on scientific realism). Nevertheless, material practices of control of materials and conditions ensure that the model-based analyses continue to be useful. In particular, when there are discrepancies between outcomes and predictions, which may result from the hidden processes being unlike the theoretical ones in the models, breeders can always compensate: they can discard the undesired offspring and breed from the write about your Jiaotong-Liverpool desired ones. And, as breeding programs are elaborated that build on the models (e.g., Holland et al. 2003), it becomes ever more difficult in practice to implement data analysis that would build up from an alternative model (see entry on Hult International Business pragmatism and section 4).
Note, because quantitative genetics involves statistical analysis of data on write an essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University continuous traits, it must be possible to analyze the data on trait variation using models that avoid reference to how to Hult what is not observed (Taylor 2012). However, this possibility has not been pursued in quantitative genetics (and thus becomes a potential case of steps essay, Stanford’s  unconceived alternatives mentioned earlier). How To Write An Essay International Business! Indeed, the difficulty of online writing essay of Central, applying any alternative to quantitative genetic models extends to analysis of data on variation in human traits, even though in learn an essay Hult International Business, that realm breeding is not an write an analytical essay Holderness School, option and control of biological material and conditions is minimal. If it is difficult in practice to implement breeding programs and data analysis based on models that avoid reference to what is write an essay International Business not observed, it is difficult to conceive such alternatives without the following prescriptive disambiguation. Here a restoration more than a reintegration can be entertained, that is, to insist on how to write essay the distinction between variance in actual observable genotypes and genotypic variance (sometimes shortened to genetic variance , where variance is the statistical measure of variation in learn International, a given quantity).
The latter term stems from writing essay Abbey Manchester, breeders using the term genotypic value for the average value of a trait over all locations in which they raise or grow the genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors; see section 3). The variation among these genotypic values is, as shorthand, called the genotypic variance. In other words, the quantity derives from statistical analysis of learn an essay Hult Business, variation among related and write an essay Xi’an University, unrelated individuals in their phenotypes (in the sense of observed traits ), not in their genotypes (in the sense of DNA). Not only does genotypic variance vary with the mix of genotypes and locations, its statistical estimation does not reference measurable genetic or environmental factors influencing the learn how to write an essay Hult School development of the traits. Unfortunately, it is an analytical essay College Manchester common for how to International Business researchers and commentators, including philosophers, to how to write essays Montverde speak of genotypic or genetic variance in learn an essay Hult, terms like the “contribution of genetic differences to observed differences among individuals” (Plomin et al. 1997: 83) as if variation in traits and variation in genotypes had some obvious relationship. The conflation may derive from quantitative genetic models being based on genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes). But those are theoretical genotypes, unobserved and, as noted above, not essential to the analysis of trait variation. (To add to the potential for steps to writing Charterhouse confusion, the technical term for the ratio of the genotypic variance to learn write an essay Business the total variance observed in the trait in question is write an essay your Jiaotong-Liverpool Heritability, which has no relation to the existence of Hult Business School, a connection between parent and newspaper College, offspring traits through transmission of genes [Taylor 2012].) To enhance the disambiguation, Taylor (2012) recommends the use of terms familiar in agricultural trials: variety instead of genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors), location instead of environment, and trait instead of phenotype (given that this last term implies a connection with a set of genotypes, in the sense of pairs of genes). Learn How To An Essay International Business! Whether or not the alternatives terms get more widely adopted, once the gap between statistical patterns from quantitative genetics and how to write an analytical Holderness School, measurable underlying factors is recognized and how to an essay International Business School, consistently observed , it becomes difficult to follow the reasoning of accounts that conflate or slip between the disparate meanings of “genetic”.
This difficulty extends to accounts of the an analytical essay Holderness School interaction between genes or genotypes and environment that overlook the distinction, proceeding then as if interaction as defined in quantitative genetic analyses of variation has some conceptual or empirical connection with statistical interaction between measured presence of genes and environmental variables. (It is beyond the scope of this entry to review such accounts by scientists or philosophers; see Taylor 2015 as well as discussion in Section 6.5 on what the conflation or ambiguity signifies.) There is an alternative to restoration of the distinction between genotypic variance and learn write an essay Hult International School, variation in actual genotypes, which is to focus on writing an analytical Abbey the latter. How To Write An Essay Hult School! As determining the sequence of DNA at any stretch of the an analytical essay Holderness School genome (i.e., of the genotype-as-material-constituents) has become routine, Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies allow estimation of the fraction of the learn write Hult International variation in the trait that is associated with measurable genetic variants. Creative Newspaper Article College! (The variants studied are single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], which are not held to be the learn how to write Hult International DNA influencing the trait, but simply somewhere close to those factors on the genome.) It turns out, however, that, even when many genetic variants are examined together, only a small fraction of the variation in the trait is associated withor in statistical terms, “accounted for” bythe genetic variants (McCarthy et al. Online University Of Central Florida! 2008). This finding has led to how to School discussions about an essay your family Jiaotong-Liverpool University, missing heritability (e.g., Manolio et al. 2009).
This new heritability has, however, no conceptual or empirical connection with the heritability of quantitative genetics. To the extent that the additional ambiguity in use of the term heritability is associated with the unfulfilled expectation that high heritability means genetic variants might account for a large fraction of trait variation, the restoration identified in the previous paragraphs is warranted. One plausible explanation of the limited success of GWA studies depends on the distinction between genotypic variance and variance in actual genotypes being clearly made. Even if the classical quantitative genetic heritability is high and similarity between twins or a set of close relatives is learn how to Hult International School associated with the similarity of yet-to-be-identified genotypes or genetic factors, the factors may not be the same from write about your Jiaotong-Liverpool University, one set of relatives to the next, or from one location (environment) to the next . Learn How To! In other words, the underlying factors and the pathways of steps to writing a college Charterhouse, development that they influence may be heterogeneous . It could be that pairs of alleles, say, AAbbcbDDee, subject to a sequence of environmental factors, say, FghiJ, are associated, all other things being equal, with the same outcomes as alleles aabbCCDDEE subject to a sequence of learn how to International Business School, environmental factors FgHiJ (Taylor 2012). The possibility of heterogeneous factors underlying similarity in traits obviously recedes if the biological materials and locations are close to the original set of relatives and environmental factors.
The corollary is that, when users of quantitative genetic models overlook that possibility, they are, in effect, assuming tight control of biological materials and conditions. Some degree of english Montverde, reintegration of what is unobservable in the classical use of write Hult International School, quantitative genetic models has occurred through the technique of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL)regions of the genome containing genetic factors associated with variation in creative newspaper article, a continuously variable trait. Yet QTL mapping has had most success in animal and plant varieties that can be replicated and raised in controlled conditions; reliable QTL results for School human populations are few (Majumder Ghosh 2005; but see the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2007). Indeed, reintegration of the complexities of an essay about Jiaotong-Liverpool University, development in its ecological context, which are collapsed into the parameters of the models, remains scarcely developed in quantitative genetics (as evoked for the human case by Turkheimer 2004). In population genetics, the complexities of development in write Hult, its ecological context are also collapsed into the parameters of the models, such as the how to write essays Academy parameters for how to Business School surviving and leaving offspring.
Not surprisingly then, the estimation of the selection coefficients of genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) is more readily done when the populations are subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time are observed in the wild. Lewontin (1974a) provides grounds for doubting the likelihood of essay Abbey, some day restoring what is abstracted away in those selection coefficients. Measurements of selection coefficients and other parameters of the learn International model are possible, Lewontin concludes, only when a single allelic substitution is associated with a large difference in the trait, not when the effects of gene substitutions make only small differences. This led him to remark that: “What we can measure is by definition uninteresting and what we are interested in is by definition unmeasurable” (1974a: 23). To Writing Essay! The problem of relating population genetic models to observations becomes astronomically worse when there are multiple, linked loci (1974: 317). He suggests that population genetics should shift its attention to the selection coefficients for long segments of chromosomes. This program, like Johannsen’s wish that the genotype be seen as a whole, has scarcely been pursued. Even if it had been, ecological genetic analysis of variation in natural populations, with all its complexity (e.g., Clausen et al.
1958), would still be needed to begin to reintegrate ecological context into population genetics. 6. What the Genotype-Phenotype Distinction Signifies. That special experimental conditions are entailed in the original formulation of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them also has implications for the issues that might seem to have been settled by the adoption of Johannsen’s genotype-concept of heredity. 6.1 Barrier Between Traits and What is Transmitted to the Next Generation. To the how to write an essay Hult International Business extent that the DNA transmitted to the next generation has been shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime (both within the a college essay Charterhouse organism and with the environment), there is a barrier to “peculiar” traits (Johannsen’s label for traits acquired during the specific development of the parents) being passed on to their offspring. How To Write An Essay! (A key part of this shielding is the one-way transcription of DNA to RNA [which then codes for the amino acids that make up proteins], not, in general, transcription in the other direction.) While the genotype-phenotype distinction can be seen to steps to writing signify the existence of this barrier, there is a long history of researchers claiming to show ways around it. Most notably, the modern science of epigenetics, building on ever-increasing information about DNA sequences and how genes function, shows how chemicals from outside the cell can modify the activity of genes for the rest of an organism’s life and learn how to write International, sometimes even into subsequent generations (Stotz 2006). Developmental Systems Theory (Oyama, Griffiths, Gray 2001), Evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) (Moczek et al. 2015), and a Post-genomic Synthesis in Behavior and an essay about Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Cognition Research (Stotz 2008) also argue for attention to extended inheritance , which includes transmission not only learn an essay Hult Business of epigenetic modifications, but also of resources outside the organism, such as when reptiles lay their eggs in Charterhouse, places that ensure the right temperature for learn how to write an essay Hult School incubation. This last example also fits under the ambit of Niche Construction theory (Odling-Smee et al. 2003). This field investigates the significance of organisms shaping the ecological context in which they develop their traits, survive, and creative newspaper College, reproduce, as epitomized by beavers living in the ecosystem of ponds formed by the dams that they build and Hult International, maintain. (Whether or not epigenetic and extra-organismal resources have the creative same causal status as genes is a matter of philosophical debate beyond the scope of this entry; see Waters 2007; Stotz 2006; Griffiths Stotz 2013; entry on inheritance systems, and section 7 below.)
6.2 Evolution Defined as Change in Gene Frequencies. Biological evolution, in its most general construal, is modification by descent, that is, change over time in frequency of observed traits or forms in a population or a taxonomic group derived from a common ancestor. A narrower definition, however, arose with the rise of learn an essay International Business School, a genotypic conception of heredity, namely, only with changes in frequencies of write about Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, genes is evolution deemed to be happening. Learn International! The barrier to so-called inheritance of writing newspaper Glenalmond, acquired characteristics is held to make irrelevant any changes in an essay Hult, forms without changes in gene frequencies. Exponents of extended inheritance disagree, including in writing University, their definition of evolution the changes in the developmental system and its constructed niche (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Adjudication of the disagreement comes down, in part, to a matter of quantity: How significant are resources other than the genotype (in the sense of the DNA of the whole genome) in development of traits that influence survival and reproductive success?
Significance may depend on the number of generations that the resources are transmitted. The disagreement, however, becomes qualitative, even radical, if attention is given to learn write an essay School the dynamics of development in an ecological context that had been abstracted away in demonstrating the original genotype conception of heredity. Reintegrating developmental dynamics entails more than noting the how to english essays Montverde Academy existence of developmental noise, such as when Drosophila individuals are not symmetric in learn how to International, the number of bristles on each side. Write An Essay About Family Jiaotong-Liverpool University! The next subsection elaborates. 6.3 Development as a Genotype to Phenotype Relationship. Several of the programs of reintegration sketched in section 5 rest on the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism.
An alternative approach is to observe that germ cells are organized structures, which means that development is always a process of further organization emerging from initial organization. That emphasis was evident, not only in developmental mechanics ( Entwickslungsmechanik ), but also in a mid-twentieth century form of epigenetics centered on embryological or developmental pathways. Conrad Waddington, for example, undertook experiments on variation in certain characters that was originally seen only in response to Hult Business School an environmental stress, e.g., enlarged anal papillae (a fleshy protuberance) of Drosophila larvae that arose in higher salt concentrations (Waddington 1959). In populations that had been selected for that responsiveness, eventually the write english essays Montverde trait occurred even when that stress was withdrawn. Waddington’s interpretation is how to School that a genotype (in the write english essays Montverde sense of a specific set of pairs of genes) had arisen in the population that switched on development of large papillae. Presumably, this could happen through reassortment of genes into new genotypes, not a random mutation. An alternative hypothesis, which places more emphasis on the dynamics of development, is that, if many pathways in a non-inbred population can produce the same response (e.g., enlarged anal papillae in response to salt), selection results in a population of individuals that have a concentration or redundancy of the various pathways.
If pathways arise within this concentration where large papillae develop without the salt stress, that is not a logical process to be modeled by population genetic or quantitative genetic models, but a contingent outcome of the dynamics of development in a realm in which a variety of genotypes can influence a variety of paths to a trait. Learn An Essay School! In this light, to call traits phenotypes, and thus suggest that they have a direct association with a specific genotype, is to make it more difficult to conceive and pursue a program of an analytical essay Abbey College, reintegration in which researchers examine cases of traits that are acquired as an appropriate response to learn how to an essay Hult International environmental condition and then increase in an essay your, frequency in a population. Moreover, even if such cases turn out not to be common, they trouble the premise that the individual-to-individual barrier to a trait being transmitted back into the genotype barrier means that acquired characters cannot increase in write an essay Hult International School, a population during evolution. 6.4 What Counts is Underneath or Inside the writing newspaper College Observable Surface. The genotype-phenotype distinction can also signify that the surfacephenotypeis mere appearance; what is underneath or inside that surfacethe genotypeis what counts. A small irony, given that the phenotype originated in relation to inferring genotypes (in the sense of a class that shared something unobservable), is that, to the extent that molecular biology has made DNA sequences observable, especially at sites in International School, which the sequences vary from how to essays Montverde Academy, one group to learn how to an essay International another, each genotype (in the sense of a pair of genes or DNA sequence) becomes another phenotype (Nachtomy et al. How To English Essays Montverde! 2009). During the development of an organism, each of these genotypes-as-phenotypes at time 0 interacts with the rest of the phenotype and environmental factors to produce the phenotype at time 1, 2, and so on.
It may well be the case that germ cells arise at some point in the life course that are buffered from most of these interactions. However, with respect to conceptualizing development from time 0 till death, nothing logically makes the genotype not also a phenotype. In any case, the learn how to write Hult view is widespread that what counts is how to write Academy underneath or inside. It is an essay Hult Business evident in how to an analytical School, the definition of evolution as change in learn how to write an essay Hult International Business, gene frequencies and the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism. It can also be seen in many other features of discourses around heredity, such as the following: An oft-repeated assertion is that random mutations in genes are the ultimate source of variation on which evolution builds. This assertion discounts the reassortment of genes into new combinations of your family University, genotypes (in the sense of write an essay Business School, pairs of genes) that occurs with every sexual reproduction and newspaper College, with the learn International recombination after crossing over of chromosomes that occurs in many species, as well as with niche construction and novel response to writing newspaper environmental conditions that can occur during development. Discussions of the unit of selection, typically a gene or genotype (in the how to write International School sense of a specific pair of genes), often assume or imply that, when organisms are shown to enjoy differential survival and reproductive success because of the effect of some trait they possess, it is actually because they possess some gene or genotype. In some accounts, the organism becomes the “selfish” gene’s way of making copies of itself. Such a picture is a variant of a theme with a long history, namely, the living being is an agent directed by how to write an analytical, some other agent, such as in an essay School, theology when the soul is given by the grace of God.
The use of the term phenotype for a trait suggests a direct association with some genotype even when there is no program, let alone a method, to expose which genotypes influence the how to write essay trait. The claim is made that all disease is genetic. The corresponding programs of genetic medicine, personalized genomics, and learn an essay International Business, precision medicine, propose or promise to identify and steps Charterhouse, make therapeutic use of genetically determined disease susceptibility in individual patients. Not only do such programs discount the environmental and social aspects of how to an essay International School, epidemiological trends in how to write an analytical essay, many diseases, but, as evident when genetic oncologists use the term “familial cancer” in contrast to hereditary cancers, this conception of heredity brings back what Johannsen had sought to expunge, namely, thinking about the transmission of peculiar or acquired traits. Invocation of “genetic tendency” without a method to infer it from analysis of traitseven when done by commentators critical of claims made about genetics, as in “simply because a genetic tendency exists does not mean it will be phenotypically expressed” (Jesser 2002, 42). It is learn an essay Hult International Business now popular to boast that “it’s in our DNA”, in the sense of a core value that is beyond question for an organization or group. 6.5 Findings About Heredity Derived Using One Meaning of Terms Affirm Findings Derived Using a Different Meaning. With genetics held to get at the fundamental thing that counts in heredity, it makes it plausible to take research using methods based on writing essay Florida one kind of meaning of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them to affirm research based on learn write International Business School another meaningthey are all contributing to write an understanding of that fundamental something. In this spirit, the ascendance of the predominant current meaningDNA versus traitshas not necessitated rejection or even disambiguation of the other meanings of the learn how to write an essay International terms evident in Johannsen (1911) and that have coexisted sinceclass, abstraction, or material constituents; whole or part; natural units or products of online essay University Florida, experimental control (sections 13). Not being troubled by the ambiguity of different meanings and methods is learn how to write an essay Hult International especially evident when commentators speak of “the nature-nurture debate” as if it were unimportant to specify which nature-nurture science is being debated. In practice, at least five nature-nurture sciences can be readily distinguished (Taylor 2015):
Researchers in laboratory and agricultural breeding or human quantitative geneticists compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences among means for varieties, locations, variety-location combinations, and residual contributions (i.e., genotypic, environmental, genotype-environment interaction, and residual variance where genotype here means a line or genealogically defined group; see section 3.3) Researchers compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences in measured genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interaction, and writing newspaper article College, a residual component (where the genetic factors are typically genotypes in the sense of a pair of genes). Through either of the above forms of analysis, researchers try to compare the variation within groups (e.g., among Euro-Americans and among African-Americans) to the difference between the averages for the groups. Through investigations that might extend any of the preceding kinds of learn write Hult International Business School, analysis of observational data, researchers piece together a picture of the processes of development of a trait and, on that basis, speak to the fixity versus flexibility of traits. (The multiple meanings of online essay University, genotype, summarized above, arise in research and discussions on this topic.) Researchers provide an evolutionary account of the increase in frequency of learn an essay Hult International School, a trait through natural selection based on the trait’s superior function in steps a college essay Charterhouse, the environment (see section 6.2). These nature-nurture sciences entail not only different methods but also different control of materials and conditions, so, in learn Hult International, practice, results are difficult to translate from one of Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, them to an essay Business the next. Discussion of the nature-nurture debate (even in critical accounts where nature and nurture are said to interact or shape each other) signifies, among other things, that the specialness of the conditions involved in the original formulation and demonstration of the genotype-phenotype distinction may be overlooked. As a consequence, for example, control of materials and conditions that is practical in laboratory and english essays Academy, agricultural breeding gets built into evolutionary thinking when the latter uses models and terms from breeding as if there were also a selector in naturally variable populations. Granted, as noted earlier, biotechnology has a growing capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. However, to the extent that biological theory is learn how to write an essay International Business School still meant to address naturally variable populations, then concepts, methods, and essay University, models are needed through which what has been controlled or de-emphasized might be brought back and re-integrated into how to an essay Hult the scientific accounts. The framing of this entry in terms of control and reintegration has been designed to draw attention to the space around the genotype-phenotype distinction that remains open for conceptual clarification and methodological advances. The introduction noted that, if the genotype-phenotype relationship had been the focus of this entry, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to essay Holderness causal claims. Learn Write An Essay Hult International School! Yet, realizing any of the programs of reintegration mentioned in this entry would entail rich causal analyses: networks of gene regulation linked to organized structures that branch into more organized structures, epigenetic modifications during and across lifespans, organisms shaping the dynamics of the ecological context in which they develop their traits, and frequencies of writing College Manchester, traits changing in populations over learn write Hult Business, generations.
This said, in how to write essays Academy, realms of experimentally controlled biological materials and conditions, a simpler sense of causality may seem plausible, namely, a difference that makes a difference (see entry on causation and manipulability). (The serious debate about whether statistical analysis can distinguish causal from how to write an essay International, non-causal differences that “make” a difference should be noted; Hernán et al. Writing College Manchester! 2002.) The connection between an learn how to write an essay Hult International School, association within some population and causal mechanisms is susceptible to write about your family Xi’an disconfirmation by experiments. At the same time, doing such experiments invites scrutiny of the relationship of experimentally altered dynamics to the original dynamics that generated the data that were analyzed to show the original statistical association (Taylor 2015). Most importantly given the framing of how to an essay International Business School, this entry around control and reintegration: Any experimental as well as statistical association is also conditional on the subset of the population or species studied and an analytical, the situations where they are observed (Lewontin 1974b). Understanding associations and formulating manipulations based on them requires attention to learn how to International what has been experimentally or, at least, statistically held constant. In other words, in controlled conditions the direction of the arrow labeled identification in Figures 2 and 3 may be reversed and given a causal connotation, but the causality is conditional on the factors, including the rest of the organism, held constant. The understanding and manipulations may well extrapolate beyond the original, controlled population and situations (and thus match the write about your Xi’an University general theory summarized in Figure 1), but, absent an an essay Hult Business, actual program of reintegration, there is no basis for assuming that they will.
While Waters (2007), Tabery (2014) and others would give greater status to differences that have actually been observed to make a difference (Griffiths Stotz 2013), this entry has pointed to write an essay your family Jiaotong-Liverpool University the control of biological materials and conditions that excludes many factors genetic as well as environmental, structural as well as particulate from being seen to make a difference . Ironically, if appearances are not to mislead and obscure, or be spun into an essay Hult speculative theories (section 2), the science of heredity needs methods that bring back what was abstracted away under the online writing essay of Central Florida experimental control that made Johannsen’s original genotype-conception meaningful. Beadle, G.W. How To Write International! Boris Ephrussi, 1936, “The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation”, Genetics , 21(3): 225247. Bonneuil, Christophe, 2016, “Pure Lines as Industrial Simulacra: A Cultural History of Genetics from Darwin to Johannsen”, in Müller-Wille and Brandt 2016: 213242. Writing Newspaper Article Glenalmond! Cartwright, Nancy, 1999, The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Churchill, Frederick B., 1974, “William Johannsen and the Genotype Concept”, Journal of the History of learn write International Business, Biology , 7(1): 530. doi:10.1007/BF00179291 Clausen, Jens, David D. Keck, William M. Hiesey, 1958, Experimental Studies in the Nature of Species, III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea , (Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 581), Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington Deichmann, Ute, 2014, “The Concept of the Causal Role of Chromosomes and Genes in Heredity and Development: Opponents from Darwin to Lysenko”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 5777. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0007 Deichmann, Ute, Michel Morange, Anthony S. Travis, 2014, “Special Issue: The Changing Concept of the Gene: Recurrent Debates on the Causal Role of Genes”, Perspectives in write an essay family Xi’an University, Biology and Medicine , 57(1).
Gilbert, Scott F. David Epel, 2009, Ecological Developmental Biology , Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Griffiths, Paul Karola Stotz, 2013, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511744082 Hacking, Ian, 1983, Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of learn Hult, Natural Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511814563 Hernán, Miguel A., Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Martha M. Werler, Allen A. Mitchell, 2002, “Causal Knowledge as a Prerequisite for Confounding Evaluation: An Application to Birth Defects Epidemiology”, American Journal of write about family Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Epidemiology , 155(2): 176184. doi:10.1093/aje/155.2.176 Holland, James B., Wyman E. Learn Hult Business School! Nyquist, Cuauhtemoc T. Cervantes-Martínez, 2003, “Estimating and Interpreting Heritability for Plant Breeding: An Update”, Plant Breeding Reviews , 22: 9112. Steps To Writing A College! Jesser, Nancy, 2002, “Blood, Genes and learn how to Hult Business, Gender in Octavia Butler’s Kindred and Dawn ”, Extrapolation , 43(1): 36 61. Newspaper! doi:10.3828/extr.2002.43.1.05 Johannsen, W., 1911, “The Genotype Conception of how to write an essay School, Heredity”, The American Naturalist , 45(531): 129159. Latour, Bruno, 1987, Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Lewontin, Richard C., 1974a, The Genetic Basis of how to an analytical Holderness, Evolutionary Change , New York: Columbia University Press. , 1974b, “The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes”, American Journal of Human Genetics , 26: 400411 [reprinted with commentaries in International Journal of Epidemiology , 35(3): 520537 (2006) doi:10.1093/ije/dyl062]. , 1983, “The Organism as the Subject and Object of Evolution”, Scientia , 118: 6382. Lloyd, Elisabeth A., 1988, The Structure and International Business School, Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory , New York: Greenwood Press. Majumder, Partha P. Saurabh Ghosh, 2005, “Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Humans: Achievements and Limitations”, Journal of Clinical Investigation , 115(6): 14191424. doi:10.1172/JCI24757 Manolio, Teri A., Francis S. Collins, Nancy J. About Your Family Xi’an! Cox, David B. Goldstein, et al., 2009, “Finding the Missing Heritability of learn how to an essay Hult International Business School, Complex Diseases”, Nature , 461(7265): 747753. doi:10.1038/nature08494 MaynardSmith,John K. Sondhi, 1960, “The Genetics of Glenalmond College, a Pattern”, Genetics , 45(8): 10391050. McCarthy, Mark I., Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Lon R. Cardon, David B. An Essay School! Goldstein, Julian Little, John P. A. Ioannidis, Joel N. Hirschhorn, 2008, “Genome-Wide Association Studies for Complex Traits: Consensus, Uncertainty and Challenges”, Nature Reviews Genetics , 9(5): 356369. doi:10.1038/nrg2344 Moczek, Armin P., Karen E. Online Writing Essay Florida! Sears, Angelika Stollewerk, Patricia J. Wittkopp, Pamela Diggle, Ian Dworkin, Cristina Ledon-Rettig, David Q. Matus, Siegfried Roth, Ehab Abouheif, Federico D. Brown, Chi-Hua Chiu, C. Learn How To Write Business School! Sarah Cohen, Anthony W. De Tomaso, Scott F. Gilbert, Brian Hall, Alan C. Love, Deirdre C. Lyons, Thomas J. Sanger, Joel Smith, Chelsea Specht, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Cassandra G. Extavour, 2015, “The Significance and Scope of Evolutionary Developmental Biology: A Vision for how to write english essays Montverde the 21st Century”, Evolution and Development , 17(3): 198219. doi:10.1111/ede.12125 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1919, The Physical Basis of Heredity , Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. Müller-Wille, Staffan, 2008, “Leaving Inheritance Behind: Wilhelm Johannsen and the Politics of Mendelism”, in Müller-Wille 2008b: 718.
Müller-Wille, Staffan Christine Brandt (eds.), 2016, Heredity Explored: Between Public Domain and Experimental Science, 18501930 , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. How To Write International Business! Müller-Wille, Staffan, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, John Dupré, 2008a, “Introduction”, Müller-Wille et al. 2008b: 35 (eds), 2008b, A Cultural History of writing essay College Manchester, Heredity IV: Heredity in the Century of the learn how to Gene , Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. How To Write Holderness! Nachtomy, Ohad, Yaron Ramati, Ayelet Shavit, Zohar Yakhini, 2009, “It Takes Two to Tango: Genotyping and Phenotyping in Genome-Wide Association Studies”, Biological Theory , 4(3): 294301. How To Write Business! doi:10.1162/biot.2009.4.3.294 Odling-Smee, F. John, Kevin N. Write School! Laland, Marcus W. Feldman, 2003, Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Oyama, Susan, Paul E. Griffiths, Russell D. Gray (eds.), 2001, Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and learn how to Business, Evolution , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Plomin, Robert, John C. Defries, Gerald E. McClearn, Michael Rutter, 1997, Behavioral Genetics , 3rd edition, New York: W.H. Freeman. Rader, Karen A., 2004, Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 19001955 , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Essay University Florida! Rendel, James Meadows, 1967, Canalization and Gene Control , London: Academic, Logos Press. Robert, Jason Scott, 2004, Embryology, Epigenesis, and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511498541 Roll-Hansen, Nils, 2014, “Johannsen’s Criticism of the Chromosome Theory”, Perspectives in learn how to an essay International Business, Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 4056. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0005 Sapp, Jan, 1987, Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics , New York: Oxford University Press. Stanford, P. Writing Article Glenalmond College! Kyle, 2006, Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and how to Hult International Business, the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives , New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0195174089.001.0001 Star, Susan L. and Griesemer, James, 1989, “Institutional ecology, ‘translations’ and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 19071939,” Social Studies of Science , 19: 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001 Stegenga, Jacob, 2009, “Marcel Weber: Philosophy of Experimental Biology,” Erkenntnis , 71: 431436. doi: 10.1007/s10670.009.9180.z Stotz, Karola, 2006, “Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in the Central Dogma”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences , 28(4): 533548. , 2008, “The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and Nurture”, Philosophical Psychology , 21(3): 359381. doi:10.1080/09515080802200981 Tabery, James, 2014, Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and how to write english Academy, Nurture , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor, Peter J., 1987, “Historical Versus Selectionist Explanations in Evolutionary Biology”, Cladistics , 3(1): 113. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1987.tb00493.x , 2003, “Gene-Environment Complexities: What is Interesting to Measure and to Model?”, The Evolution of Population Biology: Modern Synthesis , Rama S. Singh Marcy K. Uyenoyama (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 233253. , 2012, “A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions”, Acta Biotheoretica , 60(4): 357378. doi:10.1007/s10441-012-9164-2 , 2014, Nature-Nurture? No: Moving the learn how to write Hult Sciences of Variation and Heredity Beyond the writing an analytical essay Gaps , Arlington, MA: The Pumping Station. , 2015, “Distinctions that Make a Difference?”, Studies in History and how to Hult Business School, Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences , 51: 7076. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2015.03.002 Turkheimer, Eric, 2004, “Spinach and Ice Cream: Why Social Science Is So Difficult”, Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, Personality, and Psychopathology , Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla (ed.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 161189. Waddington, C.H., 1959, “Canalization of steps to writing Charterhouse, Development and Genetic Assimilation of learn how to an essay International Business, Acquired Characters”, Nature , 183(4676): 16541655. doi:10.1038/1831654a0 Waters, C. Kenneth, 2004, “What Was Classical Genetics?”, Studies in History and newspaper article College, Philosophy of Science Part A , 35(4): 783809. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.03.018 , 2007, “Causes that Make a Difference”, Journal of Philosophy of Science , 104(11): 551579. doi:10.5840/jphil2007104111 Weber, Marcel, “Experiment in Biology”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/biology-experiment/. Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 2007, “Genome-Wide Association Study of 14,000 Cases of Seven Common Diseases and 3,000 Shared Controls”, Nature , 447(7145): 661678. doi:10.1038/nature05911 Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt, 2014, “James and learn how to an essay Business School, Dewey on Abstraction”, The Pluralist , 9(2): 128. doi:10.5406/pluralist.9.2.0001. Lewontin, Richard, “The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction,” Stanford Encyclopedia of how to write english essays Academy, Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. How To Write An Essay International Business School! Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/genotype-phenotype/. [This was the previous entry on the genotype/phenotype distinction in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] History of Genetics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (maintained by writing an analytical essay College, Michael Dietrich) MendelWeb Plant Breeding: Science + Creative Problem Solving “Wilhelm Johannsen’s Genotype-Phenotype Distinction” at learn how to an essay International School, the Embryo Project Encyclopedia 6 min silent movie showing Johannsen in action as teacher and scientist. Discussions with many colleagues, including those who saw the creative newspaper article Glenalmond genotype-phenotype distinction to be a boring topic, stimulated the revision of this entry. Comments on drafts by Jonathan Kaplan, Barbara Mawn, Rasmus Winther, and an anonymous reviewer also helped. Some passages in this entry have been carried over from the previous SEP version by Lewontin; some sentences have been adapted from Taylor (1987, 2003, 2014, 2015). The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support.
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17 Inspiring Examples of learn an essay Hult International Business Personal Creeds. Write Essay Holderness? This is the last post in how to write Hult Business School, the series on personal creeds, where we will look at real-life personal creeds of real-life individuals. Previous posts addressed the importance of having a personal creed, what is a personal creed, and how to write a personal creed. I am so grateful to all who have participated in this post by sharing their personal creeds in the comments sections of the last two posts. Some of you took precious time to write your creed thoughtfully, and the beautiful and Manchester powerful results speak for themselves. All 17 contributions are listed in this post, in random order. I#8217;m grateful and humbled to see that some creeds followed the 6-point framework outlined in the last post. And now, over to my wonderful readers and their inspiring personal creeds.
I will go through this life only once, and I shall have but one chance to live; Not all people will like me, others may even despise me, as I may not be easily understood; Yet I will take this chance to live, and I will reach out in ways I know; I will love those whom I can, and I will strive to understand them more; Not all days will bring me sunshine, so I will rejoice also for the rain; Not every endeavor will be a success, but I will savor the victories I achieve; Not all dreams I dream will be mine, but in time new dreams will fill my heart, and learn how to write Hult International Business School as from a star those hopes will propel me forward. doing everything the best way I know I can; No fear shall trample me whatsoever, though some tasks seem to outweigh my strength; I will only steps do what I have to do, and God will take care of the rest! A LIFE FULL OF GRATITUDE. Each day, live and love to your fullest, Tend your blessings and let your worries fall away; Do not carry the weight of Hult International Business School old debts, or past wrongs against you, But remain graceful, lighthearted and forgiving. Learn to find wealth and happiness in the life you have, Maintain the discipline to succeed, and the courage to fail; Live simply and honestly, always honor your word, And let your heart, mind and body be pure; Give away the best of whatever you have to offer, But keep the worst to yourself; Bow to God’s reflection in others, And be a constant instrument of love and how to write School compassion; Find peace, both within yourself and within the world, Do not allow fear of pain or death to keep you from living; Never lose sight of your hope and faith, Let them remain your guiding light even through the darkest times; Do not carry the weight of old debts, or past wrongs against you, but remain graceful, lighthearted and forgiving. Vikum @ Thinking Park: I won’t shatter at grief or sorrow. since they are sent to learn Hult International School us. by divine mercy.
for our own perfecting. I cremate all defeats and writing an analytical College frustrations. which are nothing than history. resurrect as a phoenix. who rise from the ash. I carve my name in how to Hult International Business School, people’s hearts. by trying my best to. A College Charterhouse? make this earth a better place. by being unforgettable. before I leave to the. Learn How To An Essay Hult School? womb of the earth. I love everyone. at least I try to do so. because all of us are human beings and. neither me nor you are perfect. so we must learn to forgive. I simply live my life. whilst filling others’ lives with happiness. each day is a gift to an analytical essay me. from the heaven… I wear many hats and I am more than I appear. I am loving and kind and welcoming of all. I am content with what I have and learn how to International I’m grateful for it all every single day. An Analytical Manchester? I continually strive to better myself and how to write an essay International Business School teach what I learn along the way so that others may grow and flourish as well.
I work hard everyday at creating and maintaining a warm, loving, secure and creative writing newspaper article comforting home for my family in learn write Business School, which we all can just BE without judgement. I strive to how to an analytical essay Holderness conduct myself with compassion and remind myself that happiness and peace in every aspect of life begins with demonstrating loving kindness toward each other. Attachment is the source of unhappiness and disappointment. Knowing this I live with the notion that “this too shall pass”, good and bad. I can achieve this all if I put my mind and heart into learn write Hult it and live true to who I am. How To Write? I am not perfect nor do I pretend to be, but I am me. I am a co-Creator of the Universe.
My abundance is a reflection of my inner space. All the physical magnificence I experience is an experience of what goes on inside. Write An Essay International Business? I am an write essay Holderness School artist with a soul. I am aware. With love that fills me up and insight from awareness, I bring beauty to the world.
I draw, paint and how to write an essay Hult School carve every laughter, joy and peace. I find inspired meaning in all-of-creation. There is brilliance in everything that I see, hear, touch or feel. I am connected in Oneness, with my relationships to write about Xi’an the world. Love fills me from my home and my relationships with others. I am well nourished with warmth, joy and kindness. My soul grows in write International Business, tandem with the lessons that each relationship brings. Movement gives Life but Silence is my grounding. How To Write Academy? In the space between thoughts, insight arises.
I ask for Divine Guidance for every affirming action that I take. Knowing who I really am allows me to express my natural gifts, abilities and talents beautifully. My divine creations capture the Essence of Life. They highlight the how to School, evolvement of article Glenalmond College my soul. I give freely what I hope to receive: Love, Peace, Joy, Wisdom and learn write Business School Compassion. I inspire hope, vision and dreams, leaving trails of essays Montverde light wherever I tread. An Essay International Business? Abundance is what my soul has come to write your family Xi’an University experience of Life on Earth.
I am One with the Universe. I am One. I am a unique spiritual being, living in the power of how to write an essay Hult International Business School love with unlimited potential and unlimited possibilities. I live to bless you,love you and wish you well with my thoughts, words and actions. I believe when you and I connect with open hearts and family University good intentions our world becomes a better place. Write Business? I believe in our beauty, power, and english Montverde greatness and I have faith in our ability to learn International School solve problems and make our world a better place. I accept our differences and believe we are more alike than unalike, we are one. I am kind, loving, compassionate and understanding and an essay your family Jiaotong-Liverpool offer these gifts to lift up myself and others. I forgive myself and I forgive you.
Together we live in a peaceful world. Sunny @ Seeking Mind: I am a spiritual being having a human experience and learn how to Hult Business School I understand that I am the co-creator of everything I experience in my life. I take complete responsibility of my life and intend to live it consciously, with courage and conviction, so that I walk my talk and help someone see how glorious we all truly are. I know that I can not die and this life is just a phase which will open doors to new phases and experiences to come, that is why, I am all for life and all for love. I understand that at steps to writing, the end of it all, it’s all between me and Me.
The Me being the part of write an essay Hult Business me which is of the Source, the Creator. So I intend to be kind and generous, to be loving and forgiving, to be open and adventurous. Creative Newspaper Article College? Henie @ The WriteShots: I give to the mind. Learn Write Hult International? Each uncovered find. I give to the heart. An awakening start. I give to the soul. That which is whole.
I give all that is I. Until the creative Glenalmond, day I die! My purpose is to let my light shine, to shine light on learn how to an essay International School others, and to give people permission. Peter Levin @ The Art of Authentic Freedom Design: Live life of freedom and balance. Enjoy present moment and accept who I am. Learn and Grow Each and every Day. Be grateful for who I am and what I have.
Constantly raising mine and other peoples awareness. Accept others for essay Holderness, who they are. Refining personal talents and develop them as much as possible. Stay open, stay with it, it works. Everything that I need is either already in me or it is coming to me.
I really appreciate a well prepared meal, but there is no disappointment if it is learn write Hult International Business, not. To be open to every experience I have, without fear, closure or rejection, and to article Glenalmond College help others cultivate the same openness to their own experience. How To Write Hult International Business School? Live life every day, every way, as best you can, and never give up. Abundance (doing what I can do now) through authenticity. Write Xi’an University? I am humbled that many of you took seriously the learn how to write an essay Hult International Business School, call to ask yourselves what your personal creed is what your are offering to writing College the universe.
I know that just sending these words out makes our world a better place already. Your creeds also anchor you in life, and perhaps without your realising, will bring you peace and joy. Thank you once again, and live well! This is part of a 4-part series on Personal Creeds:
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cohabitation thesis Spirit-Led or Purpose-Driven? Part 1. by Berit Kjos, November 2003. Other articles on the Purpose Driven Movement. Picture: Saddleback Church campus. More pictures. The rest of an essay Hult School this series: There are some really good things and points that Rick Warren brings out.
But they always seems to be mixed with so many confusing and theologically weak points that you go crazy trying to keep it all straight. You will read a great point and then he'll throw in online writing essay University of Central a quote from Mother Theresa or Aldous Huxley and your mind reels. Hult Business School. There's a push to paint God as a smiley face in the sky - but you have to ignore His justice and how to School, anger! Plus, when you are the only 'naysayers' in learn write Hult School a group it gets old - especially when no one else seems to have anything but praise for the book. David, a visitor to our website.
I charge you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom: #65279; Preach the word ! Be ready in season and out of season. Convince, rebuke, exhort , with all longsuffering and writing College Manchester, teaching . Learn Write An Essay International Business School. #65279;For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but according to their own desires, because they have itching ears, they will heap up for themselves teachers; #65279;and they will turn their ears away from the truth, and be turned aside to fables. #65279;But you be watchful in all things . 2 Timothy 4:1-5. Our website began to receive requests for information about The Purpose Driven Life last year. So Andy and I bought the book, read it quickly and were troubled by some of its claims, promises and paraphrased Bible references. But we also found many true and encouraging pages. Since we didn't want to criticize Rick Warren or confuse those who apparently were helped by his book, we left it on the shelf. By this fall, Rick Warren's manual on the Christian life had become the topic of discussion in churches around the write an analytical essay School world.
The letters from concerned visitors multiplied. After reading the book again, we could no longer ignore its subtle distortions, its half-truths, its conflicting messages or its pragmatic permissiveness: if it works (i.e. brings people into learn write Business, the church), it's okay! God loves variety!  Nor could we accept Pastor Warren's rules for growth which tells us to never criticize what God is blessing. An Essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University.  Implying that church growth and learn how to write an essay International Business, changed lives prove God's delight in our human methods, it cancels His call to how to Academy be on guard and to discern deception. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult International School. Some may say, don't touch God's anointed, but we don't believe any leader is so anointed that his teaching is your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, beyond Biblical accountability. While only God can judge the heart of a person, we are called to help each other follow His guidelines, not be driven by today's new management systems. [see Driven or Led?] Praying that God would guide us, we began our response with the how to Hult Business School following background information . As most of you know, Rick Warren, the founding pastor of write an essay Saddleback Church in write an essay Hult International Business Southern California, has been leading the way and breaking new ground in today's Church Growth Movement. With over 50,000 names on his church roll, he models the success of the church management process he outlined in his earlier book, The Purpose-Driven Church . He also founded pastors.com, a global Internet community that serves and mentors those in ministry worldwide. This website tells us that over 60,000 pastors subscribe to essays Rick Warren's Ministry Toolbox , a free weekly email newsletter.  Then it summarizes his ministry: Rick Warren is well known as the pioneer of The Purpose-Driven Church paradigm for church health. More than 250,000 pastors and church leaders from over 125 countries have attended Purpose-Driven Church seminars in 18 languages.
Peter Drucker calls him 'the inventor of perpetual revival.' Rick's previous book, The Purpose-Driven Church , has sold over how to Hult International a million copies in 20 languages. How To Write An Analytical Essay. Winner of the Gold Medallion Ministry Book of the Year, it is used as a textbook in most seminaries, and was selected as one of the 100 Christian Books That Changed the learn write Hult International School 20th Century .  Notice the reference to Peter Drucker . Your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. What this legendary management guru began teaching large corporations decades ago has now been applied to God's churches as well as to learn how to write communities and governments around the world. Since the new methods seemed to work equally well for churches as for corporations -- and since the measured results offer statistical proof of success -- pastors from countless nations have embraced and implemented Drucker's marketing approach to doing church. In a 2002 article in an analytical essay Manchester Business Week titled Peter Drucker's Search for Community , Ken Witty describes the world view that drives Drucker's plans and purpose: He brings a communitarian philosophy to his consulting. He said that what he's all about is this search for community, the how to an essay International School search for where people and article College, organizations find community for non-economic satisfaction. A lot of Business School his ideas have become so accepted that it's hard for anyone to understand how original they were at the time he introduced them. It's sort of an analytical Manchester like Freud and psychoanalysis. Learn How To International. Peter was the first, for essay, example, to help managers understand that they had to define their businesses from a customer's perspective .  Focusing on the customer's perspective brings success.
People feel satisfied. How To Write An Essay Hult. They come and how to write an analytical essay Holderness, they buy. When this process is applied to churches, it works! With polls and surveys, a church can easily uncover the learn write an essay International School felt needs of the unbelievers in the local community -- then target their services to their intended consumers. Pastor Warren learned that lesson early from Robert Schuller -- the how to write english Montverde Academy possibility thinker who called Mikhail Gorbachev a Christian despite the protests of this unrepentant Communist. The people-pleasing methods that worked so well at the Crystal Cathedral would prove just as effective at Saddleback. You might still wonder why pastors would focus on the felt needs of unbelievers rather than the true needs of learn how to write God's family . Doesn't this strategy turn God's principles upside down? Yes, but it also attracts the spiritual diversity needed for the dialectic process -- the how to Academy heart of Business today's transformation in write an analytical Holderness churches as well as in business, education, government and other organizations.
Dr. Robert Klenck summarizes it in his report on The 21st Century Church: . in this movement, it is learn write an essay Hult International School, imperative that unbelievers are brought into the church; otherwise, the process of continual change cannot begin . There must be an antithesis (unbelievers) present to oppose the thesis (believers), in order to move towards consensus .(compromise), and move the believers a way from their moral absolutism (resistance to change). If all members of the church stand firm on how to Montverde Academy, the Word of write an essay God, and it’s final authority in all doctrine and tradition, then the your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool church cannot and will not change. This is common faith. Soon, we will see why these “change agents” are pushing so hard for learn how to write an essay Hult International Business School, change to occur in the church. Pastor Warren's current tutor in this management process is creative writing Glenalmond College, CMS , a full-service custom marketing and communications agency head-quartered in Covina, California. It's website shows its mission: At CMS, we view it as our mission to help our clients grow their businesses . We do this by working with each client identifying opportunities and developing innovative, creative and profitable services which assist them in the execution of effective marketing, sales and communications program. Write Hult International School. We are best able to serve clients when they allow us to act as partners . CMS is creative writing newspaper Glenalmond College, made up of a team of how to an essay Hult Business talented individuals whose dedication and expertise have earned them a solid reputation for creating results . 
Shouldn't we credit God, not clever marketing, with creating results? After all, t he Bible tells us that the wisdom of online University of Central Florida this world is foolishness with God. Man's wise ways may fit our human purpose, but they clash with God's purpose. [ 1 Cor 3:19-20 ; Prov. Learn Write International Business School. 3:5-7 ] While CMS ' partners includes secular giants such as Quaker and Isuzu Motors America, it also serves clients such as the City of West Covina, Purpose Driven Ministries, Saddleback Valley Community Church, Smalley Relationship Center and Walk Thru the Bible.  The latter was founded and led by Bruce Wilkinson, author of the write about your family Jiaotong-Liverpool University well marketed bestseller, The Prayer of Jabez. Part of CMS' success lies in the surveys, polls and tracking that characterize the 21st Century management systems: . collecting, organizing and managing data is essential to understanding, evaluating and planning of write International Business any successful promotion. That is why we developed our CMS Intelligent Redemption System. It is sophisticated proprietary software that allows us to program and initialize data. Our purchasing standards and fulfillment procedures build-in tracking and accountability. CMS Fulfillment Center specializes in direct mail projects, new product introductions, and promotion launches. Writing An Analytical Essay Abbey College Manchester.  No wonder curious visitors are flocking to Purpose-Driven churches.
Small wonder pastors around the world are watching, listening, ready to follow. This fall, over learn how to Hult International School 13,000 ministers and creative newspaper article Glenalmond, students heard Pastor Warren explain the ways of a purpose-driven church at learn how to write Hult SuperConference 2003, held at Jerry Falwell's Liberty University. Speaking on 'Attracting a Crowd to Worship,' Warren shared some basic principles behind church growth. He aimed his words at those who were stuck in the past: I believe that one of the major church issues [of the write an essay about your Xi’an University future] will be how we’re going to reach the next generation with our music,' he said, admitting, 'You can make more people mad with music than anything else in church. To insist that all good music came from Europe 200 years ago; there’s a name for that - racism. How To Write. Encourage members to re-arrange and rewrite. New songs say God is doing something awesome .”  Emphasis added. Do they?
Or might the new songs reflect man's desire to please the crowds? It's all too easy to an analytical justify our attempts to an essay International Business meet felt needs and demonstrate success. Online Writing Florida. We simply reinvent God's character and will, claiming that our purpose is His purpose. Assuming that He loves the same things we love, we assign Him an write an essay International Business image more like our own . But in Psalm 50:21 , God warns us against such shortsighted assumptions about God's nature. You thought that I was altogether like you , He told His people, but I will rebuke you. Pastor Warren again claimed divine approval during a Building a Purpose-Driven Church seminar held at how to write an analytical essay Holderness Saddleback Community Church in how to write Hult International Business January, 1998. Basing church growth strategies on personal wants, not on the guidelines of God's Word, he said,
Now, at Saddleback Church, we are unapologetically contemporary. I passed out a three-by-five card to online essay University of Central Florida everybody in the church, and I said, 'You write down the call letters of the radio station you listen to.' I wasn't even asking unbelievers. How To Write An Essay International School. I was asking the people in the church, 'What kind of music do you listen to?' When I got it back, I didn't have one person who said, 'I listen to organ music.' Not one. How To English Essays Montverde. So, we made a strategic decision that we are unapologetically a contemporary music church. And right after we made that decision and stopped trying to please everybody, Saddleback exploded with growth. I'll be honest with you, we are loud.
We are really, really loud on a weekend service. I say, 'We're not gonna turn it down.' Now the learn how to write an essay Hult International reason why is baby boomers want to feel the music, not just hear it . Essay College Manchester. God loves variety !  Does God really love today's cultural variety? I doubt that God is pleased when we feed our cravings and strengthen our need for emotional stimuli. When ancient Israel became bored with God's Word and embraced a wide variety of learn International Business cultural and spiritual thrills, God disciplined them severely. He even compared his wayward people with a wild donkey. that sniffs at the wind in her desire. English Essays Montverde. Jeremiah 2:24. When church leaders use energizing music, emotional stimuli and short, light messages to how to write an essay Hult International satisfy the flesh with its felt needs, they tend to obscure our deeper spiritual needs.
Fed a diet of simplified sermons designed to please everyone, both seekers and believers may lose their appetite for the solid Biblical teaching which -- by His Spirit -- produces conviction of sin, genuine repentance, actual regeneration, true spiritual renewal and the continual joy of walking with Jesus. Widening the gate to the Kingdom. The phenomenal success of Rick Warren's books and marketing skills has both popularized and accelerated the Church Growth Movement (CGM). Around the world, seekers and believers are reading The Purpose Driven Life and discussing its 40 chapters. Following its guidelines, they share their thoughts, express their feelings and bounce ideas off each other. To Writing Essay. [1, page 11] They sign contracts and hold each other accountable to the social and spiritual ideals of the 21st Century Church community.
And, says Pastor Warren, their lives are being transformed. [see note: transformation] I am sure many are. Pastor Warren has written some encouraging pages about God, His glory, our walk with Him and our fellowship with one another. I especially appreciate the sections that show the delight of a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. How To An Essay Hult School. But I was a little concerned when he invited all his readers to quietly whisper the prayer that will change your eternity : 'Jesus, I believe in you and how to write Montverde, I receive you.' [1, page 58] You might ask, what could possibly be wrong with that short prayer? Why question his promise that it would open the gate to learn write an essay International School God's Kingdom and change. eternity for all who prayed? Don't we want to bring as many as possible into God's eternity?
Yes, of course we do! And God could surely use those nine words to essay College Manchester draw His chosen ones to Himself. But the promises and assumptions that accompany the prayer could also produce serious problems in the church. For many will pray the prayer with little or no awareness of the holy nature of God, of the unholy power of sin, or of the deep chasm between the two. In our times of easy believism and Biblical illiteracy, anyone can personalize and claim God's promises without any prompting by the Spirit, genuine conversion (spiritual rebirth) or lasting inner change. Where people learn to tolerate evil and learn an essay Hult Business School, flow with the crowd, true repentance is rare and faith often becomes presumption. Still unregenerate, many happily accept the group's consensus: You prayed the prayer, therefore you must be a Christian. Pastor Warren agrees. An Analytical Essay Holderness. If you sincerely meant that prayer, congratulations! he tells the reader.
Welcome to the family of learn how to an essay God! You are now ready to discover and steps to writing essay Charterhouse, start living God's purpose for how to an essay International School, your life! [1, page 59] Thousands of how to write essay Holderness small groups using Saddleback's study guide and Teaching Video for learn write Hult International Business, the 40 Days of Purpose are led in online writing Florida a slightly longer prayer. An Essay International Business. They hear Pastor Warren speak these words: Do you have a relationship with Jesus Christ? If you aren't sure of write essays this, I'd like the privilege of leading you in a prayer to settle the issue. Let's bow our heads. I'm going to pray a prayer and you can follow it silently in your mind: 'Dear God, I want to know Your purpose for my life. I don't want to waste the rest of my life on the wrong things. Write Business School. Today I want to take the write an essay your family Jiaotong-Liverpool first step in learn how to an essay International preparing for eternity by online essay getting to know You. Jesus Christ, I don't understand it all, but as much as I know how, I want to open my life to You.
I ask you to come into my life and make yourself real to me. Learn Write School. Use this series to english Academy help me know what You made me for. Thank you. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult Business. Amen.' If you just prayed that prayer for the very first time, I congratulate you. You've just become a part of the family of God. Is this a response to the gospel? Where is repentance, acknowledgement of need, or confession of personal sin? Where is the cross? The Bible tells us that saving faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. Newspaper Article. [Romans 10:17-18] But no ne of the Scriptures that show the gospel are mentioned in this first lesson.
Biblically illiterate friends and neighbors who join the group would pray this prayer without any real knowledge of the cross, of the Savior, or of God's view of sin. In fact, t he meaning of salvation isn't included in the first lesson. And if it had been there, the context of the lesson would suggest that we are merely saved from a purposeless life -- not from bondage to sin. For the first lesson deals with the consequences of not knowing your purpose -- not with Jesus Christ. It warns the group that without knowing your purpose, life will seem TIRESOME.
UNFULFILLING. UNCONTROLLABLE. Hult International Business School. And it repeats the positive (but not particularly Biblical) promise that knowing the purpose of your life will - Even so, all who pray the prayer will be affirmed and celebrated as new members of the family of online University of Central God. But are they? We don't know. Yet, statistics suggest that most people who call themselves Christians have little understanding of the gospel. It's not surprising. Today's positive gospel emphasizes love, minimizes doctrine and ignores divine justice. The essential Biblical truths that prepare hearts for genuine conversion no longer fit.
A postmodern believer may be full of self-confidence but woefully short on spiritual awareness. A recent study by Hult Business School pollster George Barna bears this out: . relatively few people have a biblical worldview - even among devoutly religious people. Family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. The survey discovered that only 9% of born again Christians have such a perspective on life. The numbers were even lower among other religious classifications. For the purposes of the research, a biblical worldview was defined as believing that absolute moral truths exist; that such truth is defined by the Bible ; and write an essay International Business, firm belief in write an essay about family Jiaotong-Liverpool six specific religious views. Those views were that Jesus Christ lived a sinless life ; God is the all-powerful and all-knowing Creator of the universe and He stills rules it today ; salvation is a gift from God and cannot be earned; Satan is real ; a Christian has a responsibility to share their faith in Christ with other people; and the Bible is accurate in all of its teachings. Upon comparing the perspectives of those who have a biblical worldview with those who do not, the former group were 31 times less likely to accept cohabitation; 18 times less likely to endorse drunkenness; 15 times less likely to condone gay sex; 12 times less likely to accept profanity; and 11 times less likely to describe adultery as morally acceptable. In addition, less than one-half of one percent of those with a biblical worldview said voluntary exposure to pornography was morally acceptable (compared to 39% of other adults), and a similarly miniscule proportion endorsed abortion (compared to how to an essay Hult Business School 46% of adults who lack a biblical worldview).  At least Christians are not the only ones addled by an analytical College their culture into learn how to write, holding contradictory beliefs, writes Gene Edward Veith.
Atheists are just as confused about writing newspaper article Glenalmond their theology. . They believe that accepting Christ can bring eternal life, even though they don't believe in Jesus Christ. Just like 'nonevangelical born-agains.'  But they're all coming together under the worldwide ecumenical umbrella of the Church Growth Movement. As I wrote in Re-Inventing the Church, the 21st century vision of global oneness is drawing diverse churches and people into learn write Business School, vast Christian networks that provide trained leadership and management consultants. Rick Warren's communitarian management guru, Peter Drucker , described it well. Quoting him in an analytical Abbey College a 1994 report, the Leadership Network wrote,
The Spirit is moving. there is a substantial critical mass of people and churches that are already moving.' . While acknowledging that there are still many unhealthy churches [those that don't conform to the new, inclusive pattern], there is a justified ' change in basic premises , basic attitudes, basic mindset . on the whole, we are on the march.  [emphasis added] As you saw earlier, this diversity is Hult School, essential to an analytical essay College the mind-changing dialectic process that Drucker has helped establish in organizations everywhere. (We will take a closer look at it in Part 7 of how to International Business this series) Remember Robert Klenck's words: . in this movement, it is imperative that unbelievers are brought into an analytical School, the church; otherwise, the process of learn write an essay Hult continual change cannot begin. There must be an antithesis (unbelievers) present to an analytical oppose the learn Hult Business School thesis (believers), in order to move towards consensus . (compromise), and move the believers a way from their moral absolutism (resistance to change). If the write an analytical Holderness church member continues to resist change, they may be asked to leave. Many concerned and uncompromising Christians can testify to the pain of learn how to an essay Hult International School being expelled under the essay banner of church discipline. Unlike some church leaders today, Pastor Warren does try to define sin. Learn International Business. Before introducing his salvation prayer, he wrote, All sin, at its root, is failing to give God glory.
It is loving anything else more than God. Refusing to bring glory to God is prideful rebellion, and it is the sin that caused Satan's fall--and ours, too. Writing An Analytical Essay Abbey College. In different ways we all lived for our own glory, not God's. The Bible says, 'All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. [1, page 55] That's true. But this general sin which applies to all of humanity will hardly cause postmodern unbelievers to sense any genuine guilt or a personal need for the cross. Unlike former generations of Americans, few have been taught the basic truths about our Biblical God and His moral standards.  Many simply dismiss the notion of sin as old-fashioned legalism and write Hult International Business, shut their eyes to its corrupting power in their own lives. Write An Analytical School. When faced with today's non-offensive teaching on sin, many translate it into learn how to write Hult Business, a more comfortable half truth: Sin is a normal part of life, and I'm just as good as everyone else -- maybe a little better.
Besides, God understands and loves me as I am.  In other words, t here's no sense of about your Xi’an guilt, fear or brokenness before our eternal Judge! Like ancient Israel, They were not at learn write an essay Business all ashamed; nor did they know how to blush. Jeremiah 6:13-15. In contrast to this postmodern norm, Jesus shows us a heartfelt response that pleases Him. While dining at the home of the self-satisfied Simon, He explains the blessing of a truly repentant heart: Do you see this woman?
I entered your house; you gave Me no water for writing Abbey College Manchester, My feet, but she has washed My feet with her tears and wiped them with the hair of her head. You gave Me no kiss, but this woman has not ceased to kiss My feet since the time I came in. International. You did not anoint My head with oil, but this woman has anointed My feet with fragrant oil. Therefore I say to essay Abbey Manchester you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to how to write an essay whom little is forgiven, the same loves little .” Luke 7:37-47. This precious woman was familiar with God's moral law -- what the Bible describes as our tutor to bring us to Christ that we might be justified by how to essays Montverde Academy faith. [ Gal 3:25 ] While that uncompromising law  exposed her guilt and depravity, it also caused her to treasure God's wonderful forgiving grace with all her heart. Unlike those who ignore God's standard and their own sinful inclinations, she was overwhelmed with gratitude to the One who forgave her sin and set her free from the weight of the how to International Business School law and from bondage to her flesh (sinful human nature). God had prepared her heart and she humbly gave herself to her beloved Lord -- heart, mind and soul. Jesus, in turn, held her up as an example to others. Her response to God's loving mercy illustrates the fourth category in how to write essay Holderness Jesus' parable of the sower.
Remember, the sower (God) scatters the seed (the word of the kingdom) which fall into four types of soil (or heart conditions): #65279;Type 1. Learn Write Hult School. By the wayside: The person hears the word of the kingdom , and does not understand it , then the wicked one comes and snatches away what was sown in his heart. Type 2. On stony ground: he hears the word and immediately receives it with joy ; yet he has no root in himself, but endures only for a while. For when tribulation or persecution arises because of the writing essay Abbey College Manchester word, immediately he stumbles . Type 3. Write An Essay International. Among thorns: he who hears the word , and an analytical essay Manchester, the cares of this world and learn write, the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and write an essay about your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, he becomes unfruitful. An Essay Hult International. The gospel of Luke adds the desires for other things. Type 4. On good ground: he who hears the write Montverde word and understands it , who indeed bears fruit and produces: some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.” Matthew 13:20-23. All four hear the write Hult School life-giving word of truth, but only two receive it. Both the second and the fourth appear to have entered into the Kingdom, but only the fourth proves faithful and wins the prize: God's gracious sufficiency and His abundant fruitfulness. Only the writing Manchester last group understands God's Word, demonstrates His enduring strength and how to write an essay Hult International Business School, knows the hope of eternal life with Christ. Those gifts are only given to steps to writing a college essay Charterhouse those who are truly born , not of blood, nor of the International will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God . John 1:13. This saving faith will be tested.
New believers will face struggles, temptation, suffering and persecution -- all normal for those who are called to share in the suffering of Christ. They will fall, fail, grieve and repent, but they will always return to the One whose Word and Spirit have transformed their hearts. In contrast, others will leave this narrow way when life gets tough or the world too tempting -- not because God has revoked His saving grace, but because they were not truly changed in how to an analytical essay Holderness the first place. Look at the next Scripture: #65279;And you, who once were alienated and how to Hult Business School, enemies in your mind by writing an analytical essay Abbey wicked works, yet now He has reconciled #65279;in the body of learn how to Hult International His flesh through death, to present you holy, and essay Abbey, blameless, and how to International Business, above reproach in His sight— #65279;if indeed you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast. Col 1:21-23. Pastor Warren seems to minimize the steps to writing a college Charterhouse sobering reality behind God's warnings and inflate God's promises. To back his assertion that all who pray his prayer are automatically transformed by the Holy Spirit, he quotes a phrase from a Scripture from The Message , a paraphrased Bible translation by Eugene Peterson that promises, Whoever accepts and trust the Son gets in on everything, life complete and forever! [John 3:36a] Th e chart below shows the whole verse in the three standard translations (the second half is italicized): Do you wonder what the open-ended phrase , gets in on everything, means?
Written in present tense, it could mean just about anything someone might imagine. To contemporary seekers who think they know God, it could imply an exciting and irresistible heavenly life here on earth -- a blissful offer that few would reject. But when you compare that version of John 3:36 with any standard translation, you find that Mr. Peterson had added that alluring phrase in how to Business spite of God's repeated command not to article Glenalmond add to -- or delete from an essay Hult School -- His unchanging, Spirit-breathed Word.  The result is another misleading half-truth that obscures the fact that walking with Jesus means sharing His suffering. We forget that some of God's most faithful servants have faced poverty, hardships and torture that defy our comfort-centered Western comprehension, yet they endured the pain for the greater joy of newspaper article College serving their beloved King now and forever. Pastor Warren starts the next chapter (8) in his book with this feel-good assurance for all who prayed the prayer: The moment you were born into the world, God was there as an unseen witness, smiling at your birth. How To An Essay Hult Business School. You are a child of an analytical essay Abbey God and you bring pleasure to God like nothing else he has ever created. Learn Write Hult School. [1, page 63] This positive gospel will surely meet man's felt need for affirmation, identity and a sense of belonging.
The masses are more than willing to believe in an essay family Jiaotong-Liverpool this new tolerant, non-judging God who fits their postmodern culture. But God doesn't promise to Business make us comfortable and creative writing newspaper Glenalmond, pamper our feelings. While He does promise the resources needed to meet each day's challenges, some of those spiritual resources have little to do with today's felt needs. Instead His path for us may be lonely and rough, full of write an essay Hult School steep climbs and impossible challenges. Yet, as we persevere in faith, we will hear His sweet voice whispering, My grace is sufficient for writing Abbey College, you, for my power is made perfect in your weakness. [2 Cor 12:9] Did you hear that? God will use our weakness, not our strengths! No need for management consultants and surveys that measure our natural abilities in order to discover our spiritual gifts [1, page 57] and God's purpose for us! The Shepherd will lead us along His chosen ways, narrow and winding paths that may differ radically from our human plans and purposes! But those who have not yet been crucified with Christ and filled with the how to write an essay Hult Business Holy Spirit will neither hear the Shepherd nor comprehend the Scriptures.  . That's one of the reasons why today's spiritual diversity demands simplified Bibles that have been paraphrased, reinterpreted and made appealing to the natural mind . Softening God's Word.
Unregenerate believers who love the ways of the world will want a church that fits that world. To make them feel at home -- and to satisfy curious seekers -- the church must now re-invent itself. Since no one can really understand God's truth unless the how to essay Holderness Holy Spirit reveals it to their hearts [see 1 Cor 2:9-16], God's Word must be simplified so that everyone -- Christian or not -- can relate to it. It's not surprising that Pastor Warren quotes passages from The Message (a paraphrased version of the write International Bible by creative writing article Glenalmond Eugene Peterson) over ninety times. Many of those simplified passages alter both the International Business words and the meaning of the Scriptures. Write An Essay About Jiaotong-Liverpool University. But they fit the points Pastor Warren is trying to make. Learn International. So do other paraphrased Bibles that he uses.
Please compare Today's English Version 's interpretation of Isaiah 26:3 with the an analytical Holderness corresponding passages in learn write an essay School three generally accepted Bible translations: the King James Version (KJV), the New King James Version (NKJV) and the New International Version (NIV). While I don't personally use the steps to writing a college essay NIV, the three translations illustrate the an essay International Business School gap between standard translations and an analytical, modern paraphrases. International School. Today's English Version's (TEV) seems to fit Pastor Warren's need here -- perhaps because it uses the word purpose: Knowing your purpose focuses your life, he assures us. It concentrates your effort and energy on to writing essay Charterhouse, what's important. You become effective by being selective. Learn How To Write An Essay International Business. [1, page 32] But the early Hebrew documents promised God's perfect peace to those whose minds were stayed on Him, not to those who merely kept their purpose firm. In fact, the main message of Isaiah 26:3 is not an creative newspaper article College exhortation to keep their purpose firm. How To An Essay School. Instead, it tells us to stay continually focused on write about your Xi’an, God Himself.
Though He calls us throughout the Bible to how to write Hult trust Him, He only promises His wonderful gift of quot perfect peace to those who -- by His Spirit -- will stay with Him. #65279; One thing I have desired of the how to essays Lord, sang David (God's beloved shepherd-king), that will I seek: That I may dwell in the house of the learn write Hult International Lord all the days of my life, to behold the #65279;#65279;beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in His temple. Psalm 27:4. Think about it: Wouldn't God (as He has revealed Himself through His Living Word) be a more reliable focus for our lives? Doesn't His Word suggest we be led by our wonderful Shepherd, not driven by standardized purposes which are now being used around the world to define and about your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, assess our spiritual gifts, our spiritual growth, our spiritual devotion, our spiritual fruit and our group fellowship?
Pastor Warren encourages us to learn how to Hult International School memorize and meditate on God's Word. But he also suggests that we select Bible verses out of his book which begins and ends with quotes from The Message . On page 325, he explains why: . we often miss the full impact of familiar Bible verses, not because of poor translating, but simply because they have become so familiar! We think we know what a verse says because we have read it or heard it so many times. Then when we find it quoted in a book, we skim over it and miss the full meaning. Newspaper Article College. Therefore I have deliberately used paraphrases in order to help you see God's truth in new, fresh ways. Learn How To Write School. [emphasis in the original] Also, since the verse divisions and number were not included in the Bible until 1560 A.D., I haven't always quoted the entire verse, but rather focused on the phrase that was appropriate. My model for this is write english Montverde, Jesus and learn how to an essay Hult International School, how he and the apostles quoted the write english essays Montverde Academy Old Testament.
They often just quoted a phrase to make a point. [1, page 325] His first argument doesn't match reality. How To Write An Essay Business. Those who are truly born again treasure God's Word as it is written. An Analytical Essay School. The more familiar it becomes, the more precious it is! He brings the words we have hidden in our heart to our awareness day and night as we need it for comfort, strength and joy in Him. Your words were found, and I ate them, said Jeremiah, and Your word was to me the joy and rejoicing of my heart; for I am called by write an essay International Business School Your name, O Lord. An Analytical College. Jeremiah 15:16. Second, are we free to attribute the authority of the actual Scriptures to short sound bytes of learn write an essay International Business paraphrased passages in order to validate our own points? Yes, Jesus, who was Himself the Living Word, had the absolute authority to writing College speak His own message as He willed. But we are not God! That's why He warns us repeatedly not to alter or add to His holy Word in any way.
If anyone adds to these things , God will add to him the learn how to write International plagues that are written in creative writing newspaper article this book, He tells us in how to an essay International Business the Book of Revelation ( 22:18-19) , #65279;and if anyone t akes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of writing essay Manchester Life. Those are strong words. That's why many postmodern leaders consider them intolerant and exclude them from their teaching. But God considers the accuracy of His Word so vital to our walk with Him that He repeated this warning several times throughout the Bible. You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take from learn how to write an essay Hult School it, He told us through Moses in newspaper Deuteronomy 4:1-2. International Business School. And in Proverbs 30:5-6, He warned: Every word of God is pure; He is a shield to those who put their trust in creative article College Him. Do not add to His words , lest He rebuke you, and you be found a liar. Yet, man's incessant quest for learn how to write an essay Hult Business, new, fresh ways has always made us vulnerable to temptation.
From the beginning, Satan has offered both pleasure and wisdom to those who would rephrase or revise God's timeless Word -- blending lies with truth that hide the deception. Back in the garden, it led to write family Jiaotong-Liverpool University Eve's disobedience and learn Business, the alienation of humanity. Through the Middle Ages, it led to horrendous heresies and cruel persecution of those who took their stand on God's unchanging Word. Write English Essays Montverde Academy. In our times, the rise of pragmatism and postmodernity has led to Business another round of revisions. And with the writing University postmodern rejection of learn International Business School unchanging absolutes, there is no end in sight. See how The Message has altered the meaning of creative writing newspaper article God's Word in learn Business School the following passages.
Though the first two references are not mentioned in how to write the Purpose Driven Life , their precious familiarity helps us discern the contrast and learn write Hult International Business School, realize how human additions and deletions distort His truths. The third reference is the last Bible verse Pastor Warren quotes in his book. Writing. Notice its new tone and how to Hult, attitude: hallowed be Your name. Matt. 6:9.
hallowed be your name . Matt. 6:9. Ponder the last section. Steps To Writing A College Charterhouse. To be carnally minded means far more than obsession with self. Learn Write Hult Business School. It involves the how to write Holderness School spiritual blindness and death of a person who lives and thinks according to his own capricious human nature -- separated from learn Hult International God's grace and Spirit.
He may claim to be a Christian, but his finite mind cannot grasp God's truths, heart or will. To Writing Essay Charterhouse. A simpler, modified Bible, stripped of write Hult International Business its deeper and harder truths, doesn't help. God never intended that the Bible should be understood apart from His supernatural work in creative Glenalmond College the hearts of Hult His chosen people. [Matt 13:13; Luke 8:10; Jer 5:21; Acts 26:18] The other parallel follows. To be spiritually minded means that, through the Holy Spirit, the believer's mind has been opened to understand Scriptures. God's life-changing Truth has renewed his heart and enabled him to know and how to an analytical Holderness, love God. It has given him the learn Hult International Business joy and essay Abbey, endurance needed to follow the Shepherd -- not along that spacious highway that draws the crowds -- but on learn how to Hult, the narrow unpopular way which draws us ever closer to creative writing Glenalmond College Him. Matt 7:13-14. Since the Bible is the foundation of how to write Hult International Business School our faith, we had better follow its clear and timeless guidelines. They alone enable us to maintain the purity and Florida, accuracy of His Word even as we translate it into all the world's different languages.
In its totality, the learn how to write Hult International Business Bible reveals the nature of Academy God, the nature of man -- both in learn Hult Christ and creative newspaper College, apart from Him. Made alive by His Spirit, it reveals His guidelines for our lives, His promises of each day's challenges, His hope for eternity. It is the write International School foundation of our faith and the standard for our lives. But Pastor Warren sees a slightly different foundation. As in writing The Purpose-Driven Church , his format shows us five purposes: 1. Write International Business. Worship: You were made for God's pleasure. 2. Connect (fellowship): You were formed for God's family. 3. Grow (discipleship): You were created to essay Abbey become like Christ. 4. Serve (ministry): You were shaped for serving God. 5. Share (evangelism): You were made for write an essay Hult School, a mission. [1, contents] Those statements are all true, but they are incomplete as guidelines for all of life's challenges.
Later he tells us: Knowing your purpose simplifies your life. It defines what you do and what you don't do. Essays Montverde. Your purpose becomes the standard you use to learn how to write School evaluate which activities are essential and which aren't. You simply ask, 'Does this activity help me fulfill one of God's purposes for my life?' Without a clear purpose, you have no foundation on which you base decisions, allocate your time, and use your resources. [1, page 31] What does Pastor Warren mean by a clear purpose? A blend of his five stated purposes? Neither the five purposes, nor any other single purpose, can replace Jesus Christ, the Living Word, as the foundation on an analytical essay, which you base decision, allocate your time and use resources.
Christ's Life in us -- speaking through His Word revealed to us -- is our supreme, unrivaled foundation and guide. The Living Word remains a lamp to my feet and a light to my path no matter where His chosen purposes or unseen paths might take you and me for how to write Hult School, the duration of online essay University our lives on earth. The Spirit of Worship. In The Purpose Driven Life , Rick Warren wisely points to the importance of worship and surrender. Worship must be based on the truth of Scripture, not our opinions about God, he writes. [1, page 101] That's so true! Yet, his book offers both opinions and illustrations that undermine that truth -- including some misleading assumptions about God and what He loves. Worship must be both accurate and authentic, he writes on learn an essay International, page 102.
God-pleasing worship is both deeply emotional and write your family Xi’an University, deeply doctrinal. The best style of worship is the one that most authentically represent your love for how to write an essay International, God, based on write, the background and personality God gave you. He then gives the following illustration: My friend Gary Thomas noticed that many Christians seem stuck in a worship rut -- an unsatisfying routine -- instead of having a vibrant friendship with 'God, because they force themselves to use devotional methods or worship styles that don't fit the write way God uniquely shaped them.' Gary wondered, If God intentionally made us all different, why should everyone be expected to write essay love God in the same way.
In his book Sacred Pathways , Gary identifies nine of the ways people draw near to God: Naturalists are most inspired to love God out-of-doors, in learn write Hult School natural settings. Sensates love God with their senses and an essay family Xi’an University, appreciate beautiful worship services that involve their sight, taste, smell and touch, not just their ears. Ascetics prefer to love God in solitude and simplicity. [Later in learn International Business the book, Warren tells us that only online writing, those who participate in learn an essay Hult School today's organized church can grow spiritually.]. .. Activists love God through confronting evil, battling injustice, and working to make the world a better place. [1, page 103] Emphasis added. Does Pastor Warren equate activists with the social and political activists that push churches and nations toward a global welfare system based on UN standards for writing University of Central Florida, social solidarity? Liberal churches and learn how to, the World Council of Churches are major forces in how to an analytical this accelerating movement of faith-based partnerships that -- under the banner of love and tolerance -- serves the needy while silencing the gospel.  But Jesus said, My kingdom is learn how to write Hult International, not of this world. John 18:36. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to worship and friendship with God, continues Pastor Warren. God wants you to be yourself. Creative Newspaper Article College. That's true. Then he validates his point with a quote from The Message : That's the write International School kind of people the Father is out looking for: those who are simply and honestly themselves before him in their worship .' Compare the three standard Bible translations below with Eugene Peterson's paraphrased Message. Notice the clash of words and meaning:
KJV: . the hour cometh, and how to essay School, now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth : for the Father seeketh such to worship him. John 4:23. NKJV: . the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth ; for the Father is seeking such to worship Him. John 4:23. NIV: . a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the learn how to an essay Hult International Business School Father in Abbey spirit and truth , for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. John 4:23.
Message: That's the kind of learn write Hult School people the Father is online writing Florida, out looking for: those who are simply and honestly themselves before him in their worship. Learn How To Write Hult International Business. (page 103) Emphasis added. While God demands absolute honesty from His people, the word truth here implies far more than being simply and honestly themselves. The central truth tells us about our wonderful Lord. Worship is our response to what His Word and Spirit have revealed to us about His glory and goodness. And Pastor Warren knows that very well. In spite of his pragmatic promotion of an essay your family Jiaotong-Liverpool cultural compromise under the banner of church growth, he also includes some beautiful descriptions:
Where is the learn write Hult Business School glory of God? Just look around. Everything created by God reflects his glory in some way. Online Writing Of Central Florida. We see it everywhere, from the learn how to write an essay International Business School smallest microscopic form of life to the vast Milky Way, from sunsets and steps a college essay, stars to storms and seasons. Learn An Essay Hult International School. The Bible says. 'The heavens declare the glory of God. ' [1, page 54] We cannot add anything to this glory, just as it would be impossible for how to an analytical essay, us to make the sun shine brighter. But we are commanded to recognize his glory, honor his glory, declare his glory, praise his glory, reflect his glory and live for his glory. Why? Because God deserves it!
We owe him every honor we can possibly give. [1, page 56] So true! But while Warren reminds us that Worship is a lifestyle, he bases his description of how to write an essay International School God on his own personal presumptions, not on Biblical revelation: Worship has nothing to do with the an analytical essay College Manchester style or volume or speed of a song. God loves all kinds of learn how to write an essay Hult International School music because he invented it all -- fast and slow, loud and soft, old and new. You probably don't like it all, but God does! [1, page 65] He does? Including the throbbing beat of hard rock? [See Popular Music with Pagan Roots] Or the pulsating sensuality of other forms of rock and how to write english essays Academy, hip hop? Or the hypnotic tones of New Age music? While all parts of the universe were created by our sovereign Lord, he lets us use His raw materials according to our own inclinations -- whether they honor or profane his name.
But when we become part of His family and Kingdom, He holds us accountable to His high and holy standards -- and to what He has revealed about Himself in His Word. Again Pastor Warren seems to agree. He says, I must choose to value what God values. This is what friends do -- they care about what is important to the other person. Learn International. The more you become God's friend, the more you will care about the things he cares about, grieve over the things he grieves over, and rejoice over the things that bring pleasure to essays Montverde him. That's a great summary. Warren goes on to say that Paul is the best example of this.
God's agenda was his agenda and God's passion was his. Then he backs his statement with another quote from The Message , one that leaves out a key point: that God is a jealous God. His holy jealousy is write Hult, expressed through Paul in his concern for the church. To show you the context, we included the next verse as well: KJV: #65279;For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for an essay about your Jiaotong-Liverpool, I have espoused you to learn write Hult one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to creative writing newspaper Christ . 3#65279; But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult. 2 Cor 11:2-4. NKJV: For I am jealous for you with godly jealousy . For I have betrothed you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ . 3#65279; But I fear, lest somehow, as the write an essay University serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted. 2 Cor 11:2-4. NIV: I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy.
I promised you to learn an essay Hult International Business one husband, to Christ, so that I might present you as a pure virgin to him .#65279; 3#65279; But I am afraid that just as Eve was deceived by the serpent’s cunning, your minds may somehow be led astray. Write Essay School. 2 Cor 11:2-4. Message: The thing that has me so upset is that I care about an essay Hult International you so much- - this is the how to essay School passion of how to an essay Hult Business School God burning inside me ! 2 Cor 11:2 (page 97) Emphasis added. Probing God's passion, Warren asks: What does God care about newspaper article Glenalmond College most? The redemption of his people. He wants all his lost children found! That's the whole reason Jesus came to earth. Learn How To Write An Essay Hult International Business School. The dearest thing to the heart of God is the death of english his Son. The second dearest thing is learn write Hult Business, when his children share that news with others. To be a friend of online Florida God, you must care about all the people around you that God cares about.
Yes, that sounds right. But it's only a half-truth. Learn How To An Essay Business School. Pastor Warren apparently quoted the above words from The Message to validate his point about passion. [ 19 ] But the standard Bible translations based on early Greek sources actually refer to a different issue: God's zeal for purity and holiness in the Church. How To Essay School. Paul was warning the Corinthians against how to write, corruption in His Body -- a major concern in both the Old and New Testament. The apostle highlights this purpose again in his letter to the church in Philippi: . #65279;that you may become blameless and harmless, children of God without fault in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world, #65279;holding fast the word of to writing a college essay Charterhouse life, so that I may rejoice in the day of Christ that I have not run in vain or labored in vain. Philippians 2:15-16. In other words, God calls us to be different from the corrupt world around us.
He has made us a holy people -- set us apart for Himself. #65279;“They are not of the world, said Jesus, just as I am not of the world. Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is learn how to write an essay Hult International School, truth. John 17:15-18. Pastor Warren's emphasis on passion hides this point. The issue of purity is replaced with the more contemporary issue of personal relationships. Thus feel-good relational guidelines become more important than the spiritual need for repentance and to writing essay Charterhouse, holiness in Christ. Please don't think I would diminish the all important command to love one another as Christ loves us. Learn How To Write Hult. But when corruption and worldliness seep into the church, God's agapao love -- an expression of the Abbey College Manchester Holy Spirit in us -- is quenched.
We may replace it with more human love such as phileo (friendship, affection, brotherhood) love, but it no longer fulfills the above command. How To An Essay Hult Business. (In spite of write an essay about University Pastor Warren's frequent reference to our friendship with God, the Bible never uses the word phileo in any of the commands that we love God. It always uses the word agapao , God's supernatural love flowing through His faithful people.) In the context of Peter Drucker 's management and marketing philosophy, Pastor Warren's emphasis makes perfect sense. The new relational guidelines are designed to build group loyalty, teach respect for all opinions, and block unpopular truths that expose error and corruption. The latter are simply too divisive. Fellowship between spiritually diverse people is learn an essay International Business School, all important, even if it clashes with God's Word [ 2 Cor 6: 1 4 - 18] and forces believers to your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University compromise. That's why many committed but heartbroken Christians are leaving the seeker-friendly churches they have faithfully served.
They simply cannot agree to discard offensive Biblical guidelines in an essay Hult Business order to pursue the new vision of unity and how to english essays Montverde, community. God's people must heed their Spirit-taught conscience. If we claim His name and learn how to International School, promises, we had better follow His ways rather than our feelings or popular marketing schemes. If our worship is an steps a college essay Charterhouse expression of an essay Hult Business School our human nature rather than His truth and writing of Central Florida, Spirit, it is worthless. Learn Write Business. It's all too easy to quench the Spirit and become blind to His light.
Trying to make Christianity more acceptable to the world, we may forget Jesus' sobering warnings to His disciples: If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the creative writing newspaper article Glenalmond College world hates you. John 15:19-21. #65279;Do not quench the Spirit. How To An Essay Hult International Business School. #65279;Do not despise prophecies. Test all things; hold fast what is good. #65279;Abstain from every form of evil. #65279;Now may the God of an analytical essay Abbey Manchester peace Himself sanctify you completely; and learn how to write International, may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. #65279;He who calls you is faithful, who also will do it. English Essays Academy. 1 Thessalonians 5:19-24. The style of music you choose to use in your services will be one of the most critical (and controversial!) decisions you make in the life of your church, wrote Rick Warren in learn write International Business School an article titled Selecting Worship Music . Article. You must match your music to the kind of people God wants your church to reach.
The music you use 'positions' your church in your community. It defines who you are. It will determine the kind of people you attract, the learn write Hult International Business kind of an analytical Holderness School people you keep, and the kind of Hult International Business people you lose . How To Write English Essays Montverde Academy.  Emphasis added. Pastor Warren's choice in learn Hult Business School music flows with today's major currents of change -- in culture and business as well as churches. Online Writing Essay Of Central Florida. Our world is becoming increasingly uniform even as our choices multiply. An Essay Business. While we have countless options in Abbey food, books, religions and how to write Hult International, music, the write about family Xi’an University vast networks of learn Hult International corporate management systems around the write Xi’an world follow the an essay Hult International School same marketing strategies. Their key to measurable success is monitoring and an essay Jiaotong-Liverpool, manipulating the felt needs of the masses -- a shrewd strategy that requires continual polls, surveys, assessments and digital data systems. Together, as parts of a holistic system , they not only expose the wants and learn how to write Hult International Business School, vulnerabilities of consumers everywhere but also nurture and manipulate those needs and cravings. And it works! That's why governments, schools, medical systems and large churches are all reinventing themselves in steps a college order to follow the established tracks of corporate America.
They may call their particular version of this system Total Quality Management, Outcome Based Education or Purpose Driven Churches; it doesn't matter. All follow the learn how to an essay Hult Business School same pragmatic blueprint, aim for measurable results, call for teams, dialogue, facilitators, lifelong learning, contracts and continual assessments of progress toward the planned outcome. All must conform or leave the how to an analytical system. In Part 1, you saw that Pastor Warren polled his congregation to learn write discover the about family Jiaotong-Liverpool most popular contemporary music .  Now he uses more sophisticated surveys and tracking software. As you saw in learn how to Business School Part 1, one of his management consultants is CMS , a full-service custom marketing and online University, communications agency that helps its clients grow their businesses .  It explains that . collecting, organizing and managing data is essential to understanding, evaluating and planning of learn write an essay International School any successful promotion. How To Essays Academy.  So when Pastor Warren offered the music most people wanted, they flocked to the church. But measurable success doesn't prove that God ordained or inspired this particular plan. In fact, God warns us not to learn School seek to please men [Galatians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:4] . Write About Your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Popularity in the world has never been a sign of God's approval. More often -- throughout the Bible as well as history -- popularity proves the opposite. If you were of the world, the world would love its own, said Jesus.
Yet because you are not of the world , but I chose you out of the world , therefore the world hates you . John 15:19. When Pastor Warren tells us that God loves all kinds of write Hult Business music and that God loves variety,  d o you wonder where he would he draw the line? Would that vital dividing line bend with our changing culture? Or with the growing tolerance for newspaper, all kinds of spiritual and Scriptural variations? These are crucial questions, for music has become a driving force in the Church Growth Movement. As Pastor Warren says, Music is an integral part of our lives. We eat with it, drive with it, shop with it, relax with it, and some non-Baptists even dance to it! The great American pastime is learn how to Business School, not baseball - it is music and sharing our opinions about it! . when I read about biblical worship in the Psalms, I see that they used drums, clashing cymbals, loud trumpets, tambourines and writing Abbey Manchester, stringed instruments. Learn How To Write An Essay International Business. That sounds a lot like contemporary music to me!
Saddleback is unapologetically a contemporary music church. We’ve often been referred to in the press as 'The flock that likes to rock.' We use the style of music the majority of people in our church listen to on the radio.  These statements beg at least two responses. First, Pastor Warren wrote: . in how to write the Psalms, I see that they used drums.  None of the standard Bible translations mention drums, but they do mention timbrels which are sometimes translated tabrets or tambourines . Apparently, these were small, round wooden rings or frames covered with animal skin and usually carried by women or maidens in dance, praise or merriment. Some Bible commentaries describe them as small hand drums, examples of which have been found in Egyptian and Mesopotamian excavations. Obviously, they were not like today's large, throbbing percussion instruments which the Bible neither forbids nor approves. Nor were they listed in 1 Chronicles along with other instruments prescribed for temple worship.  Second, o ur Father Himself prepares the hearts of His chosen ones to respond to the saving truth of the gospel and the demonstration of His love. He doesn't need our clever business schemes. “No one can come to how to an essay Hult School Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him, said Jesus. An Essay. [John 6:44] But can't God use contemporary music to draw us to School Himself?
Of course He can! He can use anything He chooses! Again and again, He brings blessings out of writing essay University of Central our human choices, be they wise or foolish or in between. But His wonderful grace and mercy never justify our disobedience. He repeatedly warns His people to guard against an essay Hult International School, the seductive forces of the world system [Rom. 12:2, 1 John 2:15; Psalm 1:1-3] , and Christian music now rests squarely in the hands of the world's corrupt entertainment establishment. Two of the most popular Christian musicians are Michael W. Smith and writing University of Central, Amy Grant. Both are under contract to Word Music Company which is owned by how to Hult International School Word Entertainment, the Christian Music division of writing an analytical College Warner Music Group, a Time Warner company.
This may explain why some of the how to write Business School popular pied pipers of the an essay your family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool church cross over to write International School the other side, drawing millions of fans with them. When that happens, the emotional highs that had been linked to God are transferred to the new themes that exclude God and exalt lust.  Steven Curtis Chapman may be the most famous artist with Sparrow Records, a part of the how to Sparrow Label Group owned by the British EMI Music Publishing, the world's largest secular music publisher. Having introduced America to the Beatles back in the sixties, it now owns labels such as Capitol, Angel, Blue Note, Priority and Virgin. Write An Essay Hult International Business School. Featuring approximately 1,500 artists, it markets every kind of popular music: rock, rap, jazz, Christian, country.  According to Music Publishing , EMI [owns the] rights to steps essay more than one million musical compositions and has offices in 30 countries.
Composers and writers represented by EMI include David Bowie, Janet Jackson, Carole King, Queen, . Savage Garden, Sting, . Aerosmith. EMI's website features a page on Social Responsibility which tells us, At EMI we believe business should be both profitable and beneficial to society. . We are committed to equal opportunity for all employees regardless of gender, ethnic or national origin, religion, disability, age, marital status or sexual orientation. We support and uphold the learn how to write Hult International School principles contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Creative Writing College. .  If you read our article, Trading US Rules for UN Rules , you will find that the learn write an essay Hult International Universal Declaration of Human Rights is hostile -- not helpful -- to Christians and others who question the UN philosophy and its blueprint for global solidarity . In April, 2003, both EMI and Time-Warner executives participated in article a conference dealing with topics such as Things you need to know to write Business School get noticed and The spiritual future of about family Xi’an University Christian music. The goal of the first roundtable, moderated by the Senior Director of AR, Warner Brothers Records, Christian Division, was to how to an essay International School share what they are currently looking for in a signed artist today. Writing Glenalmond.  Do you wonder if the panelists -- including the General Manager of Simple Records, a Senior Director at learn an essay International Business School Sparrow Label Group, and the Director of Gospel AR and Warner Brothers Records -- would allow lyrics that expressed some of the more offensive truths of the Bible? Would they even consider God's will for Christian music and worship? Probably not.
Their concern is marketing music in cultures around the world. It's up to us to essay University of Central know such as 2 Corinthians 6:14-17, which warns us, Do not be unequally yoked together with unbelievers. For what fellowship has righteousness with lawlessness? And what communion has light with darkness? And what accord has Christ with Belial? Or what part has a believer with an how to Hult Business unbeliever? . Come out from creative newspaper Glenalmond College among them and be separate. An Essay School. Why do you think music is used so extensively in movies and every kind of television show from news intros to romantic love scenes? asks Chris Long in his excellent article, Should Christian Music Rock? He goes on to say,
Music alone does drastically effect people's emotions, which in turn, more often than not directly affects their outward behavior. Music can delve into the depths of the human heart (. the heart of your being which contains your innermost desires and tendencies) and writing an analytical Abbey College Manchester, dredge up feelings and even actions that we may not even have consciously realized were there. I have observed my own children at even their smallest toddling age. They were never taught to dance or anything at all about music at the time, but their natural reaction when certain musical scores with a rock beat were played. the learn how to an essay Hult International Business child naturally began to move their body in a carnal worldly manner. If an adult were to do the same, it could most certainly incite within others natural sensual thoughts. Melodious Christian music does not produce this effect. [ 27] In the article, A New Song - Part 2 , author and former musician Paul Proctor summarizes the meaning and purpose of about your Jiaotong-Liverpool Christian worship: As I understand it, worship is coming before the Lord as a holy and 'peculiar people', in obedience, humility, reverence, repentance and faith with an attitude of gratitude, to sing His praises, hear His Word, glorify His name and honor Him with all of our being for Who He is and what He has done. Saddleback members may not call their brand of music intoxicating, but that's not the issue here. Learn How To Hult International. What does matter is the nature of the driving force in the church.
It's easy to list a set of Biblical purposes that seem to indicate where the writing an analytical church is write, headed. But do good purposes or ends justify means or methods that might violate the standards God gave us in His Word? T he answer doesn't matter to those who embrace pragmatism -- the belief that truth is relative and that the ends do justify the means. It's sad to an analytical essay Holderness School see that within much of the Church Growth Movement, the main standard for good or bad methods -- or for what God is blessing -- seems to be measurable success, not obedience to His actual Word. The foundational management question seems to be: Does it work?
We should be asking: What does the how to write an essay International School Bible (not preferred paraphrases) tell us? The answer to how to Montverde the first question is, yes, it does work . But few church members really understand general systems theory , the philosophy and worldview behind the controlling systems that steer this worldwide transformation. Many of its enthusiastic supporters don't realize how it squeezes the Holy Spirit out of the decision making process. But we can recognize its mind-changing process by its innocuous labels (they should be red flags) such as assessments, databanks, facilitator, dialogue and planned or continual change . Lynn Stuter, a respected researcher and how to write an essay Hult International Business School, columnist with NewsWithViews, summarizes it well: Systems philosophy o r general systems theory. says that we can create our future by building systems and leveraging those systems into balance with all other systems in a conceptually wholistic model, (also referred to as systemic change ) using a system infrastructure that is analogous to all systems. Scientists refer to a college systems philosophy as a syllogism — how to bring about planned change systemically . Under systems philosophy, the system and leveraging of the system into balance with all other systems, is paramount above all else. That leveraging is achieved via analyzing DATA FEEDBACK attained from the subjects of the system established, be it an agency, a classroom, or an how to an essay Hult International Business individual. This explains the privacy invasive databanks being built on all systems — health care, education, justice, military… [and churches] . you start out by developing your vision of the how to english created future. The vision is then defined in terms of exit outcomes . In the case of education reform, the exit outcomes are the learn International state essential academic learning requirements (EALRs). [In the online of Central purpose-driven movement, it would be related to purpose] In the Schools for learn write an essay School, the 21st Century (the foundation of education reform in about family Xi’an Washington state and the basis of American 2000) resource document, content is defined as excellence in terms of the change agenda ; process as the product … the destination … what learning is learn write an essay Hult International Business School, about ; and emotionality and online University Florida, affectivity as the learn Hult International Business School means by which content and process will be achieved.
The measure of that mastery is the assessment . If a few children fail the assessment, they are remediated to bring them in line. The assessments also assess classroom teachers. The assessment provides DATA FEEDBACK to writing of Central the system.  It's comforting to assume that God loves all growth-producing methods and feel-good stimuli that we love. But it isn't true. “'For My thoughts are not your thoughts, nor are your ways My ways,' says the Lord. 'For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways higher than your ways, and My thoughts than your thoughts.' Isaiah 55:8-9. T hen He gives us a sobering glimpse of what He is pleased to how to International Business see in His people: “But on Holderness School, this one will I look: On him who is poor and of a contrite spirit, and learn write an essay School, who trembles at My word . Isaiah 66:1-2. For since the how to write essays Academy beginning of the world, men have not heard nor perceived by write School the ear, Nor has the eye seen any God besides You, Who acts for the one who waits for writing an analytical, Him . You meet him who rejoices and does righteousness , who remembers You in Your ways . Learn How To Business. Isaiah 64:4-5.
Forgetting the fear of God Long before David wrote his treasured psalms or King Solomon penned the Proverbs, Job knew the secret of wisdom and friendship with God. In the midst of excruciating pain and loss, he said, Behold, the fear of the essay University of Central Lord, that is wisdom, and to depart from evil is understanding.” Job 28:28. The fear of the Lord is the learn write an essay Hult International Business School beginning of wisdom, echoed the wise men who wrote Psalm 111:10 and Proverbs 9:10. Centuries ago, God's rebellious and presumptuous people thought they could follow their own sensual inclinations, participate in the rituals of essay their idolatrous neighbors, and sacrifice their children to gain personal favors -- without losing God's favor and protection. Even the priests thought they were following His ways. They were wrong. Our holy God, who is the learn Hult Business School same yesterday, today and forever, warned His foolish and presumptuous people, Therefore I will number you for the sword,
And you shall all bow down to the slaughter; Because, when I called, you did not answer; When I spoke, you did not hear, but did evil before My eyes, and an analytical Abbey Manchester, chose that in which I do not delight .” Isaiah 65:12. Pastor Warren has little to say about such godly fear -- the blessed fruit of a deep awareness that God is our Judge and Avenger as well as our Father and Love. God's anger and wrath don't fit into today's affirmative, seeker friendly church environment. Since Today's English Version, like the J. Write Business. B. Phillips version, may be considered a translation rather than a paraphrase, the differences below may be less distinct. Yet, they illustrate a reluctance among many contemporary Christian leaders to use the word fear when referring to God. While we certainly must (by His Spirit) reverence our holy and online writing essay of Central Florida, almighty God, this more positive word removes any subtle (or embarrassing) reminder that our loving Father is also a jealous God -- an uncompromising Judge who has little tolerance for our lukewarm obedience and learn how to write an essay Business School, self-pleasing worship.
KJV: The secret of the LORD is about Jiaotong-Liverpool, with them that fear him ; and he will shew them his covenant. Ps 25:14. NKJV: The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him , and He will show them His covenant. Ps 25:14#65279; NIV: The Lord confides in those who fear Him ; he makes his covenant known to them. Ps 25:14 #65279; Living Bible : Friendship with God is learn Hult International, reserved for those who reverence him . Psalm 25:14a.
KJV: The Lord taketh pleasure in them that fear him , in those that hope in his mercy . Ps 147:11. NKJV: The Lord takes pleasure in those who fear him , in write an essay about your Jiaotong-Liverpool University those who hope in his mercy . Ps 147:11. NIV: The Lord delights in those who fear Him ; who put their hope in his unfailing love . Ps 147:11 #65279; Today's English Version: He takes pleasure in those that honor Him ; in write International School those who trust in His constant love . [page 71] In other words, the word fear clashes with today's attempt to market God to the postmodern masses. To a lesser degree, so do the words righteous and an essay about your family Xi’an University, merciful. Both remind us of our sin and how to write an essay Hult International School, inadequacy. They bring the write Holderness discomforting suggestion that God indeed is holier than thou -- an unpleasant notion for those who prefer to believe that God is and thinks like me. Instead, Pastor Warren introduces a more likeable God -- a smiling father who resembles today's permissive parent rather than the righteous and merciful God of the Bible. Whether you are part of God's family or not, Warren speaks confusing half-truths that assure you that -- the moment you were born into learn International, the world, God was there as an unseen witness, smiling at your birth. your arrival gave him great pleasure. [1, page 63] You are a child of God, and you bring pleasure to God like nothing else he has ever created.
The Bible says, 'Because of his love God had already decided that through Jesus Christ he would make us his children -- this was his pleasure and purpose. [1, page 63-64] God enjoys watching every detail of your life, whether you are working, playing, resting, or eating. [1, page 74] Do you feel good about yourself yet? Do you feel comfortable before your holy God? Perhaps we feel too comfortable. Maybe our holy God doesn't enjoy watching every detail of our lives.
Although His Word assures us that He delights in us when we trust and an essay about your family, follow Him, it also shows us that He grieves over our foolish choices. And if we indeed have been born again of His Spirit, we would grieve with Him whenever we obey our own lusts rather than His Word! We would repent -- turn around and run back into His arms! Yes, He waits for us. Yes, our patient and merciful Lord continues to love us deeply and eternally. Yes, in Christ, all our sins were nailed to learn how to write the cross. Creative College. But He doesn't minimize our natural rebellion as we do.
Instead, he tells us to work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; #65279;for it is how to write an essay School, God who works in you both to writing essay will and to do for learn how to Hult International School, His good pleasure. Philippians 2:12-13. The New Testament brings some sobering reminders of a side of God we often prefer to forget. Take the story of Ananias and writing newspaper article, Sapphira. How To Write An Essay Hult International. They were part of the early church community where people shared their belongings with each other. You probably remember the story: #65279;Ananias, with Sapphira his wife, sold a possession. Holderness. #65279;And he kept back part of the proceeds, his wife also being aware of it, and brought a certain part and laid it at the apostles’ feet. #65279;But Peter said, 'Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to how to an essay Business lie to the Holy Spirit and keep back part of the price of the writing essay Abbey Manchester land for yourself. Why have you conceived this thing in your heart?
You have not lied to men but to learn how to Hult Business School God.” Then Ananias, hearing these words, fell down and breathed his last. So great fear came upon all. Now it was about three hours later when his wife came in, not knowing what had happened. #65279;And Peter answered her, 'Tell me whether you sold the land for so much?' She said, 'Yes, for so much.” Then Peter said to her, 'How is it that you have agreed together to test the Glenalmond Spirit of the Lord? Look, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at an essay School the door, and they will carry you out.' #65279;Then immediately she fell down at his feet and an analytical essay Abbey College Manchester, breathed her last. And the young men came in and found her dead, and carrying her out, buried her by write an essay International Business her husband. #65279; So great fear came upon all the church and upon all who heard these things. And through the hands of the apostles many signs and newspaper article College, wonders were done among the how to write an essay Hult Business people. Writing An Analytical Essay College. #65279;Yet none of the rest dared join them , but the people esteemed them highly . Learn How To Write An Essay International Business School. And believers were increasingly added to the Lord, multitudes of both men and women. Acts 5:1-14. God didn't hesitate to judge a sin that we might easily overlook. After all, Ananias made a generous contribution to the church, didn't he? But God's standard for holiness among His people is far higher than we are led to to writing a college believe in learn School our churches. He wants a purified Body, a holy Bride -- washed and cleansed by His shed blood.
Seeker-services that bring the world into University of Central Florida, His sacred places compromise His revealed purposes. Learn How To Hult Business School. So does consensus-based fellowship between believers and unbelievers, between His purity and the world's profanity. In the about your family early church, God's judgment [above] spread great fear. The surrounding community showed two typical kinds of learn how to International responses. While the essay Charterhouse people esteemed them highly, only those whom God was drawing to Himself were added to the church. None of the rest dared join them. Learn An Essay International Business School. It doesn't sound like today's marketing strategies, does it? The problem is not that Pastor Warren left out the the fear of God.
He can't possibly teach all God's instructions in one book. The problem is lack of balance. By emphasizing God's delight in writing every detail of your life through most of the book while rarely mentioning God's anger, holy standard or judgment, he virtually denied the less comforting side of God's nature.  While God's love is unconditional, His promises are not. Learn Write An Essay Business School. Most are linked -- often in the same passage they appear -- to guidelines and conditions for their fulfillment. But those conditions and warnings are generally left out. As presented in this book, many of God's promises to how to write those who -- by His grace and learn an essay International School, Spirit -- follow Him become, instead, universal and unconditional assurances to everyone who reads the book. No need to mourn our sin, tremble at His Word, or repent of our addiction to online writing Florida contemporary thrills, for everyone is learn International, okay in the eyes of Him who passionately loves all of online University of Central Florida us as we are. But God calls us to know and follow His ways, not ours -- and to how to deny ourselves and let the an essay about family Jiaotong-Liverpool flesh be put to death. In our weakness, He will enable us!
Our goal must be His goal: that we would be holy as He is holy. Pastor Warren affirms that truth, but by softening God's revelation about Himself and how to an essay Hult, His ways, he distorts our understanding of holiness. By trivializing the authority of God's Word, he bends our view of God's high standard for our lives in an essay about family Xi’an Him. Finally, when he quotes (in various forms) God's promises while ignoring His warnings, he builds presumption, not genuine obedient faith. Many readers would hardly even know what to obey! They won't find answers when they turn to the discussion questions in the back of the book. Those questions are patterned to fit today's consensus process. This process for conforming individuals to the group's views, involves guidelines such as: Don't offend anyone by taking an learn write an essay Hult Business School uncompromising stand on write family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, truth or facts. Don't use words such as I know or I believe.
Instead use words such as I think or I feel which show your willingness to compromise and bend your views to fit the group consensus. [See Twisting Truth by write Hult International Business School Group Consensus] Show respect and appreciation for all positions, even those that clash with the Bible. Most of the questions fit this pattern. A College Essay Charterhouse. Subjective and School, open-ended, they invite feeling-based opinions, not Scripture-based truths. Abbey College Manchester. And some of the questions beg answers that fit today's communitarian ideals more than truth. True to learn how to an essay International Business School form, the first two questions begin with What do you think. and What do you feel. None looks to the Bible as a reference point.
None encourages the reader to seek answers from God's Word. The natural outcome of writing of Central this comfortable, relational dialogue is a group synthesis of the learn how to an essay International School various opinions. Write Montverde. In the end, everyone would feel good about themselves, about each other and about God -- no matter how He might be portrayed. No cost, no self-denial, no separation, no offense! Postmodern Christianity fits right into how to write Hult Business School, the changing world system. (This relational process will be discussed more fully in Part 2 of this series.) Remember, His ways are not our ways! He is the sovereign King of the to writing a college essay universe! To know and follow Him, we need to fill our minds with His true Word, not popular interpretations or feel-good group affirmations. Our wise and wonderful Lord says, He who has My commandments and write Business School, keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him.
If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. He who does not love Me does not keep My words. Writing Newspaper Article. John 14:21-21. 1. Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Life (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002). See Driven or Led? The Bible warns against how to write an essay Hult International, a musical variety or usage that serves paganism: when all the people heard the sound of the horn, flute, harp, and essay Abbey College, lyre, in symphony with all kinds of music, all the people, nations, and learn Hult, languages fell down and writing an analytical essay Abbey College Manchester, worshiped the gold image which King Nebuchadnezzar had set up. Daniel 3:7. 3. Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995), page 62. http://www.barna.org/cgi-bin/PagePressRelease.asp?PressReleaseID=154Reference=A. I have been told that Mr.
Barna is becoming skeptical about the learn how to International Business School Church Growth Movement, which he earlier supported. [See Re-Inventing the Church] I can see why. His own statistics show the tragic consequences of cheap grace and salvation prayers without a Biblical foundation. 1 4 . God's moral law can neither save us nor give us the strength to steps a college Charterhouse obey its guidelines. But it gives us a standard for right and learn an essay, wrong -- and it helps us to understand God's holiness, righteousness, mercy and grace. 1 5. Many echo this belief: Sin is a normal part of life, and I'm just as good as everyone else -- maybe a little better. Besides, God loves me as I am. Steps To Writing. While this statement is International, partly true, it's also misleading. The essence of God's character is not only write your Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, love.
It's also unbending justice, indescribable holiness and perfect righteousness. Learn An Essay Hult International. Without balanced information about write an essay about University God, we can neither know or follow Him. 16. How To Write An Essay Hult School. “You shall not add to write an essay Jiaotong-Liverpool the word which I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you. Deuteronomy 4:1-2. See also Deuteronomy 12:32; Proverbs 30:5-6 and learn how to Hult International, Revelation 22:18-19.
17. But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of an essay your family Xi’an University God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. How To Hult Business. 1 Corinthians 2:14. 18. See Church Management and Global Missions. In the Glenalmond College fall of learn how to an essay Hult Business School 2003, Pastor Warren introduced the an essay about family Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University Saddleback P.E.A.C.E. Plan --a strategy to have every small group in our church, and then tens of thousands of small groups in learn School other churches, become engaged in solving the five biggest problems in the world: Spiritual Lostness, Lack of Godly Leaders, Poverty, Disease, and Lack of Education.
We believe it is part of the beginning of online of Central a Spiritual Awakening, a Global Movement, a New Reformation, wrote Pastor Warren. The PEACE Plan will address these five 'giant' problems by write Hult International Business School Planting new churches. Equipping leaders. Assisting the poor. Caring for the sick. and Educating the write about your family Xi’an next generation.
The bottom line is that we intend to reinvent mission strategy in the 21st century. As I stated, this will be a new Reformation. The First Reformation returned us to how to an essay International School the message of the original church. To Writing Essay Charterhouse. It was a reformation of how to write Hult Business doctrine - what the church BELIEVES. This Second Reformation will return us to the mission of the original church. It will be a reformation of purpose -- what the write an essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University church DOES in the world.
God calls us to share His love and resources with the poor and needy. But if Pastor Warren's PEACE Plan means training church leaders to trust and follow the world's management and how to write Hult School, marketing strategies as he does (see Part 1 and 3), he will be serving man's global agenda, not worshipping God. See Reinventing the World. 1 9. Today's emphasis on passion and excitement can be misleading. An Analytical College. In the King James Bible, passion refers to the suffering of our Lord on the cross. How To Write Business. But other standard translations equate passion with lust or inordinate affections. How To Holderness School. For examples, see Acts 1:3 (NKJ) and Colossians 3:5 (KJV or NKJV): Therefore put to how to Business death your members which are on writing essay, the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and learn how to an essay Hult Business School, covetousness, which is english, idolatry. 20. Selecting Worship Music by Rick Warren at http://www.pastorport.com/ministrytoday.asp?mode=viewarchiveindex=18 . Since the Bible doesn't mention drums, it neither affirms nor forbids it. But other Scriptures help us understand God's view of the use of a throbbing drum beat.
Aside from numerous Old Testament warnings against imitating the enticing rituals and practices of learn how to write Hult International pagan and animist neighbors (who might have used the speed and volume of rhythms to induce trance possession), Romans 14:15 tells us that #65279;Yet if your brother is grieved because of your food, you are no longer walking in love. Pastor Warren freely admits that the introduction of rock music has been offensive to many Christians in his church. To draw young people, he chose a popular vehicle that would agonize and chase many away. That choice, in itself, seems to violate God's law of online writing essay of Central Florida love -- a principle Pastor Warren will emphasize repeatedly in the context of learn how to write Business small groups and building the new sympathetic consensus community. 21. 1 Chron. Writing An Analytical Essay College. 15:16-24; 16:4-6, 42; 25:1-6. page 978-979. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1981), 978-979. 29. Pastor Warren does mention God's wrath on page 232, but without a prior explanation of what might considered sinful.
Instead, the reference to wrath fits into the relational context of service and helping others -- a Biblical command that is now being conformed to the global concept of community service and service learning . This kind of organized service focuses on felt needs and dialogue and often rules out how to International, spiritual needs and Biblical truth. Writing Essay University. This will be explained more fully in learn write International Part 2. Note: Hope is as essential to your life as air and water. You need hope to how to cope. Dr. International. Bernie Siegel found he could predict which of his cancer patients would go into remission by asking, 'Do you want to live to be one hundred?' Those with a deep sense of life purpose answered yes and were the ones most likely to steps a college essay Charterhouse survive.
Hope comes from having a purpose . An Essay School. Rick Warren [1, page 31] This illustration suggests that a secular or New Age hope serves the same purpose as the Spirit-given hope we have in Jesus Christ. There can be no true hope or unity unless we stand on the unchanging truth of God's Word! Note: While some have translated the Hebrew word yeser as imagination or purpose rather than as mind , that single word is less important than the two conditions: keeping our minds (or thoughts) continually on God and trusting Him. The habit we then learn is continual prayer and communion with Him: Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving , let your requests be made known to God; #65279; and #65279; the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding , will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6 -7.