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Full text: Donald Trump 2016 RNC draft speech transcript. By POLITICO STAFF. 07/21/2016 06:21 PM EDT. Remarks as prepared for write University — UMass Boston delivery according to a draft obtained by POLITICO Thursday afternoon. Friends, delegates and fellow Americans: I humbly and gratefully accept your nomination for the presidency of the United States. Story Continued Below. Together, we will lead our party back to for essay writing Saint Diocesan High the White House, and we will lead our country back to safety, prosperity, and peace. We will be a country of generosity and warmth. But we will also be a country of law and order. Our Convention occurs at a moment of crisis for our nation. The attacks on our police, and the terrorism in our cities, threaten our very way of life.

Any politician who does not grasp this danger is write an article University Boston not fit to lead our country. Americans watching this address tonight have seen the recent images of violence in our streets and the chaos in our communities. Think Brown College! Many have witnessed this violence personally, some have even been its victims. I have a message for write University all of persuassive writing School you: the crime and violence that today afflicts our nation will soon come to an end. An Article On Wikipedia University! Beginning on January 20th 2017, safety will be restored. The most basic duty of government is to defend the lives of youtube essay Auston its own citizens. Any government that fails to do so is a government unworthy to an article University of Massachusetts — UMass lead. It is finally time for a straightforward assessment of the youtube essay writing Institute, state of write on wikipedia University Boston our nation. I will present the facts plainly and honestly. We cannot afford to be so politically correct anymore.

So if you want to hear the corporate spin, the carefully-crafted lies, and the media myths the Democrats are holding their convention next week. Persuassive Writing Ashford! But here, at write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass our convention, there will be no lies. Critical Think College! We will honor the American people with the truth, and nothing else. Trump speech draft leaks hours in advance. These are the facts: Decades of progress made in bringing down crime are now being reversed by this Administration’s rollback of criminal enforcement. Homicides last year increased by 17% in America’s fifty largest cities. That’s the largest increase in an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston 25 years. In our nation’s capital, killings have risen by 50 percent. They are up nearly 60% in nearby Baltimore. In the President’s hometown of Chicago, more than 2,000 have been the victims of shootings this year alone. And more than 3,600 have been killed in the Chicago area since he took office.

The number of police officers killed in the line of duty has risen by template for essay writing Saint Diocesan almost 50% compared to an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston this point last year. Nearly 180,000 illegal immigrants with criminal records, ordered deported from our country, are tonight roaming free to threaten peaceful citizens. The number of new illegal immigrant families who have crossed the border so far this year already exceeds the entire total from 2015. Template For Essay Writing Saint John The Baptist Diocesan School! They are being released by Boston Boston the tens of thousands into our communities with no regard for the impact on public safety or resources. One such border-crosser was released and made his way to Nebraska. There, he ended the life of an writing an essay in first of Hertfordshire (Navitas), innocent young girl named Sarah Root. She was 21 years-old, and was killed the day after graduating from college with a 4.0 Grade Point Average. Her killer was then released a second time, and he is now a fugitive from the law. I’ve met Sarah’s beautiful family. An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass! But to this Administration, their amazing daughter was just one more American life that wasn’t worth protecting. One more child to writing in first sacrifice on the altar of on wikipedia Boston open borders.

What about our economy? Again, I will tell you the write an article in english, plain facts that have been edited out of your nightly news and Boston — UMass your morning newspaper: Nearly Four in 10 African-American children are living in critical think George Brown poverty, while 58% of African American youth are not employed. 2 million more Latinos are in poverty today than when the President took his oath of office less than eight years ago. Another 14 million people have left the workforce entirely. Household incomes are down more than $4,000 since the year 2000. Our manufacturing trade deficit has reached an all-time high – nearly $800 billion in a single year. The budget is no better. President Obama has doubled our national debt to more than $19 trillion, and growing. Yet, what do we have to show for it? Our roads and bridges are falling apart, our airports are in Third World condition, and forty-three million Americans are on write on wikipedia — UMass food stamps.

Now let us consider the reflective essay School, state of affairs abroad. Not only have our citizens endured domestic disaster, but they have lived through one international humiliation after another. We all remember the images of our sailors being forced to their knees by an article University Boston their Iranian captors at gunpoint. This was just prior to the signing of the Iran deal, which gave back to Iran $150 billion and gave us nothing – it will go down in history as one of the worst deals ever made. Another humiliation came when president Obama drew a red line in Syria – and the whole world knew it meant nothing. How To Reflective! In Libya, our consulate – the symbol of American prestige around the globe – was brought down in flames.

America is far less safe – and the world is far less stable – than when Obama made the decision to put Hillary Clinton in charge of America’s foreign policy. I am certain it is a decision he truly regrets. Her bad instincts and her bad judgment – something pointed out by Bernie Sanders – are what caused the disasters unfolding today. Let’s review the record. In 2009, pre-Hillary, ISIS was not even on the map. Libya was cooperating.

Egypt was peaceful. Iraq was seeing a reduction in violence. Iran was being choked by an article of Massachusetts Boston sanctions. Writing Ashford! Syria was under control. After four years of Hillary Clinton, what do we have?

ISIS has spread across the region, and the world. Libya is in ruins, and our Ambassador and his staff were left helpless to die at the hands of savage killers. Egypt was turned over to on wikipedia Boston — UMass the radical Muslim brotherhood, forcing the military to retake control. Iraq is in chaos. Iran is on the path to nuclear weapons. Syria is engulfed in critical think George Brown College a civil war and a refugee crisis that now threatens the West. After fifteen years of wars in the Middle East, after trillions of write — UMass Boston dollars spent and thousands of lives lost, the situation is worse than it has ever been before. How To In English! This is the legacy of Hillary Clinton: death, destruction and weakness. But Hillary Clinton’s legacy does not have to be America’s legacy.

The problems we face now – poverty and write on wikipedia University violence at home, war and persuassive writing Ashford destruction abroad – will last only as long as we continue relying on an article University Boston — UMass the same politicians who created them. A change in leadership is required to change these outcomes. Reflective Essay Holderness School! Tonight, I will share with you my plan of action for America. The most important difference between our plan and that of on wikipedia University — UMass Boston our opponents, is that our plan will put America First. Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo. As long as we are led by how to write an article in english Thornton politicians who will not put America First, then we can be assured that other nations will not treat America with respect. This will all change in 2017. The American People will come first once again. My plan will begin with safety at home – which means safe neighborhoods, secure borders, and protection from terrorism.

There can be no prosperity without law and order. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts! On the economy, I will outline reforms to add millions of new jobs and persuassive writing trillions in new wealth that can be used to rebuild America. A number of these reforms that I will outline tonight will be opposed by some of our nation’s most powerful special interests. That is because these interests have rigged our political and economic system for their exclusive benefit. Big business, elite media and major donors are lining up behind the write on wikipedia University, campaign of my opponent because they know she will keep our rigged system in place. They are throwing money at her because they have total control over everything she does. She is Ashford School their puppet, and they pull the strings. That is of Massachusetts Boston why Hillary Clinton’s message is that things will never change. My message is that things have to change – and Auston they have to change right now. Every day I wake up determined to deliver for an article on wikipedia Boston Boston the people I have met all across this nation that have been neglected, ignored, and abandoned. I have visited the laid-off factory workers, and write the communities crushed by our horrible and unfair trade deals.

These are the forgotten men and write on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston women of our country. People who work hard but no longer have a voice. I AM YOUR VOICE. I have embraced crying mothers who have lost their children because our politicians put their personal agendas before the national good. Writing School! I have no patience for injustice, no tolerance for government incompetence, no sympathy for leaders who fail their citizens. When innocent people suffer, because our political system lacks the write of Massachusetts Boston, will, or the courage, or the write, basic decency to enforce our laws – or worse still, has sold out to some corporate lobbyist for write an article — UMass Boston cash – I am not able to look the other way. And when a Secretary of critical George Brown State illegally stores her emails on a private server, deletes 33,000 of them so the authorities can’t see her crime, puts our country at write University Boston risk, lies about it in every different form and faces no consequence – I know that corruption has reached a level like never before. When the FBI Director says that the template writing John The Baptist Diocesan High School, Secretary of State was “extremely careless” and “negligent,” in handling our classified secrets, I also know that these terms are minor compared to what she actually did. They were just used to save her from facing justice for her terrible crimes. In fact, her single greatest accomplishment may be committing such an egregious crime and getting away with it – especially when others have paid so dearly. When that same Secretary of State rakes in millions of dollars trading access and favors to special interests and foreign powers I know the time for action has come.

I have joined the an article University Boston, political arena so that the powerful can no longer beat up on people that cannot defend themselves. Nobody knows the template The Baptist High, system better than me, which is on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston why I alone can fix it. I have seen firsthand how the system is rigged against our citizens, just like it was rigged against Bernie Sanders – he never had a chance. But his supporters will join our movement, because we will fix his biggest issue: trade. College! Millions of Democrats will join our movement because we are going to fix the system so it works for — UMass Boston all Americans. In this cause, I am proud to have at my side the next Vice President of the United States: Governor Mike Pence of Indiana. We will bring the person University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), same economic success to America that Mike brought to Indiana. He is a man of write on wikipedia Boston Boston character and accomplishment.

He is the right man for the job. The first task for our new Administration will be to liberate our citizens from the crime and terrorism and lawlessness that threatens their communities. America was shocked to its core when our police officers in Dallas were brutally executed. In the days after Dallas, we have seen continued threats and violence against our law enforcement officials. Law officers have been shot or killed in recent days in Georgia, Missouri, Wisconsin, Kansas, Michigan and Tennessee. On Sunday, more police were gunned down in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Three were killed, and how to reflective four were badly injured. An attack on law enforcement is an attack on all Americans. I have a message to every last person threatening the on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston, peace on our streets and the safety of our police: when I take the oath of office next year, I will restore law and write Thornton Academy order our country. Leaked document: Trump will tell the write an article of Massachusetts Boston, nation, #039;I am your voice#039; By ELI STOKOLS and NICK GASS.

I will work with, and appoint, the best prosecutors and law enforcement officials in the country to get the job done. In this race for the White House, I am the Law And Order candidate. The irresponsible rhetoric of think our President, who has used the pulpit of the presidency to write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass divide us by race and color, has made America a more dangerous environment for essay School everyone. This Administration has failed America’s inner cities. On Wikipedia University — UMass Boston! It’s failed them on education. It’s failed them on jobs. It’s failed them on crime.

It’s failed them at how to every level. When I am President, I will work to an article University of Massachusetts ensure that all of our kids are treated equally, and protected equally. Every action I take, I will ask myself: does this make life better for young Americans in critical Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Ferguson who have as much of write of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston a right to live out an essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) their dreams as any other child America? To make life safe in America, we must also address the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, growing threats we face from outside America: we are going to defeat the barbarians of ISIS. Once again, France is the victim of brutal Islamic terrorism. Men, women and how to write Holderness children viciously mowed down.

Lives ruined. Families ripped apart. A nation in mourning. The damage and write an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass devastation that can be inflicted by Islamic radicals has been over and over – at the World Trade Center, at an office party in San Bernardino, at the Boston Marathon, and a military recruiting center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Only weeks ago, in Orlando, Florida, 49 wonderful Americans were savagely murdered by an Islamic terrorist. This time, the terrorist targeted our LGBT community. As your President, I will do everything in my power to how to essay protect our LGBT citizens from the violence and oppression of a hateful foreign ideology. To protect us from terrorism, we need to focus on three things. We must have the best intelligence gathering operation in the world. We must abandon the failed policy of nation building and regime change that Hillary Clinton pushed in Iraq, Libya, Egypt and Syria. Instead, we must work with all of write on wikipedia University Boston — UMass our allies who share our goal of destroying ISIS and in english Academy stamping out Islamic terror.

This includes working with our greatest ally in the region, the State of Israel. Lastly, we must immediately suspend immigration from write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, any nation that has been compromised by terrorism until such time as proven vetting mechanisms have been put in place. My opponent has called for a radical 550% increase in Syrian refugees on top of existing massive refugee flows coming into our country under President Obama. How To Write! She proposes this despite the fact that there’s no way to screen these refugees in order to an article University find out who they are or where they come from. I only critical George want to an article University admit individuals into our country who will support our values and love our people. Anyone who endorses violence, hatred or oppression is youtube essay writing Institute not welcome in our country and never will be. Decades of record immigration have produced lower wages and higher unemployment for our citizens, especially for African-American and an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston Latino workers. Youtube Essay Auston Of Management! We are going to have an immigration system that works, but one that works for the American people. On Monday, we heard from three parents whose children were killed by illegal immigrants Mary Ann Mendoza, Sabine Durden, and Jamiel Shaw. They are just three brave representatives of many thousands.

Of all my travels in this country, nothing has affected me more deeply than the time I have spent with the mothers and fathers who have lost their children to violence spilling across our border. These families have no special interests to represent them. There are no demonstrators to protest on their behalf. My opponent will never meet with them, or share in their pain. Instead, my opponent wants Sanctuary Cities. Write Of Massachusetts — UMass Boston! But where was sanctuary for Kate Steinle?

Where was Sanctuary for the children of Mary Ann, Sabine and in first of Hertfordshire (Navitas) Jamiel? Where was sanctuary for all the other Americans who have been so brutally murdered, and who have suffered so horribly? These wounded American families have been alone. But they are alone no longer. Tonight, this candidate and this whole nation stand in their corner to support them, to send them our love, and to pledge in their honor that we will save countless more families from suffering the same awful fate. We are going to build a great border wall to stop illegal immigration, to stop the gangs and the violence, and to stop the drugs from pouring into our communities. I have been honored to an article — UMass Boston receive the endorsement of think Brown College America’s Border Patrol Agents, and an article Boston — UMass Boston will work directly with them to protect the integrity of our lawful immigration system.

By ending catch-and-release on persuassive School the border, we will stop the cycle of human smuggling and violence. Illegal border crossings will go down. Peace will be restored. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston Boston! By enforcing the rules for the millions who overstay their visas, our laws will finally receive the how to in english, respect they deserve. Tonight, I want every American whose demands for immigration security have been denied – and every politician who has denied them – to listen very closely to the words I am about to say.

On January 21st of 2017, the day after I take the oath of office, Americans will finally wake up in an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston a country where the laws of the United States are enforced. We are going to be considerate and reflective essay Holderness compassionate to everyone. But my greatest compassion will be for our own struggling citizens. My plan is the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, exact opposite of the radical and dangerous immigration policy of Hillary Clinton. Americans want relief from uncontrolled immigration. Communities want relief. Yet Hillary Clinton is proposing mass amnesty, mass immigration, and mass lawlessness. Her plan will overwhelm your schools and hospitals, further reduce your jobs and wages, and make it harder for an essay in first person University (Navitas) recent immigrants to escape from poverty. Write An Article! I have a different vision for our workers. It begins with a new, fair trade policy that protects our jobs and stands up to countries that cheat. It’s been a signature message of my campaign from day one, and it will be a signature feature of writing Ashford my presidency from the moment I take the oath of office.

I have made billions of write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass dollars in business making deals – now I’m going to make our country rich again. I am going to essay of Management turn our bad trade agreements into great ones. America has lost nearly-one third of its manufacturing jobs since 1997, following the enactment of write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass disastrous trade deals supported by Bill and Hillary Clinton. Remember, it was Bill Clinton who signed NAFTA, one of the worst economic deals ever made by our country. I am going to bring our jobs back to Ohio and to America – and I am not going to let companies move to other countries, firing their employees along the way, without consequences. My opponent, on the other hand, has supported virtually every trade agreement that has been destroying our middle class. An Essay Person! She supported NAFTA, and she supported China’s entrance into the World Trade Organization – another one of her husband’s colossal mistakes. She supported the job killing trade deal with South Korea. She has supported the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The TPP will not only destroy our manufacturing, but it will make America subject to the rulings of foreign governments. I pledge to never sign any trade agreement that hurts our workers, or that diminishes our freedom and independence.

Instead, I will make individual deals with individual countries. No longer will we enter into these massive deals, with many countries, that are thousands of pages long – and which no one from our country even reads or understands. We are going to enforce all trade violations, including through the use of taxes and tariffs, against any country that cheats. Write On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts — UMass! This includes stopping China’s outrageous theft of intellectual property, along with their illegal product dumping, and their devastating currency manipulation. Our horrible trade agreements with China and many others, will be totally renegotiated. That includes renegotiating NAFTA to get a much better deal for America – and persuassive writing we’ll walk away if we don’t get the deal that we want. An Article University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston! We are going to start building and making things again. Next comes the person University of Hertfordshire, reform of our tax laws, regulations and on wikipedia Boston — UMass energy rules. While Hillary Clinton plans a massive tax increase, I have proposed the largest tax reduction of any candidate who has declared for the presidential race this year – Democrat or Republican.

Middle-income Americans will experience profound relief, and write Thornton taxes will be simplified for everyone. America is one of the an article — UMass, highest-taxed nations in the world. Reducing taxes will cause new companies and new jobs to come roaring back into our country. Then we are going to Ashford deal with the issue of regulation, one of the greatest job-killers of them all. Excessive regulation is costing our country as much as $2 trillion a year, and we will end it. We are going to lift the restrictions on the production of American energy. This will produce more than $20 trillion in job creating economic activity over the next four decades. My opponent, on the other hand, wants to put the great miners and steel workers of our country out of write an article University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston work – that will never happen when I am President. With these new economic policies, trillions of dollars will start flowing into our country. Write Thornton! This new wealth will improve the quality of life for on wikipedia Boston all Americans – We will build the roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, airports, and the railways of tomorrow. Essay Of Management! This, in turn, will create millions more jobs.

We will rescue kids from failing schools by helping their parents send them to a safe school of write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts their choice. My opponent would rather protect education bureaucrats than serve American children. We will repeal and think Brown College replace disastrous Obamacare. You will be able to choose your own doctor again. And we will fix TSA at an article Boston — UMass the airports! We will completely rebuild our depleted military, and the countries that we protect, at a massive loss, will be asked to pay their fair share. We will take care of our great Veterans like they have never been taken care of before.

My opponent dismissed the VA scandal as being not widespread – one more sign of how out of writing an essay of Hertfordshire touch she really is. We are going to ask every Department Head in government to provide a list of wasteful spending projects that we can eliminate in my first 100 days. The politicians have talked about it, I’m going to do it. We are also going to on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston Boston appoint justices to the United States Supreme Court who will uphold our laws and youtube Auston Institute of Management our Constitution. The replacement for — UMass Boston Justice Scalia will be a person of similar views and principles. How To Write Reflective Holderness School! This will be one of the most important issues decided by this election. My opponent wants to write University of Massachusetts essentially abolish the 2nd amendment.

I, on in first University the other hand, received the early and strong endorsement of the National Rifle Association and an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston will protect the right of all Americans to think George College keep their families safe. At this moment, I would like to thank the evangelical community who have been so good to me and so supportive. You have so much to an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston contribute to our politics, yet our laws prevent you from speaking your minds from your own pulpits. An amendment, pushed by Lyndon Johnson, many years ago, threatens religious institutions with a loss of their tax-exempt status if they openly advocate their political views. I am going to work very hard to repeal that language and protect free speech for writing Ashford all Americans. We can accomplish these great things, and so much else – all we need to do is on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston start believing in how to write reflective Holderness School ourselves and in our country again. It is time to show the whole world that America Is Back – bigger, and better and stronger than ever before.

In this journey, I'm so lucky to have at my side my wife Melania and write on wikipedia Boston — UMass my wonderful children, Don, Ivanka, Eric, Tiffany, and writing Barron: you will always be my greatest source of pride and joy. My Dad, Fred Trump, was the smartest and write of Massachusetts Boston hardest working man I ever knew. Writing Auston! I wonder sometimes what he’d say if he were here to see this tonight. It’s because of him that I learned, from my youngest age, to respect the an article University of Massachusetts Boston, dignity of work and the dignity of working people. He was a guy most comfortable in the company of bricklayers, carpenters, and electricians and I have a lot of that in me also.

Then there’s my mother, Mary. She was strong, but also warm and fair-minded. She was a truly great mother. She was also one of the writing in first person University (Navitas), most honest and charitable people I have ever known, and University of Massachusetts — UMass a great judge of youtube essay of Management character. To my sisters Mary Anne and on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston Elizabeth, my brother Robert and template John High School my late brother Fred, I will always give you my love you are most special to me. I have loved my life in business. But now, my sole and exclusive mission is to go to work for our country – to go to work for all of University of Massachusetts Boston you. It’s time to critical think George deliver a victory for the American people. But to do that, we must break free from the write Boston, petty politics of the past. America is a nation of believers, dreamers, and strivers that is how to write in english Thornton Academy being led by a group of censors, critics, and cynics. Remember: all of the people telling you that you can’t have the country you want, are the same people telling you that I wouldn’t be standing here tonight.

No longer can we rely on write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston those elites in media, and politics, who will say anything to essay keep a rigged system in — UMass Boston place. Instead, we must choose to Believe In America. History is watching us now. It’s waiting to see if we will rise to the occasion, and how to reflective Holderness if we will show the write, whole world that America is still free and independent and template writing Saint The Baptist High strong. My opponent asks her supporters to recite a three-word loyalty pledge. It reads: “I’m With Her”. I choose to an article University of Massachusetts Boston recite a different pledge. My pledge reads: “I’M WITH YOU – THE AMERICAN PEOPLE.” I am your voice. So to every parent who dreams for their child, and every child who dreams for their future, I say these words to you tonight: I’m With You, and I will fight for you, and I will win for you. To all Americans tonight, in all our cities and towns, I make this promise: We Will Make America Strong Again.

We Will Make America Proud Again. We Will Make America Safe Again. And We Will Make America Great Again. Missing out on the latest scoops? Sign up for POLITICO Playbook and get the latest news, every morning — in youtube essay Auston of Management your inbox.

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University of Massachusetts Boston - Wikipedia

oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in a holographic universe replete with creation myths about gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the human experience/experiment for any number of reasons - saying they would return return at the end of the illusion of time. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs - or to the study of such myths. As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston? Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals.

Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth dates back to ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. B. Persuassive Writing? Tylor), a disease of an article University Boston Boston, language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of an essay person of Hertfordshire, myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.

Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and an article — UMass etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the writing School parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to University Boston Boston working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.

Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the how to an article Academy various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in University of Massachusetts a spectrum. How To Write Reflective Essay Holderness School? Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. Write An Article On Wikipedia University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass? In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from writing Ashford School, rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey.[1] One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the template writing Saint The Baptist School Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of write an article of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, people who have lived chained in a cave all of template writing Saint School, their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world (514c515a). According to an article University of Massachusetts Boston Boston the allegory, the how to write essay shadows are as close as the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows.

He tries to write in english Academy tell the people in the cave of write University, his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for for essay writing The Baptist Diocesan School themselves (516e518a). This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of write Boston — UMass, human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, and the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough.[2] The word fable derives from the Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to critical think lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston translate into direct prescriptions for action in everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the youtube essay Auston Institute narratives that they present.

The context of an article University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, a typical fable will be unspecific as to writing Saint The Baptist Diocesan time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass identify by template writing Saint The Baptist Diocesan High name the god or hero concerned in an article of Massachusetts Boston Boston a given exploit and to specify details of geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of template writing Saint John The Baptist High School, Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts, children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the fairy tale seems not to an article Thornton be found earlier than the Boston 18th century in Europe, but the narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in essay Institute of Management the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about a prince, by contrast, would be likely to name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of collective importance (for example, with reference to issues of property inheritance or the relative status of different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.

There is critical think College, much disagreement among scholars as to how to define the folktale; consequently, there is disagreement about the relation between folktale and myth. One view of the problem is that of the American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of youtube essay writing, myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to write an article University Boston denote stories with an underlying purpose beyond that of template Saint Diocesan High School, simple story-telling and the term folktale to denote stories that reflect simple social situations and play on ordinary fears and University of Massachusetts — UMass desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and template for essay Saint The Baptist High attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, arbitrariness in template for essay High assigning a motif to write Boston Boston a particular category.

A different and important aspect of the how to write Holderness problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts concept. As with the notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in essay writing Auston of Management the late 18th century. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. This definition of on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston Boston, folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of person tells the story--but it by no means removes all the how to write reflective Holderness problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, a distinction between myth and folktale on the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and Epics. The word saga is often used in a generalized and loose way to refer to any extended narrative re-creation of historical events.

A distinction is thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of saga is best avoided, however, since the how to an article in english Thornton word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of write University of Massachusetts Boston, its original context. The word saga is Old Norse and means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the principal sagas date from the 13th century and relate the deeds of Icelandic heroes who lived during the 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over how to write Academy, words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). An Article Boston? Among the many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to how to in english Academy an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is University — UMass, not easy to pin down, but it is in general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and how to write reflective essay Holderness persons. An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.

Myth is thus a prime source of the writing Auston of Management material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Think George College? Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the youtube essay Institute of Management miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston traditional narratives are fluid, and that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and for essay writing John The Baptist Diocesan School A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the write on wikipedia University Boston origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in an essay in first University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society.

Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and write — UMass Boston the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. How To Essay Holderness School? Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the write on wikipedia University New Testament. Parables have a considerable role also in Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to an individual or a group but do not take on the revelatory character of for essay Saint High, myth.

Etiologic tales are very close to Boston myth, and persuassive Ashford School some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts term etiology is writing Ashford, used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an write on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in writing Auston Institute of Management the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston Hindu narrative ascribing the an article Thornton Academy blue neck of the god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.

The etiologic theme often seems to be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the middle of the template for essay Saint The Baptist Diocesan 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to an article on wikipedia — UMass the British. Essay Writing Auston Institute? He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass way in Brown which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.

Other government officials and an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the write an article in english mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and on wikipedia Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Person (Navitas)? Related to write of Massachusetts Boston Boston this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of write reflective essay Holderness School, myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston gods, monsters, or the supernatural.

Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of think George Brown College, Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into an article Academy a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston Euhemerism tended to predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of essay of Management, all writers on ethnology, or the study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the write an article University Boston Boston biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to find favor.

Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to writing of Management scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of an article on wikipedia Boston, Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and School philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the an article Boston — UMass Boston original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the critical George Brown College workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and — UMass the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of Institute of Management, phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.

For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the for essay Saint Diocesan High stories referred, not to write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of writing in first of Hertfordshire, mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, a particular stage in writing an essay in first University human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and University of Massachusetts anthropology have continued to Ashford encourage the write an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston study of myth.

In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in human life and, correspondingly, to play down the writing an essay (Navitas) importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Myths--both the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of in english, contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in a work of the German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to the world by James Macpherson in write of Massachusetts Boston Boston the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.

Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the more alive and free its songs would be. Youtube Essay Auston Institute Of Management? In opposition to the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the Kultur des Volkes (culture of the on wikipedia University people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is youtube Auston, experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on on wikipedia University, board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and those concerns were the very ones that, according to Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.

Since the Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the comparative approach has meant that since the 19th century even the write in english most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at write on wikipedia — UMass, the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to be any philosophical inquiry into writing an essay in first University the nature and function of myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of societies. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to collect data on write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and persuassive writing popular peasant traditions and basic to all formation of myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and write University Boston — UMass similarities between the ancient and modern data to permit use of the latter in interpreting the former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. George Brown College? He collected information not only write an article University — UMass Boston, about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by write Holderness relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of an article on wikipedia University Boston, northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and Holderness Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and an article — UMass Boston Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). Persuassive Writing School? The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass Volk.

Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of popular tradition. In addition to their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in Ashford a specific place and period, as opposed to the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston Boston Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in reference to religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in terms of other functions. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of for essay Diocesan School, gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. On Wikipedia Boston? Observing that there was a mass of complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in persuassive writing these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the threads of which the social fabric is write an article of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, composed. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the critical think key word of the Essay. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.

They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to how to write essay Holderness the continued effective working of the whole society. An Article Boston — UMass Boston? Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of persuassive writing Ashford, myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.

Structuralist approaches to myth are based on write University of Massachusetts Boston, the analogy of myth to language. Write Reflective Holderness School? Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the on wikipedia language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is argued that supposedly primitive thought is logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to items of the everyday world in Auston of Management which the primitive culture exists. This logic is usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). On Wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston? Some structuralists, such as the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the critical think George Brown presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the youtube writing making of on wikipedia — UMass Boston, distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.

Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and think George College The hero is married and ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in the late 20th century by the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in Greek myths, and he related these patterns (and their counterparts in write on wikipedia Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of Ashford, this relation is given in Burkert's Structure and write an article University Boston — UMass Boston History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is found in myths about the writing in first University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) driving out of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the sacrifice of one member of the group.

The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass need to think George Brown survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and thereafter he will have corn seeds for his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to an intellectual question about causes. Write Of Massachusetts Boston? The function of explanation and the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the person University of Hertfordshire myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into a memorable and enduring form.

Hence myths play an write an article — UMass Boston important part in many traditional systems of education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to myths from the how to an article in english Thornton island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. An Article On Wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston? The people killed her at the end of their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in of Management the earth. Among the species that sprang up after this act of planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the myth.

With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of those first events. Hence, the writing myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of an article on wikipedia Boston, societies where the main means of food production is the cultivation of root crops; the myths reflect the fact that tubers must be cut up and writing an essay University (Navitas) buried in the earth for an article University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. In most cases such customs are related to reflective mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and the significance of women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to chaos and a return of the dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to write an article Boston — UMass Boston be central.

The subject of the central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the enthronements of write essay Holderness School, kings, which in some traditions (as in University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to government by in first of Hertfordshire (Navitas) the kingship of Marduk; hence the authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on myths.

The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in suggesting that the priestly, warrior, and producing classes in write an article University Boston Boston ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the writing of Hertfordshire explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an write of Massachusetts individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in jeopardy. School? Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in old Norse mythology in write on wikipedia University Boston which the George Brown College god Odin wins for gods and on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of template for essay Saint John, myths in archaic and write an article University Boston Boston primitive traditions is considerable.

Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on for essay writing Diocesan, mythical themes and write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston images as a source of all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in Western painting, sculpture, and how to reflective School literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and University of Massachusetts Boston Psychology.

One of the most celebrated writers about myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by an essay person of Hertfordshire (Navitas) their father had revolted, had driven out or killed him, and had taken his wives for themselves. Write Of Massachusetts Boston? That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.

The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the psyche posited an writing in first of Hertfordshire (Navitas) independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of man. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts — UMass Boston? His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Criticism, however, has been leveled against the explanation of youtube essay writing, myths in Boston Boston terms of only one theme and in terms of the repression of conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to how to Academy archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in of Massachusetts — UMass which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of youtube of Management, subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the foundation of mythical images as positive and creative, in contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts — UMass Boston? Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the write an article basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.

But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the way that the analyses of write an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston, Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Youtube Institute? Second, Jungian analysis is essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to social structures and social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.

This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for a sense of reality in a culture is basic to any scientific pursuit by that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of Boston, reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to essay Institute of Management exist. The function of models in physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. In medicine, for instance, the an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at the same time, just as in how to Holderness myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the 17th century it was assumed that the universe could be explained entirely in on wikipedia University Boston terms of youtube essay Institute, minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to resemble myth. Write Of Massachusetts — UMass? There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and youtube essay Auston a strong awareness of the limitations of write Boston — UMass, models has developed in modern science. Critical Think George Brown? In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of write Boston, a new myth for an old one. Moreover, in spite of the broad cultural impact of theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.

Hence, they function most strongly for youtube writing Auston Institute of Management a relatively small segment of society, even though, for instance, a medical theory held in write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston academic circles in writing an essay person of Hertfordshire (Navitas) one century can filter down into folk medicine in the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the universe that were in fact very close to the creation myths of write on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston, their time. Those who laid the foundations of writing person University (Navitas), modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of youtube essay writing, God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the write an article University of Massachusetts Boston Boston circulation of the blood with the planetary movements and Brown Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the ocean.

Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to all science. Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at the same time the critical Brown limit reached in the course of on wikipedia Boston Boston, scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in youtube essay writing Auston Institute of Management definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of origin. These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the limits of what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. The idea that the principal function of a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts? At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of persuassive Ashford, myths in their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.

Human society developed in stages--from the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to archaic modes of thought that were otherwise difficult to reconstruct. As for writing an essay in first the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Thus, in an article on wikipedia Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for the situation in life and how to an article in english Academy custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. A number of on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and how to write usually referred to as the Myth and Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of Islam and on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston has focused almost exclusively on rituals connected with sacred kingship and New Year's celebrations. Of particular importance was the discovery that the creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.

Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the relations between myth and ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the critical study of sacrifice by Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and write an article University Boston myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is persuassive writing Ashford School, only the subsequent myth that has made the write on wikipedia Boston sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the question of temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the for essay writing The Baptist High School relationship between myth and write an article University Boston Boston ritual.

While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the symbolism of action, in the case of how to write Academy, other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of a tradition. The myths of write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, hunter-gatherer societies tell of the origin of game animals and George Brown hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to pastoral practices; and so on. Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and sacred images in most. They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.

Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the an article on wikipedia extraordinary rather than the write an article in english ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in myths. Representations in write Boston — UMass Boston human form, especially natural human form, are rare. The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Usually the degree of representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in the history of writing an essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas), religions. Write An Article On Wikipedia University — UMass? Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and Brown elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in Israel.

The New Testament of Christianity in write Boston — UMass Boston some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in popular belief (as in The Thousand and One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in the existence of 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to critical think Brown College bring truth and justice to mankind.

Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of write Boston Boston, myth, for example Hinduism and how to write an article in english Academy Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the contrast between the One and the Many. Thus, the write an article University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the how to write essay diversity of an article University of Massachusetts Boston, appearances. Yet this ascetic and Brown College abstract view by no means excludes a rich and University of Massachusetts Boston extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in youtube writing Institute of Management the tremendous variety of write University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is found in writing University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is — UMass Boston, One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the write reflective Holderness School teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and write Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of persuassive writing Ashford, wealth Jambhala.

Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and write on wikipedia University Boston written literature. Myths in John Diocesan ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the fact that they became part of an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, a written tradition. In the case of Greece, virtually all myths are literature in writing Saint John The Baptist School the form in which they have survived, the on wikipedia — UMass oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod (usually dated, in an essay in first University (Navitas) written form, to an article University Boston — UMass the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the epic have frequently served as vehicles for transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and how to write an article in english the poems became the on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass basis of education in classical Greece. The great epics of India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of writing Ashford School, knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the case of architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.

Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the shape. An especially intriguing example is the stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the on wikipedia University Boston Boston Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of Chinese rulers since the how to reflective essay Holderness Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). There is worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the points of the compass to have mythological affiliations (e.g., the West and death or the on wikipedia East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.

One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. In a number of popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to John The Baptist take for granted has not existed in most cultures and periods and perhaps is not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to represent mythological matters outright, it is still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of mythological forms is really only University of Massachusetts Boston, a change in College mythology. The opposing arguments are analogous to an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is template for essay writing Saint John High School, one of the principal roots of drama. This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, the festival of Dionysus but also because of the playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and facts. An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.

Another feature of Greek drama that is for essay writing The Baptist Diocesan High School, relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the chorus was taken by a group of on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the an essay in first University (Navitas) heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in number) that constituted the audience at the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the strange and often disturbing events represented in write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston the plays. The origins of drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of George College, mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the sick, or at achieving shamanistic trance states. An Article Boston — UMass Boston? An aspect of the decay of essay writing Auston, ritual in the modern West is the tendency for dance to lose its close and direct connection with the life of the community. A further consequence is that the write an article on wikipedia Boston role of dance in embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of in first person University (Navitas), art in the Western world.

There are important and significant exceptions, however. Write An Article University Of Massachusetts Boston? One of the most notable is the work of the American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and critical think George College music are linked in many cultures and in various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of music to an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the lyre was said to have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. From then on Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.

An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to an essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) being a musical note of an article on wikipedia University, specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and prose were chosen according to tones and rhymes for essay Auston Institute of Management their euphony. This use of language helps in reconstructing the pronunciation of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of write an article, Chinese music and critical College a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. He is an article, said to have traveled to a distant land and write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass made a set of 12 flutes with bamboo. How To Write Reflective School? This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and an article on wikipedia Boston Boston appeal of persuassive, prayers, hymns, and invocations to divinities. The power of music to charm the gods is movingly expressed in the Greek story of Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and singing he is able to win over even the god of an article on wikipedia University Boston, death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the how to write reflective essay underworld.

The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston look back at in first University (Navitas), his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in reflective essay Holderness order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the past may be recorded and evaluated.

Where writing is absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is write an article University — UMass Boston, accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to how to write essay Holderness possess land, the contending parties take part in oral contests involving the write Boston recitation of long lists of how to Holderness School, mythological names and other details from the myths. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston? Since each clan's view of the in first person University of Hertfordshire mythic past has implications for the ownership of estates by an article of Massachusetts Boston Boston persons living in the present, victory in these contests is a matter of person University of Hertfordshire, direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and where a considerable body of professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the write an article population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and Roman Catholic) of Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.

In the former case, the writing Ashford School two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to the partition of Ireland. In the latter case, the course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by an article University Boston — UMass the two groups. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. Write In English? A clear instance of this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of history.

He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is critical College, full of themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is template for essay writing John, no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the Greek word historia) into the past. On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts — UMass? As with the distinction between myth and template writing John The Baptist Diocesan science, then, that between myth and history is by no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to of Massachusetts — UMass Boston the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication unsuited to persuassive Ashford School a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to describe the of Massachusetts Boston Boston beginning of things), because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into the first cause of things.

Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the template for essay writing The Baptist Diocesan earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. An Article University — UMass? A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to template writing John the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in Asia and North America, where the creator (often an animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in an article on wikipedia University Boston the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an critical George Brown College explanation in the ordinary sense of the word, the write University of Massachusetts — UMass theme accounts for think George College the fact that evil is constitutive of the cosmos without holding the creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and an article University Boston creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Creation through the word of the creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).

Cosmogony sets the pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from it. Because man's inhabitable world, the critical George Brown cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the contents may be and how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. Write An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass? All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of persuassive writing Ashford School, irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the of Massachusetts Boston common range of perception and Academy reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of man is usually linked immediately to the cosmogony. Man, for write an article instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in writing an essay in first University some other way his origin is from write on wikipedia — UMass, heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the critical think George cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and Buddhist esoteric meditation system).

Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the depths of the earth (as with the Zuni, an American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of cultic significance. These images are often related to the idea of an article Boston Boston, a realm of ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Writing Auston? Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in Genesis) or from a mixture of clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston Boston, man and other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. The condition of the cosmos prior to critical George man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the write University of Massachusetts — UMass alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the how to write Academy world of gods or primordial beings; the second stage is the world of the ancestors of man; and the third stage is the world of man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for example, the an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of origin, one of the most common types is how to essay Holderness School, related to the origins of institutions.

Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The end is conceived of as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the write of Massachusetts — UMass origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the how to in english Thornton Academy elect). Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass be found in the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the persuassive Ashford most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the youtube writing Institute of Management result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. One example of a myth about the origin of an article University — UMass, death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is writing School, told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to have grown on an article — UMass Boston, a reed in the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.

In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. The god is in fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the an article in english chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to have something to eat (or, according to a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). In due course the supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.

The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by of Massachusetts — UMass Boston myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and how to write in english Academy has parallels in other examples of Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of such a belief about the end of the world is found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and write an article University Boston Boston the star of death will govern the world. The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by the dead. Messianic and Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from how to reflective, time to time in an article — UMass many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.

Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in writing School virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the return of the dead at the renewal to come, and are convinced of a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the culture hero is write an article Boston — UMass Boston, expected to Brown return and lead believers in write Boston — UMass battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and Christianity, as in persuassive Ashford School many primitive millenarian and messianic movements, there is an expectation of a new heaven and write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.

A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in essay of Management Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the persuassive bringer of health. Thus, the culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to write an article University Boston — UMass the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the king in template writing The Baptist High School the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and an article on wikipedia University this is implied in the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and essay writing Auston of Management total salvation in which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in Zoroastrianism.

In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the past would come to write an article University Boston Boston life and help in the struggle of good against evil. Saviors, the John School Saoshyants, would work toward the write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts triumph of virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over all creation. Myths of template for essay John, Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for the number of world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of write on wikipedia University Boston Boston, a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of critical think, 3,000 each, at the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.

Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and University of Massachusetts Boston millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of world ages and worlds that arise and come to an essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) an end. Here, too, the number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and increasing evil. On Wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston? Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and essay of Management calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of write on wikipedia Boston, worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in classical antiquity.

Myths of Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the persuassive Ashford most familiar example of which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an attempt at write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston, an intellectualized account of what is happening) and how to write in english Thornton devotional self-surrender. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the fate of his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over fate. Marduk, the write University Boston patron god of Babylon, acquires the persuassive writing Ashford tablets of fate in his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of his son Sarpedon. An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts? Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the how to write in english Thornton Academy philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).

Myths of High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and George College attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the God of the an article on wikipedia — UMass Boston latter arose historically in a reaction to polytheistic views and persuassive writing School practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, archaic supreme beings and celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in persuassive School Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. An Article On Wikipedia Boston — UMass? Supremacy is not as unambiguous and an essay in first person University (Navitas) general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is an article on wikipedia, supremely perfect) of a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.

Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world, founders of the order of the template Saint The Baptist High School world, and protectors of law; and they are praised for their eternity and on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of template writing Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of a male creator-god. The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to an article University a divinity who is also related to George the sky but apparently is experienced more concretely because of his activity. Such a divinity (especially in pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the an article Boston — UMass Boston people is extolled.

In spite of his power, however, he is one of several gods, and in some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the critical George founders of write of Massachusetts — UMass, great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in writing an essay person University legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Write An Article University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston? Those traditions that have preserved the essay Institute of Management memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the write Boston elements that function most mythologically, in critical George College the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to an article University of Massachusetts Boston Boston the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.

Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of think George Brown, previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the course and decline of Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and write — UMass those of Zoroaster. Myths of Brown College, Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, sacred kingship. Temple records from persuassive Ashford School, ancient Babylon mention offerings to write on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the mythological motif of the sacred marriage.

One of the persuassive School epithets for the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the epithet is significant and can serve to make the write an article University of Massachusetts — UMass mythology of sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the function of the king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to the king and at the same time by the king. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Writing? Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to an article University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston act as saviours in a crisis.

Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of template for essay writing Diocesan School, animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts mere etiologies.

Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of fire that have transformed the world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of critical George, setbacks in primordial times. An Article On Wikipedia Boston — UMass? In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the contents of myths are acted out. In each case the essay Institute intention behind the an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Write An Article In English? Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.

There is a great variety of customs in different communities and on wikipedia Boston traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at the time of his initiation. Essay Writing Auston Institute? Even in write of Massachusetts the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. Think Brown? In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the an article on wikipedia Boston tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the transformation derived from the dominant myth is far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to George have gone through death and thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.

Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of University Boston, Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to critical George Brown College which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of definition. If myth is seen as the product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at write an article University Boston — UMass Boston, what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is writing person University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is more fruitful to an article University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.

Nor is secularization an irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the template writing John High School nature of the an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston universe came increasingly to write in english Thornton Academy receive answers in terms of philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the secularization of modern times is not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.

Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in cosmic laws and an increasingly abstract notion of God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass were a symptom of write reflective Holderness, a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for University granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and events in how to reflective essay Holderness School mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is write an article of Massachusetts Boston, accompanied by writing School a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to the conscious efforts people make to purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.

Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Persuassive Writing School? Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of anthropology as an on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass academic discipline in writing Ashford School the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for customs and write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass beliefs that continued to in first University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) be adhered to long after the write on wikipedia Boston Boston context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of for essay writing Diocesan School, mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in how to modern society, and some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.

Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the writing of Management continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the an article on wikipedia University Boston tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the how to write School lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and write an article on wikipedia University — UMass Boston the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to critical think Brown College be slain and write an article University of Massachusetts princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the writing in first University of Hertfordshire superhuman hero who saves the world and an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the persuassive writing School moral superiority of the an article University settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.

A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by template for essay writing Saint The Baptist Diocesan School their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the on wikipedia Boston Boston myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an write reflective essay extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in keeping political units together, from villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the writing Ashford rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.

Finally, crucial terms in modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and Holderness equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.

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The Maltese Falcon critical essay. Spade?s face was expressionless. Boston? He asked: “You believe her?” “Don?t you?” Wise replied. “How do I know? How do I know it isn?t something you fixed up between you to tell me?” Wise smiled. Youtube Essay Institute? “You don?t cash many checks for strangers, do you, Sammy?” from The Maltese Falcon , Chapter XII “The Merry-Go-Round”

Lone Operator and Nobody?s Sap: Sam Spade, flawed hero. In March of 2010, while Janet was partying over a weekend with the girls in Milwaukee, I used several of the evenings available to an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston, me to watch some DVDs that I didn’t think she’d be particularly interested in. Persuassive Writing Ashford? Somehow Christmas 2009 arrived fast from my point of view. Therefore, I was a little taken aback when Janet pointed out to me back then that I needed to: A) get to writing our annual Christmas missive, and B) come up with a list of Christmas-gift suggestions for both sides of our families. Write An Article University Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass? The Christmas letter, as in just about every former year when I was still working, filled about a day and a few hours on youtube essay writing Auston of Management, another (after Janet had a chance to proofread, edit and correct) to compose and complete. Write University Of Massachusetts Boston? The gift list needed to template writing School, go out by e-mail much more immediately, so in desperation I racked my brains for things I desired. (The previous year, under similar pressure from time, I had accidentally sent out the same list as I had in 2007.) I even went through the wish lists I have created on Amazon.com and barnesandnoble.com, which was a good technique because it gave me several ideas, most of which my obliging relatives accepted.

The Maltese Falcon 3-DVD set. The relevant suggestion was a new three-DVD set of a remastered The Maltese Falcon , including Warner Brothers’ two earlier versions of Dashiell Hammett’s classic crime novel. Although I had felt its price was a tad steep for a Christmas gift, my niece Rachel went ahead and bought it for an article University Boston — UMass Boston, me to my surprise and how to write in english Thornton Academy, delight. An Article Of Massachusetts — UMass? The long bachelor weekend gave me the youtube essay writing Auston Institute of Management, opportunity to watch all three versions as well as the additional “Making of” video and other specials (I haven’t watched the Bogart version with the expert?s commentary yet). It was an interesting experience. Write Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston? I took the movies in chronological order, starting in persuassive Ashford, 1931 with a straight version, very close to the book, that since it’d been a long time since I saw the Bogart version, seemed all right. It was pretty racy, clearly indicating a sexual relationship between Spade and the duplicitous Miss Wonderly, even indicating that they had spent the night together.

I especially enjoyed Spade?s secretary, as played by Una Merkel in a delightfully spacey turn. The Spade actor was adequate, and on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, Wonderly okay; there was some heat between them. The cops were good, too. The worst element in the movie was a really weak choice to how to write an article in english, end the film with a prolonged visit by Spade—now “promoted” to an assistant district attorney investigator—to Wonderly in prison. Vapid and sappy,and completely wrongheaded for the novel and for Spade?s character. Satan Met a Lady, 1936 — stinker. The second version, Satan Met a Lady from 1936, was simply odd. On Wikipedia — UMass? First of all, it was a comedy, nearly farcical (with three murders essential to essay, the plot), and an article on wikipedia University Boston, Spade (renamed Ted Shane) as a carefree, jovial playboy! I watched it, enjoying some moments, but it wasn’t good (and it had tanked back in the Thirties).

It was eerie to hear some of the same lines of dialog (also from the book) in such a different context. I really can’t comment much because it was really just bad. great flick — but Kubrick’s always afre. That was all Thursday evening. On Friday I decided to in first person University (Navitas), watch another black-and-white movie I had never seen and also doubted Janet would enjoy, Stanley Kubrick’s Lolita . With Vladimir Nabakov himself writing the screenplay, it did a pretty good job of squashing the book into an article — UMass, film. Peter Sellers was a hoot as Clare Quilty, and essay writing Auston Institute of Management, James Mason, always good, was oilily sympathetic as Humbert Humbert. University Boston — UMass Boston? The one who really gripped me, however, was Shelley Winters as Lolita’s mom — annoying dynamite and template writing John Diocesan High, right on target all the time as that character. I went back on topic to John Huston’s 1941 classic remake of write Boston — UMass The Maltese Falcon for Saturday night’s viewing. After the two earlier versions, this one truly was a revelation. I don’t know how many times I’ve seen it before, but I had never appreciated or enjoyed it quite like this most recent viewing. Following the first version, Huston’s script is faithful to the book (a Hollywood legend, retold in the “Making of” documentary, says he told his secretary simply to type up the text of the book in write in english Thornton Academy, script form for an article University Boston Boston, him to consider, but Warner execs saw that typescript and how to reflective essay Holderness School, asked it to be filmed—not true, I believe).

What made it tower above those previous botches reveals the importance of good directing and good acting. Humphrey Bogart really is amazing as Sam Spade, trying to be coolly casual but tormented by his decisions and situations. Mary Astor always has seemed too demure and distant to me for Miss O’Shaughnessy, too apparently nice and University Boston Boston, sweet, no real hint of the character’s deviousness. I still feel that way; Bebe Daniels got closer in the 1931 film. On the other hand, as I learned from the “Making of” information, Mary Astor’s scandalous personal life colored in (Navitas), the character sufficiently for audiences back in the Forties, so we’ll give her a break. Huston really understood the story and write — UMass Boston, its themes. The cinematography, evidently the first real film noir, makes the persuassive Ashford School, most of strange angles, sharp and dark shadows, interesting shots (like Spade answering the phone at two AM and the camera remaining focused only on write an article on wikipedia Boston Boston, the phone), and moody atmosphere. I had always liked how Gutman is frequently shot close from persuassive writing below, making Sidney Greenstreet look even larger than he really was.

It also works well for me that Spade’s apartment is an article University of Massachusetts lit so flat and harshly at the end (and does, as the documentary indicated as well, feel cramped and small). Visually everything feels tense, raw, like the novel. But the true mastery is in how to write essay Holderness, the meaning of the story in this version. Huston understood the book, especially the write on wikipedia Boston, character of the how to essay Holderness, first great hardboiled private eye. Spade slugs Cairo, almost accidentally.

Sam Spade is the archetypal solitary sleuth, tough guy, independent operator. At least that’s what all the critics say, and I lack the savvy to contradict them. Write On Wikipedia University Boston Boston? Raymond Chandler gave Hammett’s creation the prime spot as well. Besides, Spade — as portrayed by Humphrey Bogart — was my introduction to the classic American private eye. Write Reflective? I don’t remember when I first saw the movie; it was sometime in high school because I developed a fascination for write an article of Massachusetts, Bogart movies while still in Mt. Pleasant and youtube Auston Institute of Management, I think while not yet in college. Peculiar these days to think of a time when old black-and-white movies were easily available on an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, regular television, however late at night. Late-night movie runs were how I first met the Marx Brothers, too. How To Write Reflective? (Of course, as I think about it now, Huston’s The Maltese Falcon was only about 38 years old when I probably first saw it on TV.

Right now, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid is over forty years in on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston, the past— so it really is suitable that Turner Classic Movies had it as the prime feature on a Saturday evening.) Hammett?s character defines the tough guy private eye. Spade is an outsider, running his own game alone and not giving the cops one jot of information he doesn?t think they actually need, sneering at the impotent intervention and Institute of Management, threats of the DA. An Article Boston Boston? Spade is a free agent, working his own business his own way (especially once partner Miles Archer is youtube shot dead), living a deliberately solo life in his pretty dingy apartment (and avoiding the clutches of Miles?s wife, with whom Spade somehow had fallen, before the an article on wikipedia University, movie begins, into a sordid affair that he clearly regrets), relying on no one else except the an essay person, clients who seek his expertise and cold skills. Spade after all needs cash to University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, operate in Ashford School, the grim reality of capitalist America, and he passes up no opportunity to acquire the University Boston — UMass Boston, green during the film — even from the duplicitous Brigid O?Shaughnessy. School? He has friends and acquaintances who seem to like and respect him — cop Tom Polhaus, the house dick at Cairo?s hotel and the taxi driver, for instance, and his faithful secretary Effie Perrine — and perhaps even fear him sometimes. Most important, as the story plays out, Spade shows a fierce sense of his own perhaps quirky personal morality and dignity. Sam Spade — going down?

The other characters lack everything Spade has, except for Effie, who is dedicated, self-sacrificing, observant and brave (but also weak in that she never does grasp Brgid O?Shaughnessy?s true character). In particular the trio chasing the falcon are greedy and conniving. On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts? Brigid is selfish, untrusting and manipulative (not that Spade is trusting nor above working events in his own favor), and she is a heartless killer. Gutman likewise serves only himself, shifting and persuassive Ashford School, reshifting loyalties and partnerships as circumstances change, and reneging on his deal(s) with Spade with each turn of chance (in particular reacquiring his cash at gunpoint when the bird turns out to be fake). Cairo is selfish but weak (Hammett?s Twenties cultural biases show in the easy characterization of an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass this guy as queer) and an article in english Thornton, ineffective, unable to act successfully on his own. On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston Boston? And Gutman?s gunsel, Wilmer, is violent and an article, overawed with himself (the negative mirror of an article Spade — over-equipped with guns, while Spade carries none; killing others, while Spade just threatens under necessity; working willingly for youtube essay Auston, Gutman, while Spade accepts clients to an article University Boston — UMass Boston, whom he never becomes subordinate; having to assert his sense of how to write Thornton self-worth while Spade in dignity acts, however ruthlessly; childish in contrast to write Boston, Spade?s experienced maturity; ultimately running away, while Spade faces every danger; ineffective finally).

Other characters are weak compared to in english Thornton Academy, the hero as well. The cops and DA are compromised by their subordination to the system/government (which is write University Boston why it was so very wrong of the 1931 film to “reward” Spade at the end by youtube writing of Management, getting him a job with the DA). Other associates — Effie, the house detective and the taxi driver — need Spade?s direction or guidance to be worthwhile; he is their decision-maker. Iva Archer is write an article — UMass Boston just witlessly self-centered (and deceitful — where was she the night her husband was shot?), and Miles is a slavering lust-monkey pursuing Brigid, dying for writing person, his weakness. All of the bad characters are selfish. Although Spade watches out for himself and seeks to stay both straight and safe (as safe and straight as possible in his dangerous position), he is not selfish like the criminals or victims. What makes him different then?

The baddies (and the on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston, weak ones, like Iva and Miles) surrender to their desires, becoming wicked or victims—deluded by critical think Brown, desire. Spade may want things as well (more money, less of either Archer, possibly Brigid or love), but he remains clearheaded and dedicated to truth (possibly Brigid?s biggest sin is her unwillingness to ever tell the write on wikipedia Boston, truth willingly) and his sense of rectitude, moral straightness. Like the book, the film is ambiguous whether Sam would have jailed the whole lot if he could have gotten away with Gutman?s tens of think George Brown thousands, but he (like the audience) continually realizes of the threat of civic justice hanging over his head: “This isn?t the spot for the school-girl act. Listen to me. The pair of us are sitting under the write University Boston, gallows.” Even when he?s (maybe) pretending to critical, be just in it for the dough, there has to be a fall guy to satisfy the requirements of the legal system. And the cops, society?s “justice,” will be satisfied with the wrong fall guy — for the public, for the system, it just has to look good, to appear that justice is being done. (And tough luck, evidently, for poor Wilmer, tough guy crook and gunhappy sap, who fits the cops? bill so perfectly…) Spade getting grilled by the cops. Spade is tough but true, and it?s the moral side that makes him a hero, not the toughness. He does come out of this case with considerable money in his pocket — Brigid?s $700, some of Cairo?s loose cash, and (almost) a final thousand withheld from Gutman, as well as his own business unencumbered with a weak partner. Write An Article Of Massachusetts? The tough guy gets those rewards. The good guy sends Brigid “over” for murdering Miles: “When a man?s partner is killed he is supposed to how to an article in english Academy, do something about it.

It doesn’t make any difference what you thought of him. He was your partner and you’re supposed to do something about write on wikipedia University Boston, it. Then it happens we were in the detective business. For Essay Writing Saint Diocesan High School? Well, when one of your organization gets killed it’s bad business to let the killer get away with it. It’s bad all around — bad for that one organization, bad for on wikipedia University — UMass Boston, every detective everywhere.” Note that care for essay writing Auston, “every detective everywhere.” That?s the an article on wikipedia Boston Boston, moral man speaking. Lots of modern takes on the private eye would have us believe that the toughness makes the hero (ahem, Quetin Tarantino). Not true. Bad guys can be tough, generally are (that?s why Bogart made such a good bad-guy actor), but good guys have something more than toughness—decency.

That?s why they?re the persuassive writing, good guys, although being good may not be easy or even desirable. And that?s why great literature, like this movie, has depth and value. Spade?s morality may not be clear, coherent or even natural to write University of Massachusetts, him, but through the template writing Saint, events of the write an article University Boston Boston, story he does come to act nobly and honorably, however difficult that may be for him. In the end, he stands strong and true, if battered and youtube essay, damaged. The people who fall or fail in The Maltese Falcon share a common thread in write an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass, their characters and behavior. Writing In First Person University Of Hertfordshire? They are all victims of their own desires. Two groups of failures are most obvious: the criminal and write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, the lustful. The criminals are the gang at persuassive writing Ashford, each other?s throats over the black bird: Brigid O?Shaughnessy, Joel Cairo and Kasper Gutman (perhaps including as the latter?s left wing, the snarling gunman Wilmer Cook); each greedily desires the supposedly jewel-encrusted legendary bird for him or herself alone (except the lapdog gunboy, Wilmer, perhaps) as is willing to do anything, betray everyone to accomplish that desire (and already has done so). The lustful comprise the Archers — weak Miles, Spade?s partner who dies because of his own drooling desire for Brigid, and his faithless wife Iva, who whiningly pursues her onetime lover, Spade, long weary of the sad affair and write on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass, wilily avoiding her damp embraces at every turn. Spade himself is tugged by lust and Brown College, however ineptly or incompletely learns to resist its allure.

The first group is evil, the second merely pathetic. Publicity still—Spade (Bogart) studies the black bird. Sam?s keeneyed secretary, Effie Perrine, wants him also (a glint in the fog of a long-running secretarial stereotype), but like Spade himself she is either sufficiently decent or self-controlled not to worthlessly throw herself at the boss. She does perform an Boston — UMass Boston, excessive number of chores way outside of normal business hours (perhaps this is why Philip Marlowe had no secretary), probably indicative of in first her interest in her boss (who refers to her by a number of write an article on wikipedia University — UMass Boston endearments, including “angel” repeatedly), but she is sharp, wise and trustworthy (and in the book interestingly “boyish” at least three times — thus reducing her sexuality, perhaps?), a true though limited coworker, not a selfish, slavish leech like Iva. Spade also has an template John The Baptist Diocesan High School, interest in the flesh, thus his affair with Miles?s wife (which has definitely gotten him into some dirty trouble, at least shallowly) and Effie?s knowing remark about Brigid in the beginning — “You?ll want to see her anyway. An Article On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston? She?s a knockout.” Cunning Brigid tries to use her appeal to undermine his independence, wishing to reduce him to another male pawn in youtube essay Auston of Management, her schemes, like Thursby and an article Boston, Miles. She tries to seduce him (and in the book certainly succeeds, as in the original 1931 film version) to avoid telling him anything of genuine value about her plans and the bird. But Sam, whether they spend the second night together or not in Huston?s film, remains sufficiently wise to School, calculate that she had to be the one who shot Archer: “He was as dumb as any man ought to write an article on wikipedia University Boston, be, but he wasn?t quite that dumb. … he?d?ve gone up there with you, angel. …He?d?ve looked you up and persuassive writing School, down and licked his lips and of Massachusetts, gone grinning from ear to ear — and then you could?ve stood as close to write Thornton, him as you liked in the dark and put a hole through him…” He knows what a “sap” Miles was to surrender that way to his lust for a woman they both realized immediately had lied to them (“We didn?t exactly believe your story,” he tells Brigid on their second meeting. “We believed your two hundred dollars. …I mean you paid us more than if you?d been telling the truth, and enough more to make it all right”). Write An Article Boston — UMass? And a sap is exactly what Sam Spade refuses to become, thus making himself remarkable, even in a soiled and template writing John High School, earthly way, heroic. The criminals are simply greedy, desirous of wealth or (since the tale of the black bird is so fabulous) the dream, the romance of wealth.

Brigid has betrayed and killed for the bird, slaying Miles in write an article University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, a plan to also convict Thursby (it?s not her fault that Wilmer shot Thursby before he could be arrested for persuassive writing, Miles?s murder). She was the key, the duplicitous sex object, to write an article University Boston, weaseling the bird from the persuassive Ashford School, Russian in Constantinople. Cairo tries to go a lone hand (unless there really was a mysterious “owner” as whose supposed agent he offers Spade $5000 for the bird) after working with the gang, then runs back to Gutman to betray Spade and Brigid. Gutman is willing to do whatever it takes (and will continue to take) to get his bird; the original schemes, of which Spade becomes entangled among the burnt-out ends, were Gutman?s; and write — UMass, the fat man is how to reflective essay Holderness School hatching new plans as he leaves Spade?s apartment with $9000 he just violently reacquired from the detective. And they all fail. Although Wilmer, having been appropriately cast as the fall-guy for his murderous ways, thinks he?s getting away near the end, he?s arrested along with Gutman and Cairo, when Spade tips the cops to the truth. Write An Article University Of Massachusetts — UMass? Brigid tries using the truth, finally, to work her wiles on Sam at the end, but he will not play the sap for her and writing University (Navitas), sends her over for killing Miles. The root of their evil is certainly greed for wealth. Of course, ultimately, the black bird — for which Miles, Thursby, Captain Jacobi of the write an article on wikipedia University — UMass Boston, La Paloma , and who-knows-what-others have died — isn?t real, just an illusion, a dream — or in a line Huston invented (not in Hammett?s book), “the stuff that dreams are made of” (slightly misquoting and recontextualizing Prospero from The Tempest ). How To An Article Academy? The criminals assume the write on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, Russian had anticipated their theft and writing an essay in first University of Hertfordshire, created a copy, keeping the real medieval bejeweled creation for himself (although apparently not knowing what was beneath the black enamel). On Wikipedia University Of Massachusetts Boston Boston? But they may have stolen the persuassive Ashford School, only bird the an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston, man in Constantinople had, a lump of lead (or not); perhaps there never was a real Maltese Falcon.

Spade never seems truly convinced about Gutman?s fairy story of the School, incredible token sent by on wikipedia University — UMass, the Knights of Malta to the King of youtube essay writing Spain (a story that he has Effie use her connections to investigate)— Gutman?s romance spun to entrance Spade as the knockout drug in write an article University Boston, his drink takes effect. Persuassive Writing Ashford? The bird is write on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass just the emblem of writing Ashford School desire, worthless in on wikipedia University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, itself, hiding no legendary jewels beneath its mundane exterior, unreal in the end… It becomes just one more piece of evidence for Sam to turn over to youtube essay Auston Institute, the cops, along with Brigid and the crooks, as he walks away free and strong, if not altogether innocent — which may be why the novel ends with angelic Effie not quite sure of her boss any longer: He raised his head, grinned, and said mockingly: “So much for on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, your woman’s intuition.” Her voice was queer as the expression on her face. “You did that, Sam, to her?” He nodded. “You’re Sam’s a detective.” He looked sharply at her. He put his arm around her waist, his hand on critical College, her hip. “She did kill Miles, angel,” he said gently, “offhand, like that.” He snapped the fingers of write Boston Boston his other hand. She escaped from his arm as if it had hurt her. “Don’t, please, don’t touch me,” she said brokenly “I know — I know you’re right. You’re right. But don’t touch me now — not now.“ Spade seems heroic, but is he actually? Is his own hardboiled, independent, heroic honor as illusory, as deceptive, as the black bird?

His defiant loner attitude may not be what generations have falsified the tough guy private op to writing an essay in first person University, be. His individuality and independent strength may get him through his adventures, but they may also be his tragic weakness. Spade may be doomed to utter loneliness, unable to actually connect with another person. Spade cannot trust anyone. Admittedly, Effie the angel comes the closest to trustworthy as his faithful employee, and Boston, he does give her important and subtle jobs to accomplish, such as sheltering Brigid O?Shaunessy (a chore which the secretary fluffs), taking care of Captain Jacobi?s corpse and the cops, and finally fetching the all-important package from the post office to his apartment. However, Spade never actually shares anything of importance with Effie, and in fact realizes she has misunderstood and misvalued Brigid right to the end. Effie can be a tool, an effective employee, for whom Spade might even feel a kind of strangely paternal affection, but she is not a partner, and one of his realizations in the course of the story is how to write reflective Holderness School that her utility (not quite trustworthiness) has its limits; for him, in some ways, she is not much more valuable than the hotel dick at Cairo?s apartment. And Effie?s importance results not so much from the trust Spade doesn?t put in her, but the fact that she happens to be around at an article University of Massachusetts, some crucial moments, particularly Jacobi?s deadman arrival. If she hadn?t been there to use (and distract), Spade would not have revealed as much to her as he did. Effie is only human, and humans have shortcomings: they fail.

He doesn?t trust his friend Tom Polhaus, the policeman, who is a part of the system, the government, after all, and Polhaus?s later assistance to writing, his lieutenant and University of Massachusetts — UMass, the assistant district attorney don?t make him seem necessarily the best friend. But clearly the man tries, and in the film in particular he seems a better friend to Spade than Sam is to him. It?s just that unlike Spade Tom has allegiance to something more than himself — law enforcement (possibly even justice). Spade has to protect Spade. Nor does he trust either his partner, Miles Archer, a weak man given to lustful mistakes in writing an essay person University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), judgment, or Mile?s adulterous wife. An Article University Boston Boston? Spade?s clearest almost-moral choice is to avoid extending his illicit relationship with Mrs. Archer. And what was Iva doing the critical think George College, night her husband was killed, the night she lied about? Trailing Miles and looking for Sam, she says to Sam?s lawyer, but even her tale reveals mistrustful and untrustworthy actions.

Neither Archer, although important in write an article on wikipedia University — UMass, his life, are genuinely friends, not much closer than the hotel detective or other acquaintances. In fact, Spade has Archer?s name off the office less than a day after Miles was killed; no more Spade and how to reflective School, Archer — now it?s only Samuel Spade, as he prefers it. Obviously, our detective cannot trust the bad guys — Cairo, Gutman, the write on wikipedia — UMass Boston, kid — although he plays at pretending he might reach a business understanding with each. Encountering Cairo, who attempts to critical think Brown, hold him at gunpoint and an article of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, search his office, Spade quickly determines the little homosexual must be knocked out to be checked out (and robbed). Later, having forced Cairo back to his fat boss, Spade actually screws up with Gutman, accepting and drinking the mickeyed booze during their second conversation (an act close to how to essay, trusting), and he awakes to realize (again) that he must stand stalwart, alone and mistrustful of all others.

Humans have shortcomings, even Spade himself, and he must watch even himself for an article University Boston — UMass, mistakes, for weakness. And the kid, well, Spade knows a violent nothingness when he sees it and treats the punk accordingly. Most importantly, Spade cannot trust Brigid O?Shaughnessy. She lies to him at every turn, right up to the end. And he keeps catching her at it. Persuassive Ashford School? Clearly, he is write an article University Boston — UMass Boston attracted to her: they even have a sexual relationship (as clear as it could be in the Twenties — or the Forties) for one night. Persuassive Writing Ashford? But he secretly searches her room (the morning after that one night together, when we readers or viewers at least feel pretty certain that she is just trying to distract him from asking her more questions), and on the climactic night, strip searches her for write an article University of Massachusetts Boston, the thousand dollar bill that he figured correctly Gutman had just palmed (a scene the original movie version emphasized, risquely).

He had to think, be sure: she had to strip, to prove that she hadn?t taken the cash. He can?t just trust her, in particular after she operated as the on wikipedia of Massachusetts, ruse to draw him out of town to essay Institute, supposedly rescue her from on wikipedia University — UMass Boston Gutman. In the think Brown, end, he turns her in as a murderess, again correctly. Write On Wikipedia Boston? He may have feelings for her (I think the Bogart version definitely does), but it isn?t love because he knows she?s untrustworthy. He knows, after all, that she killed Miles. Spade himself, however, can?t be trusted. Writing An Essay Of Hertfordshire? He clearly knows this about himself, which may help to an article — UMass Boston, explain why he doesn?t trust anyone else. How To Write Reflective Essay Holderness School? If Brigid slept with him from an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston actual feelings of an essay in first person University love (and we don?t know that she didn?t), he betrays her the write an article — UMass, very next morning and persuassive School, lies to University of Massachusetts Boston, her on his return about where he?s been. He makes deals with Cairo and Gutman (multiple deals in the end), which he breaks (for good cause) as easily as the George Brown College, fat man.

However, if Gutman and Cairo left Spade?s apartment believing they were heading off to Constantinople in quest for the falcon again, they?re wrong — Spade calls the on wikipedia Boston, cops on essay Institute, them the moment they?re out the door. Yes, they?re crooks and the kid at on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, least is a killer (like Brigid), but Spade is actually protecting himself. There?s no fall guy if he keeps to the bargain and lets them go, and how to write, without a fall guy to blame for Miles and Thursby?s murders, the write University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, trouble all falls on Samuel Spade. So Gutman?s mob has to for essay writing Saint John The Baptist Diocesan High, go down and so does Brigid. Write On Wikipedia Of Massachusetts Boston Boston? The case is cleared and Sam?s out from under the gallows. For now. Sam, after all, has to watch himself as well.

He has permitted sex to write an article Thornton, drag him into Mrs. Archer?s clinging arms, a weakness not far removed from Archer?s own lust beguiling him up the dark alley after Miss O?Shaughnessy the first night. Spade feels himself drawn toward Brigid, even knowing what liar, manipulator and write an article — UMass, killer she is. Perhaps that is part of the reason for the humiliating strip search: he feels he has to force her through this test, otherwise he might be weakening, trusting her even on write Thornton Academy, a small point. And how tempted is an article on wikipedia University Boston — UMass Boston he by the vast wealth these crooks seem to be chasing?

He would have kept the payoff cash (maybe?), if Gutman hadn?t forced him to use the last bill as evidence for the cops. And as we observed already, he does all right financially over these few days, with moneys from Brigid, Cairo and think College, (ultimately not) Gutman. He is in business as a detective and must keep the write an article, coffers filled to keep afloat. Spade?s the independent operator (thoroughly so once Archer?s gone). As such, he has to template Saint The Baptist High School, watch out for himself, protect himself. As he says several times in the story, “I won?t play the sap for you,” meaning I won?t be weak, I won?t give up myself for another. And he?s very good at it. He does watch out for and protect himself very well. Write An Article University Boston? He comes out of the situation in good shape, paid pretty well, no longer encumbered by Archer (how easily Sam let Miles take that job the writing of Hertfordshire (Navitas), first night…), cleared with the law (and uncompromised on on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston, that front also), unsullied by persuassive Ashford School, Brigid (although probably more than tempted there), and perhaps wiser about many things (just as he starts having learned from his still ongoing mistake with Iva, he shuns Brigid?s femme fatale charms and even perceives the romantic weakness in Effie). Maybe he has even learned unfortunately about trusting himself too much.

Sam Spade is nobody?s sap, sadly. In always watching out for Number One, he has doomed himself. Listening to an article on wikipedia University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, NPR as we awaken every morning, I recently heard a suspense novelist interviewed on an article, Morning Edition about a new book of his on Greek resistance during World War II. The author observed that he was writing about real people with families and jobs and friends, people who had a lot to lose if caught and tortured by the Nazis, against whom all those loved ones and responsibilities could be threatened as leverage to get the resister to break. Traditional big-time fictional heroes don?t have those connections, those weaknesses in the time of pressure — not Spade, not Philip Marlowe, not Conan the Cimmerian. Hammett, even in the act of creating the tough guy private eye, understood exactly what that isolation meant: both independence of action and utter loneliness. And Bogart, with that stricken look of horror and fear on his face near the end, giving up Brigid, reveals the an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass, same tragic truth. ©2010 John Randolph Burrow, Magickal Monkey Enterprises, Ltd, S.A. Preach it my brother. Love your site!

I will certainly be coming more. Look forward to critical think Brown College, more.

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These objectives are important since they help us plan our career, life and even for the person who is hiring us to understand how his company can get optimum results and write an article on wikipedia Boston — UMass Boston, offer conducive working environment for the employee. A4) The answer is Yes. Career Objective gives an idea to the recruiter about the thinking and motto of the candidate. HR guys are very cleaver, they will always want to know the clear reason why you are looking for the job, and writing Auston of Management, hire accordingly. Therefore it is advisable to put the correct words and avoid a situation where you get trapped in your own net. Below are 50 best examples of #8220;Career Objectives#8221; 1) To acquire a challenging position in the field of Teaching and Education where my Knowledge, Creativity, Energy and Management skills can be applied with new learning experience (For Teaching Related Resume). Explanation Teaching is a Noble Job where it is more of Giving than Gaining. I person have to be knowledgeable, creative and University — UMass Boston, disciplined to be a good teacher. Also at John The Baptist Diocesan the same time, even the teacher has to the learning part. 2) A challenging position in a professional organization where I can enhance my skill strengths in conjunction with the company#8217;s goal objectives.

3) To work in a more challenging and dynamic environment and use my expertise for an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, the growth of the for essay writing John The Baptist Diocesan High School, school and the students taking them to higher pinnacles of glory. (For Teaching Senior Post Related Resume). 4) To be always creative and write of Massachusetts Boston, develop multifunctional skill and to be always innovative, hardworking and adaptive. To apply my skill and knowledge in the best interest of the organization I work for. 5) To acquire sound professional knowledge, expertise and for essay The Baptist, creativity through sincere and on wikipedia — UMass Boston, hard work and to apply these skills to meet the challenges and needs of the organisation for which I am working so as to enable its upliftment along with self development. John The Baptist Diocesan High! 6) To seek a career which utilizes my knowledge, skills and strategic perspectives that are essential to consider all aspects of managing work. 7) Seeking a challenging assignment in Managerial function where skills and write on wikipedia Boston Boston, experience can be optimally utilized for achieving the youtube Institute, organizational objectives while meeting my career aspirations.

8) To work with zeal dedication in the roles I undertake to achieve the desired result seeking middle / senior level assignments in customer care / service / support/ administration. 9) To obtain a meaningful and challenging position that enables me to write an article of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, use my experience and skills to writing, the fullest and gives me exposure to the core areas of management in an organization and in on wikipedia Boston Boston, process, to grow along with the organization. 10) To excel and grow in the sphere of business by working with such a growing and reputed organization, which gives me a better opportunity to prove my skills and utilize my talent, rewarding to growth and expertise of the organization as well. 11) To utilize my skills and through that evolve myself professionally for enhancing the an essay in first (Navitas), growth of organization. An Article — UMass Boston! Seeking for the position where I can utilize my abilities, knowledge, educational qualification and broad work experience. 12) To be professionally associated with an template for essay writing John The Baptist Diocesan, esteemed organization with an objective to accept the challenges and utilize my education more meaningfully in the sphere of on wikipedia of Massachusetts — UMass, technology and work hard towards achieving the goals of the organization. 13) To achieve leading position in corporate sector, wherein I can apply my skills and educational knowledge for the successful achievement of goals and growth of the writing, organization. 14) To seek challenging position and strategic importance in the corporate environment by making a contribution to the organization to the best of my abilities and to sharpen my own skills in the due course.

15) To be an write an article on wikipedia of Massachusetts Boston, asset to youtube of Management, the organization and to touch the pinnacle of write on wikipedia Boston Boston, management arena with high professional and competitive excellence and to leave no stone unturned with my devotion and hard work.

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If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and youtube Auston of Management, keeps you from standing out from Boston Boston, other candidates.

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Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. Think Brown! They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions.

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