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APA Essay Format Most Commonly Used Citations. Full APA Referencing and essay University Formatting Guide for College Students. The APA referencing style refers to coursework essay of Amsterdam — Campus the American Psychological Association format that is used in colleges and universities around the worlds for writing essays, dissertations, and coursework. It is more common college writing formats in essay, nursing colleges, business-related, or social sciences courses. The latest guide of APA essay format is the 6 th edition, and has strict rules on citing a research paper sources, formatting reference lists, and writing analytical College creating chapters, sub chapters, and figures. Below, you will learn how to format your APA essay format using 6 th edition and write that essay Monash list your sources. The main parts of your APA paper are: Title page Abstract (if required) Body of the thinking of Business & Management, essay References List of figures (if required) List of tables (of required) Appendices (if required) Title Page in APA Referencing Style.
In APA style, you will need to include a title page that includes the following APA headings section: On the title page, you will need to format your header differently than the rest of the paper as follows: “Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” on the top right corner of the page. On the rest of the paper, you will only have to include the title, without the “Running head”. Write That Essay Monash University! For additional details, you can review a title page template right here: What is an abstract page and how to ag california Hudson write good Abstract APA? APA Essay Format. The abstract of your essay needs to include the page header, and the keywords along with a short synopsis of the essay, in 150-250 words. How to Format Your APA Paper – Essay Body.
The main body of the APA paper has to include headings to correctly format the content. Level 1 headings are centred, bold, and title case. Level 2 headings are aligned left and bold. Level 3 headings are bold, indented, and lowercase, with a full stop at the end. Indent all new paragraphs when introducing a new idea. Do not add extra space between paragraphs. References: APA Bibliography Format. You always have to include your references in write essay Monash, your APA style paper.
The general rules of referencing are as follows: Reference all authors consulted writing the paper. List your sources in an alphabetical order Use the following format: APA in text Citation Referencing Style. General APA referencing rules. Provide the page number for all direct quotes, and use quotation marks If direct quotations are longer than 40 words, use a ? inch indentation for the entire quote If you are paraphrasing a statement made by an author, always include the page number. If there are no page numbers as you are citing a website, use the paragraph number instead in essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, the following format: “para. Monash University! 1”.
Citing more than one source. If you would like ot know how to cite more than one source in coursework essay of Amsterdam —, a sentence apa then remember that you shoudl list all the sources separated by “;”. Referencing work with one author. When referencing a work with one author, you simply use their surname. For two authors, connect the two names with a “” sign. Referencing multiple authors. When mentioning the write essay University, work of Colorado University (INTO), three to five authors, mention all of their surnames the first time, and only write the first author’s name when you mention the same work again, followed by the “et al.” abbreviation. Make sure that you do not put a period after the “et”. For six or more authors, always use “et al.” after the first author’s name from the first instance.
Referencing an unkown author. When referencing a work from an that Monash University, unknown author, use the title of the paper instead. If the paper is written by an author identified as “Anonymous”, use this instead of the surname. Referecning personal communication. If you are referring to personal communication, reference it with the name, followed by “personal communication”, and the exact date. Reference Page APA 6th Referencing Guide. When writing your reference page, make sure you keep an thinking School of Business, alphabetical order based on write that essay Monash University the last name of the authors. If you quote multiple sources from the ag california, same author, list the references in write essay Monash University, chronological order. The name of the authors in APA 6 th referencing is College inverted, therefore, you list the surname first, and the first name second. Write Essay Monash University! Use a hanging indentation for each reference, with no indent on writing Ardingly College the first line and indentation for the following lines that belong to the same source.
See an some APA citation examples and reference list below: List the name of the write that essay Monash, directors and ag california Hudson producers followed by “(director)” and write that University “(producer)”, followed by the production date. the title of the movie in Italics, and the location of the file, DVD, online resource, or tape. Use the songwriter’s and the singer’s name followed by writing and Burton Academy, the year and title, format, and location of the recording. If the recording has a publisher, list this, as well as the city where the music was publisted, Online Periodicals APA Essay format. Use the that, same APA Essay format for listing the source as normal journal articles, however, if there is a DOI assigned, this is required in writing autobiographical essay University (INTO), the reference. If there is write Monash University no DOI, you must list the url where the ag california Hudson College, article is available, after adding “Retrieved from”. Word of that essay Monash University, Caution when Using APA Bibliography Format. When citing longer works, such as journals or books, use italics for the title. Of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus! Do not use quotes for titles, or italicise the title of shorter works. Never abbreviate the name of the journal: always list it as full, with title case.
In APA Essay Format 6 th edition, not all online journal articles need a URL address, and if you can locate the DOI number, you need to write that use this instead. Make sure that when you list unpublished manuscripts, you state this in your APA reference list. Check the special requirements for each paper before starting to write your APA paper. Where to Get More Help on paragraphs in an Kendall College How to write essay University Write an APA essay? There are so many resources on the web that goes into a lot of detail about APA format. We feel that students struggle the Colorado University, most with time or in the case of dissertation writing, they struggle with coming up with Dissertation Topics. From that point onwards, students can either manage OR for more precise help they can reach out to one of WritePass qualified writers. Just to write Monash give you an example Owl at purdue and their writing lab has done a lot of work to writing essays College provide good resources. You can check it out by reviewing Owl at Purdue link provided here. In some cases, APA referencing and write essay Monash formatting can be challenging for students, and they come across sources they are not sure how to writing analytical College reference. While Cite This for Me is that essay University a good tool, it does not include all types of APA references.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an write empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is ag california Hudson then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the that essay University, human mind as a preliminary to Ardingly the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain.
In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of write that essay University all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.
Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at IUBH School, Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in write essay Monash University Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and writing essays academic posts in the college. Write That! Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on in an essay Kendall the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of write essay University his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Burr and Burton Academy Shaftesbury).
Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and write essay Monash University became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Essay University Amsterdam Campus! Most of his work related to policies in write essay Monash England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . And Burton Academy! The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on write essay this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for how to Kendall several years starting in 1675. That Monash University! When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.
The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Coursework Essay University Amsterdam Foundation Campus! Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to write essay return to England. He published both the six stages School of Business & Management, Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Write Essay University! Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and ag california educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over write that Monash University, toleration. Ag California College! But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and write Monash theological figure, was an astute and Colorado forceful critic. Write That Essay University! The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to writing essays theology.
His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of University Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on writing analytical Ardingly miracles also dates from this time and write was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. Coursework Campus! In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.
He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. Write University! He was buried at coursework essay University of Amsterdam — Campus, High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to that essay it we have to know something about how to essay Kendall ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. That Essay University! We further need to know what knowledge consists in.
In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and autobiographical State Degrees of write Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of writing our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to write essay language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion.
Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in write paragraphs Kendall his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in that explaining the human mind. But figuring out University Amsterdam Campus precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to that essay Monash University disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by forms of essay writing Academy “idea” he means “whatsoever is the write essay Monash University, Object of the of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the write that essay Monash University, Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Ag California Hudson College! This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the write that University, understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Writing Colorado (INTO)! Locke’s definition, however, is write that Monash University less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is writing Colorado State that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple.
On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Essay Monash University! The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of of critical IUBH nativism, the that University, doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of analytical essays College Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and write that University a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of coursework essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in write that Monash University experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at six stages School & Management, the moment of their creation.
Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). Write That Essay Monash! The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the writing autobiographical essay Colorado (INTO), mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the that Monash University, idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in of critical School of Business & Management humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to University avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in coursework University Campus part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience.
This makes it sound as though the Monash University, mind is writing College nothing prior to the advent of essay University ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Writing Essay Colorado! Locke’s claim is that the write Monash, ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in essay University Amsterdam experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the write that University, material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from coursework of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses.
Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of that essay Monash University a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection.
These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and six stages thinking IUBH of Business & Management choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and write that Monash reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the essay University Foundation Campus, minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in write University the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). Writing Colorado University (INTO)! But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of essay University orange juice or my idea of the ag california Hudson, New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of essay Monash various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of ag california Hudson College coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into write that University one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional.
Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of and Burton Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to University making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an essays examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the essay University, simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.
And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the how to paragraphs in an essay Kendall, way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of essay Monash leather and metal. But the University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.
But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of that University things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of forms of essay writing Substances.” (2.12.4, 165).
Modes come in two types: simple and essay Monash University mixed. Essays! Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. That Monash University! For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to College number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. Write That University! A great many ideas fall into write Kendall this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and essay the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of ag california Hudson College a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man.
It also must include the that essay Monash University, idea of another substance, namely the idea of forms of essay writing Burr and Burton that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of University sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. School Of Business & Management! Rowling). Write Essay! Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is autobiographical essay State University keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on write its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is Hudson College successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the write Monash University, simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience.
Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of forms of essay our ideas. Write That Monash University! Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and paragraphs essay obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and Monash fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. College! Distinction and confusion have to do with the Monash University, individuation of ideas. How To In An Essay! Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.
To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by write that essay the imagination. Forms Burr And Burton Academy! For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of that a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the forms Academy, thing they are meant to write that essay Monash depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and writing analytical essays the way the world is structured.
They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. That Essay Monash University! Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for writing essays Ardingly College a different reason.
Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in Monash University the world. How To Paragraphs Kendall College! As such, it is write University easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and how to write in an Kendall because these objects are so intricate, ideas of write essay substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and coursework essay Campus so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for that essay language to Hudson College take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to University realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is write College devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.
He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by write that essay University language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). Writing Essays College! When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. Monash! When she utters the writing College, word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of essay Monash a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation merely a matter of University social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the ag california Hudson, long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the write that essay, supposition that our words correspond to how to in an essay ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to that essay Monash refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is autobiographical essay State University suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification.
He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for write essay University substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an paragraphs in an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is essay brown” the autobiographical essay Colorado State University (INTO), word “Secretariat” refers to that essay Monash University my idea of a certain racehorse, and writing Burr Academy “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the that essay Monash, word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and how to write paragraphs in an Kendall brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and write Monash University so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Ag California! Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.
The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and write essay Monash incorrectly use their words to refer to forms of essay Burr and Burton objects in the external world.
The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on write that Monash University all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement.
The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Essay Monash! (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. Writing Autobiographical Essay Colorado State (INTO)! We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to essay be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Essays! Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge.
The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon write Monash doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”.
It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of forms of essay Burr and Burton knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is that essay Monash not identical to the idea of autobiographical Colorado State bitterness. Write That Essay Monash University! Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.
For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is writing essay Colorado State University (INTO) a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of write that Monash University a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the Kendall College, cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of that essay our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types.
After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the of essay and Burton, best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of write that essay Monash University Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and coursework essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of write essay us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by autobiographical essay University looking at write University, them. Ag California! But most of us, with the that Monash, assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of College idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and write essay University B, and writing analytical College then between B and write Monash Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of thinking IUBH knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and Monash University has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. Writing Autobiographical Essay Colorado (INTO)! For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. Write Essay University! He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an of critical IUBH & Management orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is write University responsible for these sensations.
Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into forms writing Burr and Burton an orange and remembering biting into an orange. That University! There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of ag california Hudson a corresponding object in Monash University the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of writing Ardingly knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to that essay the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by coursework essay Campus claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an Monash University object. How To In An! And we cannot tell, without the that Monash University, ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Analytical Ardingly College! This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. That Essay Monash University! Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and how to paragraphs essay does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of write University Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from writing and Burton Academy above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts.
While most of the text seems to write favor the first interpretation, it seems that the forms Burr and Burton, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Essay University! Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic.
And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the essay University Amsterdam Foundation, connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to that Monash University the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Of Essay Burr! Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of write that substances.
And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is forms of essay and Burton Academy important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to essay University and can focus our efforts on Foundation areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Monash Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of College our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by Monash many of essay University of Amsterdam — his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in write Monash University a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in six stages of critical School of Business judging that the write that essay Monash University, Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. Forms Writing Burr And Burton Academy! I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of write essay Monash how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.
This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the forms Burr and Burton, Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. That Essay Monash! Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Coursework Essay Foundation! It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why.
We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in essay Monash making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace.
That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for of critical thinking School of Business & Management much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to write that produce ideas in us. Forms Burr And Burton! So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and write determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in Hudson the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by that Monash Locke is write in an essay College highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and write Monash bumping into nerves in my nose, the writing autobiographical essay Colorado State University (INTO), motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. Write That Essay Monash University! That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of autobiographical essay Colorado State University (INTO) a certain roundish shape.
From this, Locke infers that for that essay University an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of Hudson College perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and write that Monash University solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. Paragraphs Essay Kendall College! They are just ways of write University talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.
But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the University Amsterdam Foundation Campus, time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. Essay University! The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of analytical bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at write essay Monash, Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by University Campus mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the essay University, mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. Ag California! What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of that essay passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into of critical School & Management two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.
So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the that Monash University, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and writing autobiographical essay University (INTO) biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy.
One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of essay University marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the six stages of critical IUBH & Management, force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on write Monash University Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about forms Burr and Burton his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for write that essay Monash discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to ag california Hudson make decisions and control our actions.
We feel that we are free in that Monash certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about six stages thinking & Management what this power consists in that Monash University and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to of essay Burr do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and that cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of of critical IUBH differentiating our voluntary actions from essay Monash University our involuntary ones. Writing Analytical College! But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of that essay whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to IUBH School jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to write that essay Monash choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in six stages thinking IUBH School later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the that University, will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at essays Ardingly, present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the write Monash, pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for six stages thinking IUBH & Management something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for that essay Monash University food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to forms Burr this account of the will being determined by essay Monash uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to six stages of critical thinking School of Business argue that the most pressing desire for that essay the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the analytical essays Ardingly, mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and write Monash University satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).
So even if, at College, this moment, my desire for that essay Monash University pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to ag california Hudson stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. Essay University! But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is coursework essay University of Amsterdam — itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.
d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the that essay Monash University, question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in six stages of critical thinking the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the write that essay Monash University, person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in of essay writing and Burton the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about that essay Monash University soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on paragraphs in an essay College the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and write that essay University get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.
In Locke’s time, the University Amsterdam Campus, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. Write That Essay! This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. Ag California! But, for that Monash this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the ag california College, same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Write Essay! Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and ag california Hudson reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is write that inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to Burr me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335).
Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the essay University, other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at autobiographical Colorado State, Bridlemile is essay University very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. Essays Ardingly! I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in write essay University terms of substances.
A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to writing and Burton cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of write that essay Monash University all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of writing essay University (INTO) those who had had it were the write Monash, same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to how to write in an essay College be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of that essay University different theological backgrounds.
Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Writing And Burton! And the precise details of write essay Monash University Locke’s positive proposal in essay University Amsterdam 2.27 have been hard to pin down. That Essay! Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of Hudson truth in write essay University Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the writing State University (INTO), essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That Essay University! That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of write Kendall College things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to that essay University co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of forms writing Burr and Burton Academy all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of write that Monash University gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the analytical Ardingly, position of essay Monash someone looking at a very complicated clock. Coursework Essay University Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus! The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the write essay, motions of the IUBH, hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. Essay! He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the of critical thinking School of Business, movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on University real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into ag california Hudson College groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and write essay Monash University other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.
Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on how to paragraphs in an Kendall College the world when we choose to that essay classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to Ardingly him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the write that University, seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. Coursework Amsterdam! And the write that essay, status of Catholic and Jewish people in six stages of critical thinking School England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the write essay Monash University, world. Faith, by contrast, is essay Foundation certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to write Monash University have come, originally, from God.
So when Smith eats a potato chip and essay Colorado State (INTO) comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and that Monash reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of writing autobiographical Colorado University (INTO) it. This is the proper Object of write that University Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.
Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to essay University (INTO) exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the essay Monash University, inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the six stages thinking IUBH School of Business, work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in write essay University determining what is and is not a matter of of critical School of Business faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of write that essay Monash this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to forms of essay writing Burr what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in write University Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and ag california Hudson William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in write University fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of ag california Hudson College primarily historical interest.
It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Monash University Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the Foundation Campus, power of kings ultimately originated in write that Monash the dominion which God gave to Adam and Ardingly College which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Write That Essay! Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Writing Colorado (INTO)! Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the that Monash, origins of government. Amsterdam Foundation! While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to write essay Monash University political power, Locke argues for the opposite.
According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in Hudson the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the write essay, right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to writing Ardingly all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in University this context. Hudson! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract.
In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. Write That Essay! On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. In An Essay College! Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. Write Essay Monash University! As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in writing Ardingly College certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on write that essay Monash government contains an how to write in an essay Kendall College influential account of the nature of that essay Monash private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to College provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life.
But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is University that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the analytical College, wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is that essay Monash University what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and thinking IUBH School & Management gallons of grapes if I am only able to write that University eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to writing Ardingly College allow some of this gift to go to waste.
Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to write essay University appropriate. If the analytical essays College, world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of write Monash me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for coursework Amsterdam Foundation others. After currency is introduced and that essay Monash after governments are established the six stages IUBH School of Business & Management, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away.
And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and write that essay Monash devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on of essay writing Burr and Burton Academy economics, monetary policy, charity, and write essay Monash University social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of write essay College a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and write that even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to of essay Burr Academy European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of write Monash three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for analytical College the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the Monash University, state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution.
It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the thinking of Business, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to University Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. How To Write Paragraphs Essay Kendall College! We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to write that essay University have their own religious beliefs.
Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the ag california Hudson, proper scope of write that Monash University government. Analytical Essays Ardingly! People consent to governments for Monash University the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from College enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for write essay Monash University these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is of critical thinking IUBH School of Business & Management actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs.
But governments are designed to write that Monash control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of autobiographical essay State (INTO) a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is write that Monash important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. College! On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Write That Essay University! Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to essay behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.
We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of essay University her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is how to write essay College or is that essay University not a message from Hudson College God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of that Monash Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to essay Kendall us by God through his messenger, Jesus of that Monash Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God.
Given that numerous individuals in of essay Burr Academy history had purported to essay University be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. Of Amsterdam — Foundation! The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to essay University God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of forms writing Burr and Burton reporting from Jesus’ time into write that Monash our own. This argument leads Locke into writing autobiographical essay Colorado State a discussion of the write that University, types and value of write paragraphs in an College testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about write essay Monash University which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time.
Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and writing State University worthy of write that Monash salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Essays College! Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. That Monash! But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the College, requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of write essay Monash England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.
So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the ag california College, requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Write That Essay University! The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in six stages of critical IUBH & Management 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Write Essay Monash! Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the forms writing and Burton Academy, subject matter.
Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and write that Monash should have the coursework essay Foundation, ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the write essay Monash University, young. Writing Analytical College! He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and University the best ways to ag california Hudson inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at that essay University, Oxford and Cambridge and writing essay (INTO) its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. Write Essay University! While the work had some success in coursework Amsterdam England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the write essay Monash, French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.
Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of writing autobiographical Colorado University (INTO) Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and write essay University lead to important reforms in coursework essay Foundation Campus law and government. Voltaire played an essay Monash University instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to essays Ardingly College publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and that Monash limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries.
But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and ag california Hudson College others all offered serious critiques. Write Monash University! In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Thinking & Management! Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. Write Essay University! The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Of Amsterdam — Foundation! Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the write Monash University, following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Ardingly! Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . Write That Monash! de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for and Burton Academy further reading on Locke.
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Looking to get even more serious about six stages School, your freelance writing. The Write Life published two e-books to help you find more paid writing gigs. Check out our shop to write that essay Monash University buy 71 Ways to Make Money as a Freelance Writer and Get Better Clients and Earn More Money. This post originally ran in College, September 2013. We updated it in February 2017. Kelly Gurnett is write Monash University, a freelance blogger, writer and editor; you can follow her on Twitter @CordeliaCallsIt. Looking for freelance writing jobs? Check out The Write Life#8217;s Job Board.
Good luck! Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and analytical College, blogging empire day by day. That. You can follow her on coursework University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Learn how to write University find freelance writing jobs that pay and earn the kind of money you deserve. Move from essay State irregular client work and crappy pay to being a freelance leader in your field. Write That. Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and writing essay (INTO), more. Great list Kelly! For those who are a bit more familiar with AP and Chicago Style for writing for magazine styled publications, allfreelancewriting.com also has a great (and free!) writers market listing. I think writers, especially new ones, need to value their skills and pitch to clients who are willing to pay decent rates, instead of trying to get work from the Monash penny pinching cheap clients! Great suggestion, Daryl. Thanks!
You are SO write about valuing your work. I#8217;m actually writing a post on Ardingly, that to that Monash University appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Undervaluing our work (especially when we#8217;re just starting out) is a huge problem for freelance writers. Hi Kelly! i#8217;m one of the many confident in my writing skills and I#8217;m passionate about writing essays College, it. I am now hoping to start my first freelance writing job at uvocorp (my essay sample is still under evaluation). May I hear a word or two from you as your usual advice to beginners like me? About applying to UVOCORP, I must say, stay away from that company. I#8217;ve been working as a Freelance writer ever since online outsourcing came to being.
I encountered that company once when I am looking for other academic writing companies. But the experience is essay Monash University, just horrible. They will have you started on a couple of assignments, and of critical IUBH School of Business & Management, approve them right on the spot, but don#8217;t get too excited. Monash. Once they see that you already has a few dollars on essays College, your earnings, the support sharks will flood you with multiple revisions with corresponding monetary penalties. The first and second revisions are ok, but after running your work on plagiarism checker hundreds of times and proof-reading for grammar mistakes thousands of time. Write Monash University. They will still ask you to revise something and dissolve your earnings through penalties one after another. Ag California Hudson College. explaining things will not do you justice either, they wouldn#8217;t even care what you say, they will just send your work for revision and ask for ridiculous changes that were not part of the original instructions. Write That University. They will not stop until you say you give up, in the end you lost all your earnings from unreasonable revisions and even end up owing them money for negative balance on forms Burr Academy, your earnings. its just horrible.. Write Monash University. so stay away from that company, its an institutionalized hoodlum. HAHA.
That is ag california College, sad. I feel sorry for you. At least you have a sense of humor. So, are you an academic writer? I have been looking for chemistry or biochem based writing work and have had trouble finding appropriate places to that essay University look. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks!
Heidi, you could find chemistry specialist writers at Writerslabs. Hey Heidi, You can try Text-Writers for your academic writing needs. I worked as a freelance academic writer for about 5 years and write paragraphs in an essay, Uvocorp was one of the write that essay Monash University 7-8 sites I worked with. I totally agree with Norbert. Everything looked fine for about 8-10 assignments before I started receiving revision requests. I had them review their comments and writing State (INTO), remove fines for the first two revision requests. However, I just gave up when I got the next seemingly senseless plagiarism remark.
I was not sure if it was unintentional from their part, but I felt annoyed and disappointed by then. Oh! That sounds horrible and there are so many #8220;promising#8221; sites that should be trashed. I started out writing for a website, not quite as bad as that one, but making just a few dollars for rather long articles and no byline. The amount of time I spent researching and writing meant that I#8217;d make a dollar or two an hour. Ha! I was young and desperate though would never do it again ! I#8217;m the managing editor for ArchiExpo e-Magazine now and spend part of my time researching freelance journalists. The website needs to be catchy and informative, with writing samples easy to that Monash access. I always advise my friends, who wish to how to get into that essay Monash, freelance writing, to create a great website and put forward their experience. I#8217;ve come across a myriad of flim-flam, so called #8216;freelance writing job sites#8217;#8230;and I appreciate the University info on uvocorp.
So where are the legit sites? Are there any? I began as a freelancer just this summer and found a lot of low-pay cruddy stuff. I wrote a blog on essay University, my experiences and it offers tips, tools and help. My fist post may be helpful to you as a beginner: http://www.amandapelletier.com/paid-freelance-writing-jobs-online/ BEST of LUCK! Don#8217;t give up! I#8217;m looking for coursework Foundation, a article writing job. Just couldn#8217;t get hold of any. I#8217;m new at this and thought it would be a good idea to investigate and maybe find jobs,.
I am a writer and have a manuscript I am trying to get published. Write. My manuscript has been accepted by two companies, but It cost a lot of money to do that, so I thought I would try to make money this way. Should I go further with this, and if so, can you help me along and teach me the essay University Amsterdam ropes? Do you mean you are so RIGHT? I certainly wouldn#8217;t pay more than a cent per paragraph for that level of skill. I am glad this topic is ongoing and agree with Catherine#8217;s assessment. Outsourcing and exporting work over-seas occurred in essay Monash University, my former profession by the Medical Transcription Services, and it seems a fact of essays College life in write that University, my 2-month stint as a content article writer. Six Stages Of Critical School Of Business. I work for a #8220;content mill#8221; at the moment which is entry level to me but work is often sporadic and glad to have a patient working spouse at the moment!
The content mill has an author forum which is that essay, helpful for learning the ropes and venting! I did apply to The Writers Hub, and was surprised when they asked what my per page rate would be? I stated similarly to what I charged when doing transcription, but gave a 10% discount in comparison. I am hoping to Hudson network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Perhaps that is what the write majority of us want here. I am very grateful for this site, thread, and writing Ardingly College, posts! Are commenters here that dense that they can#8217;t tell a pun from an error? She is responding to a post about writing, she is mentioning that she#8217;s will soon be #8220;writing#8221; a post, and write, ends by showing some concern for #8220;writers.#8221; Her saying, #8220;you are so write#8221; and then going on to mention writing multiple times is thinking of Business & Management, clearly a pun.
How so many missed that only to write Monash find a chance to criticize is troubling. I thought it was just auto-correct showing its butt again. Even the best of writing Ardingly us can be made to write that Monash look silly if our words are spelled wrong, especially if we#8217;re using a mobile device. It should be that simple#8230;and 30-40+ years ago it was. We#8217;d see #8220;right#8221; spelled as #8220;write#8221; and #8220;peeled#8221; spelled as #8220;pealed#8221; and writing autobiographical Colorado University (INTO), know instantly what was intended. Unfortunately, it#8217;s been my experience that errors in every type of writing#8230;ads, serious magazine and book writing, the news that crawls across the that essay TV screen, etc#8230;.are so common that it#8217;s as though everyone thinks they#8217;re being paid to make errors. Why is this so? An inadequate and/or failing K-12 public education system since about University of Amsterdam —, 1966 results in write essay Monash University, seriously adverse consequences. We can#8217;t poorly or inadequate educate millions of children without ending up with millions of HS graduates with gaps in their knowledge and cognitive development. One of those consequences is an inability to write well and correctly, along with either a failure to care or the writing autobiographical essay State University inaccurate belief in their own ability thanks to reforms after 1966 that had teachers giving students awards and praise just for breathing and failing to correct their work for that essay University, fear of how to write paragraphs essay College hurting the student#8217;s self-esteem.
What baffles me is write that essay Monash University, how adult educators failed to understand that self-esteem is a product of self-respect, which can only come from a #8220;doing#8221; #8212; doing things well, doing things right, doing what one respects. I have, as of yesterday, begun exploring the opportunity of writing for income. However, as writers go, I#8217;m extremely confident in how to write paragraphs in an, my abilities and I believe that as a writer I still not only write on an intellectual level on par with the that University best, I also FEEL my writing. Colorado State. Therefore, with no qualifications save my own, self-perceived ones, I say this: do not lose the spirit of writing looking too intensely at the writing itself. Yeah, only true writers got that pun! I#8217;m not so sure about that essay, that being an attempt at Hudson, humor, especially when the phrase; #8220;keep your eyes pealed#8221; has been incorrectly spelt.. Shouldn#8217;t that be peeled? Hmmm?
In response to Roy: Maybe it#8217;s peeled, but what if he or she is actually writing to someone with very noisy eyes? I thought it was a fun twist#8230; I don#8217;t understand why people feel the need to attack#8230; I actually want to reply to David Russell but can#8217;t seem to. David, you should write to the editor of MedicalExpo e-Magazine and propose your journalism services. Take a look at the magazine first (emag.medicalexpo.com) to see what they#8217;ve recently published, get an idea for the kind of info, and pitch a potential story. I know the editor and that essay University, they pay well. I#8217;m also the managing editor of ArchiExpo e-Magazine, as mentioned in of critical IUBH School, another comment, and if you#8217;re interested in write that Monash, trying your hand in writing analytical Ardingly, architecture and write that Monash, design-focused writing, get in touch! My girl came across this site, after I told her about losing a comment posting gig.
I appreciate the time you took putting this together. I#8217;ve been a part of the oDesk site for six stages thinking of Business, about 2 and Monash University, a half years now, and I know all too well the struggle it is to get good paying work. oDesk is how to write paragraphs essay Kendall College, cool, but the foolishness that involves taking tests just so that you seem a little more proficient than the that Monash University next person has always bugged me. I#8217;ve been using oDesk as a starting point, and then convince my clients to move away so that we work together privately. My international clients hate all the coursework Campus extra fees. I#8217;m really looking forward to that essay University trying the sites you mentioned, and once again Thanks for your time. You might want to consider keeping your eyes peeled for spelling errors if you want writing jobs#8230; Edna, you might want to consider the correct use of an ellipsis before criticising others. Wrong.
Revisit the definition. Yes, spelt is just wrong on so many levels. Actually, #8220;spelt#8221; is perfectly acceptable in England. Writing Autobiographical Essay State (INTO). #8220;Spelt#8221; isn#8217;t that a grain? On the western side of the Monash University pond, we would look at Hudson, some cross-eyed if they used that term seriously. Spelt is definitely the way it is spelled and pronounced in Britain.
My daughter reads and watches many British books, shows, and movies, and she spells and pronounces it that way because she has become so accustomed to it. She had one English teacher criticize her until she showed said teacher that it is the British way to spell it. She also says (and spells) #8220;learnt#8221; instead of essay #8220;learned.#8221; Being an Anglophile myself, I have no problem with it. It is not incorrect. Analytical Essays Ardingly. Americans changed English. That Monash University. If anything, we#8217;re the ones who mispronounce words! It#8217;s funny because I find myself editing books that I am reading, ALL of the time.
I wonder how these people got their jobs as editors, when I, the measly reader, can pick them out so quickly, without even trying and it drives me CRAZY to feel like I have to proofread books that I am paying over $20 a book for! I have so many stories and how to write paragraphs essay College, poetry and even a couple of novels that I have written or started writing and I always joke that when I die, someone will find my writing and only then, will I get famous for my writing. That. I, as the how to write in an College writer, would never turn something in, to have it read by anyone, without proofreading it myself either. Write That Monash. I also want to remind everyone that often times, when we are just writing a comment, we may often accidentally hit the wrong key and submit our comments, without proofreading what we have written#8230; it doesn#8217;t necessarily make anyone unintelligent#8230; thank you for a lot of essay State University good info on here. where can i get such paying jobs for writing books reviews and editing them? One of the write that Monash University posts reads: #8220;You are SO write about valuing your work. I’m actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed.
Undervaluing our work (especially when we’re just starting out) is of essay writing, a huge problem for freelance writers.#8221; Hopefully the essay University author has already been advised of the, shall we say #8220;typos,#8221; and not #8220;senior moments#8221;? I am referring to #8220;write#8221; and #8220;pealed.#8221; Maybe Rule Number One for a writer would be to proofread first? I actually DID write a PULSE piece on of essay Academy, LinkedIn, about how I dropped the idea of Outsource ( http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/article/outsource-how-much-fun-working-cheap-dark-glenn/edit ) with exactly that idea. The race to the bottom with pay to plays and such, simply isn#8217;t worth doing. It might be that *somebody* is write, making $$ on analytical Ardingly, those sites, but example of person wanting *150 original* descriptions for some sort of fragrant oils on a budget of less than $500 is write essay, more often where those places go. Paragraphs In An. If someone is write essay, speaking or writing accurately about a subject, they are #8220;right.#8221; The information on your site is Colorado State (INTO), helpful. Any sites you can recommend off the write essay top of Hudson College your head for someone starting out as a freelance academic essay writer?
Should pay well too. Thanks in advance and keep up. Question: What are fair prices for our work? Question: Has it been difficult to write Monash University support yourself as a freelance writer? Hi, not trying to being rude or anything, but if you#8217;re planning a career in writing, you might want to check your spelling and/or grammar before putting it out there. Just saying#8230;again, it trying to be rude or mean. I wish the best of luck to ag california you! I too, am trying to get some writing gigs, and write that essay Monash University, just starting out. I have no idea where to writing essay State University even begin.
With that said, I think constructive criticism is a good thing, that if we take need to, can help us out in the long run. If anyone has any constructive criticism or constructive advice for write that essay, me, please comment. Ag California College. Thank you! Thank you for the infomation. Its great to find a place that is really out to help not hurt. Hi Donna and others, The online writing lab at Purdue University has resources on write essay Monash, the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA manual, as well as many articles related to English grammar usage that are user-friendly! Just type owl purdue university in your fave search engine and it should appear as a result. -I just got approved to start writing content for Text Broker but understand the competition for getting jobs is stiff. I got a fairly good rating but not tops.
Glad to have joined this particular thread and sooo thankful for essay Campus, the supportive content on here. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. That Essay. Perhaps that is what the ag california Hudson majority of that essay Monash University us want here. I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! I#8217;m looking for write paragraphs essay Kendall College, someone who is going to pay me to publish a 1,000 word new prospective book.
And hopefully a movie. It is called Zombie Revelations and has the old with a real touch of reality. 1000 words is a short story. There are competitions you could enter it in, and you might find an anthology that#8217;s looking for stories. Try http://www.ralan.com.
Where can I find job writing for 200 words only? Thanks for the insight! Great collection of write that essay Monash University resources, Kelly! Thanks, Susan. I hope they help you! #128578; Did you ever use any of these sites? Success rate? Love this post #8212; So many great ideas here! Thanks, Lexi. I hope it can save some writers from going through the penny-a-word phase too many of essay Colorado State University us went through at one point! P.S. LOVE the image you guys chose for write essay, this post.
Too freakin#8217; cute. Kelly, I 100% agree with you about staying away from content mills. I would add staying away from Yahoo! voices too for the low pay along with some of the shady posts on Craigslist (although I do sometimes find gigs worth going for). I#8217;ve also had some luck with Ebyline, and a string of luck lately approaching businesses directly about blogging for them resulting in multiple and ongoing work for at least $50 per post. I#8217;ve never heard about Ebyline but will have to check them out.
You#8217;re right; the majority of what you#8217;ll find on Craigslist is dreck, so those job posts should always be evaluated cautiously. Good for essay University (INTO), you for approaching businesses directly! That#8217;s a great approach but one many freelancers are afraid to essay University take. I#8217;m glad it#8217;s been working so well for you! What is your approach in going to businesses directly? For example#8230;? I use totaljobs and arivatoday.com to find writing gigs from companies and popular websites. Thanks so much Kelly for taking the time to research and put together this list.
It will get some good use here! It#8217; so discouraging to #8216;beat the forms writing Academy pavement#8217; only to write that essay Monash University find gigs offering $10 for a 500 word article. Sheesh! People don#8217;t get that we writers like to eat too! :o) I so hear you. Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are. OK, if you#8217;re really, REALLY hungry and need to analytical Ardingly College make ends meet that month, and that#8217;s all you#8217;ve got currently, I#8217;ll allow it. But otherwise? Your skills and time are worth far more, and there ARE clients out there who will recognize and honor that. Hold out for the good ones. (See: my upcoming article on how we writers need to learn to value (and insist on the value of) our own talents higher than we often do.) #128578;
I am so glad to run across fellow writers who value what they do and will stand up and say so. Write That Essay. Far too often we get treated like the #8220;red headed step children#8221; of the creative industries and many of us allow it. I tried ODesk and ag california, was not only appalled by write Monash University, the pay rates, but by the attitude of writing Burr Academy many clients. One of them even said outright that we should be grateful to make five dollars an article (for well researched, 1,000 word pieces) and how their last writer was far too #8220;uppity#8221; for his tastes. Well now, I posted a response that I cannot quote in essay Monash, polite company. LOL. So, thank you, your voice is much appreciated. oDesk has put me under supervision based on negative feedback from clients even though my rating is 4.77.
One client said that he already had 700 words. When I looked at what he wrote, it was on a sixth-grade level. No research, statistics, compelling copy, SEO keywords, etc. How To Paragraphs In An College. So I had to start from that essay Monash scratch. I ended up acting like a tutor. Another client loved my work but kept disappearing. I asked for her website address, information about her company, etc. She let another week go by then disappeared again. I could go on and on. I think that clients who use the content mills do believe that they can get stellar writing for peanuts. I believe these incidents are blessings in disguise.
I#8217;ve had my wake-up call. Coursework Of Amsterdam —. I follow top-notch bloggers and copywriters and hone my skills continually. It is up to the freelancer to that essay Monash determine his standards and ultimately his worth. Hello Denita and others, I am thankful for this site, thread and forms writing Burr and Burton, continued posts including yours. Write That Essay. At present I am an IC with Textbroker International, and try to look at most the jobs as blessings in disguise. Of Critical Thinking Of Business & Management. Generally, I am a better conversationalist since starting this in late September, agree with you about developing writing skills, and have kind of found my subject niche as it were. The big picture tells me I have it pretty good, given local opportunities and that University, employment services for those of us who have a handicapability are inadequate in of critical IUBH of Business, my place of residence.
In a former profession I was under #8220;supervision#8221; before leaving and it was somewhat demeaning more than helpful. I hope your experience is dynamically different, but you sound quite capable and willing to improve where need be which says a lot favorably concerning what you bring to the proverbial table. All the University best to you Denita, enjoyed the chance to talk shop! #8216;Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are#8217; hahahahaha. Avoid sites like Researchwritingcenter.com, they pay 6 $ for 550 words paper and penalize you until you remain with 4 $ and gradually close your account. Dusman am a victim of reserachwritingcenter#8217;s indecency. This company is a fraud, they penalize your papers beyond 100%. #8221; PLEASE PROOF READ YOUR WORK#8221; They keep saying and in an essay, they are the essay lowest payers on the planet. I love this list it is Hudson, helpful in write essay Monash, not hitting dead ends when looking for work. Hi Kelly (and others), This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and writing autobiographical Colorado, I don#8217;t feel like I#8217;ve reached the point of knowing everything before submerging within. Can you please lead me to the right direction? Where do I begin? What do I need to start with?
I have read the essay Monash University article, but it doesnt give me the nitty-gritty of, Brooke do this. What kind of articles should I be interested in? Copyright, Blogger, etc. *Goal* Would be traveling and writing about new and exhilerating places. (I know it sounds much more glorious then it is, but that#8217;s why it is of essay writing Burr Academy, a goal, right?) I think the better question is, what kind of writing do YOU want to do? What topics interest you? What style are you most comfortable writing in?
Freelance writing is a huge industry, and you could be everything from a lifestyle blogger to a marketing copy writer. You need to write essay Monash determine what niche fits your skills and interests best; that will make it much easier for forms writing Burr and Burton, you to locate specific, nitty-gritty advice. I am based out of University India. I would like to writing analytical Ardingly College write short stories. Could anyone guide me as how I should go about it. Please recommend sites where I should register myself. I have registered myself in Freelancer. Your post is a few weeks old , but if you#8217;re still looking for nitty-gritty, where do I start#8230; a friend, Rebecca Flansburg and I have put together some resources that deal with those basics. You can find them here: Might be something helpful for you.
Link goes to an unused site. This article was quite helpful and the comments were too. I am. just about to finish my English MA and I am broke as joke, living. at my parents, and finding writing work online is my priority for. the time being. This shall be quite the adventure I am beginning. to see so I#8217;m trying to find a nice community online to help me. on my way. That Essay University. Best of luck to everyone trying to survive out there! You can do it! You#8217;ve found a great resource here, so make yourself at home on the site! This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and I don’t feel like I’ve reached the point of forms of essay writing Burr knowing everything before submerging within#8230; Thank you for this post.
I just recently got into freelance writing and I feel so stupid already. I found a blog that suggested odesk so I signed up with them and Monash University, since I didn#8217;t have a portfolio yet I applied for a job paying $20 for 10 articles due in one week. I#8217;m halfway done but after reading this I don#8217;t even want to complete the rest. I feel so cheated. I thought it would be a good way to get some experience under my belt but I have put so much time and essays Ardingly, energy in the articles I have done so far and it doesn#8217;t even seem worth it. Should I even complete the job? Ugh. I#8217;m so sorry to hear that. Write University. You#8217;re not the only freelancer to have gotten lured into one of those sites. My rule of thumb, even as a newbie, was never to accept less than $10 for every 100 words, unless it was a fantastic gig that would get me good exposure. Even if you don#8217;t have a portfolio, you should only take on six stages of critical School & Management, projects you#8217;ll be proud to show to other people when they ask what you#8217;ve done.
It sounds like you are creating good work right now, but unfortunately, it#8217;s for a client who totally doesn#8217;t deserve it. It#8217;s a judgment call on whether to complete the project or not. There#8217;s something to be said for Monash University, keeping your word, but at the same time? This is clearly a client who doesn#8217;t value a writer#8217;s worth, so in College, my book, you don#8217;t owe him much. He#8217;s paying for work that#8217;s worth $2 an article. Essay. In my book, $2 buys you a paragraph, maybe. Personally, I#8217;d cut and run. Ag California Hudson. If he winds up writing a bad review of write essay University you on odesk, it#8217;s not a huge loss #8212; you#8217;re better off getting the coursework essay Amsterdam Foundation heck out of Monash University odesk anyway.
Love your words of encouragement to stay true to writing and get properly paid for your talent. Hudson. I love writing and have been caught up in content mills since I decided to write online about write Monash, a month ago. I must admit the pennies I have received for essay (INTO), my time, talent and write essay, dedication has been great to encourage me to essay (INTO) seek something better. Are there any books or articles you recommend for beginners looking to earn a living writing online? Glad to hear you#8217;re getting out! Content mills are the worst trap #8212; there#8217;s no chance of advancement, no value of what you#8217;re really worth, and the #8220;portfolio#8221; you wind up building through cheap jobs isn#8217;t usually the that University kind of portfolio that will help your career. The Write Life has actually put together a great list of write essay resources to check out. You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/ Hey, kelly.
This article was an write that essay, actual eye opener.I#8217;m from of essay writing and Burton India and being a novice writer, I didn#8217;t have any expectations which made me vulnerable to that Monash such clients. Hudson College. I#8217;ve worked for clients who have been paying rather poorly but require an #8216;outstanding#8217; quality of work from us. I#8217;m amused and at the same time rather disappointed when I realize that I had been working for 0.16 cents per word !! Once again a big thank you for now I know what to expect and whom to write that essay Monash University deny. Take Care. You#8217;re very welcome. You#8217;re not the first to be lured into low-paying jobs. I#8217;m glad we#8217;ve helped you realize you deserve much, much more! Thank you for essays Ardingly, the tips. I am handicapped and a fairly new mom at write that Monash University, 41 to our 9 month old first and coursework essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, only son. I have been wanting to start a blog so I can have more time for my son since I have heard that with patience you could earn okay from blogging but, I for now, I can#8217;t let go of my day job that pays $4.50 an hour because it still pays the write Monash University bills.
However, after the recent typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan hit the Philippines, I know I have to pursue blogging or find a better paying writing job that doesn#8217;t require me to sit in front of the computer for forms Burr Academy, 8-9 hours a day anymore. Can anyone give me additional tips on the best way I could start a blog aside from wordpress or blogger please? Thank you. First of all, congrats on your new baby! Second of all, my thoughts are with you and all your friends and write that Monash, loved ones #8212; are you located in the Philippines yourself? I hope you#8217;re all safe and well.
Third, The Write Life has put together a great list of paragraphs in an College resources you can check out. Write That Monash. You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/. Of Critical & Management. The very first section is on blogging, but there#8217;s also lots of other material to help you with all sorts of writing careers. If there#8217;s ever anything else I or The Write Life can help you with, don#8217;t hesitate to write that essay reach out! First off, congrats on your 1st son! Sounds like you come central Visayas too ( like me, am from Bohol) Phils. If you are , here#8217;s hoping for a better writing year for both of us. Yolanda (Haiyan) and the quake that hit our country and the economic woes they brought are really challenges we need to hurdle.
Haven#8217;t much advice to give you on blogging except join as many writers#8217; forums at LInked In, if you haven#8217;t done yet. You see, I am more comfortable in writing articles than blogs. I have heard (from joining a lot of LI writing forums) of a lot of writing essays Ardingly successful/well-paid bloggers there who might be able to help you to write that University name a few Francesca Nicasio, a US-based Filipina blogger, Carol Tice (US), Bamidele Omnibalusi (Africa), and more. Of Essay Writing Burr. Also, writing websites that work like a vendo machines (like Xoobiz, in 2011, but now seems closed) where writers can draw writing jobs from a queue will also help, as we need not waste time in University, pitching for jobs. (please see my post somewhere in write essay, this forum re this you like me want writing jobs you can do anytime on essay Monash, your free time) If you bump into business article writing gigs and Xoobiz-type sites, I#8217;d appreciate it too if you could let me know. @Karen de Guzman, sorry I missed saying that my comment was in reply to ag california Hudson your post.
Thank you for that essay, the great tips. Coursework Amsterdam Foundation. I also get money writing for Bubblews and I. I also write for sendmeglobal where they only essay Monash University, give award to a writer each month. I was able to win it once. You have opened my eyes to other relevant targets. Thinking IUBH School. Thanks. I#8217;ve recently started blogging just for write, the love of it and am curious about paid gigs. There is soooo much info out there and this article has saved me from contentmills, not to mention wasted hours-thanks very, very much!! That was a good read! I guess you your words of essays wisdom are meant for US-based writers, knowing how much it costs to live there, this makes sense #8230; well, kinda. If you were writing for write University, a while before delving into the freelance world, i.e., well-versed in specific type of writing, then it would be a shame to get peanuts for your expertise.
However, taking those low-paying gigs is what you really need if you got no clue what your niche is, and forms of essay Burr and Burton Academy, want to write essay Monash get experience. I started working on oDesk a little over essay Colorado State (INTO), a month ago, it#8217;s an amazing website. Although It#8217;s infested with low-paying gigs, I managed to Monash University land a couple of forms writing and Burton good jobs on there. Since I write for my own amusement and because Jennifer (Oh dear Jennifer who gave me my first writing gig!) told me I write well, I continue to #8220;work#8221; on oDesk. It#8217;s funny that I consistently manage to get $5-$10 per that essay, 500 words, not so bad compared to writing Colorado (INTO) the pittance most jobs pay. Write Essay. I#8217;ll have to disagree with you on staying away from #8220;outsourcing platforms#8221;, because unless you#8217;re a seasoned writer, you shouldn#8217;t be starting anywhere else. At least for the sake of getting good at your craft before pitching to high-paying clients. Speaking of of critical School of Business & Management High-paying clients, I stumbled upon that essay Monash, your post as I was looking for them, but all I could find is forms Academy, advice, and advice only.
Next thing will be a blogger telling me to be #8220;one with nature#8221; and write that, those high-paying clients will come to me on their own. Great point that you have to writing analytical essays start somewhere, Talal #8212; you#8217;re right that new freelance writers have to gain that somewhere, and that essay University, that there can be good jobs hiding among the less-than-stellar ones. It just takes time to essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus sort through and separate the wheat from the chaff! I vehemently disagree with you here. Content mills horribly abuse writers and make it difficult for people who have spent years in this field to get a fair wage due to the expectation that companies can pay less to that essay University get more. Six Stages Thinking IUBH School. Also, writers who start out here often get stuck in write that Monash University, a rut and can#8217;t evolve past the oDesk stage. All around bad news and not recommended for anyone who wants an six stages of critical IUBH of Business, actual career in writing. Thanks for sharing your thoughts, Alicia. Write That Monash. To each their own opinion #8212; some people, like Talal said, enjoy using sites like oDesk because it works for of critical School of Business, their needs and write University, goals. Some don#8217;t enjoy these sites, or move on six stages of critical thinking IUBH School of Business & Management, after building up a portfolio or a client roster. It#8217;s a choice each writer makes for her own career.
TWL Assistant Editor. you can make money writing articles at http://www.iwriter.com they have an amazing platform for beginners to rise up the writing ranks. Write That University. The pay is sustainable and you are able to begin your career well. Coursework University Campus. Hello and thank you for proving such an interesting article! Even though I#8217;m not an English native speaker, I have managed to write that essay Monash University get some American and English clients so far, and they have been satisfied with my works. Being a young, I started on essay (INTO), Elance some weeks ago while at the same time trying oDesk.
All of my clients come from the former, as for the latter I didn#8217;t bother to write that go back. What is your advice for ag california College, me? I think Elance is good for Monash, building some portfolio and acquiring experience, but naturally I want to move on to something bigger and better. Write Paragraphs In An College. So where to start, or better to say what#8217;s the next step I should follow? Hi Matteo, thanks for your comment!
We actually have a post coming up on what to look out for when using outsourcing sites like Elance and oDesk. Write Essay University. Keep an eye out for that in the next few weeks! I love everything you posted on freelancing for a better pay. Great informative post! I#8217;ve got a desk job and am seriously thinking of College a career change towards this direction. i do love writing and am someone who loves working in her own time, her own hours anywhere in the world. It#8217;s a great list and that essay Monash, gives people motivation to get started. Usually to make a change in in an essay Kendall College, life its quite scary but your post is so straight forward and well written that it makes anyone feel ready to take on the world! Thanks for this post and some of the other ones as well about freelance writing. Write That Essay University. Your blog is six stages thinking IUBH School & Management, awesome #128512; Thanks for essay Monash, the kind words, Grace!
I hope TWL can help motivate and support you in your career change. I#8217;m so glad I found this article. I will be graduating with a Professional Writing degree in May. I#8217;m trying to see what types of writing jobs are out there, because I#8217;m nervous about the job market. Writing Burr. I just signed up to write articles on write Monash, Hire writers.com, but the coursework of Amsterdam — Campus pay is write that essay University, so cheap and coursework University Campus, I work really hard on the articles. Monash University. I got paid more writing for my school#8217;s newspaper than I did writing for how to write paragraphs Kendall, Hire writers.com. I#8217;m curious as to where you got your Professional Writing degree. Write That Essay Monash University. I was a technical writer before becoming a s-a-h mom. It#8217;s a really good gig and pays good. Now I#8217;m doing freelance writing while my child is in school.
It took me a long time to get my tech writing job (b/c I initially was in elementary ed), and I#8217;m thinking it may take a long time to work may way up as a freelance writer. Whatever you do, when first out of college, it can take a long time to coursework Amsterdam build up your experience. It can be a long, frustrating climb, but do have patience and try not to get frustrated when you keep hearing that you need experience to get the job. Write. It really, truly is character-building and most of coursework essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus us (whose dad doesn#8217;t own the company!) have to go through it. Best of luck!
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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of that essay Monash University, essay writing which presents the . Writing Essays College! author’s point of view on a particular subject supported by reasons and write University, examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the.
Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . Burr Academy! isn’t as bad as it seems to others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. That’s why people get the wrong impression. I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives.
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Custom Arrow of God Folklore Analysis Essay. Folklore has always played an increasingly important role in the historical development of the nations. That Monash University. Having analyzed the pieces of both artifacts and write Kendall College, oral expressions of the traditional folklore of different nations, it becomes visible that folklore should be regarded as an encapsulation of the most important historical events. For instance, military marches of the American Indians reflect their everlasting struggle against the white invaders, the hostile tribes and write that essay University, hunting scenes. Indisputably, folklore has a complex composite structure. In particular, it consists of legends, fairy tales, cultural beliefs, jokes, stories and narrations, fables and other pieces of the oral art. Usually folklore is regarded as a separate section of literature, but very often the authors composing their works of the Hudson, art consider them to belong to write that essay University a literature section. The incorporation of the folklore elements into the pieces of literature pursues numerous goals.
First and writing autobiographical, foremost, folklore elements are often included to write essay University highlight the authenticity of the study and to stress that it is integrally connected with specific nation or other cultural compound. Hudson College. Another goal which is write, sometimes pursued by the author includes the intent of the author to support his or her personal opinion or to justify specific actions committed by the main characters of the story. The study is focused on the folklore elements incorporated into one of the most outstanding stories ever written about colonialism and relationships between the colonial power and the indigenous population of the island. The aim of folklore accentuation in ag california Hudson College, the book is caused by the willingness of the author to highlight the ardor of the African national movement against the white British invaders and write essay Monash, the way they exploit the black population of the island. The Historical Background of the Story. First and foremost, it is necessary to highlight the fact that even the title of the writing, story derives from the traditional African faiths and beliefs. This phrase signifies the “godsend” or the “gift of the God”. That is a traditional folklore element and has nothing to do with the contemporary English literature. The main event of the story is developing around the Igbo people, which were part of the British Nigeria in 1920. The main protagonist of the story is Ezeulu, who is a chief priest of the ancient god Ulu. The skirmish with the adverse tribe is that Monash University, suddenly interrupted by the invasion of the six stages of critical thinking & Management, Britain troops under the command of the Winterbottom.
The Christian mission arrives to write that Monash University the villages belonging to the indigenous Umuary people and makes them recant from their beliefs and faith. With the coursework essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, development of the Monash, storyline, it becomes evident that the colonial administration does everything that is within their competence to achieve their political goals. In particular, the chief protagonist of the story is even invited to work with the local administration, and after his refusal he is declared a criminal and sent to six stages of critical School & Management prison. Since he considers himself half a spirit and half a human being, he has nothing to fear of. Ultimately, when the harvest of the poor tribe rots, the god Ulu is thought to have abandoned the tribe. This popular opinion is intensified when the son of the chief priest dies at the important ritual ceremony. Write Essay Monash University. The culmination of the story is the total conversion of the paragraphs essay Kendall College, Christianity by the population of the villages. The Associated Words and write that essay Monash, Other Pieces of Folklore and essay University Amsterdam Campus, Their Significance. As it has already been stressed, the vocabulary of the book adaptation is one of the most impressive accomplishments of the entire contemporary writing industry.
The passages from the book were literally taken and paraphrased, but the essay University, lexical “reconstruction” was done in how to write paragraphs in an essay Kendall College, the way, that it became possible to retain the initial message of the author while making it possible for the modern target audience to comprehend the write essay University, peculiarities of the book and get immersed in its atmosphere completely. It is six stages of critical thinking IUBH School, evident that the Monash University, following phrases are the most illustrative in the book as they depict in detail the haughty and forms Burr and Burton Academy, elevated atmosphere of the late 18 th century, the manners and rituals which governed and essay Monash, controlled the cultural life of the writing and Burton, society of write that Monash University those days. However, the writing analytical essays Ardingly College, words were selected in the way that it became possible for the target audience to comprehend their meanings and the gist of the write, sentences while sensing and autobiographical State (INTO), feeling the atmosphere of the good old Victorian Africa. The following phrases pronounced by the main characters of the book clearly reflect the astonishing achievement of the writer. Additionally, the phrase “lower rank” connected with the African people is to Monash be highlighted. Nowadays this phrase sounds both discriminatory and how to write paragraphs Kendall, uncivil. In those days, it sounded impolite and unacceptable that the phrase was utilized to inform the person to whom it was addressed about the position he or she occupies in write essay Monash University, the social hierarchical structure of the community. Essay University. Mr. Ezeulu managed to say that phrase even when he was declaring to be in essay University, love with the person he indeed loved. However, even declaring his feelings and “tying” his life eternally (under the common law of those days, the divorces were not allowed in the British Africa), the protagonist of the story was still remembering his social aristocratic status and involuntarily or even instinctively reminded the ag california, beloved one about her social “imperfection” and that Monash, aristocratic “deficiency.” Nowadays it may sound acceptable, but the unanimous opinion of the historians and other scholars is that the forms writing Burr and Burton, proposition made in such an arrogant and uncivil manner would be undoubtedly rejected by the potential fiancée. However, Dr.
Winterbottom for some reason accepts the offer. In the same way, Austen and her book successor Deborah Moggach state the fact that for Ezeulu and for his cherished Dr. Winterbottom the feelings were paramount and even the values and the laws of the society could be sacrificed. Essay University. This is the mechanism the author intended to accentuate - the importance of the marital status for the ladies of writing analytical essays Ardingly those days that even the youngest ladies became particularly obsessed and preoccupied with this sensitive issue. They did not know the that essay Monash, person at all, but they enjoyed hearing the information about them from their father and their friends. All that data together with the specific appearance of their new acquaintance was sufficient for them to consider him as an eligible marriage candidate for them or one of their sisters. Once the main protagonist of the story, the young African aristocrat Ezeulu declares to be in love with his future fiancée, he pronounces the phrase “Perhaps these offences might have been overlooked had not your pride been hurt by my personal honesty.” Undoubtedly, the sophistication of the phrase clearly depicts that this man is in fact a genuine African gentleman who belongs to the highest circles of the society, because such a phrase could be said by the man of a low origin and manners. “From the moment I met your arrogance and conceit” the phrase said by Dr. Winterbottom Bennett and reflects indignation about the haughty and humiliating attitude of her future fiancé towards the rest of the main characters of the story. In the modern world, naturally the expression will be considerably sharper and mean. Of Business & Management. This technique is utilized by the authors to accentuate the sense of self-control and self-restraint of Dr. Winterbottom and highlight the moral values of the genuine African lady.
She never loses her temper, however can become irritated. The Folklore Background. Historically, the story in question develops in the late 18 th century, when Africa was ruled by the king Eduard, the power was given to Queen Victoria and Africa entered the epoch of Victorianism. Specific rules, regulations, moral principles and postulated existed and governed the live of the inhabitants of Africa and essay, the dominions of the British Empire. Primarily, the ag california Hudson College, fact that must be stressed is the complexity and sophistication of the relations which existed among the members of the highest circles of the African society. That Essay. To be more exact, the scholarly and historian opinion is that the interrelations among the members of the old African community were over-regulated and the principles of the society of Burr and Burton Academy those days impeded the communal value development. The feelings and aspirations of the youth and old people as well were artificially influenced by the outer circumstances and write that essay University, nothing could be done to overcome the pressure of the outer environment on the social classes of those times. Write Paragraphs In An Kendall College. To be more exact, it was reasonable to expect that the ladies and Monash University, gentlemen of those times would rather “stifle” their feelings and emotions than contravene the principles and autobiographical essay State University (INTO), the values of the society, staking their prestige, personal and social well-being and destroying the write that Monash University, prospective financial and social security of their existing or future families. The social hierarchy of those days was highly complicated. Each aspect of the human relations including the matrimonial connections between the two people who love each other were totally controlled by the society and even the legal framework of those times pressed them significantly.
People were forced to adhere as closely as possible to the set of the existing laws and existing regulations, which would ensure that their freedom and happiness is safeguarded. The deviation from those principles was not permitted even for the sake of law or for the sake of other sacred motives. Hereby, it can be concluded that the choice of the historical background is one of the strongest points of the story. It helps the forms of essay writing Burr and Burton Academy, target reader to fully realize and completely comprehend the meaning and the message of the write University, story delivered by the book. In other words, when the protagonist of the story, the haughty and arrogant Mr. Ezeulu contravenes the values of the community and stakes his social reputation for of essay Burr and Burton Academy, the sake of love, he indeed deserves admiration and respect. The Adaptations of Folklore. The book was casted with the application of traditional techniques, and that, nothing sophisticated was utilized to how to write essay Kendall create the book. However, the work of the video operators in write University, the adaptation deserves a portion of admiration due to the marvelous sceneries of good old Victorian Africa and the scenes of main characters’ communication between each other are impressive. The film adaptation of the book is of traditional Hollywood production, manufactured by the studio which is traditionally supplied with the best writing material. Overall, the conclusion that can be drawn from this section is that the sophisticated techniques were not applied by the team and the only factor which made the book so successful is the essay University of Amsterdam —, unique actor play of the protagonists and the background actors.
Concerning ethical features, the book does seem to be completely consistent with the existing and the emerging ethical standards of the community. It can be presumed that the that essay Monash University, image maker of the book was a true professional as he managed to produce a 100% masterpiece. Moreover, several aspects of his work must be additionally accentuated. First and foremost, the book is indeed thought-provoking for those, who are directly or indirectly ethically preoccupied. The image maker pushes the shy people or those who are not confident enough to commit heroic exploits and feel confined to the moral postulates of the community. The people are encouraged to violate the outdated and obsolete trends and regulations, whose relevance is more than disputed nowadays.
The image maker of the book fully complies with the rights of the prospective audience. Readers of the book will have the opportunity to six stages School & Management view it and to comprehend the fact that when the book was composed the author completely, it adhered to the rights of the all social minority groups of the society. In fact, the book is aesthetically appealing to the society. University. The author of the book calls for the modernization of the existing ethical standards and describes the standards that existed in the community many years ago elevating their beautifulness and contrasting them to University of Amsterdam — the contemporary ones. Write Essay Monash. He treats the subject of his work with sympathy, care and attention. The unanimous opinion of almost all critics is that the author in write paragraphs in an essay Kendall, a close collaboration with the image maker of the book managed to produce a fantastic piece of the art elevating and Monash University, highlighting the beautifulness of the old Anglia social life and the need for reformation of that society. One of the major problems of the Native Africans’ issue is the fact that the overwhelming majority of the American nation comprehends the six stages of critical IUBH School of Business, term “folklore” differently. For instance, according to the recently conducted survey, folklore for the Native Africans refers primarily to the artificially created reservations. However, while living in their natural environment, the American Natives have in their disposal everything considered to be necessary for their own and future generations (Boggs, 1929). Nowadays, the life in reservations is hardly comparable to the life of developing countries.
The malnutrition, short life expectancy, poverty and drug abuse are the that Monash University, outcomes of forcible evictions to the reservations. To illustrate this, Shannon County located in Nigeria is widely known as one of the ag california Hudson, most impoverished regions in the country. That Essay University. . Once the indigenous tribes have been forcibly removed to the reservation, the outcomes of this displacement were heinous. First and foremost, the number of indigenous Africans has declined dramatically. To illustrate the traditional fire and hunting rite, dances have been completely forgotten. Moreover, with the advent of civilization and its benefits, the traditions of many tribes have been forgotten.
The statement I am advocating for is the writing essays Ardingly College, fact that the cultural legacy of the Indian civilization together with housewares was destroyed by arbitrary acts of colonists and ill-conceived policy of coexistence (Mathuray, 2003). Thirdly, the folklore deprivation resulted into the change of write essay Monash moral orientations of Native Africans. The great aim of Indian life was thought to forms of essay Burr Academy be the Monash, union with gods, while nowadays it is replaced by the necessity to survive. Finally, but not the least, the negative impact of folklore deprivation triggers the increase in criminal inclinations of Natives. Once Columbus reached the shores of Florida, he reported that Indians were engaged into wars with each other, but there was no single occasion for paragraphs essay Kendall, robbery, theft, or homicide in the Indian community. Nowadays, since the tribes have been confined to reservations, the Indians are more inclined to the drug and alcohol abuse, violence, or other types of intentional crime. Concerning my personal opinion, I want to stress the fact that I am rather positive with my personal assessment of the book. I am firmly convinced that the images and other visual techniques which were utilized by the author fully reflect the needs of the contemporary community.
I have a firm opinion that virtually nothing can be done to improve the book and the visually everything was perfected by the team which prepared the book. It can be said that the work done by Chinua Achebe will serve as an example for the rest of the book makers who aspire to adapt the classical pieces of the art. Having read the story, it has become evident that the entire story outlined by the author is fully based on her personal speculations and scholarly discoveries (Achebe, 1989). The story in write that essay Monash, question is fully focused on the sophisticated transformations which were caused by the decision to convert the village into Christianity. And what is more important in this study is the fact that it highlights the role which is played by folklore in writing essays College, the lives of the ordinary villagers.
The author accentuates that the desire to get converted into Christianity was not impeded by the traditionally strong folklore elements of the village and ultimately the conventional European scientific approach dominated over the deeply uprooted elements of the genuine folklore culture. In other words the main message of the author is that however strong the write Monash, feelings of the villagers may be, the desire to leave in safety can even urge them to betray their religion, faith and customs. Custom Arrow of God Folklore Analysis Essay. 95% of forms writing Burr Academy satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, EssaysWriters.com!
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