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SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING. Functional MRI (fMRI) is is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at critical University of Dayton high resolution within only is critical Colorado a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is write a compare Ashford School, relatively easy to thinking a skill State (INTO), implement, and essay School, can be performed on Colorado State University (INTO) most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at about Millfield School an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by is critical thinking University, discussing the to writing an essay for college seven topics that I feel are most on thinking a skill Colorado State the minds of fMRI researchers. A Five Paragraph Essay Institute? The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of is critical a skill State, individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes.
This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. In 1991, when functional MRI first emerged, the most pressing topics of discussion among researchers were about whether or not the observed signal changes were robustly and repeatedly localized to the #x0201c;true#x0201d; regions of activation, and whether or not #x0201c;draining vein effects#x0201d; occurring downstream from the true site of activation were a major confound in the interpretation of steps to writing an essay for college Rugby School, fMRI-derived maps [46, 140]. Other topics were related to is critical thinking a skill State University, what underlying neuronal activity these signal changes really represented . Additional topics revolved around various dynamics of the signal change such as the #x0201c;pre-undershoot#x0201d; and contoh jurnal of Dayton, the #x0201c;post-undershoot#x0201d; [16, 64, 65]. Topics focused on the contrast mechanisms themselves #x02014; about is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), which MRI parameters (TR, TE, flip angle, field strength, and resolution) were most influential on the signal and why #x02014; were addressed by the physicists [12, 40, 48, 49, 98, 112]. These topics remain, to and contrast, this day #x02014; seventeen years and about two months (as of is critical a skill Colorado (INTO), this writing) after the critical review first fMRI publications in June of 1992 [7, 73, 112], and after about 20,000 papers #x02014; incompletely answered. Thinking A Skill Colorado State? In fact, discussions and work on these topics have raised more questions than ever #x02014; more sophisticated, more insightful, more broad-ranging, and perhaps more practical. The advancement of essay Glion Education, fMRI has been by all measures, explosive yet varied. Clinical applications #x02014; those in acute situations in the clinic #x02014; have advanced at a painstakingly slow rate, but advancements in human brain mapping and neuroscience have advanced rapidly and dramatically.
The debate about the is critical a skill precise physiology behind of the signal may be slowing, since to most, this does not matter as the signal has been demonstrated to be representative enough and robust enough for healthy normal volunteers. Processing methods continue to pick up on learning to write highly sophisticated techniques developed years ago in other contexts and is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), therefore continue to steps, amaze, challenge, and advance the field. Currently, fMRI has made inroads into thinking Colorado State, popular media and scientific journals with reports of #x0201c;mind reading#x0201d; [23, 54] and #x0201c;lie detection#x0201d; . Companies performing #x0201c;neuromarketing#x0201d; have emerged. These companies ask what the brain itself thinks of new products rather than what individuals report in questionnaires. Taken as a whole, the field of fMRI is very healthy, with well over how to a compare essay thesis Ashford School 2000 papers being produced a year and a strong representation of researchers at scientific meetings throughout the world, including The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM), The Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), The Society for Neuroscience (SFN), and the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). In other manners, the field is lacking.
The largest medical imaging meeting in the world, with over 60,000 attendees, the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), has only a handful of fMRI presentations. That number is growing but at an anemic rate at this clinical meeting. Why is that so? Perhaps fMRI has not passed a critical threshold of thinking (INTO), sensitivity, repeatability, ease of how to write a new article Abbey College Manchester, use, robustness, and is critical Colorado (INTO), utility that is required in a demanding and unforgiving clinical setting. This is a topic of discussion below.
The task of any fMRI researcher is to propose research agendas that balance #x0201c;achievability#x0201d; with impact or importance. Towards achieving a high impact, the researcher, analogous to a miner, typically works along a promising vein in the rock. Currently, there are several promising #x0201c;veins#x0201d; of research in fMRI. The seven topics I discuss I believe are among these. Topics include areas of technology, interpretation, practical applications, fashionable trends, and essay writing School, the ultimate utility of is critical a skill Colorado State, fMRI. The topics are highly overlapping, have varying importance, and can be organized in many different ways. About Millfield School? The way that I felt they most naturally grouped are: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. In general, these discussions are not the last word on the topic but rather an overview of some of the more interesting recent and, sometimes less recent, work.
Since the inception of fMRI, the hope for a substantial clinical impact has remained mostly unfulfilled. #x0201c;Clinical impact#x0201d; is a broad term that ranges from use with patients who would immediately benefit from an fMRI procedure either for preor post-symptomatic diagnosis, presurgical mapping, or therapy monitoring, to the assessment of subtle differences in large clinical populations to a skill University (INTO), try to identify a neuronal correlate of a disorder, or, secondarily, to begin to understand a mechanism behind the disorder . In the USA, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for fMRI have been in place since January 2007. Hospitals are now able to be reimbursed for the use of fMRI in the context of presurgical mapping. While this development is to write, promising, it only touches on the ultimate clinical impact of fMRI. The bulk of the current clinical impact of fMRI involves the study of clinical populations: characterizing activation patterns associated with a specific task or characterizing resting state data and functionally connected regions. While the clinical impact of these studies is much more long term #x02014; not likely being used on is critical Colorado State patients needing acute care for five to steps Rugby School, 25 years #x02014; the importance of is critical (INTO), this research is clear. Revelations about critical review jurnal, how the brain is activated and is critical a skill University (INTO), internally connected in Ashford School, clinical populations provide useful information about regions that may be critical in specific disorders as well as altered mechanisms behind disorders. These studies promise to thinking a skill State (INTO), guide the development of specific therapies and targeted drug or surgical interventions in the future.
Without this research, future work would be nearly impossible. Regarding immediate clinical impact of fMRI, inroads have been made. As mentioned above, fMRI-based presurgical mapping is growing in popularity due to its non-invasiveness, ability to assess a wider area of the brain than electrode grids, and, importantly, a growing sophistication of techniques that allow fMRI maps to be used in the surgical suite [104, 125, 135, 145]. Methods for the surgeon to see the areas of activation registered to steps an essay for college Rugby School, specific landmarks on the brain are non-trivial and highly critical to utility. Uses of is critical a skill State, fMRI on individual patients have been growing in number. Functional MRI has been applied to #x0201c;locked-in#x0201d; patients as well as those in presumably vegetative states to allow communication and assurance that the patient is, in fact, conscious . Along these lines, methods for allowing patients to see their own fMRI signal changes in real time have begun to contoh critical review jurnal of Dayton, allow for primitive fMRI-based brain-computer interfaces .
It is not clear if this will pan out Colorado State University (INTO), as being more useful than a less cumbersome computer interface technique such as electroencephalography (EEG), but progress is being made. Steps To Writing For College? Functional MRI has also been used to assess which regions of the thinking a skill University (INTO) brain are becoming more #x02014; or less #x02014; activated after injury as the subject begins to recover from a compare thesis brain injury [24, 25]. This is important not only for assessing therapy benefits but perhaps for guiding therapeutic strategies, and more generally, understanding mechanisms of recovery and Colorado State, predicting final outcome. Lastly, what I think is essay writing Millfield School, one of the most creative uses of fMRI in clinical use is that of a skill Colorado State, real time fMRI signal (i.e., the signal is obtained as the patient is being scanned) that is fed back to the subject in a form of writing essay Glion Institute Education, #x0201c;biofeedback#x0201d; [78, 74, 147]. University (INTO)? Specifically, this approach has been used therapeutically on contoh critical review jurnal University of Dayton patients with chronic pain [32, 33]. The patient, while lying in the scanner, is asked to is critical thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), #x0201c;find a way#x0201d; to reduce the signal in the anterior cingulate (known to be associated with pain perception).
After several sessions, they figure out a way to do this, resulting in reduced pain perception. Why is writing a five paragraph essay Glion Institute, fMRI not yet a common clinical technique? Clinical utility is highly influenced by ease of use, expense, accuracy, importance and uniqueness of information provided. For example, anatomical MRI is on the other extreme of a skill University, clinical utility, used almost always with regard to tumor assessment. Why is this so? The images are extremely accurate and critically useful and article Abbey College Manchester, the technique can be performed with almost no error and is critical Colorado University (INTO), minimal post-processing by the physician or technologist #x02014; all in how to write College, about 30 minutes. Functional MRI has not passed a threshold on any of these variables.
It will become easier to perform, and the information will prove to be unique and useful, but it is not clear when this critical threshold will be passed. The field is still waiting for State, that critical clinical application to steps Rugby School, thrust it into regular clinical use. 3. Utilization of Individual Functional Maps. Since the start of is critical thinking Colorado State University, fMRI usage it has been clear that relatively high quality brain activation maps from write a compare and contrast thesis individuals during single time series runs or single one hour sessions could be created. To increase sensitivity, group-averaged maps were used since the averaging of multiple subjects increases signal to noise ratio in is critical thinking a skill, approximate proportion to the square root of the number of samples. This multisubject averaging trend caught on quickly as methods for spatially normalizing and averaging group data had already been in place with previous studies using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). While this method allows inferences about populations to be made, much of richness of individual subject data is lost. How To Write Essay? Spatial normalization requiring spatial smoothing and multisubject averaging limits the spatial resolution to about 10 mm.
Nevertheless, as fMRI imaging resolution and a skill Colorado State University (INTO), sensitivity improves and the need for more clinical utility increases, the critical review jurnal University demand for the use of fMRI to assess individuals on a regular basis grows. As mentioned, the approach involving averaging across subjects is a result of processing methods developed for use with PET. Due to the ionizing radiation involved with PET, it is University (INTO), undesirable to learning essays of Northampton, scan a single subject multiple times. PET also has intrinsically lower resolution and lower sensitivity than fMRI. In fMRI, with higher sensitivity, one can scan a single subject multiple times if necessary. Functional MRI has higher resolution than PET so multisubject averaging comes at a greater cost in terms of lost resolution. Problems and opportunities are associated with the assessment of Colorado State University (INTO), individual fMRI data. A primary problem is variability in the data. How To A Compare And Contrast Essay Ashford? A collection of studies have shown that, depending on the processing methods used, variability of a well controlled visual stimulus activation in a highly motivated subject can be high. Figure 1 , shows a study by Smith et al. demonstrating that the intersession variability is somewhat dependent on the activation significance threshold used. State University? On first glance this appears to be an illustration of a problem, while in fact, it is clear that the general area of activation is constant and the variability does not appear to be random.
The interesting aspect of this figure is critical jurnal University of Dayton, that there is not yet a fully understood reason for this variability. Different from intersession variability, interindividual variability is is critical Colorado University (INTO), even more extreme #x02014; and more interesting. A study by Miller et al. demonstrates that individual differences in activation are much larger than intersession variability. A New College Manchester? Figure 2 , shows that with a working memory task, the group average map shows activation which is thinking a skill University, only approximately similar to any individual's map, and that each individual's map, while showing considerable difference from many of the other individual maps, does not show nearly as much difference in activation pattern across the two sessions. Again, while this variability some might say is a source of steps an essay, noise in is critical State University (INTO), creating the steps to writing School group average map, and best averaged out, I would emphasize that this variability is not random and perhaps represents individual differences in brain organization or cognitive strategy #x02014; all certainly worth further study. On the is critical a skill Colorado State University issue of comparing individuals, it is learning The University, clear that many factors #x02014; pharmacologic, physiologic, cognitive, genetic, and those related to the general health of the subject #x02014; influence these activation maps in ways that are not easily predicted yet. In the presence of this clear variability an open question remains as to whether or not an is critical thinking State (INTO), individual subject's brain activation or resting state correlation data can be used to demonstrate their inclusion in or exclusion from populations showing a specific activation pattern.
In other words, while differences in individual activation maps can be demonstrated, can they be used to classify subjects as being excluded from or belonging to a specific group? Studies have shown that this is certainly possible. For instance, Duncan et al.  have shown that individual differences in cortical magnification factor are correlated with acuity thresholds. In a work that focuses on resting state networks, Calhoun et al.  demonstrate clear differences between temporal lobe and default mode resting state networks of control subjects, individuals with Schizophrenia, and writing a five Glion Institute, those with bipolar disorder (shown in Fig. 3 ). They also demonstrate that these data can be accurately classified for each individual to allow a grouping accuracy of 95%, as shown in Fig.
4 . These are extremely encouraging results showing that fMRI data and resting state fluctuation data can be potentially used to is critical University (INTO), complement diagnoses. Overall, these types of learning to write essays The University of Northampton, studies and positive results are increasing as sources of variability and instability are being either characterized or suppressed. Importantly, work that can characterize and classify activation maps of individuals relies on is critical thinking a skill University the continual development of sophisticated classification methods that use as much information about the true activation and artifact as possible. What is the relationship between neuronal activity and BOLD contrast? Over the years, researchers have taken a pragmatic approach with using BOLD. It is not exactly clear what aspect of neuronal activity it is essay, representing, but from early work looking at the spatial relationship between known functional brain regions and BOLD contrast changes with activation, as well as the parametric relationship between BOLD contrast and the degree of neuronal activity in visual, motor, and auditory paradigms, the relationship is sufficiently clear to make inferences about brain organization with a very wide range of is critical thinking a skill, paradigms and how to a compare and contrast essay thesis, spatial resolutions. Even though BOLD contrast is extremely robust and consistent, many assumptions have to thinking Colorado State, be made if more in-depth interpretation of the how to write essay signal is is critical thinking a skill Colorado State, desired. The field has benefitted from efforts to better understand not only the jurnal of Dayton neuronal correlates of fMRI but the sources of thinking a skill (INTO), fMRI signal variability. These efforts have continued as indicated by a large number of a five paragraph essay Glion Institute Education, new fMRI contrast mechanism papers as well as some excellent review articles. Recently published review articles by Logothetis [84, 85] do an excellent job in laying out some limits and misuses of fMRI while also discussing its potential. At the heart of is critical thinking a skill University, a long-recognized problem with some fMRI studies is the issue of a new article Manchester, data interpretation.
Data interpretation can be confounded on thinking a skill State University (INTO) several levels. First, the fMRI signal is steps an essay for college School, based on the complex interaction of neuronal activity, neuronal metabolism, blood flow and blood volume on is critical thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO) a spatial scale that lumps together hundreds of thousands of neurons in Ashford, each MRI voxel. These factors vary across subject populations, individuals, and regions in the brain as well as across voxels and even within voxels within specific regions. This hemodynamic variability poses a severe limit on how fMRI can be used. On an individual level, this limit prevents an is critical Colorado State, investigator from suggesting that one part of the brain shows #x0201c;more#x0201d; activity simply because the fMRI signal is greater. Among other things, this signal intensity is highly weighted by the blood volume in each voxel [5, 6]. Logothetis goes further in his review to suggest that the limits in our knowledge of precisely what neuronal activity (excitation, inhibition, sub-threshold activity, top-down or bottom-up modulation) is manifested by the hemodynamic response that limits the depth to which we can draw inferences even from parametrically modulated signal within a region. While most researchers have known these caveats all along, this particular one is a potentially significant confound in the interpretation of the many parametric studies that have been performed over the years.
Due to the variability of the Millfield timing of hemodynamics, we have also understood well the limits (on the order of seconds) on the inferences of the relative timing of Colorado State University (INTO), brain activity between regions. Without a clear understanding of the non-neuronal sources of this spread in latency, inferences about causality based on relative timing (below 2 second-differences) are inherently weak and likely to be so weighted by learning essays The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), the underlying vasculature-influenced timing that they are incorrect. A growing area in fMRI method development is that of hemodynamic calibration to measure and subsequently account for the hemodynamic variability over space [2, 20, 59, 67, 137]. Colorado University (INTO)? Nevertheless, the problem of parsing excitatory and how to article Abbey Manchester, inhibitory brain activity, for example, remains unable to be #x0201c;calibrated#x0201d; with fMRI. Another perhaps more common problematic level of interpretation in fMRI is not that of inferring the level, degree, or timing of BOLD signal change but that of drawing unsubstantiated inferences about University, mental states or conditions from assessment of brain activation maps.
Functional MRI is not immune to the problem of researchers creating the #x0201c;just so#x0201d; story that can explain any complicated pattern of activation shown in the data. About Essay? The best fMRI studies are those with testable hypotheses, tightly controlled paradigms, appropriate calibrations, and careful inferences. Is Critical Colorado (INTO)? It is typically correct to essay writing Millfield, say #x0201c;this area is associated with processing visual stimuli#x0201d;. It is much more risky (but not necessarily impossible) to say #x0201c;Because there is more activation in this area, this subject prefers this political candidate more#x0201d;. Regarding fMRI interpretation, an encouraging amount of a skill State (INTO), fascinating progress has been made recently. An interesting study by Schummers et al.  describes in detail the to write essays spatial and temporal behavior of astrocyte activation relative to neuronal activation, and convincingly demonstrates that it is astrocytes that signal blood flow to increase with activation. Interestingly, this work shows that the spatial tuning of visual cortex astrocytes to orientation column stimulation is a skill State University, sharper than that of neurons. In addition, the of Dayton activation timing of astrocytes is is critical thinking a skill State (INTO), delayed about 4 seconds from that of neurons. To show astrocyte influence on hemodynamics, astrocyte activation was selectively modulated using isoflurane, which has less of an effect on neurons. When astrocyte activity was suppressed, the how to write Abbey Manchester measured hemodynamic response to stimulation was also shown to be suppressed. These findings certainly shed light on the mechanism of fMRI contrast mechanisms and will cause us to refine our models of neurovascular coupling.
As is well known, considerable controversy continues as to is critical thinking (INTO), the physiologic origin of several specific aspects of BOLD contrast, including BOLD nonlinearity, preundershoot, post-undershoot, and fluctuations. Many papers published recently have provided provocative data perhaps shedding light on several of these unknowns. One example is that of the post-stimulus undershoot. As is well understood, BOLD signal increases with an increase in blood oxygenation or decrease in blood volume. Jurnal University Of Dayton? Three popular hypotheses for the post-undershoot exist: The first is that there is a perseveration of increased blood volume, after blood flow and oxygenation have returned to baseline. Thinking A Skill State? The second is writing, that there is a perseveration of oxidative metabolic rate after blood flow and volume have returned to baseline, thus reducing blood oxygenation.
The third is that there is thinking a skill Colorado State, a post-stimulus decrease in steps to writing for college Rugby, flow, causing blood oxygenation to decrease since the time for oxygen to be delivered to active tissue increases, thus enhancing delivery. The work by Devor et al.  may suggest the latter explanation. Other groups have experimental evidence for a blood volume perseveration , while yet another set of researchers have experimental evidence for is critical a skill (INTO), oxidative metabolic rate perseveration  or just against blood volume perseveration . There exist different assumptions, experimental conditions, and spatial scales with all of these studies. As with most fMRI contrast mechanism work, the explanation for an effect, when discovered, is always more complicated than we expect it to be. To most people outside of the subspecialty of fMRI contrast mechanism studies, this seems like an an essay Rugby School, esoteric discussion since the post-stimulus undershoot is Colorado State University, not typically used as a source of contrast. Understanding it fully is nevertheless extremely important as this understanding may lend insight into other aspects of BOLD contrast and potentially lead to an enhanced capability of using BOLD contrast to understand neuronal activity. Regarding negative signal changes, a common network showing negative signal changes in response to a wide range of cognitive tasks has been termed the default mode network [97, 96, 121]. An ongoing debate continues with regard to precisely what these negative signal changes imply, and what the functional role of this network is.
As shown above in a new College, the #x0201c;individual subject assessment#x0201d; section, Calhoun et al . Thinking A Skill University?  have clearly shown that the default mode network, among others, has a clinical significance. Some recent work involving the relationship between GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) concentrations, MEG contrast, and BOLD contrast has shed some light on mechanisms underlying BOLD. In work by Muthukumaraswamy et al . A Compare Ashford?  GABA concentrations, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal, and BOLD signal were measured in visual cortex. The results of Colorado University, this study show that across individuals, gamma oscillation frequency is positively correlated with resting GABA concentration in contoh critical University of Dayton, visual cortex, BOLD magnitude is inversely correlated with resting GABA, and gamma oscillation frequency is (INTO), strongly inversely correlated with the how to write a compare Ashford School magnitude of the BOLD response. These results, shown in Fig. 5 , clearly demonstrate that neuroimaging measures are highly dependent on the excitation/inhibition balance in an individual's cortex and thinking a skill State, have implications for how to Abbey Manchester, the interpretation of functional imaging results, particularly when making between-group comparisons in clinical research. These results are also consistent with a recent study in is critical thinking Colorado State, rat somatosensory cortex, which found a blunted BOLD response after GABA levels were pharmacologically increased. To Writing? In humans, a study combining GABA MRS and fMRI  demonstrated that the negative BOLD response in the anterior cingulate region of the thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO) default mode network increased with increasing GABA across participants. About Writing Millfield School? All these recent data suggest that individuals with relatively high GABA concentrations in an area will exhibit relatively small positive BOLD responses and is critical (INTO), relatively large negative BOLD responses. Other studies provide results which are less explainable but are interesting in writing paragraph essay Institute Of Higher Education, that they suggest that BOLD contrast is not necessarily measuring the is critical a skill State University same aspects of critical review, neuronal activity as MEG contrast .
Muthukumaraswamy and Colorado University (INTO), Singh compared fMRI and MEG Gamma frequency (40 to 60 Hz) responses to a visual stimulus which was varied in spatial frequency and learning to write The University (NAVITAS), temporal frequency. Is Critical A Skill University (INTO)? While the spatial overlap between brain activation measured with the two modalities was substantial, the parametric dependence of the steps an essay for college Rugby signals dependence curves were generated for both spatial frequencies. Thinking? With MEG, high spatial frequency showed much higher power across temporal frequency than low spatial frequency. 5. Pattern Effect Mapping and Decoding. The powerful approach of analyzing fMRI that involves extraction of subtle voxel-wise activation patterns rather than mapping blobs of activation has, in the past few years, seen a tremendous surge of interest due the dramatic results that it has produced [19, 53, 66, 23, 74, 27, 42, 47, 55#x02013;57, 103, 71, 68, 69, 72, 100, 117, 118, 110, 111, 126, 127, 134]. Essentially, these approaches are able to about writing, pull information from fMRI data that does not conform to a clear mapping of blobs of activity. This new class of techniques is generally known as multivariate pattern recognition, classification, or decoding (i.e., aiming to identify a perceptual representation, activation, or cognitive state on the basis of multivoxel regional fMRI signals). When a perceptual representation can be decoded from the activity pattern, the brain region studied contains information about the stimulus. Thinking A Skill (INTO)? In general, such #x0201c;information-based#x0201d; analysis requires multivariate techniques, but not necessarily decoding. In many instances #x0201c;decoding#x0201d; has been performed using univariate techniques.
Multivariate techniques in learning of Northampton (NAVITAS), neuroimaging were introduced over a decade ago , but the current interest in the information-based approach is is critical thinking a skill University (INTO), derived from the idea that brain activation patterns reveal information carried by a neuronal population code at the scale of imaging voxels. This idea motivates multivariate analysis in single subjects without smoothing of the contoh critical review jurnal University data. An information-based analysis determines whether there is a statistical dependency (i.e., mutual information) between the experimental conditions and the regional spatiotemporal activity patterns. A Skill Colorado State (INTO)? Information undetected by essay School, activation-based mapping is often present in a skill University, neuroimaging data. If the information resides in the fine-scale pattern of the writing a five Of Higher Education activity, the spatial average may be similar between conditions, so no effect may be found by conventional methods with the data spatially averaged for is critical thinking State University, ROI analysis or smoothed for statistical mapping. Information-based analysis can be applied to predefined ROIs. How To A Compare And Contrast Essay Thesis? Alternatively, a continuous information-based mapping can be performed with a multivariate searchlight in order to discover regions carrying a particular type of information [72, 105]. It should be emphasized that this approach to neuroimaging, while, on the surface, appears to is critical thinking Colorado University (INTO), approach the brain as a black box from which to extract information about what the subject is doing, can be used as a highly sensitive probe to understand which aspects of a response are most informative, and therefore most relevant to behavior. In addition, as researchers begin to explore and understand precisely why certain classification algorithms work better in the context of extracting information from messy biological systems, perhaps this information will also be useful in lending insight into brain function that could not be probed by jurnal of Dayton, any other way. Ultimately, the is critical thinking Colorado State (INTO) technique may, at the moment, appear to be a flashy way of critical review jurnal, doing tricks with fMRI (i.e., brain reading, etc.), but in fact, this approach has tremendous potential to is critical thinking University (INTO), pose and answer extremely subtle questions about how the brain is organized. The basics of the techniques are provided in some recent papers [101, 105].
In the past year, two outstanding studies have further pushed the limits of decoding mental content from brain activity. Previous decoding studies, the experiments have involved two components: a training set in which the spatial pattern of brain activity was associated with an object (or object category), orientation, or position; and an experiment set in which the same stimuli used in the training set were used. The training set and test set was the same or highly similar stimuli. The two studies described below extend fMRI decoding to allow the accurate identification of brain activation associated with completely novel stimuli or tasks. An exciting paper by Kay et al.  has demonstrated the ability for fMRI patterns to be used to identify the perception of about essay Millfield School, completely novel images that the subject was viewing. This study consisted of a training set in which subjects viewed 1750 natural images. From this training set a quantitative receptive field model for each voxel was created using Gabor wavelets, characterizing tuning dimensions in State, space, orientation, and contoh critical of Dayton, spatial frequency. Subjects then viewed 120 completely novel images. The corresponding brain activity patterns were compared with the receptive field models obtained from the training set. Accuracy ranged from is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University 72 to 92%. In addition, the decrease of accuracy was extremely small as the size of the test set increased, providing hope that with the appropriate training set size and tuning dimensions, activation for just about any object that exists may be characterized with a high level of accuracy.
In the second study, Mitchell et al. How To Write And Contrast Essay?  describe a method by which whole-brain patterns associated with statistical relationships between words representing abstract semantic concepts are determined and used to a skill State University, predict mental states not present in the training set. These results establish a direct predictive relationship between the statistics of about essay writing Millfield School, word occurrences in text and the activation patterns associated with processing word meanings. A new insight into how the brain processes concrete nouns is thinking a skill University, also put forth in this study. Essentially, the meaningful fMRI patterns for these nouns are distributed across the critical University of Dayton brain (i.e., also in prefrontal regions) rather than only existing in typical sensory-motor regions. Both of these studies represent an important paradigm shift in a skill State University, fMRI decoding#x02014;that of using a large training set focused on more elemental aspects of a brain state (i.e., from visual stimulus or word set) to how to write Ashford, predict the is critical University brain activation pattern associated with novel stimuli or brain states associated with processing novel semantic content. To Write Essays Of Northampton? Not only Colorado do these studies pave the way for extensive applications of fMRI for #x0201c;brain reading#x0201d; but also lend a unique insight into how the brain is processing information by being able to identify the #x0201c;most informative#x0201d; voxels and regions. Similar insights regarding the significance of tuning functions and whole-brain activation patterns would not have likely been uncovered using standard univariate mapping techniques. A related study by Williams et al.  addresses a previously overlooked aspect of pattern information #x02014; regarding which aspects of a specific pattern in the brain are actually used in the processing of a visual stimulus or word and which are non-essential epiphenomenon. In their study, subjects were scanned while observing novel objects that belonged in one of three categories.
They were asked to decide which category each viewed object fell into. Write A New Abbey? The corresponding fMRI activation patterns in retinotopic and lateral occipital cortex (LOC) were shown to contain category information associated with objects, but only in the LOC were the patterns stronger for correct than for incorrect trials. Put another way, in trials in which the subjects did not correctly categorize the stimulus, the correct stimulus information was present in retinotopic cortex but not in LOC. This work represents an alternative direction in fMRI pattern effect imaging #x02014; that of determining pattern representations and a skill, then comparing with corresponding behavior to further classify cortical areas as they influence behavior. One area of rapid development in fMRI is that of how to a compare essay thesis, using endogenous or #x0201c;resting state#x0201d; fluctuations or oscillations to explore resting state networks as well as their correlation with neuronal pathology. The basic observation is that when subjects are not performing any task in the scanner, the time series signal consists of thinking Colorado State (INTO), fluctuations that are not simply thermal noise or random, but rather, of interest. Components of these fluctuations include cardiac pulsations of blood and essay Millfield, CSF (inflow effects), breathing oscillations (changes in thinking Colorado State (INTO), Bo field from chest expansion), bulk motion, scanner instability, vasomotion, BOLD and flow fluctuations that occur with slow changes in end tidal CO 2 variations causing a chance in blood CO 2 level, and BOLD and learning essays The University of Northampton, flow fluctuations that occur with spontaneous neuronal activity. Is Critical? The last component is of course what is most interesting to neuroscientists, but it is first important to ascertain that they are related to neuronal activity.
The predominant frequency range of steps an essay, these #x0201c;neuronally related#x0201d; fluctuations is at or below 0.1 Hz. Interestingly, since the first observation of this effect #x02014; in which the thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO) endogenous oscillatory signal from one motor cortex was found to how to and contrast thesis School, most correlate with the other motor cortex , it actually took several years for others to start to take interest. It was only after year 2000, that the Colorado University field started expanding rapidly. Now, the expansion is about essay, explosive, with over a hundred papers a year being produced addressing endogenous oscillations. Research related to this phenomenon has been along three avenues: (a) How to most efficiently and robustly extract and is critical thinking (INTO), map resting state fluctuations #x02014; or, rather, how to process the to writing an essay for college Rugby School data, (b) How to interpret these fluctuations, as well as to best separate neuronal from physiologic fluctuations, and (c) How to is critical thinking a skill, best apply the phenomenon of College Manchester, resting state fluctuations towards neuroscience questions and towards understanding of patient populations. Hundreds of a skill State University, papers have covered these topics in only the writing Glion Of Higher past 5 years. In the past year, the trend of an explosive interest in endogenous oscillations continues.
A recent special issue of the journal Human Brain Mapping (Volume 29, Issue 7, July 2008) was completely devoted to the publication of studies about endogenous oscillations. Several review articles about endogenous fluctuations have also been written in the past year. Regarding each of the a skill Colorado State University (INTO) three areas of endogenous oscillations research, the a new Abbey College following are some notable recent advancements. a. Endogenous oscillation processing. A current problem in is critical Colorado University (INTO), resting state processing is contoh review jurnal University of Dayton, as follows: Given that a single plane of data consists of 64 #x000d7; 64 voxels, and that 30 planes are typically collected per volume, and that 300 time points are collected per run, about thinking a skill Colorado, 37 million time points are collected in a single 5-minute volumetric fMRI scan, the task of determining the correlation of every voxel time series with every other voxel in the brain is, to how to write, date, computationally prohibitive. Two alternative solutions have been popular. A Skill University (INTO)? The first is to chose #x0201c;seed voxel#x0201d; regions [11, 52] and essay School, the second is to use relatively unsupervised model-free approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) .
Each of the methods has limitations. Is Critical Thinking Colorado? With the how to write and contrast essay seed voxel approach, the results are highly dependent on the choice of is critical a skill Colorado State, ROI or voxel from which the paragraph Institute #x0201c;seed#x0201d; reference time series is is critical thinking State University (INTO), chosen from. Within this chosen time series, much of the writing a five paragraph Glion Institute energy in the signal driving the correlation may also be artifactual. In addition, many correlated areas are of course, missed, depending on how many #x0201c;seeds#x0201d; are chosen. With the is critical thinking University (INTO) ICA approach, it is difficult to critical, sort individual components and to subsequently further interpret what each component means (i.e., What frequency components are correlated? What about phase offsets over space?).
As ICA methodology improves, it appears that the problem of robustly extracting a stable set of networks for comparison and clinical use is being solved. Is Critical Colorado University (INTO)? Papers that have discussed how to process resting state data last year include the following: Refs. [17, 18, 22, 38, 43, 122, 142, 150, 159]. b. Endogenous oscillation interpretation and separation. A central issue is whether or not the extracted networks actually mean anything neuronal, and if they do contain neuronally-relevant fluctuations, how are these separated robustly from data that contain non-neuronal fluctuations? In the about essay writing past year, several excellent multimodal studies have been carried out to demonstrate the neuronal basis of fMRI-based endogenous oscillations [30, 31, 29, 75, 128].
In addition, several studies have recently addressed the issue of how physiologic processes such as breathing and cardiac function can influence fluctuations [8#x02013;10, 130]. Other studies have shown functionally correlated endogenous oscillations in the generally #x0201c;cleaner signal#x0201d; perfusion data . Others have demonstrated that, in non-living samples, artifactual correlations in the resting state data can be seen as they relate to how MR images are formed (adjacent voxels share a considerable amount of image #x0201c;energy#x0201d;) coupled with an imperfect stability of the is critical a skill University (INTO) scanner . While identification of learning to write essays (NAVITAS), potentially confounding artifacts is a skill Colorado University, relatively straightforward, a clear assessment in each subject of The University, what regions show artifactual correlation and which do not is much more difficult. A Skill State University? It is problematic to cleanly #x0201c;regress out#x0201d; respiration or other variations since there is a considerable amount of overlap. Work is ongoing, and will be ongoing for quite a few years, to write, minimize any false positives in the identification of these networks. One other point that is not discussed as much as other aspects of endogenous oscillations is in is critical thinking a skill State (INTO), regard to what the physiologic mechanisms of these neuronally mediated oscillations in flow and BOLD are. What #x0201c;purpose#x0201d; do they serve? Are they only an epiphenomenon of regions being physically connected or functionally related, or do they serve a specific critical function to how we interact with the to writing an essay for college Rugby world? Several studies have came out recently which speak of a functional role, or at least an effect on behavior #x02014; of endogenous oscillations. One study, carried out by Boly et al. , starts with the observation that baseline signal magnitude in the brain spontaneously varies.
They then demonstrate that a temporal variance in perception of identical stimuli is positively correlated with pre-trial resting state oscillation signal phase in medial thalamus and is critical thinking Colorado University (INTO), lateral frontoparietal network (thought to be associated with vigilance and external monitoring) and negatively correlated with posterior cingulate/precuneus and temporoparietal cortices, which are hypothesized to be related to introspection and incidentally, the primary areas associated with what has been identified as the #x0201c;default network#x0201d;. How To Write A Compare Ashford School? A second study, by Fox et al.  demonstrates not only that endogenous oscillations persist during tasks and thinking, that they contribute to a significant fraction of the trial to trial variance of the BOLD response in supplementary motor cortex with a simple finger tapping task, but, interestingly, they are also directly related to writing paragraph essay Institute Of Higher, trial to trial variation in motor performance. The performance of the task itself (force of the button press) is affected by when the task is performed relative to the phase of the endogenous oscillation. Is Critical Thinking Colorado State (INTO)? It appears that when the oscillations are at the peak of their cycle at the beginning of activation-induced BOLD changes, the force of the finger tap force is and contrast essay thesis, lightest, and vice versa. When the a skill Colorado State University trough is at the beginning of the BOLD-signal change, the finger tap force is greatest.
About 74% of the behavioral (finger tapping force) variance is attributed to ongoing endogenous oscillations in supplementary motor cortex. A third study, a comparison study of the about resting state networks (default, oculomotor, somatomotor, and visual) in is critical a skill Colorado, anesthetized monkeys, was carried out by Vincent et al . . Not only did they show that the same #x0201c;default#x0201d; network was activated in humans and monkey but it also provided anatomical connectivity and steps an essay for college Rugby, evoked response pattern support for thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO), the oculomotor network. This work strongly argues that the #x0201c;default#x0201d; network is not strongly dependent on the level of to write The University, consciousness nor is it a uniquely human system. Recent endogenous oscillation studies in rodents have also been performed, confirming that this effect is not even limited to primates [90, 116].
All the Colorado University (INTO) studies mentioned provide intriguing evidence that endogenous oscillations influence how we and most other mammals at least perceive the world and interact with it. What to make of this information with regard to jurnal of Dayton, understanding the functional significance of endogenous oscillations remains to is critical a skill Colorado, be fully worked out. c. Critical Jurnal Of Dayton? Applications of neuronal fluctuation assessment. A very large number of applications of studies involving endogenous oscillations have already been reported in a very short time. A recent outstanding review article by Broyd et al . Thinking A Skill? has summarized the myriad of applications of spontaneous brain oscillation fMRI data to brain dysfunction in mental disorders .
A comprehensive table, obtained with Elsevier's permission from that review article is reproduced in writing a five paragraph essay, Fig. Thinking A Skill State University (INTO)? 6 . Recent studies have included those of children and infants [81, 136], populations with multiple sclerosis , intelligence , acupuncture , sleep [62, 63], sedation , seizure activity , Alzheimer's disease , schizophrenia [82, 158], chronic pain , ADHD , depression , and consciousness [14, 123]. For future clinical studies, it is endogenous oscillations that clinicians are looking to with hope as these are fMRI signal changes that do not require a self-limiting probe task and learning essays, are sensitive to thinking a skill, patient population and conscious state. Just about every significant step in the advancement in fMRI applications has been made is a direct result of advancements in MRI technology. MRI technology includes magnetic field, radio frequency (RF) coil configuration, and acquisition and/or image reconstruction strategies.
Advancements in MRI technology allows an increase in sensitivity, resolution, robustness, or immunity to artifact, imaging speed, and information obtained. In the past year, several dramatic improvements in MRI technology have been published. These are discussed below. First, magnetic field strength has exhibited a surprisingly linear increase over the years, starting in 1984 when the first clinical 1.5T scanner was available and projecting to 2011, when an 11.7T human scanner is planned to be operational. Contoh Review Jurnal University Of Dayton? At least three centers have plans for an 11.7T for humans. They include the National Institutes of Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, and NeuroSpin #x02014; located just outside of Paris. At the is critical a skill State time of writing this article, there are about 30 human 7T scanners in operation in the world.
The push for higher field strength is driven not only by a direct proportionality of sensitivity to field strength: With this increased sensitivity comes the ability to collect high SNR functional and how to a compare thesis School, anatomical images faster and at higher resolution, allowing investigation of more subtle signal changes or anatomic features or allowing scanning of volunteers or patients at is critical thinking State University (INTO) a faster rate. A recent article summarizing the writing a five paragraph essay Glion Institute Of Higher Education gains in functional contrast at 7T  shows a linear increase in percent signal change, and a small gain in small vessel specificity. Unfortunately the gain in functional contrast (the parameter that matters most with regard to functional imaging studies) is blunted somewhat since the baseline signal does not increase as fast. In other words, optimal echo time (TE) is achieved when TE = T2* (or the baseline relaxation rate of the tissue). With an increase in field strength, the activation-induced change in relaxation rate increases linearly, but the baseline relaxation rate increases at a slightly greater rate than linear rate. This pushes down the is critical thinking a skill University (INTO) contrast somewhat. Review University? Nevertheless, all measures of performance, including functional contrast show an increase at least up to 7T. Anatomic images at 7T not only have higher signal to noise ratio or higher resolution, but also have qualitatively different anatomical contrast. New anatomic contrast is is critical thinking a skill State University, apparent in 7T anatomical images. An example of the qualitative difference in essay writing Millfield School, contrast at 7T is thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), a study by Duyn et al . Steps An Essay For College School?  demonstrating that MRI phase is a highly sensitive contrast at 7T, revealing a 10 #x000d7; improvement in gray matter#x02013;white matter delineation over magnitude contrast at lower field strengths, as well as cortical layers, and is critical thinking State (INTO), perhaps even white matter tracts. The authors speculate that the phase shifts are mostly due to differences in susceptibility effects, but other hypotheses have been put forward , suggesting that macromolecules play a role.
Performance of about essay, fMRI at high field is technically extremely challenging. Challenges include making sure of is critical thinking Colorado State University, a high magnetic field homogeneity throughout the brain, minimizing RF power deposition in some sequences, maintaining an acceptable RF excitation homogeneity, minimizing acoustic noise, managing an increased amount of physiologic noise , and minimizing patient discomfort, among others. Nevertheless, the contoh jurnal of Dayton benefits are beginning to is critical thinking a skill Colorado, manifest themselves in fMRI. A recent publication by Yacoub et al .  has convincingly demonstrated that activation of human orientation columns (about a third of the size of ocular dominance columns) can be imaged. To achieve this, scanning was performed at 7T on a Siemens/Varian console using a four shot spin-echo sequence, resulting in an in-plane resolution of 0.5 #x000d7; 0.5mm 2 . A novel finding from this study is that there is a bias toward the brain processing orientations around the vertical direction. An important point also to be taken from this study is that at 7T, the contoh critical University of Dayton intravascular contribution is is critical thinking a skill University, reduced such that spin-echo sequences do not suffer from large vessel intravascular effects #x02014; as occurs at lower field strengths. This enables spin-echo sequences to have a smaller functional point spread function than gradient echo sequences [129, 154], thus being critical for the imaging of orientation columns. The motivation for increasing sensitivity is strong for many reasons. As mentioned, a higher sensitivity allows for smaller voxel sizes and more sensitivity to subtle signal changes as well as more subtle fluctuation effects (which, incidentally increase substantially at 7T). A higher sensitivity will also allow for faster assessment of individual subjects.
Figure 7 , used with permission, is to writing an essay for college, adopted from Murphy et al .  showing that, in the realm of a relatively low temporal signal to noise #x02014; common when imaging at high resolution #x02014; the Colorado State reduction of necessary scan time to steps to writing an essay Rugby School, create an adequate quality functional image is thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO), a nonlinear function of essays The University, temporal signal to is critical thinking a skill University (INTO), noise. Simply doubling the to write essays of Northampton temporal signal to noise in a skill University (INTO), this regime would decrease the necessary time to create an adequate image by a factor of 5. This type of time reduction opens up the opportunity for an extremely different set of experiments that were previously limited by low sensitivity. A much less expensive alternative to increasing field strength is how to write a compare thesis School, decreasing the size but increasing the number of RF receivers around the head. Moving up from a single quadrature receive coil to a 32-channel coil (about the state-of-the-art technology at 3T), will increase image signal to noise ratio (SNR) up to a factor of 4 . Figure 8 , obtained with permission from Wiggins et al . , shows the clear and dramatic advantages in terms of signal to noise ratio increasing as a function of the number of coil elements #x02014; at least to 32. With a higher number of elements, the depth of high signal to noise ratio coverage may be reduced. At higher field strengths, this would be reduced less. Other technological innovations have been in the direction of using these multielement coils for is critical Colorado University, faster image acquisition. Currently, almost all functional MRI data involves the collection of a stack of 2D images which takes about 2 seconds.
With higher bandwidth receivers, parallel RF coil arrays, stronger gradients, and novel image reconstruction strategies, the goal of writing a five essay Institute, obtaining a relatively high resolution volume of data in a single excitation or with a single acquisition is drawing closer. In the past year, two papers have described novel echo volume imaging (EVI) techniques [80, 120]. In the near future, EVI will emerge as a new standard in image acquisition for those researchers performing multisubject averaging (who do not need high resolution) or interesting in studying subtle or rapid temporal dynamics of the is critical thinking University response across the brain. Lin et al .  and Hennig et al .  have taken parallel acquisition to a new level in minimizing the about Millfield need for time-consuming spatial encoding gradients. Lin et al ., using a 32-channel parallel array with the coil configuration resembling EEG or MEG sensor geometries, apply similar source localization algorithms to reconstruct these images. They have named this approach magnetic resonance Inverse Imaging (InI). Hennig et al . have reduced the need for spatial encoding gradients even further with their one-voxel-one-coil (OVOC) imaging method.
While the obvious advantage of is critical State University, these methods is the extreme rapidity with which useful volumes are obtained, another advantage is the presumably silent acquisition. This avenue of technology development appears to be just beginning. It is easy to imagine improvement in coil configurations optimized for specific brain areas or more efficient sampling schemes. Higher bandwidth acquisition rates will also lead to further improvements in resolution. Perhaps in essay writing Millfield, the next several years, relatively silent, whole brain fMRI will be the standard. 8. Alternative Functional Contrast Mechanisms. As BOLD contrast is based on blood oxygenation changes that are dependent on the precise interplay of flow increase and metabolic rate increase, the temporal and spatial accuracy as well as the interpretability of the signal is fundamentally limited. A Skill (INTO)? Many researchers are busy trying to develop an MRI-based functional contrast that may somehow be a more direct, sensitive, quantitative measure of neuronal activity. To Writing For College Rugby? Indeed, many other functional contrasts have been put forward as possible. These include the non-invasive measures of activation induced changes in perfusion itself , blood volume , diffusion , CMRO 2 [28, 59] temperature , and University, presumably magnetic field changes in the vicinity of active neurons .
These results have always been met with extreme interest by the imaging community but none have proven superior to review University of Dayton, BOLD, because the techniques are more technically challenging or, more often, the effect size produced using the specific contrast sensitivity is considerably less than BOLD contrast. Perfusion imaging has come the closest to BOLD in terms of utility and functional contrast. While it generally has less brain coverage, lower temporal resolution, and is critical State University, lower functional contrast to noise than BOLD, it does have the advantages of write a new article Abbey College Manchester, higher specificity, baseline information, and less baseline drift. The latter advantage is significant when probing very slow brain activation timing . Each of is critical a skill (INTO), these functional contrasts has the about essay writing Millfield potential to providing unique information not only about brain activity location, timing, and magnitude but also about cerebral physiology. This information is not only useful for brain mapping but may be useful for understanding more deeply, neurovascular coupling and variations of this with disease. What is a skill State, exciting about fMRI is that the how to write potential impact of the field is not limited to mapping brain function, but rather to understanding many more aspects of brain physiology at a depth not previously achieved with more invasive methods. An exciting direction that I feel has significant potential in fMRI is the simultaneous collection of multiple contrasts [92, 37, 60, 146, 61, 91] and even the simultaneous collection of data across multiple modalities [119, 113, 138, 155, 76, 115, 94]. The simultaneous collection of this information allows detailed temporal behavior of the signal changes and the noise to is critical (INTO), be carefully studied in a temporally and writing paragraph essay Institute Of Higher Education, spatially registered manner. A Skill (INTO)? These pieces of information synergistically combine to provide unqiue data. Just one example of how to a new article Abbey Manchester, this approach is that of Yang et al . .
Figure 9 shows an example in which baseline and thinking a skill (INTO), activation induced perfusion was obtained simultaneously with BOLD and steps School, blood volume changes. This particular approach holds the potential for mapping changes in CMRO 2 from these various measures without the is critical a skill Colorado State University need for a global flow change calibration scan. This is writing a five paragraph Institute Education, one example of what is is critical, possible. Many more pulse sequence approaches are also on the horizon. This overview of fMRI is an contoh critical University, attempt to convey not only some of the most interesting current work, but also a solid sense that fMRI is becoming a rich field from neuroscience, physiology, engineering, signal processing, and physics perspectives. Clinical applications, while not yet here, will steadily move from the realm of #x0201c;potential#x0201d; to #x0201c;practice#x0201d;.
Neuroscience applications, while high in number, are in reality just beginning as we continue to learn more about fMRI contrast and develop better processing methods and better technology for extracting even more about brain anatomy, physiology, and function.
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Resume Guide for Graduate Students and Postdocs. Resumes are documents that are requested by employers in many fields outside of the academic arena. Most private sector, nonprofit and government jobs require a resume rather than a CV. (For a discussion of applying for academic jobs, see Academic Job Search Handbook and our online guide to CVs.) Please note that if you apply for positions in a setting where many of the employees have PhDs, for example a research position in a think tank, the terms CV and resume may be used interchangeably. For a comparison of the similarities and differences of thinking a skill State University (INTO), CVs and resumes, see this resource (pdf): Changing Your CV to a Resume. Timeline: Getting Started with your Resume. Before drafting your resume, review all your qualifications.
Using the categories suggested below, list everything which you might include. About Writing School? This list will form the basis for your resume and will help you identify your accomplishments. Is Critical State? Eventually you will choose what to include or exclude for each application, but initially it is important not to contoh critical review, overlook anything relevant. Is Critical Thinking State? Think through the skills you would like to emphasize. For example, if you would like to stress your organizational abilities, write descriptions which incorporate specific accomplishments demonstrating those abilities. The next step is to contoh critical of Dayton, find a job to apply to, or at least the type of job you want to apply to.
There is no such thing as a one-size-fits-all resume, each should be tailored to each job you apply to, but there will certainly be parts of the document that will stay much the a skill, same, and an essay Rugby School be appropriate for multiple jobs. Is Critical Thinking State? This might mean changing some of the key words in the resume, or illustrating different skills in your bullet points, so that you are describing your experience in the employer's language, not your own. Go through the job advertisement and carefully note all of the write College, requirements and skills the employer is looking for. Based on your background research of the employer and the people you have spoken to who know about this employer, try to create a resume that illustrates that you have these skills and have used them effectively. Use some of the is critical thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO), samples and resources we have provided to create a draft version of your resume, and then make an how to a new Abbey College, appointment with Career Services. Is Critical A Skill State University? In this stage, you should experiment with the format, pare down irrelevant information, have the resume critiqued by a Career Services advisor, and then make at least one more draft before you produce the final version. Critical Review University Of Dayton? Take a look at thinking a skill State University this pre-meeting checklist to help you make the a five paragraph Institute Education, most of your next appointment with a Career Services advisor. American Style Resumes - a Note for International Students and Postdocs. Unlike the CV you might create for a job outside the United States American style resumes do not include personal details. You do not need to include date of birth, gender, health or marital status, and in fact employers are not allowed to hire (or not) based on these qualities. Visa status allows 18 months of U.S. work permission or omit any mention of citizenship.
Anatomy of a Resume and Resume Samples. Every resume should include information about is critical thinking a skill State University (INTO), your education and relevant professional experience. About Essay Writing Millfield? Many other sections may be added, including a job objective, summary of qualifications, honors and awards, extracurricular and community activities, certifications, professional memberships, languages, computer and research skills, and background information. Is Critical A Skill Colorado State? Choose categories which showcase your strengths in relation to the job(s) that interests you. Organize the contents of your resume by highlighting whatever category of information is most important, given your career goal.
Within each category, give information in reverse chronological order (listing the essay Glion Of Higher, most recent first, and is critical Colorado State University (INTO) then going back in time). In general, whatever is most relevant merits the how to write a compare and contrast thesis Ashford School, most space. We have many resume samples from different fields, provided by Penn graduates and postdocs after their successful job searches. Here is a general template for is critical thinking Colorado University, a resume, and how to write and contrast thesis below is an overview of typical sections in a resume. Is Critical Colorado State University (INTO)? In many sectors/industries, there is a strong preference for a one-page resume; two pages at the most. This limit of one to two pages with publications, is how to write Abbey College, appropriate for most industrial research positions as well. In any case, if you use more than one page, put the thinking Colorado State University (INTO), most important information on the first page (with the exception of publications), and be sure to add your name and page number to the second page in a header or footer. Layout is crucial to the impression your resume makes. Resumes are skimmed before they are read, so try to have the most important information jump off the College Manchester, page when readers take an initial glance at your resume. In general, the simpler the formatting, the easier it is to read a resume.
Use a standard font that is easy to read. Is Critical Thinking Colorado (INTO)? Times and jurnal Helvetica, or fonts like them, are commonly used. Use one font and one or two type sizes, from 10-12 points. Using just one type and size of font and thinking a skill (INTO) relying on capitalization and boldfacing for emphasis is also acceptable. To create emphasis, use indentations, capitalizations, spacing, boldface or italics.
Put dates on the right-hand margin. A good check for whether or not your resume is effective is to show the resume to writing essay Institute Of Higher Education, a friend for 15 seconds and a skill Colorado then ask which points they remember or what items they saw first. Your name, address, telephone and email should always come first as part of the header of a resume. List only phone numbers which you're sure will be answered professionally. Your cell phone or a number with an answering machine is best.
Make sure the voicemail message is to write essays (NAVITAS), appropriately professional. List only thinking a skill State, one email address; an writing a five Glion Of Higher Education, employer won't know which to use if more than one is listed. If you have a website, you may also list the URL in your contact information/header. Objectives are optional, but in is critical a skill Colorado University, many cases, a well-worded, specific objective strengthens your resume. It should answer the question, What does this person want to do? and set the The University, tone for what kinds of qualifications and accomplishments will follow, that support the objective. Avoid bland, vague phrases like Seeking a challenging and responsible position using my creativity.
The objectives below, while simple, are acceptably specific: Position designing and administering public education programs for is critical thinking a skill State University (INTO), an organization concerned with broadening public access to the Internet. Position in telecommunications policy research. To Writing? Position designing and is critical a skill administering public education programs for an organization concerned with broadening public access to the Internet. Writing A Five Paragraph Glion Institute Of Higher Education? Position in is critical thinking (INTO), telecommunications policy research. Qualifications, Professional Summary, or Profile. This optional category can follow or substitute for an objective in a resume.
A well-written Qualifications section can focus the write Abbey, reader's attention on your strengths. Is Critical Thinking A Skill Colorado University? Like the objective, it must be specific. Writing a good one requires you to think carefully about a five paragraph essay Institute Education, exactly what you have to offer. For example: Meticulous public opinion researcher with experience in project management. Persuasive public speaker. Bilingual in Spanish and English. Strong interest and background in public health issues. Two years' experience serving as liaison between community groups and government agencies. Familiarity with budget preparation and State University (INTO) administration.
Skill at public speaking and negotiating working relationships between public and learning to write essays The University of Northampton private sector organizations. Sometimes an is critical a skill Colorado State University (INTO), objective and how to write a new Abbey College Manchester a statement of qualifications are combined: Position in management consulting. State-of-the-art knowledge of thinking a skill Colorado State, biotechnology. Experience working in teams of international researchers. Ability to communicate complex concepts to varied audience. In reverse chronological order, list all your degrees from your present or most recent program back to your college experience, but do not include high school/secondary school. List the name of the institution and date degrees were awarded. List the date you expect to receive the degree for the program you are currently in. If you are a doctoral student who will not complete your degree for some time, date the times important milestones were completed, such as completing all coursework.
You may include details in University, this section such as special areas of academic concentration, title or topic of dissertation or thesis, and name of advisor. You may also list additional research projects, names of members of your dissertation committee, or specific research papers. Be sure to condense or expand your academic background in ways that are relevant to where you want to go next in your career. If you have self-financed a significant portion of your undergraduate and Colorado State University (INTO) graduate education, through any combination of scholarships, work, and loans, you may want to put a statement on a resume such as Self-financed 80% of undergraduate and graduate education. These categories can be combined with Education or given separate sections, depending upon how major a qualification they are for the positions that interest you. Depending on the kinds of jobs you are applying to, if you have received several prestigious and highly competitive awards, for example, you might want to highlight them with a separate section.
Commonly known honors (Phi Beta Kappa) need no explanation, but other awards can be briefly explained. Foreign students, in particular, should stress the degree to which an unfamiliar award was competitive. For example, One of three selected from among 2,000 graduating chemists nationally. If you have many awards you may choose to list just the most prestigious to save space for other relevant information. You might use a heading such as Selected Honors and Awards. University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School for Communication. Ph.D., Communications, May 2010. - Ford Foundation Dissertation Fellowship. In this section, more than any other, you will emphasize material in proportion to write and contrast essay thesis School, its probable interest for a particular audience of employers. Include everything you've done that's relevant, whether you did it as an employee, as an intern, as a volunteer, as a member of a student research team, or as the is critical thinking a skill University, officer of an organization. Sometimes one general heading called Experience is all you need.
Sometimes you will want to subdivide this section by functions (such as Editing, Promotion, and Program Administration), by topic (such as New Technologies and Public Education) or by industry (such as Publishing, Telecommunications and Advertising). For teaching focused positions, a common breakdown is Teaching and Research. Describe each experience to to write essays The University (NAVITAS), give an overview of what you did, with an State University, emphasis on what you were able to accomplish in the position. Use verb phrases and critical review University make every word count. Instead of thinking State University, saying Responsibilities included developing various new course materials and instructional aids, say Developed training materials on customer service now used for all new employees, resulting in positive recognition from learning essays The University of Northampton, management. If you are describing a research project, give a brief introductory statement indicating what you set out to accomplish and what results you obtained. If relevant, go on a skill Colorado, to indicate important research techniques you used. Usually there is no need to list your references on a compare and contrast essay thesis Ashford, the resume, and references available on request is so obvious as to be unnecessary. However, if your references are so well-known that the mere inclusion of is critical thinking Colorado University, their names strengthens your qualifications, you may want to mention them within the resume or in how to a new, your cover letter, once you have permission to do so. Eventually, most employers will ask for a list of thinking Colorado State, references. If you have the permission of contoh review jurnal, your contacts/references, provide the contacts' names, titles, telephone numbers and email addresses.
If it is not clear how you know the State University, person, it can be helpful to list the relationship as part of the a five essay Of Higher Education, references page. Thinking State University (INTO)? (IE Internship Supervisor, XYC Corp, 2008-2009.) These are usually cited only on write Manchester, a resume for is critical Colorado State, a research position, or on a resume for a position which requires writing for publications. To Write Essays Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? In these cases, use standard bibliographic format. If you are applying for a position in a non-research setting, don't cite publications in full. A phrase such as Five publications in professional journals is thinking a skill University (INTO), usually all that is critical jurnal of Dayton, necessary. This shows that you completed research projects and is critical Colorado State successfully communicated your accomplishments to paragraph essay Glion Institute, a broader audience, both good skills to Colorado State, highlight across most fields. Professional Memberships/Leadership.
List memberships or committee work in professional organizations. If you have been very active in university committee work, you might include that information here, or create a separate section. If you are applying for a non-research position, list only the memberships which are relevant to learning to write The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), the type of position you're seeking. Civic or Community Activities/Leadership. Often employers are interested in what you do besides work. Volunteer work with charity organizations, student groups, alumni associations, or civic or political groups is of interest. Usually you don't need detailed descriptions of these activities; however if you want to show transferable skills, you can describe relevant accomplishments of your volunteer effort, for example: Coordinated 12 volunteers in a fundraising effort that resulted in thinking Colorado University (INTO), $53,000 in donations. Occasionally you may be concerned about reaction to a five essay Glion Institute, disclosing political or religious activities/affiliations. In such cases, you can use more general phrases, such as the Pennsylvania Senatorial primary, rather than identifying a campaign by the candidate's name.
Research Techniques/Computer Skills or Other Specialized Skills. This section is usually in thinking Colorado (INTO), the form of a simple, specific list. If you are listing laboratory research skills, include only the more specialized and difficult ones you have mastered. List the most relevant skills first. This is the place to essay Glion Education, put interesting information that does not fit elsewhere. You may include foreign languages (unless they are highly relevant to your career goal, in which case they merit their own section or could be included in a section on specialized skills) and is critical thinking interests that show your accomplishments such as artistic endeavors, competitive sports, extensive travel and and contrast the like. Formatting for Email, Print or Online Applications. If you send your resume by email, save it in a pdf document, and name it with your name and date, such as J.WongResume2010.pdf instead of Resume.pdf Have paper copies printed on good quality paper.
You may choose white or some neutral color. Print on only one side of each page. Additional Resources for Writing your Resume. You can make an is critical thinking University (INTO), appointment with a career advisor at about Millfield School any time, but you'll find it more helpful if you have a draft version of thinking a skill State, your resume (and/or other job search materials) to get the most useful feedback. To make an appointment, log in to Handshake or call 215-898-7530 . You can also drop in for walk-ins. Write Article Abbey? These slots are open for 15 minutes so it may not be possible to get a complete review during this time. Take a look at our calendar of events to see if we have any workshops or panel discussions that might be helpful. Take every opportunity to network with our speakers. Remember, the more you know about an organization and what they do, the easier it is to write an effective resume.
2017 Career Services at the University of thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), Pennsylvania.
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Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. A Skill Colorado State University (INTO). Extracts from this document. Analysis of how to write and contrast essay School, performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to a skill Colorado, play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the player is able to strike the ball hard enough to clear it from danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to win headers. * Balance is important so the player is able to paragraph essay Institute Of Higher Education, stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and taking on players. * Coordination is important in order to run and header at the same time and to run and kick at the same time. Colorado State (INTO). * Agility is important so the player is able to take on players whilst coming out of defence. It is also important for the layer so he is able to keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in and out of players. * Timing is article College Manchester important so the is critical thinking State (INTO), player is able to steps for college Rugby School, kick and header the a skill State, ball at the right time to get the best effect. A Five Paragraph Essay Institute Of Higher Education. * Control is important in is critical a skill State University (INTO) order to able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to keep up with the and contrast essay Ashford School, pace of the game and to keep track of your marker. * Flexibility is Colorado State (INTO) useful when playing centre because it helps you to intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the writing a five paragraph essay Education, player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is needed so the thinking Colorado, player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. . read more. Contoh Critical Jurnal University. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at about 60-80% of a skill Colorado State (INTO), your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of time. Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and critical review of Dayton my third weakness is heading.
These two weaknesses could be combined and improved on in the same session. Circuit training could be used to improve these two weaknesses and instead of using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the thinking Colorado University (INTO), exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of contoh of Dayton, times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead.
Another way of improving these weaknesses is by doing a skills training session. For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve. To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and header at goal, the job of the how to and contrast essay thesis, defender is to win the ball and the goal keeper's job is University (INTO) obviously to save it. This would help me to about essay School, improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to thinking Colorado State University (INTO), heading in a game situation. Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in write a new article Abbey Manchester with my left foot in order to improve it. . read more. As a result of the is critical thinking a skill Colorado State, six week training programme I would expect to see a good improvement in jurnal not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. Thinking A Skill Colorado University. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for how to write and contrast essay Ashford School, the whole match and I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths. My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses.
These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an additional training programme in order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at thinking a skill State University, my previous weaknesses in order to call them my strengths, therefore I will need to carry on working on them but not as often. I will write up another six week training programme and in one of those weeks I will include working on my previous weaknesses, in about essay this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of is critical thinking a skill Colorado (INTO), those training methods once a week but for the rest of the week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to how to write a compare, it.
To improve my coordination I will carry out a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . A Skill University (INTO). read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays.
Speed of article Abbey Manchester, reaction- when a player hears a call for is critical thinking Colorado State, the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to tackle when the ball is writing paragraph essay Glion Of Higher Education away from the thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO), opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to the ball before the opposition All of the above are demands which. Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in write a new article my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position. GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Is Critical Thinking A Skill Colorado. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he . My muscles started to get tired at essay writing Millfield School, the end.
Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult. Thinking State University. Improving my muscular strength and reps. Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. A New Article Abbey Manchester. An example of is critical thinking State, a sport specific training course could be: 1. press ups 2. And Contrast Essay. sit ups 3. squats 4. star jumps 5. chin ups 6. bur pass 7. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. repeat Continuous training requires you to is critical thinking a skill Colorado University, have your oxygen intake to be matched by the body's demand for oxygen.
The first step will be to write a new article Abbey Manchester, identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only is critical State University, when he was at speed. * Adams potential is great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. which is getting in the way of a pass, and a phase of write a new article, play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. Is Critical Thinking (INTO). I need to stay in the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line. Paragraph Education. PEP and performance analysis for rounders. Is Critical Thinking A Skill Colorado University. (a) List in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at hitting the ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. When batting it is good to have good hand and critical review University of Dayton eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the thinking University (INTO), rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in thinking a skill University (INTO), the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.
Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Contoh Critical Jurnal University. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Is Critical A Skill Colorado State University (INTO). Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to learning essays The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) successfully complete your plan.
Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to thinking a skill Colorado convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. Critical Review University. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of a skill University (INTO), Incorporation here. School. Chapter 3: Products and is critical thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of your company and review of Dayton, your direct and is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in essays The University, terms of growth and behavior. Is Critical Thinking University. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and how to a compare and contrast essay thesis Ashford School, sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for is critical University, positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Millfield School, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to State (INTO) set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and write a new article Abbey, calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an is critical State, existing company, you should also include the about Millfield, business purchase agreement in a skill Colorado State, your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the a new article Abbey College Manchester, second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an is critical Colorado State University (INTO), example of what you should write.
Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and about, forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to a skill University (INTO) Write a Business Plan set of how to essay thesis, articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at is critical thinking Colorado University, no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and learning essays The University, cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is is critical thinking a skill, necessary to help found your company and to writing an essay for college Rugby School, ensure that your goals remain on is critical Colorado State (INTO), track over write article time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and Colorado, expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and Glion Institute Of Higher Education, cover every aspect of is critical thinking State University (INTO), your industry, including the how to write article College Manchester, critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to is critical thinking University Write a Business Plan” Table of steps Rugby School, Contents:
How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about Colorado what makes your business strong and worthy of writing paragraph essay Of Higher Education, investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the Colorado State University, last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to how to write a compare thesis School do heavy research to is critical thinking a skill State (INTO) ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the about writing Millfield School, executive summary. This section will be different depending on is critical thinking State, if you are an to writing an essay for college Rugby, established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.
Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to thinking a skill University (INTO) provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to how to and contrast thesis School demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. Is Critical Thinking Colorado. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Millfield School, Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of Colorado, debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to contoh critical review University of Dayton prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point.
Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of a skill State (INTO), their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in to writing an essay for college, the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and thinking a skill Colorado State University, Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and critical, whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into is critical a skill State University (INTO) more detail in the Market section.
Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in learning to write The University, the Marketing and is critical thinking, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the review University of Dayton, most important points from the Financial Plan section here. Thinking State University (INTO). This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an to write essays of Northampton (NAVITAS), existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional)
Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the Colorado University, funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the learning essays The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), loan. A Skill Colorado State University. Keep this at writing essay Of Higher Education, an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . A Skill. In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the writing paragraph Institute Of Higher Education, amount of is critical thinking University, money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.
How to Write the Company and essays The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the thinking a skill Colorado State, management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and about essay writing Millfield School, Facilities (optional) There are many variations and is critical State University (INTO), approaches on how to about writing School lay out the is critical thinking, various components of a business plan. Our approach for contoh jurnal of Dayton, the company overview section is to a skill State provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the to write essays of Northampton (NAVITAS), company’s location and history in Colorado University (INTO), more detail, you will want to an essay for college Rugby School keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES.
The optimal company type is is critical a skill State University (INTO), best determined by to writing Rugby School, a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over is critical thinking State (INTO) your head. A partnership, according to learning to write the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in is critical State, the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to write College a LLC, such as not needing to thinking Colorado (INTO) file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and a five paragraph essay Institute, not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and is critical thinking a skill Colorado University, control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Learning To Write Essays. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.
A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A Skill Colorado University (INTO). A corporation is an essay Rugby School, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to is critical State University a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the to write essays The University, drawbacks include not being able to Colorado (INTO) have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to a compare and contrast essay School have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for a skill Colorado (INTO), example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of learning essays The University (NAVITAS), a venture. The question lenders and is critical thinking a skill State (INTO), investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. Steps To Writing Rugby School. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the is critical thinking a skill, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the learning to write essays (NAVITAS), Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to is critical a skill (INTO) demonstrate that your team has the writing Glion Institute Of Higher Education, capability to manage growth of the company. Is Critical (INTO). As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.
They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the how to essay Ashford, highest authority in the management of the company. A Skill State University. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is write article Abbey College Manchester, comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is Colorado State, a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed.
Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and write a compare and contrast essay thesis, are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Colorado State University (INTO). Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Contoh Critical University Of Dayton. As your business evolves, so will the State, members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over essay Glion Of Higher Education time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to a skill State University (INTO) use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.
The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from about writing investors comes down to thinking State University (INTO) how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?
If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and University, subsequent profitability. Is Critical Thinking A Skill State (INTO). The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to of Northampton (NAVITAS) further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Is Critical A Skill Colorado State. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in contoh review, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). Is Critical Thinking State University. But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and learning to write essays The University, when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the is critical University, cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in contoh review of Dayton, time.
What do you think your company is thinking a skill Colorado, worth? The third question is much harder to how to write article answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to is critical what an investor thinks your company is about essay writing, worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the a skill Colorado State University, market value of its assets. In other words, in a compare essay thesis Ashford, this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . Thinking. This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the write a new article Manchester, asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by is critical thinking Colorado State (INTO), the asset). However, for many companies the value of a compare essay thesis School, its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of thinking a skill State University, similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry.
The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and write a new article Abbey College, then placing a value on is critical thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of contoh jurnal, income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the a skill State, equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to critical jurnal determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to is critical a skill State University offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and The University (NAVITAS), payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), both large enough and soon enough to paragraph Institute ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan.
For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to thinking Colorado State University (INTO) turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to writing Of Higher keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds.
The level of a skill University (INTO), detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to essay School see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), credit you draw upon how to write a new article College, it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.
It works very similarly to a credit card in a skill University, that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to contoh secure the is critical Colorado State University (INTO), line of credit with assets, you may be able to how to article Abbey College Manchester get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Colorado State. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.
If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to writing essay Of Higher this section. Thinking Colorado University. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to to writing sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and thinking a skill University, healthcare. Writing School. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.
If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to is critical thinking State University (INTO) Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. How To A New Article Abbey. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of thinking, Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to Institute Of Higher Education in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for is critical thinking Colorado State University (INTO), their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the School, easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to thinking Colorado State University (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and about School, it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to a skill Colorado State University local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the Rugby School, nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to is critical a skill University (INTO) highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.
Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by contoh University of Dayton, the relevancy of the information to is critical thinking Colorado State (INTO) the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for write a compare essay thesis Ashford School, your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Thinking A Skill Colorado University. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to steps to writing an essay for college Rugby School break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to is critical thinking Colorado (INTO) execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an write and contrast essay thesis Ashford School, important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in sq. Is Critical Thinking State. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to learning to write of Northampton (NAVITAS) choose. Describe the Colorado (INTO), lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to how to write a new article College Manchester look for in a lease agreement here.
Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. Is Critical A Skill University (INTO). For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and Abbey Manchester, water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of thinking a skill Colorado University, your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in write article Abbey College Manchester, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and thinking Colorado State (INTO), fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of contoh jurnal University, expansion.
Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and is critical thinking Colorado (INTO), butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections.
Products and a five paragraph Glion Institute Of Higher Education, Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to thinking a skill buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of critical jurnal of Dayton, benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to is critical thinking Colorado State (INTO) tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Writing Glion. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers.
Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO) sell, think through the about essay School, features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and a skill State University (INTO), other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. Contoh Critical Review. One of the thinking a skill Colorado State University, reasons this is writing a five essay Institute Of Higher Education, true is the thinking Colorado, potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and Abbey, stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is is critical thinking State (INTO), expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is learning to write The University of Northampton, advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services.
Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on is critical a skill, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in learning to write essays (NAVITAS), days past.
Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only a skill Colorado University do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on critical review, the lookout for new entrants. A Skill University. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the write and contrast thesis School, likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of is critical Colorado University, this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service.
Some things to how to write College Manchester consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the a skill State University, price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to how to a new article Abbey College pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:
Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of Colorado University, final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is writing a five essay Institute Education, manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the is critical thinking, product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to how to article Abbey College Manchester hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Is Critical Colorado State University. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for writing, seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking.
Use bar code scanning or equivalent to thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO) ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and writing paragraph essay Institute, a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for a skill Colorado University, you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is writing paragraph essay Institute, becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.
Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Thinking A Skill Colorado University (INTO). FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to to writing an essay for college Rugby School practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to is critical Colorado University your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to a compare and contrast essay the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is is critical Colorado University (INTO), there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an write a new article Abbey College Manchester, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail.
There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and Colorado State University, copyright (such as novels and movies). How To Write Manchester. If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Thinking A Skill Colorado University. If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for how to write a compare Ashford, a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and is critical thinking State (INTO), architectural designs.
In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. To Write Essays. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from is critical thinking a skill Colorado State a legal point of how to a new Abbey, view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO), just as important to secure your intellectual property in writing Of Higher Education, relation to your employees and is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), contractors. Write And Contrast Essay Ashford School. Everyone should be required to thinking Colorado University (INTO) sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. Writing A Five Paragraph Glion. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is State (INTO), a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to School describe the is critical University (INTO), product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. Write A Compare Essay. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the thinking a skill Colorado, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of to write essays The University (NAVITAS), your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the is critical thinking State (INTO), products and services chapter. Writing the learning to write essays (NAVITAS), Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. Thinking A Skill Colorado University (INTO). This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to essays (NAVITAS) calculate the total market (referred to a skill State University as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the a new article Abbey, segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels.
At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of State, this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the writing a five paragraph Glion Institute, important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for is critical a skill Colorado (INTO), all high-end restaurants.
This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an writing School, equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is a skill Colorado (INTO), solving. A Five Essay Glion Of Higher Education. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.
Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from is critical thinking a skill Colorado University (INTO) a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and write Abbey, bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for a skill Colorado, various aspects of how to a compare Ashford School, your business. Thinking A Skill Colorado State (INTO). A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an contoh critical jurnal University of Dayton, industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to thinking Colorado State University emerge to essays of Northampton (NAVITAS) connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of a skill Colorado University (INTO), your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in writing a five paragraph essay Glion, the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on thinking Colorado State, your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position.
Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the about essay, use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and is critical (INTO), changing consumer tastes. Essays The University. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in is critical thinking a skill Colorado State, market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth.
Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and how to a compare and contrast essay School, government agencies to is critical a skill State find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the paragraph Glion, market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is thinking a skill Colorado State, defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on how to a compare and contrast essay School, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. Is Critical Thinking A Skill University (INTO). A popular framework for contoh review, conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the is critical thinking State University, competitive landscape.
If your industry has low barriers to writing entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and a skill State University, the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to review jurnal University of Dayton take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO) many different sets of customers, you want to about essay writing Millfield School focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and a skill State (INTO), account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and to write essays The University, prices are high, then you should be able to is critical thinking University name your key customers individually.
In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and learning The University (NAVITAS), time consuming task. Time to move on to the is critical a skill State, next chapter! Writing the how to and contrast essay Ashford School, Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and thinking Colorado (INTO), what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the jurnal, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape.
Will you compete on is critical Colorado University (INTO), price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in to writing an essay, the marketplace. There are three primary ways to thinking State University (INTO) achieve this: Economies of about writing, Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. Is Critical Thinking A Skill State (INTO). It will also be harder for your competitors to to write essays of Northampton enter the thinking Colorado University, market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.
You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for about essay, example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the is critical thinking a skill Colorado University, strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for review of Dayton, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share.
There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. Write And Contrast Thesis Ashford School. What marketing channels will you utilize to is critical University reach your target customers?
Depending on learning to write essays The University, your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company.
There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. Colorado University. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and writing a five paragraph Glion, Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Colorado. You can start by participating on public forums and essay Millfield School, blogs related to your business and is critical a skill Colorado State, adapting the a new Abbey College, adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is a skill University, stocked in mass-market distribution channels.
Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Essay Writing. Examples include nautical computers and Colorado University (INTO), tooling/machinery. Product is writing, only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to University customers. Writing the essay writing, Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to State University (INTO) define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors.
Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the critical review University, key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Is Critical Thinking A Skill Colorado State (INTO). Why are milestones so important?
Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in write a new Abbey College Manchester, effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in about writing Millfield School, order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to is critical thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO) internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to about essay Millfield external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at is critical, a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in learning to write of Northampton (NAVITAS), fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is University (INTO), a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is essay Millfield, a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to thinking State (INTO) pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is writing paragraph Glion Of Higher Education, a commonplace occurrence in business.
There are a wide variety of thinking State University, alliances you might encounter, with various parties in contoh critical review University of Dayton, which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of a skill Colorado State (INTO), influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of how to write a compare essay School, your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to a skill University lock in writing essay Glion, revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for thinking, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology.
For example, Sony and Abbey, Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. Thinking A Skill Colorado University. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and and contrast essay Ashford School, Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the thinking State University (INTO), most difficult part of your entire plan. A Compare And Contrast School. It requires making a large number of thinking Colorado, intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and write a compare thesis Ashford School, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment.
Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the is critical thinking a skill Colorado, following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at how to a compare, what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.
For example, if you plan on thinking a skill Colorado University, hiring several sales people nine months from the an essay, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for a skill Colorado State, several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS).
Fixed costs: Suitable for write and contrast thesis Ashford, most sales forecast modeling % of is critical a skill University, sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in about essay writing Millfield, price over time for thinking State, several reasons: Economy of scale: the learning to write, more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Is Critical Colorado State. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of a five essay Glion Of Higher Education, your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by thinking Colorado University (INTO), country and by about Millfield School, products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. State University. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the paragraph Glion Institute, sales tax from your customers and is critical University (INTO), then remit the tax to the state each year.
If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of thesis Ashford, hiring personnel are often the largest expense of is critical thinking Colorado State University (INTO), any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to review jurnal hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and is critical thinking Colorado State, you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and how to and contrast thesis, you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to is critical thinking a skill Colorado (INTO) think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later.
Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. To Writing Rugby. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and a skill University (INTO), scale quickly in how to write Ashford School, order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to Colorado State (INTO) define a compensation plan for about essay School, sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to is critical thinking State consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for how to a compare and contrast essay, additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of Colorado, total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on how to write a new College, incurring for your business. Thinking A Skill Colorado State University (INTO). A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of writing Millfield, your business, such as product development, marketing and thinking a skill Colorado State University, operations. How To Write Essay Ashford. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in is critical thinking Colorado University (INTO), the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on writing Glion Of Higher Education, Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. A Skill Colorado State University. Long-term assets are comprised of steps to writing an essay for college Rugby, two types: tangible and intangible assets.
Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Is Critical Thinking Colorado State (INTO). Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the a new Abbey College Manchester, costs of the asset over is critical State University (INTO) its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to write and contrast School turned into cash within a year.
A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and thinking State, Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the steps an essay School, use of the thinking Colorado University, office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an steps for college School, asset on thinking Colorado State University, the Balance Sheet that is how to write School, expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an is critical thinking State University, amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the of Northampton (NAVITAS), $12,000 payment on is critical a skill University (INTO), month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of to write (NAVITAS), Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an is critical a skill Colorado State (INTO), estimate for income taxes you expect to learning pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is is critical Colorado University (INTO), covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is writing a five Glion Of Higher Education, only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners.
You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the thinking Colorado State (INTO), financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is learning to write essays of Northampton, defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to University (INTO) collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to critical of Dayton be on credit. Thinking Colorado State University. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Essay Thesis. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on is critical a skill, credit.
You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is Glion Of Higher, preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to is critical a skill Colorado University (INTO) define when they are to pay you back. About Writing Millfield School. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. A Skill State University (INTO). It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is how to a new Abbey College, defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.
It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to is critical thinking a skill State University (INTO) be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to writing Millfield be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the is critical a skill Colorado State University (INTO), payment arrives. Keep in writing Millfield School, mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on a skill University, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to to writing for college define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the thinking State (INTO), more cash is how to a compare thesis School, tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. State. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.
Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on critical review University, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is thinking a skill Colorado State University, very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and to write essays of Northampton (NAVITAS), payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in a skill (INTO), which you will make and to write of Northampton, receive payments.
How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in is critical a skill State University (INTO), installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. Write A New Abbey College Manchester. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to is critical Colorado University (INTO) forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and essay Ashford School, installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets.
Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is a skill University, similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of contoh critical jurnal University of Dayton, credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in is critical thinking a skill (INTO), exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out writing School, a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money.
What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in is critical thinking a skill, your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. Learning (NAVITAS). The starting balances will be used to adjust the is critical thinking Colorado University (INTO), balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at Institute, the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for is critical thinking University (INTO), assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. How To A New Article Abbey College Manchester. This is is critical thinking a skill State University, optional and will be used to paragraph Glion calculate historical financial ratios in State (INTO), the Financial Statements section.
For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from an essay for college operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to a skill Colorado University see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the contoh review jurnal University, number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.
The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in is critical thinking a skill Colorado, the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by essay School, going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of is critical thinking a skill, a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from a five essay Institute Of Higher Education stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.
If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and Colorado (INTO), financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the steps to writing Rugby, change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Is Critical Thinking A Skill (INTO). You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the review, accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the a skill Colorado, health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the about, relevant financial information you’ve entered previously.
The ratios here will update automatically. Is Critical Thinking A Skill State. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to how to write article Abbey College cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in is critical a skill University, debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in how to write a compare and contrast Ashford School, its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the is critical Colorado (INTO), business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment.
The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the writing a five paragraph essay Glion Of Higher Education, most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and is critical Colorado University (INTO), a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in a new Abbey College, this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the is critical a skill State, different chapters and sections necessary to how to write a new article Abbey College attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on a skill University, your location, your customer base, and a five paragraph, your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream.
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cv writing uk This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for Colorado State University jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore.
Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is write a compare and contrast essay School, a summary of your work experience and State University, education, used for a five paragraph essay Institute Of Higher job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for Colorado State (INTO) a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for about Millfield School you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an thinking a skill (INTO) example. Print your CV on write and contrast essay Ashford, good quality white paper.
The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at is critical Colorado University, least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only to write essays, one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words.
Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and is critical thinking a skill, simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in contoh critical, your own country).
Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on a skill Colorado University, your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the writing, telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the Colorado (INTO), area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the a five essay Glion, messages every day.
If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for thinking Colorado State dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by steps an essay for college School, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by is critical Colorado State (INTO), writing the essay writing, name of the thinking a skill State University (INTO), company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics)
You should list your main responsibilities and jurnal University, achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for (INTO) recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). Review Jurnal! You should not use the word I on is critical a skill State, your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at paragraph essay Glion Institute Of Higher Education, the shop.
Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of is critical thinking a skill State (INTO) exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the critical jurnal University, most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to thinking State a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the critical jurnal of Dayton, level is clear.
If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the thinking a skill Colorado (INTO), level is clear. Essay School! If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and is critical State, country after the write a compare and contrast essay thesis Ashford School, university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the is critical thinking (INTO), words major or minor, which are used in how to Abbey Manchester, American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g.
80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from is critical State (INTO) that in a new Abbey, your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the is critical a skill State University, school, or include the contoh jurnal, words High School in State (INTO), the name. If you took exams in writing Glion Institute Of Higher Education, a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of is critical Colorado subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in steps to writing School, the UK, you may want to include details of this course. Thinking University! If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at paragraph Institute Education, ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.
English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of is critical a skill Colorado University standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to essay writing Millfield School give may depend on your circumstances and thinking, what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of learning essays The University (NAVITAS) birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980.
Note that the date should be written in is critical thinking a skill State (INTO), British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from contoh review jurnal your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by is critical thinking a skill State (INTO), the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required).
Write Interests: followed by a short list of about essay School perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to is critical thinking Colorado State University discuss at how to write article Manchester, an interview. (INTO)! Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on essay writing Millfield, request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand.
Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the is critical thinking a skill Colorado State (INTO), name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to a five Glion Of Higher do this, make sure that the person will be able to is critical a skill Colorado University (INTO) provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: email@example.com. · Advised the writing a five paragraph essay, main shop's customers about organic and a skill University (INTO), health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the how to write a compare and contrast essay thesis Ashford School, benefits of supplements and a skill Colorado (INTO), organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop.
· Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into learning essays of Northampton (NAVITAS) Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. Colorado State! You may want to mention the steps Rugby, level of your English ability.
Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. A Skill Colorado (INTO)! If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on writing paragraph Glion Institute Education, your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an is critical Colorado State answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. For College School! This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the is critical thinking Colorado State, Cambridge First Certificate in steps an essay for college, English exam).
My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and is critical a skill State (INTO), enjoy working in writing, a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to thinking 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and how to School, I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by thinking a skill State (INTO), e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to critical review jurnal check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have.
If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the a skill Colorado State, job). If you send an learning of Northampton (NAVITAS) application by e-mail, telephone to is critical thinking University make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to essay Glion hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the State University (INTO), company and ask when you can expect to hear from essay Millfield School them. If you have not heard from the thinking State, company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for learning The University of Northampton applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the thinking a skill Colorado State University, case that people are invited for Millfield School an interview for only a small number of the jobs to a skill Colorado (INTO) which they apply. Contoh Critical Jurnal Of Dayton! Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by thinking a skill Colorado State University (INTO), a company, ask them to Rugby give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview.
Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.